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North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America
North America
is the third largest continent by area, following Asia
Asia
and Africa,[5] and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.[6] In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most notably the Caribbean) are included. North America
North America
was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge
Bering land bridge
approximately 40,000 to 17,000 years ago. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Archaic or Meso-Indian period). The Classic stage
Classic stage
spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era
Pre-Columbian era
ended in 1492, and the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kinds of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French and societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions.

Contents

1 Name 2 Extent

2.1 Regions 2.2 Countries, territories, and dependencies

3 History

3.1 Geologic history 3.2 Pre-Columbian 3.3 Colonial period

4 Geography 5 Geology

5.1 Canadian geology 5.2 United States
United States
geology 5.3 Central American geology

6 Climate 7 Ecology 8 Demographics

8.1 Languages 8.2 Religions 8.3 Populace

9 Economy

9.1 Transport 9.2 Communications

10 Culture

10.1 Sports

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Name

Map of North America, from 1621

The Americas
Americas
are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann.[7] Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas
Americas
were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:[8]

... ab Americo inventore ... quasi Americi terram sive Americam (from Americus the discoverer ... as if it were the land of Americus, thus America).

For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name (Americus Vespucius), but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator
Gerard Mercator
used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere.[9] Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty and so a derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be problematic.[10] Ricardo Palma (1949) proposed a derivation from the "Amerrique" mountains of Central America—Vespucci was the first to discover South America
South America
and the Amerrique mountains of Central America, which connected his discoveries to those of Christopher Columbus. Alfred E. Hudd proposed a theory in 1908 that the continents are named after a Welsh merchant named Richard Amerike
Richard Amerike
from Bristol, who is believed to have financed John Cabot's voyage of discovery from England to Newfoundland
Newfoundland
in 1497. A minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic
Visigothic
name of 'Amairick'. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language.[9] Extent The term North America
North America
maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America
North America
may be used to refer to the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
together.[11] Alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland[12][13][14] and Mexico
Mexico
(as in the North American Free Trade Agreement),[13][15][16][17][18] as well as offshore islands. The UN geoscheme for "North America" separates Mexico
Mexico
from the United States and Canada, placing it instead within its designated "Central America" region, while also treating the islands of the Caribbean
Caribbean
separately from the US/ Canada
Canada
definition—the UN's "North America" definition still includes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
and Greenland
Greenland
together with the US/ Canada
Canada
continental definition, with both insular entities being tectonically on the North American plate. In France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America
North America
usually designate a subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
comprising Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and often Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and Bermuda.[19][20][21][22][23] North America
North America
has been historically referred to by other names. Spanish North America
North America
(New Spain) was often referred to as Northern America, and this was the first official name given to Mexico.[24] Regions See also: List of regions of Canada
List of regions of Canada
and List of regions of the United States Geographically the North American continent has many regions and subregions. These include cultural, economic, and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement. Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Anglo-America
Anglo-America
and Latin America. Anglo-America
Anglo-America
includes most of Northern America, Belize, and Caribbean
Caribbean
islands with English-speaking populations (though sub-national entities, such as Louisiana
Louisiana
and Quebec, are Francophone
Francophone
in composition). The southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean.[25][26] The north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", that which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is also used to refer to Canada, Mexico, the United States, and Greenland.[12][13][14][15][27] The term Northern America
Northern America
refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America, Canada, the United States, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon.[28][29] Although the term does not refer to a unified region,[30] Middle America—not to be confused with the Midwestern United States—groups the regions of Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico.[31] The largest countries of the continent, Canada
Canada
and the United States, also contain well-defined and recognized regions. In the case of Canada
Canada
these are the British Columbia
British Columbia
Coast, Canadian Prairies, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada. These regions also contain many subregions. In the case of the United States
United States
– and in accordance with the US Census Bureau definitions – these regions are: New England, Mid-Atlantic, East North Central States, West North Central States, South Atlantic States, East South Central States, West South Central States, Mountain States, and Pacific States. Regions shared between both nations included the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Region. Megalopolises have also formed between both nations in the case of the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Megaregion. Countries, territories, and dependencies Main article: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America

Flag Country or territory[16][17][18] Area (km2)[32] Population (2016 est.)[33] Population density (per km2) Capital

Anguilla
Anguilla
(UK) 7001910000000000000♠91 14,764 164.8 The Valley

Antigua and Barbuda 7002442000000000000♠442 100,963 199.1 St. John's

Aruba
Aruba
(NLD)[note 2] 7002180000000000000♠180 104,822 594.4 Oranjestad

The Bahamas[note 3] 7004139430000000000♠13,943 391,232 24.5 Nassau

Barbados 7002430000000000000♠430 284,996 595.3 Bridgetown

Belize 7004229660000000000♠22,966 366,954 13.4 Belmopan

Bermuda
Bermuda
(UK) 7001540000000000000♠54 61,666 1203.7 Hamilton

Bonaire
Bonaire
(NLD)[note 2] 7002294000000000000♠294 7004120930000000000♠12,093[34] 41.1 Kralendijk

British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
(UK) 7002151000000000000♠151 30,661 152.3 Road Town

Canada 7006998467000000000♠9,984,670 36,289,822 3.4 Ottawa

Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(UK) 7002264000000000000♠264 60,765 212.1 George Town

Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
(FRA) 7000600000000000000♠6 5000000000000000000♠0 0.0 —

Costa Rica 7004511000000000000♠51,100 4,857,274 89.6 San José

Cuba 7005109886000000000♠109,886 11,475,982 102.0 Havana

Curaçao
Curaçao
(NLD)[note 2] 7002444000000000000♠444 159,371 317.1 Willemstad

Dominica 7002751000000000000♠751 73,543 89.2 Roseau

Dominican Republic 7004486710000000000♠48,671 10,648,791 207.3 Santo Domingo

El Salvador 7004210410000000000♠21,041 6,344,722 293.0 San Salvador

Greenland
Greenland
(Denmark) 7006216608600000000♠2,166,086 56,412 0.026 Nuuk

Grenada 7002344000000000000♠344 107,317 302.3 St. George's

Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(FRA) 7003162800000000000♠1,628 449,975 246.7 Basse-Terre

Guatemala 7005108889000000000♠108,889 16,582,469 128.8 Guatemala
Guatemala
City

Haiti 7004277500000000000♠27,750 10,847,334 361.5 Port-au-Prince

Honduras 7005112492000000000♠112,492 9,112,867 66.4 Tegucigalpa

Jamaica 7004109910000000000♠10,991 2,881,355 247.4 Kingston

Martinique
Martinique
(FRA) 7003112800000000000♠1,128 385,103 352.6 Fort-de-France

Mexico 7006196437500000000♠1,964,375 127,540,423 57.1 Mexico
Mexico
City

Montserrat
Montserrat
(UK) 7002102000000000000♠102 5,152 58.8 Plymouth (Brades)[note 4]

Navassa Island
Navassa Island
(United States) 7000500000000000000♠5[35] 5000000000000000000♠0[36] 0.0

Nicaragua 7005130373000000000♠130,373 6,149,928 44.1 Managua

Panama[note 2][note 5] 7004754170000000000♠75,417 4,034,119 45.8 Panama
Panama
City

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(United States) 7003887000000000000♠8,870 3,667,903 448.9 San Juan

Saba
Saba
(NLD) 7001130000000000000♠13 7003153700000000000♠1,537[34] 118.2 The Bottom

Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
(FRA) 7001210000000000000♠21[35] 7003744800000000000♠7,448[36] 354.7 Gustavia

Saint Kitts and Nevis 7002261000000000000♠261 54,821 199.2 Basseterre

Saint Lucia 7002539000000000000♠539 178,015 319.1 Castries

Saint Martin
Saint Martin
(FRA) 7001540000000000000♠54[35] 7004298200000000000♠29,820[36] 552.2 Marigot

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
(FRA) 7002242000000000000♠242 6,305 24.8 Saint-Pierre

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7002389000000000000♠389 109,643 280.2 Kingstown

Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
(NLD) 7001210000000000000♠21 7003273900000000000♠2,739[34] 130.4 Oranjestad

Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
(NLD) 7001340000000000000♠34 39,537 1176.7 Philipsburg

Trinidad and Tobago[note 2] 7003513000000000000♠5,130 1,364,962 261.0 Port of Spain

Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
(UK)[note 6] 7002948000000000000♠948 34,900 34.8 Cockburn Town

United States[note 7] 7006962909100000000♠9,629,091 322,179,605 32.7 Washington, D.C.

United States
United States
Virgin Islands (United States) 7002347000000000000♠347 104,913 317.0 Charlotte Amalie

Total 7007245009950000000♠24,500,995 7008541720440000000♠541,720,440 22.9

History Main article: History of North America Geologic history

Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States
United States
and Mexico

Laurentia
Laurentia
is an ancient craton which forms the geologic core of North America; it formed between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago during the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon.[37] The Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
is the largest exposure of this craton. From the Late Paleozoic
Paleozoic
to Early Mesozoic
Mesozoic
eras, North America was joined with the other modern-day continents as part of the supercontinent Pangaea, with Eurasia
Eurasia
to its east. One of the results of the formation of Pangaea
Pangaea
was the Appalachian Mountains, which formed some 480 million years ago, making it among the oldest mountain ranges in the world. When Pangaea
Pangaea
began to rift around 200 million years ago, North America
North America
became part of Laurasia, before it separated from Eurasia
Eurasia
as its own continent during the mid-Cretaceous period.[38] The Rockies and other western mountain ranges began forming around this time from a period of mountain building called the Laramide orogeny, between 80 and 55 million years ago. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama
Panama
that connected the continent to South America arguably occurred approximately 12 to 15 million years ago,[39] and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
(as well as many other northern freshwater lakes and rivers) were carved by receding glaciers about 10,000 years ago. North America
North America
is the source of much of what humanity knows about geologic time periods.[40] The geographic area that would later become the United States
United States
has been the source of more varieties of dinosaurs than any other modern country.[40] According to paleontologist Peter Dodson, this is primarily due to stratigraphy, climate and geography, human resources, and history.[40] Much of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era is represented by exposed outcrops in the many arid regions of the continent.[40] The most significant Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing fossil deposit in North America
North America
is the Morrison Formation
Morrison Formation
of the western United States.[41] Pre-Columbian

The El Castillo pyramid, at Chichén Itzá, Mexico

The indigenous peoples of North America
North America
have many creation myths by which they assert that they have been present on the land since its creation.[42] The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion.[43] The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia
Beringia
land bridge between eastern Siberia
Siberia
and present-day Alaska around 25,000 to 11,000 years ago.[44] The few agreements achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia, with widespread habitation of the Americas
Americas
during the end of the last glacial period, or more specifically what is known as the late glacial maximum, around 13,000 years before present.[45] Some genetic research indicated secondary waves of migration occurred after the initial Paleo-Indian colonization,[46] but prior to modern Inuit, Inupiat
Inupiat
and Yupik expansions.[47] Before contact with Europeans, the natives of North America
North America
were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main lifeway or occupation of the people who lived there (e.g., the bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g., Athapascan or Uto-Aztecan). Peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies. Anthropologists think that the Inuit
Inuit
people of the high Arctic
Arctic
came to North America
North America
much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture
Dorset culture
artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people. During the thousands of years of native habitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. One of the oldest cultures yet found is the Clovis culture
Clovis culture
of modern New Mexico. Later cultures include the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
and related Mound building cultures, found in the Mississippi river
Mississippi river
valley and the Pueblo culture of what is now the Four Corners. The more southern cultural groups of North America
North America
were responsible for the domestication of many common crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes and squash. Perhaps most importantly they domesticated one of the world's major staples, maize (corn). The earliest verifiable instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact by any European culture with the landmasses that geologically constitute the "mainland" of modern North America
North America
has been dated to the end of the 10th century CE – this site, situated at the northernmost extent of the island named Newfoundland, is known as L'Anse aux Meadows, where unmistakable evidence of Norse settlement was uncovered in the early 1960s.[48] As a result of the development of agriculture in the south, many important cultural advances were made there. For example, the Maya civilization developed a writing system, built huge pyramids and temples, had a complex calendar, and developed the concept of zero around 400 CE, a few hundred years after the Mesopotamians.[49] The Mayan culture was still present in southern Mexico
Mexico
and Guatemala
Guatemala
when the Spanish explorers arrived, but political dominance in the area had shifted to the Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire
whose capital city Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
was located further north in the Valley of Mexico. The Aztecs were conquered in 1521 by Hernán Cortés.[50] Colonial period

Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe
The Death of General Wolfe
(1771) depicting the Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Main article: European colonization of the Americas Further information: Timeline of the European colonization of North America, British America, French America, Viceroyalty of New Spain, and Russian colonization of the Americas During the Age of Discovery, Europeans explored and staked claims to various parts of North America. Upon their arrival in the "New World", the Native American population declined substantially, because of violent conflicts with the invaders and the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked immunity.[51] Native culture changed drastically and their affiliation with political and cultural groups also changed. Several linguistic groups died out, and others changed quite quickly. The names and cultures that Europeans recorded were not necessarily the same as the names they had used a few generations before, or the ones in use today. Britain, Spain, and France
France
took over extensive territories in North America – and fought over them. In the late 18th century and beginning of the 19th, independence movements that sprung up across the continent, led to the creation of the modern countries in the area. The 13 British colonies on the North Atlantic coast declared independence in 1776, becoming the United States
United States
of America. Canada was formed from the unification of northern territories controlled by Britain and France. New Spain, a territory that stretched from modern-day southern US to Central America, declared independence in 1810, becoming the First Mexican Empire. In 1823 the former Captaincy General of Guatemala, then part of the Mexican Empire, became the first independent state in Central America, officially changing its name to the United Provinces of Central America. Geography Main article: Geography of North America

Satellite imagery of North America

North America
North America
occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which, less commonly, is considered by some as a single continent[52][53][54] with North America
North America
a subcontinent).[55] North America's only land connection to South America
South America
is at the Isthmus of Panama. The continent is delimited on the southeast by most geographers at the Darién watershed along the Colombia- Panama
Panama
border, placing all of Panama
Panama
within North America.[56][57][58] Alternatively, some geologists physiographically locate its southern limit at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, with Central America
Central America
extending southeastward to South America
South America
from this point.[59] The Caribbean islands, or West Indies, are considered part of North America.[3] The continental coastline is long and irregular. The Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
is the largest body of water indenting the continent, followed by Hudson Bay. Others include the Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
and the Gulf of California. Before the Central American isthmus formed, the region had been underwater. The islands of the West Indies
West Indies
delineate a submerged former land bridge, which had connected North and South America
South America
via what are now Florida
Florida
and Venezuela. There are numerous islands off the continent's coasts; principally, the Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago, the Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
(some of which are in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
proper), the Alexander Archipelago, the many thousand islands of the British Columbia
British Columbia
Coast, and Newfoundland. Greenland, a self-governing Danish island, and the world's largest, is on the same tectonic plate (the North American Plate) and is part of North America
North America
geographically. In a geologic sense, Bermuda
Bermuda
is not part of the Americas, but an oceanic island which was formed on the fissure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
over 100 million years ago. The nearest landmass to it is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. However, Bermuda
Bermuda
is often thought of as part of North America, especially given its historical, political and cultural ties to Virginia
Virginia
and other parts of the continent.

Moraine Lake
Moraine Lake
in Banff National Park

The vast majority of North America
North America
is on the North American Plate. Parts of western Mexico, including Baja California, and of California, including the cities of San Diego, Los Angeles, and Santa Cruz, lie on the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate, with the two plates meeting along the San Andreas fault. The southernmost portion of the continent and much of the West Indies
West Indies
lie on the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate, whereas the Juan de Fuca and Cocos plates border the North American Plate
North American Plate
on its western frontier. The continent can be divided into four great regions (each of which contains many subregions): the Great Plains
Great Plains
stretching from the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
to the Canadian Arctic; the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, California
California
and Alaska; the raised but relatively flat plateau of the Canadian Shield in the northeast; and the varied eastern region, which includes the Appalachian Mountains, the coastal plain along the Atlantic seaboard, and the Florida
Florida
peninsula. Mexico, with its long plateaus and cordilleras, falls largely in the western region, although the eastern coastal plain does extend south along the Gulf. The western mountains are split in the middle into the main range of the Rockies and the coast ranges in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, with the Great Basin—a lower area containing smaller ranges and low-lying deserts—in between. The highest peak is Denali
Denali
in Alaska. The United States
United States
Geographical Survey (USGS) states that the geographic center of North America
North America
is "6 miles [10 km] west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at about 48°10′N 100°10′W / 48.167°N 100.167°W / 48.167; -100.167, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) from Rugby, North Dakota. The USGS further states that "No marked or monumented point has been established by any government agency as the geographic center of either the 50 States, the conterminous United States, or the North American continent." Nonetheless, there is a 4.6-metre (15 ft) field stone obelisk in Rugby claiming to mark the center. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is located 1,650 km (1,030 mi) from the nearest coastline, between Allen and Kyle, South Dakota
Kyle, South Dakota
at 43°22′N 101°58′W / 43.36°N 101.97°W / 43.36; -101.97 (Pole of Inaccessibility North America).[60] Geology Main article: Geology of North America

Geologic Map of North America
North America
published by USGS

Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rock types of North America

Canadian geology Geologically, Canada
Canada
is one of the oldest regions in the world, with more than half of the region consisting of precambrian rocks that have been above sea level since the beginning of the Palaeozoic
Palaeozoic
era.[61] Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive.[61] Across the Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic,[62] making Canada
Canada
one of the world's largest producers. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin
Sudbury Basin
is an ancient meteorite impact crater. The nearby, but less known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. Its magnetic anomalies are very similar to the Sudbury Basin, and so it could be a second metal-rich impact crater.[63] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. United States
United States
geology The lower 48 US states can be divided into roughly five physiographic provinces:

The American cordillera The Canadian Shield[61] Northern portion of the upper midwestern United States. The stable platform The coastal plain The Appalachian orogenic belt

The geology of Alaska
Alaska
is typical of that of the cordillera, while the major islands of Hawaii consist of Neogene
Neogene
volcanics erupted over a hot spot.

North America
North America
bedrock and terrain

North American cratons and basement rocks

Central American geology

   Central America
Central America
rests in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate.

Central America
Central America
is geologically active with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring from time to time. In 1976 Guatemala
Guatemala
was hit by a major earthquake, killing 23,000 people; Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972, the last one killing about 5,000 people; three earthquakes devastated El Salvador, one in 1986 and two in 2001; one earthquake devastated northern and central Costa Rica
Costa Rica
in 2009, killing at least 34 people; in Honduras
Honduras
a powerful earthquake killed seven people in 2009. Volcanic eruptions are common in the region. In 1968 the Arenal Volcano, in Costa Rica, erupted and killed 87 people. Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lavas have made it possible to sustain dense populations in the agriculturally productive highland areas. Central America
Central America
has many mountain ranges; the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia, and the Cordillera de Talamanca. Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the people; in fact, most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala
Guatemala
live in valleys. Valleys are also suitable for the production of coffee, beans, and other crops.

Climate

North America
North America
map of Köppen climate classification

North America
North America
is a very large continent which surpasses the Arctic Circle, and the Tropic of Cancer. Greenland, along with the Canadian Shield, is tundra with average temperatures ranging from 10 to 20 °C (50 to 68 °F), but central Greenland
Greenland
is composed of a very large ice sheet. This tundra radiates throughout Canada, but its border ends near the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
(but still contains Alaska) and at the end of the Canadian Shield, near the Great Lakes. Climate west of the Cascades is described as being a temperate weather with average precipitation 20 inches (510 mm).[64] Climate in coastal California
California
is described to be Mediterranean, with average temperatures in cities like San Francisco ranging from 57 to 70 °F (14 to 21 °C) over the course of the year.[65] Stretching from the East Coast to eastern North Dakota, and stretching down to Kansas, is the continental-humid climate featuring intense seasons, with a large amount of annual precipitation, with places like New York City
New York City
averaging 50 inches (1,300 mm).[66] Starting at the southern border of the continental-humid climate and stretching to the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
(whilst encompassing the eastern half of Texas) is the subtropical climate. This area has the wettest cities in the contiguous U.S. with annual precipitation reaching 67 inches (1,700 mm) in Mobile, Alabama.[67] Stretching from the borders of the continental humid and subtropical climates, and going west to the Cascades Sierra Nevada, south to the southern tip of durango, north to the border with tundra climate, the steppe/desert climate is the driest climate in the U.S.[68] Ecology

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2015)

See also: List of endangered plants in North America Notable North American fauna include the bison, black bear, prairie dog, turkey, pronghorn, raccoon, coyote and monarch butterfly. Notable plants that were domesticated in North America
North America
include tobacco, maize, squash, tomato, sunflower, blueberry, avocado, cotton, chile pepper and vanilla. Demographics Further information: Demographics of the United States, Demographics of Canada, and Demographics of Mexico

Non-native nations' control and claims over North America
North America
c. 1750–2008

Native languages of the US, Canada
Canada
and Greenland

Economically, Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent, followed by Mexico, a newly industrialized country.[69] The countries of Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
are at various levels of economic and human development. For example, small Caribbean
Caribbean
island-nations, such as Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and Antigua and Barbuda, have a higher GDP (PPP) per capita than Mexico
Mexico
due to their smaller populations. Panama
Panama
and Costa Rica have a significantly higher Human Development Index and GDP than the rest of the Central American nations.[70] Additionally, despite Greenland's vast resources in oil and minerals, much of them remain untapped, and the island is economically dependent on fishing, tourism, and subsidies from Denmark. Nevertheless, the island is highly developed.[71] Demographically, North America
North America
is ethnically diverse. Its three main groups are Caucasians, Mestizos and Blacks.[citation needed] There is a significant minority of Indigenous Americans and Asians among other less numerous groups.[citation needed] Languages Main article: Languages of North America

Languages spoken in the Americas

The dominant languages in North America
North America
are English, Spanish, and French. Danish is prevalent in Greenland
Greenland
alongside Greenlandic, and Dutch is spoken side by side local languages in the Dutch Caribbean. The term Anglo-America
Anglo-America
is used to refer to the anglophone countries of the Americas: namely Canada
Canada
(where English and French are co-official) and the United States, but also sometimes Belize
Belize
and parts of the tropics, especially the Commonwealth Caribbean. Latin America
Latin America
refers to the other areas of the Americas
Americas
(generally south of the United States) where the Romance languages, derived from Latin, of Spanish and Portuguese (but French speaking countries are not usually included) predominate: the other republics of Central America
Central America
(but not always Belize), part of the Caribbean
Caribbean
(not the Dutch-, English-, or French-speaking areas), Mexico, and most of South America
South America
(except Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana
French Guiana
(France), and the Falkland Islands (UK)). The French language has historically played a significant role in North America
North America
and now retains a distinctive presence in some regions. Canada
Canada
is officially bilingual. French is the official language of the Province of Quebec, where 95% of the people speak it as either their first or second language, and it is co-official with English in the Province of New Brunswick. Other French-speaking locales include the Province of Ontario
Ontario
(the official language is English, but there are an estimated 600,000 Franco-Ontarians), the Province of Manitoba (co-official as de jure with English), the French West Indies
West Indies
and Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, as well as the US state of Louisiana, where French is also an official language. Haiti
Haiti
is included with this group based on historical association but Haitians speak both Creole and French. Similarly, French and French Antillean Creole is spoken in Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
and the Commonwealth of Dominica
Dominica
alongside English. Religions Main article: Religion in North America See also: Religions of the world

Washington National Cathedral, in Washington, D.C.. The United States has the most people in the world identifying as Christian.

Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion in the United States, Canada
Canada
and Mexico. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
survey, 77% of the population considered themselves Christians.[72] Christianity
Christianity
also is the predominant religion in the 23 dependent territories in North America.[73] The United States
United States
has the largest Christian population in the world, with nearly 247 million Christians
Christians
(70%), although other countries have higher percentages of Christians
Christians
among their populations.[74] Mexico
Mexico
has the world's second largest number of Catholics, surpassed only by Brazil.[75] A 2015 study estimates about 493,000 Christian believers from a Muslim background in North America, most of them belonging to some form of Protestantism.[76] According to the same study religiously unaffiliated (include agnostic and atheist) make up about 17% of the population of Canada
Canada
and the United States.[77] No religion make up about 24% of the United States population, and 24% of Canada
Canada
total population.[78] Canada, the United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
host communities of both Jews
Jews
(6 million or about 1.8%),[79] Buddhists
Buddhists
(3.8 million or 1.1%)[80] and Muslims
Muslims
(3.4 million or 1.0%).[81] The biggest number of Jewish individuals can be found in the United States
United States
(5.4 million),[82] Canada
Canada
(375,000)[83] and Mexico
Mexico
(67,476).[84] The United States
United States
host the largest Muslim population in North America
North America
with 2.7 million or 0.9%,[85][86] While Canada
Canada
host about one million Muslim or 3.2% of the population.[87] While in Mexico
Mexico
there were 3,700 Muslims
Muslims
in the country.[88] In 2012, U-T San Diego
San Diego
estimated U.S. practitioners of Buddhism at 1.2 million people, of whom 40% are living in Southern California.[89] The predominant religion in Central America
Central America
is Christianity
Christianity
(96%).[90] Beginning with the Spanish colonization of Central America
Central America
in the 16th century, Roman Catholicism became the most popular religion in the region until the first half of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, there has been an increase in other Christian groups, particularly Protestantism, as well as other religious organizations, and individuals identifying themselves as having no religion. Also Christianity
Christianity
is the predominant religion in the Caribbean
Caribbean
(85%).[90] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Rastafari (in Jamaica), and Afro-American religions
Afro-American religions
such as Santería
Santería
and Vodou. Populace

North American cities

Mexico
Mexico
City

Los Angeles

Toronto

Chicago

New York City

See also: List of North American countries by population, List of North American cities by population, and List of North American metropolitan areas by population The most populous country in North America
North America
is the United States
United States
with 318.4 million persons.[91] The second largest country is Mexico
Mexico
with a population of 112,322,757.[92] Canada
Canada
is the third most populous country with 32,623,490.[93] The majority of Caribbean
Caribbean
island-nations have national populations under a million, though Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(a territory of the United States), Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
each have populations higher than a million.[94][95][96][97][98] Greenland
Greenland
has a small population of 55,984 for its massive size (2,166,000 km² or 836,300 mi²), and therefore, it has the world's lowest population density at 0.026 pop./km² (0.067 pop./mi²).[99] While the United States, Canada, and Mexico
Mexico
maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations. There are also large cities in the Caribbean. The largest cities in North America, by far, are Mexico
Mexico
City and New York. These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and two of three in the Americas. Next in size are Los Angeles, Toronto,[100] Chicago, Havana, Santo Domingo, and Montreal. Cities in the sunbelt regions of the United States, such as those in Southern California
California
and Houston, Phoenix, Miami, Atlanta, and Las Vegas, are experiencing rapid growth. These causes included warm temperatures, retirement of Baby Boomers, large industry, and the influx of immigrants. Cities near the United States
United States
border, particularly in Mexico, are also experiencing large amounts of growth. Most notable is Tijuana, a city bordering San Diego
San Diego
that receives immigrants from all over Latin America
Latin America
and parts of Europe
Europe
and Asia. Yet as cities grow in these warmer regions of North America, they are increasingly forced to deal with the major issue of water shortages.[101] Eight of the top ten metropolitan areas are located in the United States. These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 5.5 million and include the New York City
New York City
metropolitan area, Los Angeles metropolitan area, Chicago
Chicago
metropolitan area, and the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.[102] Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within the United States, Mexico
Mexico
is host to the largest metropolitan area by population in North America: Greater Mexico City.[103] Canada
Canada
also breaks into the top ten largest metropolitan areas with the Toronto
Toronto
metropolitan area having six million people.[104] The proximity of cities to each other on the Canada– United States
United States
border and Mexico– United States
United States
border has led to the rise of international metropolitan areas. These urban agglomerations are observed at their largest and most productive in Detroit–Windsor
Detroit–Windsor
and San Diego– Tijuana
Tijuana
and experience large commercial, economic, and cultural activity. The metropolitan areas are responsible for millions of dollars of trade dependent on international freight. In Detroit-Windsor the Border Transportation Partnership study in 2004 concluded US$13 billion was dependent on the Detroit–Windsor
Detroit–Windsor
international border crossing while in San Diego- Tijuana
Tijuana
freight at the Otay Mesa Port of Entry was valued at US$20 billion.[105][106] North America
North America
has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. In the United States
United States
exists eleven megaregions that transcend international borders and comprise Canadian and Mexican metropolitan regions. These are the Arizona Sun Corridor, Cascadia, Florida, Front Range, Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Megaregion, Gulf Coast Megaregion, Northeast, Northern California, Piedmont Atlantic, Southern California, and the Texas Triangle.[107] Canada
Canada
and Mexico
Mexico
are also the home of megaregions. These include the Quebec
Quebec
City – Windsor Corridor, Golden Horseshoe
Golden Horseshoe
– both of which are considered part of the Great Lakes Megaregion – and megalopolis of Central Mexico. Traditionally the largest megaregion has been considered the Boston-Washington, D.C. Corridor, or the Northeast, as the region is one massive contiguous area. Yet megaregion criterion have allowed the Great Lakes Megalopolis to maintain status as the most populated region, being home to 53,768,125 people in 2000.[108] The top ten largest North American metropolitan areas by population as of 2013, based on national census numbers from the United States
United States
and census estimates from Canada
Canada
and Mexico.

Metro Area Population Area Country

Mexico
Mexico
City 21,163,226† 7,346 km2 (2,836 sq mi)  Mexico

New York City 19,949,502 17,405 km2 (6,720 sq mi)  United States

Los Angeles 13,131,431 12,562 km2 (4,850 sq mi)  United States

Chicago 9,537,289 24,814 km2 (9,581 sq mi)  United States

Dallas–Fort Worth 6,810,913 24,059 km2 (9,289 sq mi)  United States

Houston 6,313,158 26,061 km2 (10,062 sq mi)  United States

Toronto 6,054,191† 5,906 km2 (2,280 sq mi)  Canada

Philadelphia 6,034,678 13,256 km2 (5,118 sq mi)  United States

Washington, D.C. 5,949,859 14,412 km2 (5,565 sq mi)  United States

Miami 5,828,191 15,896 km2 (6,137 sq mi)  United States

‌†2011 Census figures.

Economy Main article: Economy of North America See also: List of North American countries by GDP (nominal) and List of North American countries by GDP (PPP)

Rank Country GDP (PPP, peak year) millions of USD Peak year

1  United States 19,362,129 2017

2  Mexico 2,406,087 2017

3  Canada 1,763,785 2017

4  Cuba 254,865 2015

5  Dominican Republic 172,576 2017

6  Guatemala 138,276 2017

7  Puerto Rico 130,578 2014

8  Panama 99,430 2017

9  Costa Rica 85,203 2017

10  El Salvador 56,903 2017

Rank Country GDP (nominal, peak year) millions of USD Peak year

1  United States 19,362,129 2017

2  Canada 1,842,627 2013

3  Mexico 1,298,466 2014

4  Puerto Rico 105,035 2016

5  Cuba 87,133 2015

6  Dominican Republic 74,873 2017

7  Guatemala 70,806 2017

8  Costa Rica 58,909 2017

9  Panama 59,051 2017

10  Trinidad and Tobago 27,870 2008

North America's GDP per capita was evaluated in October 2016 by the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) to be $41,830, making it the richest continent in the world,[1] followed by Oceania.[109] Canada, Mexico, and the United States
United States
have significant and multifaceted economic systems. The United States
United States
has the largest economy of all three countries and in the world.[109] In 2016, the U.S. had an estimated per capita gross domestic product (PPP) of $57,466 according to the World Bank, and is the most technologically developed economy of the three.[110] The United States' services sector comprises 77% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 22% and agriculture comprises 1.2%.[109] The U.S. economy is also the fastest growing economy in North America
North America
and the Americas
Americas
as a whole,[111][1] with the highest GDP per capita in the Americas
Americas
as well.[1] Canada
Canada
shows significant growth in the sectors of services, mining and manufacturing.[112] Canada's per capita GDP (PPP) was estimated at $44,656 and it had the 11th largest GDP (nominal) in 2014.[112] Canada's services sector comprises 78% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 20% and agriculture comprises 2%.[112] Mexico
Mexico
has a per capita GDP (PPP) of $16,111 and as of 2014 is the 15th largest GDP (nominal) in the world.[113] Being a newly industrialized country,[69] Mexico
Mexico
maintains both modern and outdated industrial and agricultural facilities and operations.[114] Its main sources of income are oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.[115] The North American economy is well defined and structured in three main economic areas.[116] These areas are the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Caribbean
Caribbean
Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and the Central American Common Market
Central American Common Market
(CACM).[116] Of these trade blocs, the United States
United States
takes part in two. In addition to the larger trade blocs there is the Canada- Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Free Trade Agreement among numerous other free trade relations, often between the larger, more developed countries and Central American and Caribbean countries. The North America
North America
Free Trade Agreement
Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) forms one of the four largest trade blocs in the world.[117] Its implementation in 1994 was designed for economic homogenization with hopes of eliminating barriers of trade and foreign investment between Canada, the United States and Mexico.[118] While Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
already conducted the largest bilateral trade relationship – and to present day still do – in the world and Canada– United States
United States
trade relations already allowed trade without national taxes and tariffs,[119] NAFTA allowed Mexico
Mexico
to experience a similar duty-free trade. The free trade agreement allowed for the elimination of tariffs that had previously been in place on United States- Mexico
Mexico
trade. Trade volume has steadily increased annually and in 2010, surface trade between the three NAFTA nations reached an all-time historical increase of 24.3% or US$791 billion.[120] The NAFTA trade bloc GDP (PPP) is the world's largest with US$17.617 trillion.[121] This is in part attributed to the fact that the economy of the United States
United States
is the world's largest national economy; the country had a nominal GDP of approximately $14.7 trillion in 2010.[122] The countries of NAFTA are also some of each other's largest trade partners. The United States
United States
is the largest trade partner of Canada
Canada
and Mexico;[123] while Canada
Canada
and Mexico
Mexico
are each other's third largest trade partners.[124][125] The Caribbean
Caribbean
trade bloc – CARICOM – came into agreement in 1973 when it was signed by 15 Caribbean
Caribbean
nations. As of 2000, CARICOM trade volume was US$96 billion. CARICOM also allowed for the creation of a common passport for associated nations. In the past decade the trade bloc focused largely on Free Trade Agreements and under the CARICOM Office of Trade Negotiations (OTN) free trade agreements have been signed into effect. Integration of Central American economies occurred under the signing of the Central American Common Market
Central American Common Market
agreement in 1961; this was the first attempt to engage the nations of this area into stronger financial cooperation. Recent implementation of the Central American Free Trade Agreement
Free Trade Agreement
(CAFTA) has left the future of the CACM unclear.[126] The Central American Free Trade Agreement
Free Trade Agreement
was signed by five Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the United States. The focal point of CAFTA is to create a free trade area similar to that of NAFTA. In addition to the United States, Canada also has relations in Central American trade blocs. Currently under proposal, the Canada
Canada
– Central American Free Trade Agreement
Free Trade Agreement
(CA4) would operate much the same as CAFTA with the United States
United States
does. These nations also take part in inter-continental trade blocs. Mexico takes a part in the G3 Free Trade Agreement
Free Trade Agreement
with Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela
Venezuela
and has a trade agreement with the EU. The United States
United States
has proposed and maintained trade agreements under the Transatlantic Free Trade Area between itself and the European Union; the US-Middle East Free Trade Area between numerous Middle Eastern nations and itself; and the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership
Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership
between Southeast Asian nations, Australia, and New Zealand. Transport Main article: Transportation in North America

The full Pan American Highway
Pan American Highway
(including South America), from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska
Alaska
to Ushuaia, Argentina

The Pan-American Highway
Pan-American Highway
route in the Americas
Americas
is the portion of a network of roads nearly 48,000 km (30,000 mi) in length which travels through the mainland nations. No definitive length of the Pan-American Highway
Pan-American Highway
exists because the US and Canadian governments have never officially defined any specific routes as being part of the Pan-American Highway, and Mexico
Mexico
officially has many branches connecting to the US border. However, the total length of the portion from Mexico
Mexico
to the northern extremity of the highway is roughly 26,000 km (16,000 mi).

2006 map of the North American Class I railroad
Class I railroad
network

The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States
United States
was built in the 1860s, linking the railroad network of the eastern US with California
California
on the Pacific coast. Finished on 10 May 1869 at the famous golden spike event at Promontory Summit, Utah, it created a nationwide mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West, catalyzing the transition from the wagon trains of previous decades to a modern transportation system.[127] Although an accomplishment, it achieved the status of first transcontinental railroad by connecting myriad eastern US railroads to the Pacific and was not the largest single railroad system in the world. The Canadian Grand Trunk Railway
Grand Trunk Railway
(GTR) had, by 1867, already accumulated more than 2,055 km (1,277 mi) of track by connecting Ontario
Ontario
with the Canadian Atlantic provinces west as far as Port Huron, Michigan, through Sarnia, Ontario. Communications A shared telephone system known as the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24 countries and territories: the United States
United States
and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 17 Caribbean
Caribbean
nations. Culture Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
were both former British colonies. There is frequent cultural interplay between the United States
United States
and English-speaking Canada. Greenland
Greenland
shares some cultural ties with the indigenous people of Canada
Canada
but is considered Nordic and has strong Danish ties due to centuries of colonization by Denmark. Spanish-speaking North America
North America
shares a common past as former Spanish colonies. In Mexico
Mexico
and the Central American countries where civilizations like the Maya developed, indigenous people preserve traditions across modern boundaries. Central American and Spanish-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
nations have historically had more in common due to geographical proximity. Northern Mexico, particularly in the cities of Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and Mexicali, is strongly influenced by the culture and way of life of the United States. Of the aforementioned cities, Monterrey
Monterrey
has been regarded as the most Americanized city in Mexico.[128] Immigration to the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
remains a significant attribute of many nations close to the southern border of the US. The Anglophone Caribbean
Caribbean
states have witnessed the decline of the British Empire
British Empire
and its influence on the region, and its replacement by the economic influence of Northern America. In the Anglophone Caribbean. This is partly due to the relatively small populations of the English-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
countries, and also because many of them now have more people living abroad than those remaining at home. Northern Mexico, the Western United States
United States
and Alberta, Canada
Canada
share a cowboy culture. Sports Canada, Mexico
Mexico
and the US submitted a joint bid to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup. The following table shows the most prominent sports leagues in North America, in order of average revenue.[129][130]

League Sport Primary country Founded Teams Revenue US$ (bn) Average Attendance

National Football League
National Football League
(NFL) American football United States 1920 32 $9.0 7004676040000000000♠67,604

Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
(MLB) Baseball United States Canada 1869 30 $8.0 7004304580000000000♠30,458

National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(NBA) Basketball United States Canada 1946 30 $5.0 7004173470000000000♠17,347

National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL) Ice hockey United States Canada 1917 31 $3.3 7004177200000000000♠17,720

Liga MX Football (soccer) Mexico 1943 18 $0.6 7004255570000000000♠25,557

Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
(MLS) Football (soccer) United States Canada 1994 20[sn 1] $0.5 7004215740000000000♠21,574

^ MLS plans to expand to 21 teams in 2017, and to 24 teams by 2020.

See also Main article: Outline of North America

Flags of North America List of cities in North America

North America
North America
portal Geography portal

Notes

^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km2 only, considerably less than the total combined land and water area of 24,709,000 km2. ^ a b c d e Depending on definitions, Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
have territory in either or both of North and South America. ^ Since the Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, the Bahamas
Bahamas
are part of the West Indies
West Indies
but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean. ^ Because of ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano
Soufriere Hills volcano
beginning in July 1995, much of Plymouth was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades. Plymouth remains the de jure capital. ^ Panama
Panama
is generally considered a North American country, though some authorities divide it at the Panama
Panama
Canal. Figures listed here are for the entire country. ^ Since the Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, the Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
are part of the West Indies
West Indies
but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean. ^ Includes the US state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania.

References

^ a b c d International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(October 2016). "List of North American countries by GDP per capita". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Demographia.com" (PDF).  ^ a b "North America". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 February 2014.  ^ "Map And Details Of All 7 Continents". worldatlas.com. Retrieved September 2, 2016. In some parts of the world students are taught that there are only six continents, as they combine North America
North America
and South America into one continent called the Americas.  ^ " North America
North America
Land Forms and Statistics". World Atlas.com. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ " North America
North America
Fast Facts". World Atlas.com. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ "Amerigo Vespucci". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 July 2011.  ^ Herbermann, Charles George, ed. (1907). The Cosmographiæ Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller
Martin Waldseemüller
in Facsimile. Translated by Edward Burke and Mario E. Cosenza, introduction by Joseph Fischer and Franz von Wieser. New York: The United States
United States
Catholic Historical Society. p. 9. Latin: "Quarta pars per Americum Vesputium (ut in sequentibus audietur) inventa est, quam non video, cur quis jure vetet, ab Americo inventore sagacis ingenii viro Amerigen quasi Americi terram sive Americam dicendam, cum et Europa et Asia
Asia
a mulieribus sua sortita sint nomina."  ^ a b Jonathan Cohen. "The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves". Retrieved 3 February 2014.  ^ Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John (2006). The Book
Book
of General Ignorance. Harmony Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-307-39491-0. New countries or continents were never named after a person's first name, but always after the second ...  ^ Burchfield, R. W., ed. (2004). ""America"". Fowler's Modern English Usage. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-19-861021-1. the term 'North America' is mostly used to mean the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
together. Countries to the south of the United States
United States
are described as being in Central America
Central America
(Mexico, Nicaragua, etc.) or South America
South America
(Brazil, Argentina, etc.).  See also: McArthur, Tom (1992). "North American". The Oxford Companion to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 707. ISBN 0-19-214183-X.  ^ a b "The World Factbook – North America". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ a b c "Countries in North America
North America
– Country Reports". Country Reports. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015.  ^ a b "North America: World of Earth
Earth
Science". eNotes Inc. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ a b "North American Region". The Trilateral Commission. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ a b "SPP Background". CommerceConnect.gov. Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ a b "Ecoregions of North America". United States
United States
Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ a b "What's the difference between North, Latin, Central, Middle, South, Spanish and Anglo America?". About.com.  ^ "Norteamérica" [North America] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. In Ibero-America, North America
North America
is considered a subcontinent containing Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Bermuda
Bermuda
and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.  ^ "Six or Seven Continents on Earth". Retrieved 18 December 2016.  "In Europe
Europe
and other parts of the world, many students are taught of six continents, where North and South America
South America
are combined to form a single continent of America. Thus, these six continents are Africa, America, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and Europe." ^ "Continents". Retrieved 18 December 2016.  "six-continent model (used mostly in France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and Latin America) groups together North America+ South America
South America
into the single continent America." ^ "AMÉRIQUE" (in French). Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "America" (in Italian). Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Acta Solemne de la Declaración de Independencia de la América Septentrional" [Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America]. Archivos de la Independencia (in Spanish). Archivo General de la Nación. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Central America. Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ "Caribbean". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ Parsons, Alan; Schaffer, Jonathan (May 2004). Geopolitics of oil and natural gas. Economic Perspectives. U.S. Department of State. [full citation needed] ^ "Definition of major areas and regions". United Nations. Retrieved 3 October 2007.  ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". UN Statistics Division. Retrieved 3 October 2007.  (French) ^ "Chapter 5, Middle America". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 3 April 2018.  ^ "Middle America (region, Mesoamerica)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ Unless otherwise noted, land area figures are taken from "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b c Population estimates are taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles. "Statistical information: Population". Government of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ a b c Land area figures taken from "The World Factbook: 2010 edition". Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ a b c These population estimates are for 2010, and are taken from "The World Factbook: 2010 edition". Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ Dalziel, I.W.D. (1992). "On the organization of American Plates in the Neoproterozoic and the breakout of Laurentia". GSA Today. 2 (11): 237–241.  ^ Merali, Zeeya; Skinner, Brian J. Visualizing Earth
Earth
Science. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-41847-5. [page needed] ^ "Land Bridge Linking Americas
Americas
Rose Earlier Than Thought". LiveScience.com.  ^ a b c d Dodson, Peter (1997). "American Dinosaurs". In Currie, Phillip J.; Padian, Kevin. Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press. pp. 10–13.  ^ Weishampel, David B. (2004). Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; Halszka, Osmólska, eds. Dinosaur
Dinosaur
distribution (Late Jurassic, North America). The Dinosauria. Berkeley: University of California
California
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Oceania
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A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, p. 15 ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. 12 May 2015.  ^ "The Largest Catholic Communities". Adherents.com. Retrieved 10 November 2007.  ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11: 14. Retrieved 20 November 2015.  ^ "Religiously Unaffiliated". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  ^ "Religions in Canada—Census 2011". Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada.  ^ "The Global Religious Landscape: Jews". pewforum. Retrieved 18 December 2012.  ^ "The Global Religious Landscape: Buddhists". pewforum. Retrieved 18 December 2012.  ^ "The Global Religious Landscape: Muslims". pewforum. Retrieved 18 December 2012.  ^ "World Jewish Population, 2012".  ^ DellaPergola, Sergio (2013). Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. "World Jewish Population, 2013" (PDF). Current Jewish Population Reports. Storrs, Connecticut: North American Jewish Data Bank.  ^ "Panorama de las religiones en México 2010" (PDF) (in Spanish). INEGI. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.  ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Retrieved 12 May 2015.  ^ "Demographics". Retrieved 2 May 2013.  ^ "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011".  ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (2010). "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 – Cuestionario básico". INEGI. Retrieved 4 March 2011.  ^ Rowe, Peter (16 April 2012). "Dalai Lama facts and figures". U-T San Diego. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ a b " Christianity
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INEGI
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– Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico
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more information 2010 Census National Summary File
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(2006). "Toronto, Ontario
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(2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York, NY: Regional Plan Association.[full citation needed] ^ a b c "United States, Economy". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 1 June 2011.  ^ World Bank. "GDP per capita (current US$) - Data". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved September 24, 2017.  ^ International Monetary Fund
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(October 2016). "List of South American countries by GDP per capita". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 25, 2017.  ^ a b c "Canada, Economy". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 1 June 2011.  ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2010". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 March 2011.  ^ "Mexico, Economy". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 1 June 2011.  ^ "Stratfor Global Market – Mexico". Stratfor. 30 August 2007. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ a b De la Torre, Miguel; Benavides, Benigno; Saldaña, José; Fernández, Jesús (2008). "Las profesiones en México: condiciones económicas, culturales y sociales". Sociología y Profesión [Sociology and Profession] (in Spanish). Monterrey: Nuevo León Autonomous University (UANL). p. 116. ISBN 970-24-0051-1. La economía de América del Norte se encuentra bien definida y estructurada en tres principales áreas económicas: el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN), el CARICOM y el Mercado Común Centroamericano  ^ "Regional Trade Blocs". University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved 10 June 2011.  ^ North American Free Trade Agreement. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2011.  ^ Fergusson, Ian. "CRS Report for Congress: United States- Canada
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External links

Houghton Mifflin Company, "North America" Interactive SVG version of Non-Native American Nations Control over N America 1750–2008 animation

v t e

North America articles

History

Settlement of the Americas Paleo-Indians Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
era European colonization

New Spain New France British North America

Turtle Island

Geography

Cities Countries and dependent territories

by population

Extreme points Geology Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers

Politics

American imperialism North American Union
North American Union
(NAU) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Transatlantic relations

Economy

Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) Transportation

Countries by

GDP (per capita) PPP

per capita

HDI Internet users Minimum wages

Society

Languages

endangered

Social (and financial) rankings Universities

Culture

Art

painting sculpture

Architecture Cinema Cuisine Music Philosophy Religion Sport Symbols

Demographics

Countries by population

density

Ethnic groups

indigenous peoples

classification

Immigration Life expectancy

Outline

Category Portal Maps

v t e

Countries and dependencies of North America

Sovereign states

Entire

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

In part

Colombia

San Andrés and Providencia

France

Guadeloupe Martinique

Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Dependencies

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon

Netherlands

Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands

United States

Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Venezuela

Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta

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Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

Book Category

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec
Quebec
City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland
Newfoundland
(island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon
Oregon
Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia
Virginia
Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California
California
Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean
Caribbean
Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean
Caribbean
South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 315126791 LCCN: sh85092455 GND: 4042483-2 BNF: cb15238493p (d

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