HOME
The Info List - North West England


--- Advertisement ---



North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire
Lancashire
and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011.[1] It is the third most populated region in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after the South East and Greater London.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Local government 3 Demographics

3.1 Population, density and settlements 3.2 Ethnicity 3.3 Place of birth 3.4 Religion 3.5 Teenage pregnancy 3.6 Social deprivation 3.7 Elections 3.8 Language and dialect 3.9 Eurostat
Eurostat
NUTS

4 Cities and towns

4.1 Metropolitan areas

5 Elected regional assembly 6 European Parliament 7 History

7.1 Scientific heritage 7.2 Industrial heritage 7.3 Culture

8 Transport

8.1 Transport policy 8.2 Road

8.2.1 Regionwide 8.2.2 Greater Manchester
Manchester
and Merseyside 8.2.3 Cumbria 8.2.4 Lancashire 8.2.5 Cheshire

8.3 Air 8.4 Rail 8.5 Sea

9 Economy

9.1 Cheshire 9.2 Lancashire 9.3 Greater Manchester 9.4 Merseyside 9.5 Cumbria

10 Education

10.1 Secondary education 10.2 Colleges 10.3 Universities

11 Local media 12 Town and city twinnings 13 Sport

13.1 Football

13.1.1 Premier League
Premier League
teams 13.1.2 Championship teams 13.1.3 League One teams 13.1.4 League Two teams

13.2 Golf 13.3 Rugby League 13.4 Swimming

14 Weather 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

Geography[edit]

Geographic features of the North West

Windermere, Lake District

Saddleworth, Peak District

Cheshire
Cheshire
Plain

Morecambe
Morecambe
Bay

North West England
England
is bounded to the east by the Pennines
Pennines
and to the west by the Irish Sea. The region extends from the Scottish Borders
Scottish Borders
in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District
Lake District
and the Cheshire
Cheshire
Plain. The highest point in North West England
England
(and the highest peak in England) is Scafell Pike, Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet (978 m). Windermere
Windermere
is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag
Broad Crag
Tarn on Broad Crag
Broad Crag
is England's highest lake. Wast Water
Wast Water
is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region. The north of the region, comprising Cumbria
Cumbria
and northern Lancashire, is largely rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire
Cheshire
Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks (all of the Lake District, and small parts of the Peak District
Peak District
and the Yorkshire Dales) and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
(all of Arnside and Silverdale
Arnside and Silverdale
and the Solway Coast, and almost all of the Forest of Bowland). Local government[edit] The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Map Ceremonial county County/Unitary Metropolitan/non-metropolitan districts

Cheshire 1.  Cheshire
Cheshire
East U.A.

2.  Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester
Chester
U.A.

3. Halton U.A.

4.  Warrington
Warrington
U.A.

5. Cumbria a) Barrow-in-Furness, b) South Lakeland, c) Copeland, d) Allerdale, e) Eden, f) Carlisle

6. Greater Manchester
Manchester
* a) Bolton, b) Bury, c) Manchester, d) Oldham, e) Rochdale, f) Salford, g) Stockport, h) Tameside, i) Trafford, j) Wigan

Lancashire 7. Lancashire † a) West Lancashire, b) Chorley, c) South Ribble, d) Fylde, e) Preston, f) Wyre, g) Lancaster, h) Ribble Valley, i) Pendle, j) Burnley, k) Rossendale, l) Hyndburn

8.  Blackpool
Blackpool
U.A.

9.  Blackburn with Darwen
Blackburn with Darwen
U.A.

10. Merseyside * a) Knowsley, b) Liverpool, c) St. Helens, d) Sefton, e) Wirral

*metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester
Manchester
and Merseyside
Merseyside
County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs, effectively making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester
Manchester
gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester
Manchester
Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester
Manchester
Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Demographics[edit] Population, density and settlements[edit] Source: Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
Mid Year Population Estimates[2]

Region/County Population Population Density Largest town/city Largest urban area

Greater Manchester 2,629,400 2,016/km² Manchester
Manchester
(510,700) (2012 est.)[3] Greater Manchester
Manchester
Urban Area (2,240,230)

Lancashire 1,449,600 468/km² Blackpool
Blackpool
(142,100)[4] Preston/Chorley/Leyland Urban Area (335,000)

Merseyside 1,353,600 2,118/km² Liverpool
Liverpool
(466,415)[5] Liverpool
Liverpool
Urban Area (816,000)

Cheshire 1,003,600 424/km² Warrington
Warrington
(202,228) Warrington
Warrington
(202,228)

Cumbria 496,200 73/km² Carlisle (71,773) Carlisle (71,773)

North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire
Cheshire
and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria. Ethnicity[edit]

Liverpool
Liverpool
Chinatown is the oldest Chinese community in Europe.

According to 2009 Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
estimates,[6] 91.6% (6,323,300) of people in the region describe themselves as 'White': 88.4% (6,101,100) White British, 1.0% (67,200) White Irish and 2.2% (155,000) White Other. During the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
hundreds of thousands of Welsh people
Welsh people
migrated to the North West of England
England
to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Skelmersdale, Widnes, Halewood, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield
Ashton-in-Makerfield
and Birkenhead.[7][8] The Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% (93,800) of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, and 1.1% Black Britons (80,600). 0.6% of the population (39,900) are Chinese and 0.5% (36,500) of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England
England
is a very diverse region, with Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool
Liverpool
amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side
Moss Side
in Greater Manchester
Manchester
are home to a 30%+ Black British
Black British
population. In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a very low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British.[9] The City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England
England
to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first ever Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised

There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400

Place of birth[edit] The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group (e.g. there are over 25,000 ethnic Italians in Manchester
Manchester
alone,[10] whilst only 6,000 Italian-born people live in the North West). The fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows (2008 estimates, where available, in brackets)[11][12]

The Jodrell Bank Lovell 76-m radio telescope in Lower Withington, built in August 1957, is the world's third largest steerable telescope, and was the largest until 1971. It was designed by Sheffield's Sir Charles Husband
Charles Husband
and built of steel from Scunthorpe

England
England
– 6,169,753 Scotland
Scotland
– 109,163 Wales
Wales
– 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 (51,000 in 2008) Pakistan
Pakistan
– 46,529 (58,000 in 2008) Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
– 34,879 India – 34,600 (48,000 in 2008) Germany
Germany
– 19,931 (25,000 in 2008) China
China
and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States
United States
– 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy
Italy
– 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland
Poland
– (37,000 in 2008)

Religion[edit] The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.

Region Christian Muslim Hindu Sikh Jewish Buddhist Other No Religion/ Not Stated

North West England 67.3% 5.1% 0.5% 0.1% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 26.0%

England 59.4% 5.0% 1.5% 0.8% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 31.9%

One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic,[13] a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century[14][15] as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. Teenage pregnancy[edit] For top-tier authorities, Manchester
Manchester
has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region.[citation needed] For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate, closely followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire.[citation needed] Social deprivation[edit] Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth heavily concentrated on very affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, and south Cumbria. As measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the region has many more Lower Layer Super Output Areas in the 20% most deprived districts than the 20% least deprived council districts.[16] Only North East England
England
shows more indicators of deprivation than the North West, but the number of affluent areas in the North West is very similar to Yorkshire and the Humber. The most deprived local authority areas in the region (based on specific wards within those borough areas) are, in descending order – Liverpool, Manchester, Knowsley, Blackpool, Salford, Blackburn with Darwen, Burnley, Rochdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Halton, Hyndburn, Oldham, Pendle, St Helens, Preston, Bolton, Tameside, Wirral, Wigan, Copeland, Sefton, and Rossendale. These areas almost exclusively have Labour MPs, with the sole exception of Lib Dem John Pugh in Sefton. Burnley
Burnley
is the only of these not to have a Labour council. In 2007 when Cheshire
Cheshire
still had district councils, the least deprived council districts in the region by council district, in descending order, were – Congleton, Ribble Valley, Macclesfield, and South Lakeland.[17] These areas have Conservative MPs, except South Lakeland has a Lib Dem and Labour MPs. At county level, before it was split into two, Cheshire
Cheshire
was the least deprived, followed by Trafford, and by Warrington
Warrington
and Stockport. In March 2011, the overall unemployment claimant count was 4.2% for the region. Inside the region the highest was Liverpool
Liverpool
with 6.8%, followed by Knowsley on 6.3%, Halton with 5.5% and Rochdale
Rochdale
with 5.1%. The lowest claimant count is in Eden (Cumbria) and Ribble Valley (Lancashire) each with 1.3%, followed by South Lakeland
South Lakeland
with 1.4%.[18] Elections[edit]

General election results in 2017

In the 2015 general election, the area was dominated by the Labour Party. 45% of the region's electorate voted Labour, 31% Conservative, 14% UKIP, 6% Liberal Democrat and 3% Greens; however, by number of parliamentary seats, Labour have 50, the Conservatives have 23, and the Liberal Democrats have 2. The Lib Dems' North West seats are in Southport
Southport
and south Cumbria; Labour dominates Greater Manchester, and the Conservatives' vote is concentrated in affluent suburban areas such as Cheadle, Hazel Grove
Hazel Grove
and Altrincham
Altrincham
and Sale West. Labour seats also predominate in Merseyside. Cheshire
Cheshire
is mostly Conservative, and Lancashire
Lancashire
is competitive between Labour and Conservative (8 seats each); the Labour seats in Lancashire
Lancashire
are concentrated in the south of the county along the M65. For the region, the Conservatives gained 3 seats, ; there was a 2.8% swing from Conservative to Labour. In the 2010 general election, Liverpool
Liverpool
Walton was the safest seat in the UK, with a 57% majority, and in 2015 this was repeated with a 72% majority for Steve Rotheram (Labour), when an astonishing 81% of the electorate voted for him (UKIP came second with 9%). In the by-election of 2012, Manchester
Manchester
Central has the record for the lowest turnout in the UK—18%. Gwyneth Dunwoody, for Crewe
Crewe
and Nantwich, was the longest serving female MP until her death in 2008. In the 2009 European Election, 26% voted Conservative, 20% Labour, 16% UKIP and 14.3% Liberal Democrat.

v t e

Constituencies in North West England
England
(75)

Labour (53)

Ashton-under-Lyne Barrow and Furness Birkenhead Blackburn Blackley
Blackley
and Broughton Blackpool
Blackpool
South Bolton
Bolton
North East Bolton
Bolton
South East Bootle Burnley Bury
Bury
North Chorley City of Chester Crewe
Crewe
and Nantwich Denton and Reddish Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port
and Neston Garston and Halewood Halton Heywood and Middleton Hyndburn Knowsley Lancaster and Fleetwood Leigh Liverpool
Liverpool
Riverside Liverpool
Liverpool
Walton Liverpool
Liverpool
Wavertree Liverpool
Liverpool
West Derby Makerfield Manchester
Manchester
Central Manchester
Manchester
Gorton Manchester
Manchester
Withington Oldham
Oldham
East and Saddleworth Oldham
Oldham
West and Royton Preston Rochdale St Helens North St Helens South and Whiston Salford and Eccles Sefton Central Stalybridge
Stalybridge
and Hyde Stockport Stretford
Stretford
and Urmston Wallasey Warrington
Warrington
North Warrington
Warrington
South Weaver Vale West Lancashire Wigan Wirral South Wirral West Workington Worsley and Eccles South Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
and Sale East

Conservative (20)

Altrincham
Altrincham
and Sale West Blackpool
Blackpool
North and Cleveleys Bolton
Bolton
West Carlisle Cheadle Congleton Copeland Eddisbury Fylde Hazel Grove Macclesfield Morecambe
Morecambe
and Lunesdale Pendle Penrith and The Border Ribble Valley Rossendale
Rossendale
and Darwen South Ribble Southport Tatton Wyre
Wyre
and Preston North

Liberal Democrats (1)

Westmorland and Lonsdale

Independent (1)

Bury
Bury
South

North West England
England
European constituency: Conservative (2) Labour (3) UKIP (3)

Language and dialect[edit] The earliest known language spoken in the North West was a dialect of the Brythonic language spoken across much of Britain from at least the Iron Age
Iron Age
up to the arrival of English in the first millennium AD. Fragments of this early language are seen in the inscriptions and place names of the Roman era. In some parts of the region, the Brythonic dialect developed into the medieval language known today as Cumbric, which continued to be spoken perhaps as late as the 12th century in the north of Cumbria. This early Celtic heritage remains today in place names such as Carlisle, Penrith and Eccles, and many river names such as Cocker, Kent and Eden. English may have been spoken in the North West from around the 7th century AD, when the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
first appears to have made inroads west of the Pennines. The language at this time would have been the Northumbrian dialect of Old English. The high percentage of English place names in the region as a whole suggests English became almost ubiquitous over the coming centuries, particularly in the area south of the Lake District. Manchester, Liverpool, Lancaster, Blackburn
Blackburn
and Preston are among the region's many English place names. In the 9th-11th centuries, Danes from the east and Norsemen from Ireland and Scotland
Scotland
began settling in the area. The North West is really the only area of England
England
where Norse settlement was significant and their influence remains in the place names and dialect of the region. Elements like fell, thwaite and tarn, which are particularly common in Cumbria, are all Norse. The numerous Kirkbys and place names with 'holm' and 'dale' show the Scandinavian influence throughout the North West. Through the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the dialects of the North West would have been considerably different from those spoken in the Midlands and south. It was only with the spread of literacy (particularly with the publication of the King James Bible) that Standard English spread to the region. Even so, local dialects continued to be used and were relatively widespread until the 19th and 20th centuries. In modern times, English is the most spoken language in the North West, with a large percentage of the population fluent in it, and close to 100% conversational in it. To the north-east of the region, within the historic boundaries of Cumberland, the Cumbrian dialect
Cumbrian dialect
is dominant. The historical county of Lancashire
Lancashire
covered a vast amount of land, and the Lancashire
Lancashire
dialect and accent is still predominant throughout the county, and stretches as far north as Furness
Furness
in South Cumbria
Cumbria
to parts of north Greater Manchester
Manchester
and Merseyside
Merseyside
in the south of the region. The region boasts some of the most distinctive accents in the form of the Scouse
Scouse
accent, which originates from Liverpool
Liverpool
and its surrounding areas, and the Manc accent, deriving from the central Manchester
Manchester
district. The region's accents are among those referred to as 'Northern English'. Large immigrant populations in the North West result in the presence of significant immigrant languages. South Asian languages such as Urdu, Hindi
Hindi
and Punjabi are widespread[citation needed], with the largest amount of speakers residing in Preston, Blackburn
Blackburn
and Manchester. The Chinese once made up the largest minority in the region (as Liverpool
Liverpool
has one of the oldest Chinese settlements in Europe), and still do to the far north where Chinese is spoken by small but significant communities.[citation needed] Since the enlargement of the EU, over 1 million Poles
Poles
have immigrated to the UK, a large number of them settling in the North West.[citation needed] Places such as Crewe
Crewe
as well as larger cities make Polish written information available for the public, to much controversy.[citation needed] Other immigrant languages with a presence in the North West are Spanish, mainly amongst the Latin American communities in Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester[citation needed], as well as various other Eastern European and Asian languages. The most taught languages in schools across the North West are English, French and German. Spanish and Italian are available at more senior levels and, in cities such as Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool, even Urdu and Mandarin are being taught to help maintain links between the local minority populations.[citation needed] Eurostat
Eurostat
NUTS[edit] In the Eurostat
Eurostat
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), North West is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKD", which (since 2015) is subdivided as follows:[19][20]

NUTS 1 Code NUTS 2 Code NUTS 3 Code

North West UKD Cumbria UKD1 West Cumbria
Cumbria
(Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Copeland) UKD11

East Cumbria
Cumbria
(Carlisle, Eden, South Lakeland) UKD12

Cheshire UKD6 Warrington UKD61

Cheshire
Cheshire
East UKD62

Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester UKD63

Greater Manchester UKD3 Manchester UKD33

Greater Manchester
Manchester
South West (Salford and Trafford) UKD34

Greater Manchester
Manchester
South East ( Stockport
Stockport
and Tameside) UKD35

Greater Manchester
Manchester
North West ( Bolton
Bolton
and Wigan) UKD36

Greater Manchester
Manchester
North East (Bury, Oldham
Oldham
and Rochdale) UKD37

Lancashire UKD4 Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen UKD41

Blackpool UKD42

Lancaster and Wyre UKD44

Mid Lancashire
Lancashire
(Fylde, Preston, Ribble Valley
Ribble Valley
and South Ribble) UKD45

East Lancashire
Lancashire
(Burnley, Hyndburn, Pendle
Pendle
and Rossendale) UKD46

Chorley
Chorley
and West Lancashire UKD47

Merseyside UKD7 East Merseyside
Merseyside
(Knowsley, St. Helens and Halton) UKD71

Liverpool UKD72

Sefton UKD73

Wirral UKD74

Cities and towns[edit]

GM = Greater Manchester, ME = Merseyside, CU = Cumbria, LA = Lancashire, CH = Cheshire

Liverpool
Liverpool
City Centre

Manchester
Manchester
City Centre

Blackpool
Blackpool
Promenade

Lancaster City Centre

Blackburn
Blackburn
Town Centre

Barrow-in- Furness
Furness
Town Centre

Preston City Centre

Population > 400,000

Manchester, GM Liverpool, ME

Population > 100,000

Warrington, CH Blackpool, LA Chester, CH Stockport, GM Sale, GM Bolton, GM Preston, LA Rochdale, GM Blackburn, LA Wigan, GM St. Helens, ME Wythenshawe, GM

Population > 70,000

Oldham, GM Southport, ME Birkenhead, ME Bury, GM Bootle, ME Carlisle, CU Northwich, CH Burnley, LA Crewe, CH Salford, GM

Population > 50,000

Runcorn, CH Widnes, CH Wallasey, ME Barrow-in-Furness, CU Ellesmere Port, CH Altrincham, GM Macclesfield, CH Crosby, ME Leigh, GM

Population > 30,000

Accrington, LA Lancaster, LA Ashton-under-Lyne, GM Middleton, GM Lytham St Annes, LA Urmston, GM Kirkby, ME Skelmersdale, LA Eccles, GM Stretford, GM Denton, GM Leyland, LA Chadderton, GM Morecambe, LA Chorley, LA Hyde, GM Huyton, ME Thornton-Cleveleys, LA Prestwich, GM Saddleworth, GM Winsford, CH Farnworth, GM

Population > 20,000

Radcliffe, GM Nelson, LA Ashton-in-Makerfield, GM Kendal, CU Heywood, GM Reddish, GM Darwen, LA Hindley, GM Cheadle Hulme, GM Fleetwood, LA Congleton, CH Swinton, GM Workington, CU South Turton, GM Westhoughton, GM Wilmslow, CH Ormskirk, LA Golborne, GM Whitehaven, CU Stalybridge, GM Marple, GM Whitefield, GM Droylsden, GM Penwortham, LA Formby, ME Litherland, ME Newton-le-Willows, ME Atherton, GM Rawtenstall, LA Royton, GM Walkden, GM Shaw and Crompton, GM Failsworth, GM Maghull, ME Halewood, ME Horwich, GM

Population > 10,000

Irlam, GM Dukinfield, GM Colne, LA Poulton-le-Fylde, LA Sandbach, CH Ramsbottom, GM Moreton, ME Bramhall, GM Nantwich, CH Haslingden, LA Upton, ME Hazel Grove, GM Clitheroe, LA Neston, CH Tyldesley, GM Romiley, GM Pendlebury, GM Woodley, GM

Population > 5,000

Frodsham, CH Gatley, GM

Metropolitan areas[edit] See also: List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom The five largest metropolitan areas in the North West are as follows:

Greater Manchester
Manchester
metropolitan area – 2,556,000[21] Liverpool/ Birkenhead
Birkenhead
metropolitan area – 2,241,000[21] Blackburn/ Burnley
Burnley
– 391,000[21] Preston – 354,000[21] Blackpool
Blackpool
−304,000[21]

Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester
Manchester
are sometimes considered parts of a single large polynuclear metropolitan area,[22][23][24] or megalopolis[25] but are usually treated as separate metropolitan areas.[21] In some studies, part of Wigan
Wigan
in Greater Manchester
Manchester
is considered part of the Liverpool
Liverpool
metropolitan area.[21] Elected regional assembly[edit]

Proposed flag for the region designed by Peter Saville.

It is one of the two regions (along with Yorkshire and the Humber) that were expected to hold a referendum on the establishment of an elected regional assembly. However, when the North East region of England
England
rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, further referendums were cancelled and the proposals for elected regional assemblies in England
England
put on hold. The regional leaders' forum, 4NW, an unelected quango, is based on Waterside Drive in Wigan. European Parliament[edit] The North West England
England
European Parliament constituency
European Parliament constituency
has the same boundaries as the Region. History[edit] Main articles: History of Cumbria, History of Lancashire, History of Manchester, History of Liverpool, and History of Cheshire Ten English regions were established by the government in 1994. At that time, Merseyside, which already had its own Government Office, formerly the Merseyside
Merseyside
Task Force, was regarded as a separate region. In 1998, Merseyside
Merseyside
was merged into the North West region. This action was controversial in some quarters.[citation needed] Regional Government Offices were abolished in April 2011 by the Coalition Government. Scientific heritage[edit] See also: Science and engineering in Manchester
Manchester
and List of British innovations and discoveries Sir Ernest Marsden
Ernest Marsden
(of Blackburn) and Hans Geiger
Hans Geiger
conducted the Geiger–Marsden experiment
Geiger–Marsden experiment
at the University of Manchester
Manchester
in 1909, where the Geiger counter
Geiger counter
was invented, which demonstrated the existence of the atomic nucleus. Sir J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson
of Cheetham Hill discovered the electron (given its name in 1891 by George Johnstone Stoney) in April 1897 and received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906; his son George Paget Thomson
George Paget Thomson
would win the Nobel Prize for Physics 1937 for discovering electron diffraction (at the University of Aberdeen). John Dalton, from Cumbria
Cumbria
and moved to Manchester, developed atomic theory. William Sturgeon
William Sturgeon
of Lancashire
Lancashire
invented the electromagnet in 1825. Sydney Chapman, a mathematician from Eccles, in 1930 explained the ozone-oxygen cycle in the stratosphere, being the first to propose that atmospheric oxygen or ozone molecules absorb (harmful UVB and UVC) ultraviolet wavelengths of light in photolysis, to produce reactive single atoms which accumulate to form the ozone layer. Graphene
Graphene
was discovered at the University of Manchester
Manchester
in 2004 under Prof Sir Andre Geim
Andre Geim
and Sir Konstantin Novoselov.

Exhibit of ICI's Fluothane (Halothane), discovered at Widnes, at Catalyst Science Discovery Centre, near Spike Island in Widnes

At the Calico Printers' Association in Manchester
Manchester
in 1941, John Rex Whinfield and James Tennant Dickson discovered polyethylene terephthalate, known as PET, a common polyester compound found in plastic bottles and food, and also known as Terylene or Dacron. Cheslene and Crepes of Macclesfield
Macclesfield
discovered crimplene (the fabric that is now referred to as polyester). ICI Dyestuffs at Hexagon House, in Blackley
Blackley
in north Manchester, discovered Procion
Procion
dyes. At the Winnington
Winnington
Laboratory on 27 March 1933, Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson discovered polythene in an ICI laboratory in Northwich, when reacting benzaldehyde with ethene at a pressure of 2,000 atmospheres; the process was improved in 1935 by Sir Michael Perrin. Halothane, the world's first synthetic inhalation general anaesthetic gas, was discovered in 1951 at ICI's Widnes
Widnes
Laboratory by Wallasey's Charles Suckling, and first tested on a patient in Manchester
Manchester
in 1956; it works by binding to the GABA receptor. Sir John Charnley
John Charnley
of Bury invented the hip replacement in 1962 at Wrightington, Lancashire, north-west of Wigan. Clatterbridge Hospital in Bebington
Bebington
has a cyclotron (linear accelerator), and is the only hospital in the UK to offer proton therapy. Alderley Park opened in October 1957, and ICI Pharmaceuticals was formed in the same year. In 1962 Dora Richardson of ICI discovered tamoxifen. ICI Alderley Park later discovered Anastrozole, Fulvestrant, Goserelin
Goserelin
and Bicalutamide, later made by Zeneca. Sir James Black discovered beta blockers—propranolol (Inderal) at Alderley Park in 1962. The Wellcome Foundation, a provider of much of Britain's medical research, was based from 1966 to 1997 at Crewe
Crewe
Hall in Crewe
Crewe
Green. Clifford Cocks
Clifford Cocks
and James H. Ellis from Cheshire, with Malcolm J. Williamson, invented the RSA (algorithm)
RSA (algorithm)
in 1973 at GCHQ, used for public-key cryptography. Sir Richard Owen
Richard Owen
from Lancaster coined the word dinosaur in 1842, and he founded the Natural History Museum, London, opening in 1881. Industrial heritage[edit]

Rainhill Skew Bridge
Rainhill Skew Bridge
in 1831

The Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester
Manchester
Railway was the world's first passenger inter-city railway in 1830. Manchester
Manchester
Liverpool
Liverpool
Road railway station is the world's oldest surviving railway station, having opened on 15 September 1830; the Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway
had opened in 1825. Chat Moss
Chat Moss
was a problem to constructing the railway, with Edge Hill Tunnel and Sankey Viaduct; the line was bitterly opposed by William Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton. The Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
was the first recognised canal of the modern era. Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater had visited France
France
and noted their canals. John Gilbert had the innovative idea to use water pumped out of his coal mines to fill a canal from the Duke's Worsley mines to Manchester. It was designed by James Brindley
James Brindley
and built in 1761. See also: Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution The Bridgewater Foundry in Patricroft
Patricroft
(Salford), can claim to be the world's first factory with an assembly line type arrangement in 1836. Joseph Huddart
Joseph Huddart
of Cumbria
Cumbria
was the first to mechanise the production of rope in 1793. The spinning jenny was invented in 1764 in Lancashire
Lancashire
by James Hargreaves, a mechanical advance on the spinning wheel. See also: History of computing hardware The University of Manchester
Manchester
built the world's first programmable computer, the Manchester
Manchester
Small-Scale Experimental Machine, on 21 June 1948; the Williams–Kilburn tube on the machine was the world's first computer memory, and the beginning of random-access memory (RAM); the baby computer was made from 550 Mullard
Mullard
valves. The first commercially available computer, the Ferranti
Ferranti
Mark 1, was made in Manchester
Manchester
and sold in February 1951 to the University of Manchester. The world's first transitorised computer was the Manchester
Manchester
Transistor Computer in November 1953. Atlas was another important computer developed at the University of Manchester, largely developed by Tom Kilburn; at the time in 1962 it was most powerful computer in the world. The government had dropped its financial support of this computer, and was only funded by Ferranti—the total development cost was around £1m. Britain was leading the world at this time in computing, with the only main competitor being IBM; after the mid-1950s America took over the industry. The spreadsheet was invented in 1974, known as the Works Record System, and used an ADABAS database on a IBM 3270
IBM 3270
at ICI in Northwich; it was developed by Dr Robert Mais and it was around four years before (the more well-known) VisiCalc
VisiCalc
in 1978. The University of Manchester
Manchester
has collected 25 Nobel prizes, though recent years have been less notable. Parsonage Colliery
Parsonage Colliery
at Leigh had the UK's deepest mine—1,260 metres in 1949. Macclesfield
Macclesfield
was the base of UK's silk weaving industry. John Benjamin Dancer of Manchester
Manchester
invented microphotography in 1839, which would lead to microform in the 1920s. Frank Hornby
Frank Hornby
from Liverpool invented Meccano
Meccano
in 1901, where Meccano
Meccano
Ltd would be based for over 60 years. Bryant and May's site in Garston was the last wooden match factory in the UK, closing in 1994 to become The Matchworks business centre off the A561 west of the former Speke
Speke
airport. Cottonopolis
Cottonopolis
was the industrial name for Manchester
Manchester
and the local area. Manchester
Manchester
at one time was the world's richest city. The CIS Tower, built by John Laing in 1962, was Europe's tallest building, and Britain's tallest building until 1963, and Manchester's tallest building until 2006. Kirkby
Kirkby
was planned in the 1950s as the largest trading estate in Britain—1,800 acres. Trafford
Trafford
Park is the world's first planned industrial estate. Rochdale
Rochdale
Society of Equitable Pioneers opened their first co-operative outlet on 21 December 1844.

The World of Glass museum in October 2006

Alastair Pilkington invented the float glass method of manufacture in 1957 at St Helens, announcing it in January 1959. It was manufacturered from 1961, and 80% of the world's glass is made with the process; the former site closed in 2014 and it is made now at the Green Gate site. Pears soap, made at Port Sunlight, is the world's first registered brand, and world's oldest brand in existence. Elihu Thomson, born in Manchester
Manchester
who subsequently moved to America, formed Thomson-CSF
Thomson-CSF
which became Thales Group
Thales Group
in 2000. The British part (British Thomson-Houston) would later become part of GEC; he invented the arc lamp. Henry Brunner
Henry Brunner
from Liverpool
Liverpool
would join with Ludwig Mond in the 1860s to form a chemical company which became ICI in 1926. Mossbay Steelworks in Workington, when opened in 1877, were the world's first large-scale steelworks; its austenitic manganese steel (mangalloy) was produced from 1877 until 1974, with Britain's railways converting from iron to steel by the 1880s. Track was made there for the UK's railways (exclusively from the 1970s onwards, with the steel made in Teesside) until August 2006; much of the rails made were exported (from 1882), with its main competitor being Voestalpine
Voestalpine
of Austria, and a plant (bought by British Steel in 1999) in Hayange, France, who make all of SNCF's railway tracks, and the Katowice Steelworks in Poland. Workington
Workington
was thought to make the best quality rail track in the world. See also: War of Currents
War of Currents
and Mains electricity Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti, born in Liverpool
Liverpool
in 1864, was an electrical engineer who designed the layout for Deptford Power Station, the first alternating current power station in the world in 1887, and whose design all others would follow; his later company Ferranti, of Oldham, would later be an industry leader in Britain's defence electronics, on the FTSE 100 Index. Ferranti's design of increasing AC voltage to high tension at the power station, to be stepped-down at a transformer at substations before entering properties, is the system all electricity networks take today; the system reduces wasteful heating of electricity transmission cables.

Calder Hall in 1973

The Chain Home
Chain Home
radar transmitters were built by Metrovick at its Trafford
Trafford
Park Works, which became part of AEI in 1929, GEC in 1968, and as Alstom
Alstom
it was closed in June 2000. 2ZY, the first broadcasts in the north of England, were made from the Metrovick factory in November 1922, which became part of the BBC National Programme
BBC National Programme
in 1927. GEC opened its first factory in Manchester
Manchester
in 1888, moving to Salford in 1895 at the Peel Works, and had built the Osram
Osram
electric light company in 1893. The Metropolitan-Vickers F.2
Metropolitan-Vickers F.2
of Trafford
Trafford
Park Works, Manchester
Manchester
was the first axial-flow jet engine, with a nine-stage compressor, first running in 1941. It would end up as the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire and the American-built Wright J65. The F.2 gas turbine would power MGB.2009 the first gas-turbine-powered vessel in 1947. No. 1 Parachute Training School RAF—the main parachute training site for the war—was at RAF Ringway
RAF Ringway
(the Central Landing Establishment and Airborne Forces Experimental Establishment) now Manchester
Manchester
Airport; many aircraft were built there too, and the Ford Trafford
Trafford
Park Factory built 34,000 aircraft engines—mostly Merlin engines; the nearby Metropolitan-Vickers factory built many Lancasters. See also: Nuclear power
Nuclear power
by country, Nuclear power
Nuclear power
in the United Kingdom, and Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom Calder Hall was the world's first nuclear power station in 1956. There are approximately 430 nuclear power stations around the world, and the UK is the third most experienced operator of nuclear reactors after the USA and France, and is the world's ninth largest producer of nuclear-generated electricity, with nine stations operating in the UK producing around 10GW. New-build nuclear power stations will either be the AP1000
AP1000
(Toshiba Westinghouse NuGeneration) or EPR design (developed by Areva). BNFL
BNFL
bought Pittsburgh-based Westinghouse Electric Company in 1999; it was sold in October 2006 for £5.4bn to Toshiba. British Energy
British Energy
was sold in 2009 for £12.5bn to EDF; Centrica (British Gas) had also wanted to buy it; 26 Magnox reactors were built in the UK, followed by 14 AGR reactors. Operation Hurricane
Operation Hurricane
on 3 October 1952, Britain's first nuclear bomb, detonated on HMS Plym on the Montebello Islands
Montebello Islands
in the state of Western Australia, was made of plutonium-239 mostly made at Windscale (which began production in 1950), with some possibly from Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada (where the Tube Alloys
Tube Alloys
project was later moved).

A Hawker Siddeley Nimrod
Hawker Siddeley Nimrod
MR2 (HS 801), built at Woodford (former Avro) and designed in Manchester
Manchester
in the mid-1960s, with XV148 (former Comet 4C) making its first flight on 23 May 1967, flying from Chester (Broughton, which had built many de Havilland fighter jet aircraft) to Woodford; 49 Nimrods were made for the RAF, entering service with 201 Sqn on 6 November 1970, serving until March 2010 with 38 Sqn

W. T. Glover & Co. of Salford were important electricity cable manufacturers throughout the early 20th century. BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Wind Tunnel Department at Warton—one its four wind tunnels—the High Speed Wind Tunnel—can test speeds intermittently up to Mach 3.8 (trisonic)—the second fastest in the UK, to the University of Manchester's Aero-Physics Laboratory which has a hypersonic wind tunnel up to Mach 6. Prof Osborne Reynolds
Osborne Reynolds
of Owens College (which became the Victoria University of Manchester
Manchester
in 1904), known worldwide for his Reynolds number
Reynolds number
(introduced elsewhere by the mathematician George Gabriel Stokes), showed in the early 1880s that wind tunnels (invented by Francis Herbert Wenham
Francis Herbert Wenham
in 1871) could model large-scale objects accurately. BAE Systems Regional Aircraft
BAE Systems Regional Aircraft
assembled Britain's last airliner, the British Aerospace 146
British Aerospace 146
( Avro
Avro
RJX), at Woodford in November 2001. The Merlin-powered Avro Tudor
Avro Tudor
G-AGPF, which took off from what is now Manchester
Manchester
Airport on 14 June 1945, was Britain's first pressurised civilian aircraft; only 38 were built and it was designed for the North Atlantic route. On 13 May 1949, VN799 the English Electric Canberra
English Electric Canberra
first flew from Warton: Warton at the time was a former USAAF wartime maintenance base; the German Arado Ar 234 was technically the world's first jet bomber; the Canberra would be the first jet aircraft to make a non-stop crossing of the Atlantic on 21 February 1951. Robert Whitehead
Robert Whitehead
of Bolton
Bolton
invented the modern-day torpedo in 1866. Sir William Pickles Hartley of Lancashire
Lancashire
founded Hartley's Jam in 1871, building a purpose-built village at Aintree. Sir Henry Tate
Henry Tate
also came from Lancashire, joining Abram Lyle
Abram Lyle
in 1921, of whose Golden Syrup tins are claimed to be Britain's oldest brand; he established the Tate
Tate
Gallery in 1897. Robert Hope-Jones
Robert Hope-Jones
of the Wirral invented the Wurlitzer organ. The Christys' & Co factory in Stockport
Stockport
was the largest hat-making factory in the world in the nineteenth century; it became part of Associated British Hat Manufacturers and is now in Oxfordshire. The company owner's son founded Christy in 1850 in Droylsden
Droylsden
(now in Tameside), which invented the industrially produced towel.

JLR at Halewood

Britain's most popular car, the Ford Escort, was made throughout its life (until 21 July 2000) at Halewood
Halewood
by Ford; 5 million were made there from 1967. In 1998, production of its replacement the Focus was transferred to Saarlouis and Valencia, which signalled the end of the site's ownership by Ford. The Jaguar X-Type
Jaguar X-Type
was first made there in May 2001, until late 2009. In the UK, the Mondeo has sold 1.4m since 1993, and is made in Valencia in Spain. Starchaser Industries
Starchaser Industries
of Hyde is hoping to send a British citizen into space, on a British rocket; only Richard Branson will be able to compete for that honour; BAC at Preston had proposed its MUSTARD re-usable spacecraft in 1964, which although not built had given NASA a concept. Culture[edit] The Suffragette
Suffragette
movement came from Manchester—the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). Arthur Wynne, born in Liverpool, invented the crossword in December 1913. On 13 August 1964, Britain carried out its last two executions at Strangeways and Walton Prison. Under the Museums Act 1845, the UK's second and third public municipal librarys were at Warrington
Warrington
in 1848 and at Salford Museum and Art Gallery
Salford Museum and Art Gallery
in 1850; Canterbury had been first in 1847. The first Trades Union Congress was held in 1868 at the Mechanics' Institute, Manchester. The World Pie Eating Championship is held in Wigan
Wigan
each year. Ann Lee
Ann Lee
from Manchester
Manchester
started the USA Shakers
Shakers
movement, founded out of the Quakers, which itself has strong links to Pendle
Pendle
Hill in Lancashire. Joseph Livesey
Joseph Livesey
of Preston was the founder of Britain's temperance movement, and the word teetotal was first coined in Preston in 1833. The crumbly Cheshire
Cheshire
cheese is thought to be the oldest in Britain. Heaton Park
Heaton Park
in north Manchester
Manchester
is the largest municipal park in Europe. Jelly Babies
Jelly Babies
were invented in Lancaster in 1864, at Fryers of Lancashire. The first KFC
KFC
outlet in the UK was on Fishergate in Preston in May 1965, opened by the entrepreneur Ray Allen. Oldham claims to be the site of the first fried potatoes in the UK in 1860. The UK's biggest dance music festival takes place on the August Bank Holiday at Creamfields
Creamfields
on Daresbury
Daresbury
Estate. Ingvar Kamprad's IKEA opened its first UK store in Warrington
Warrington
on 1 October 1987; the UK was the 20th country at the time that IKEA
IKEA
had been established; Germany has the most IKEA
IKEA
outlets. The International Cheese Awards are held at the end of July in Nantwich. Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester, the two largest cities in the North West by population, are known for being the birthplace of beat music (also called "Merseybeat") during the 1960s to 1970s, and the development of the Madchester
Madchester
music scene from the 1980s, and 1990s respectively. A Taste of Honey was an influential 1960s film set in Salford, depicting working class poverty in ways not previously seen at the cinema, known as kitchen sink realism; Walter Greenwood's Love on the Dole, a 1930s book also set in Salford, was thought by the BBFC to be too sordid a depiction of poverty to be made into a film; Mike Leigh, from Salford, has produced films on a similar subject. Transport[edit]

Queensway Tunnel

Transport policy[edit] As part of the national transport planning system, the North West Regional Assembly was (before its abolition in 2008) required to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involved region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency
Highways Agency
and Network Rail.[26] Within the region the local transport authorities plan for the future by producing Local Transport Plans (LTP) which outline their strategies, policies and implementation programmes.[27] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the North West region, the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Blackburn with Darwen
Blackburn with Darwen
U.A,[28] Blackpool
Blackpool
U.A.,[29] Cheshire,[30] Cumbria,[31] Greater Manchester,[32] Halton U.A.,[33] Lancashire,[34] Merseyside[35] and Warrington
Warrington
U.A.[36] Since 1 April 2009, when the county of Cheshire
Cheshire
was split into two unitary councils[37] the Cheshire
Cheshire
transport authority ceased to exist, however it is the most recent LTP for the area. Road[edit]

The M6 motorway
M6 motorway
is one of the North West's principal roads

Regionwide[edit]

Warning signs at Hardknott Pass

Regionwide the principal road link is the M6, this enters the region (from Scotland) near Carlisle in the north and leaves it (for the English Midlands) near Crewe
Crewe
in the south. It connects such towns and cities as Penrith, Kendal, Lancaster, Preston, Warrington, Liverpool and Manchester. The M6 intersects many of the North West's motorways and A-roads, and carries almost 120,000 vehicles per day (41,975,000 per year).[38] Britain's most severe steep road is Hardknott Pass
Hardknott Pass
in Cumbria, and the highest road in the UK is the former A6293 at 2,780 ft at Milburn, Cumbria; the highest classified road in England
England
was the A689 east of Nenthead
Nenthead
in Cumbria
Cumbria
on the Durham boundary.

Old meets new at the Stockport
Stockport
Viaduct; designed by George W. Buck, it is the largest brick structure in the UK, built in 1840, when it was the largest viaduct in the world; it features in many L. S. Lowry paintings

Greater Manchester
Manchester
and Merseyside[edit] The Greater Manchester
Manchester
and Merseyside
Merseyside
areas are home to almost 4 million people, and over half the region's population. The road networks intertwining these metropolitan areas are extremely important to the economy and are largely motorway, including the M62 which crosses the entire country (east to west – Hull to Liverpool), this motorway directly connects the cities of Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool. The M62 sees 78,000 vehicles using the motorway in the North West per day.[39] The Merseyside- Manchester
Manchester
region has many motorways, that serve many millions on a daily basis, other include the M61 which connects Manchester
Manchester
to Preston, the M56 which runs south of Manchester to Cheshire
Cheshire
and Wales, The M57 and M58 motorways run north of Liverpool, and connect towns such as St. Helens and Wigan. The M60 is Manchester's ring road, the M67 and M66 motorways run east and north respectively, both of these motorways are under 10 miles (16 km) and link Manchester
Manchester
to smaller outlying settlements. On top of this there are countless numbers of A-roads, B-roads and minor roads which circle, entwine and serve these two major metropolises. For more information, see: Transport in Manchester.

A sign marking entry to Scotland
Scotland
located on the M6 motorway
M6 motorway
crossing the border.

Cumbria[edit] In Cumbria
Cumbria
the M6 runs all the way down the east of the county connecting the very north of England
England
to the Lancashire
Lancashire
border. The A590 links Barrow-in- Furness
Furness
to Kendal
Kendal
with around 14,000 vehicles per day.[40] The A595 runs all the way along the West Cumbrian coast beginning near Barrow and ending in Carlisle, linking towns such as Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Workington. The A591 road
A591 road
runs from Kendal
Kendal
to the centre of the county connecting Lake District
Lake District
settlements like Windermere, Ambleside
Ambleside
and Keswick. Other important A-roads include the A5092, A66, A596 and formerly the A74, until this was upgraded to motorway standard as an extension of the M6 between 2006 and 2008 to meet the A74(M) at the Scottish border. Lancashire[edit] The Lancashire
Lancashire
economy relies strongly on the M6 which also runs from north to south (Lancaster to Chorley). Other motorways in the region include the fairly short M55 which connects the city of Preston and the town of Blackpool
Blackpool
at 11.5 miles (18.5 km) in length. The M65 motorway runs from east to west starting in the town of Colne, running past Burnley, Accrington, Blackburn
Blackburn
and terminating in Preston. The Lancaster- Morecambe
Morecambe
area is served by the A683, A6 and A589 roads, the Blackpool-Fylde- Fleetwood
Fleetwood
area is home to the A587, A584, A583 and A585 roads. The city of Preston and its surroundings are served by the A6, A59, A585, A584, A583, A582 and to the very south-east, the M61 motorway. To the east of the county are the A59, A6119, A677, A679, A666, A680, A56, A646 and A682. The M66 begins 500 metres (0.3 mi) inside the county border near Edenfield, providing an important link between east Lancashire
Lancashire
and Manchester. Cheshire[edit] In Cheshire
Cheshire
there are four motorways the M6, the M56 (linking Chester to the east), the M53 (linking Chester
Chester
to Birkenhead) and the M62, which runs just along the county's northern border with Merseyside
Merseyside
and Greater Manchester. The Cheshire
Cheshire
road system is made up of 3,417 miles (5,499 km) of highway, and the principal one (M6) carries 140,000[41] vehicles in the county daily, linking the North West to the West Midlands. The county town of Chester
Chester
is served by the A55, A483 and A494 roads amongst others. To the west of the M6, Crewe, Northwich
Northwich
and Sandbach are served by the A54, A51, A49, A533, A556 and A530 roads, these all eventually link up connecting the towns to the larger cities, including Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
to the south. To the east of the M6 in Cheshire
Cheshire
lies the Peak District, and towns such as Macclesfield
Macclesfield
and Congleton
Congleton
which are served by the A6, A537, A536, A34, A523 and A566 roads. Air[edit] The primary international airport in the region is Manchester
Manchester
Airport, which served 22.1 million passengers in 2007 (18.7 million of which were international),[42] more than some of the world's major aviation hubs. The airport is home to three terminals (plus the World Freight Terminal), which serve destinations worldwide. The largest airlines at the airport in terms of flights in 2007 were Flybe, BMI, British Airways, Jet2.com
Jet2.com
and Lufthansa, although several long-haul carriers such as American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Virgin Atlantic, Singapore Airlines and Emirates also operate from the airport. In 2012 Manchester
Manchester
Airport was the third-busiest airport in the UK with 19m passengers, after Gatwick then Heathrow. Manchester
Manchester
Airports Group is owned approximately one-third by Manchester
Manchester
Council, and one-third by the other nine Greater Manchester
Manchester
councils. In 2007 Manchester
Manchester
had a recorded 222,703 aircraft movements,[42] the airport is also a hub for major holiday airlines such as Thomas Cook Airlines, Monarch Airlines, First Choice Airways
First Choice Airways
and Thomson Airways. The region's second largest, but fastest growing airport is Liverpool John Lennon Airport, where passenger numbers have increased from around 690,000 in 1997 to nearly 5.5 million in 2007.[42] The airport serves destinations primarily in the UK and Europe and is a major hub for EasyJet
EasyJet
and Ryanair. The only other significant passenger airport in the region was Blackpool
Blackpool
Airport, which was refurbished in 2006 and handled around half a million passengers annually. Destinations ranged from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
in Spain
Spain
to the Republic of Ireland, but commercial flights ended in March 2017.

Manchester
Manchester
Airport aerial view

Cumbria

Barrow/Walney Island Airfield
Barrow/Walney Island Airfield
– Operated by BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Marine Ltd – Submarines, private use Carlisle Lake District
Lake District
Airport – Operated by Stobart Air Ltd, public use

Greater Manchester

City Airport Manchester
Manchester
– Operated by City Airport Manchester
Manchester
Ltd, public use Manchester
Manchester
Airport – Major international airport operated by Manchester
Manchester
Airport Group, destinations worldwide Woodford Aerodrome
Woodford Aerodrome
– Operated by BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Regional Aircraft, now closed

Tutor aircraft at RAF Woodvale

Lancashire

Blackpool
Blackpool
International Airport – Operated by Balfour Beatty, public use (commercial flights withdrawn) Warton Aerodrome
Warton Aerodrome
– Operated by BAE Systems, private use

Merseyside

Liverpool
Liverpool
John Lennon Airport – International airport
International airport
operated by Liverpool
Liverpool
Airport plc, destinations worldwide RAF Woodvale
RAF Woodvale
– Operated by the Royal Air Force, military use Southport
Southport
Birkdale Sands airstrip – Sand runway located on Southport beach (infrequent use, subject to prior permission)

Rail[edit]

Manchester's Piccadilly station is the largest and busiest railway station in the region.

The main connection by train is the West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
(Virgin Trains), connecting most of the North West. Other important lines are the Liverpool
Liverpool
to Manchester
Manchester
Lines and the North TransPennine
North TransPennine
which connects Liverpool
Liverpool
to Manchester
Manchester
through Warrington. East-west connections in Lancashire
Lancashire
are carried via the Caldervale Line
Caldervale Line
to Blackpool. Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester
Manchester
both have extensive local passenger rail networks operating high-frequency commuter trains. The quietest train station in the region is Reddish
Reddish
South, the 4th quietest in Britain. The InterCity service in the UK began between London and Manchester
Manchester
in the late 1960s; the new Euston station opened in 1968. With the new electrification of the line in the late 1960s, passenger numbers doubled. The region saw the last steam-train service on the UK network - the Fifteen Guinea Special
Fifteen Guinea Special
on 11 August 1968, with three Black Five locomotives. Sea[edit] Sea ferries depart from Liverpool
Liverpool
(Gladstone Dock) to Dublin
Dublin
(P&O Irish Sea) and to Douglas on the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
( Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Steam Packet); Birkenhead
Birkenhead
( Twelve Quays
Twelve Quays
Terminal) to Belfast
Belfast
and Dublin ( Norfolkline
Norfolkline
Irish Sea
Irish Sea
Ferries – former Norse Merchant Ferries); Fleetwood
Fleetwood
to Larne
Larne
(Stena Line) in Northern Ireland; and Heysham
Heysham
to Douglas ( Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Steam Packet). The world's first hovercraft service took place on 20 July 1962 from Leasowe
Leasowe
(Moreton) to Rhyl, operated by British United Airways, in a Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
VA-3, powered by two turboprop engines.

Regional profile of the North West

Economy[edit] The North West is historically linked with the textiles industry, mainly before the mid 20th century. The Greater Manchester
Manchester
region produces the most economic output according to GVA in 2007 with £46,189m. Followed by Lancashire
Lancashire
with £22,470m, Cheshire
Cheshire
£21,317m and Merseyside
Merseyside
£19,112m and Cumbria
Cumbria
with £7,379m. According to research by Cushman and Wakefield
Cushman and Wakefield
in 2008, Manchester
Manchester
is the second best city to locate a business in the UK whilst Liverpool is the eleventh best city.[43] The Financial Times
Financial Times
stated that the North West economy, led by the redevelopment of Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool, is a genuine rival to 'overheated London'.[44] The area's electricity, formerly looked after by MANWEB
MANWEB
and NORWEB, is now looked after by ScottishPower Energy Networks and United Utilities respectively. The Morecambe Bay
Morecambe Bay
gas field provides 6% of the UK's natural gas.

v t e

Electricity generation
Electricity generation
in North West England

Power stations

Biomass

Active

Fiddlers Ferry (co-fires)

Coal

Active

Fiddlers Ferry

Closed

Agecroft Back o' th' Bank Barton Blackburn Bloom Street Bold Bolton Carlisle Carrington Chadderton Chamber Hall Dickinson Street Fleetwood Greenhill Hartshead Huncoat Ince A Kearsley Lancaster Lister Drive Merseyside Padiham Radcliffe Ribble Roosecote Salford Slacks Valley Southport Spa Road Stockport Stuart Street Trafford Warrington Westwood Whitebirk

Gas

Active

Bridgewater Carrington Fellside Rocksavage Weston Point Winnington

Proposed/Future

Incinerators/Waste

Active

Bolton Red Moss Landfill

Proposed/Future

Ince Weston Point

Nuclear

Active

Heysham

Closed

Calder Hall

Oil

Closed

Ince A + B

Wind

Active

Askam and Ireleth Barrow Offshore Burbo Bank Coal
Coal
Clough Ormonde Scout Moor Walney Winscales Moor

Proposed/Future

West Duddon

Organisations

BNFL The Lancashire
Lancashire
Electric Power Company MANWEB NORWEB Pre-nationalisation electric power companies

Cheshire[edit] Main article: Economy of Cheshire See also: Cheshire
Cheshire
§ Economy and industry

This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may only interest a specific audience. Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against's inclusion policy. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Essar Energy's Stanlow Refinery, the UK's second largest refinery after Fawley, looking north-east from Wervin

Vauxhall's plant in Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port
exports 88% of its cars, although many of the components are imported, and has made over 5 million since 1962, also making the Vectra from 1995-2008; it makes 686 a day (two a minute, 100,000 a year) and the latest model was designed by Mark Adams and Malcolm Ward. 3m Astras have been bought in the UK since 1979, and featured on the Top Gear test track
Top Gear test track
until 2015; the production is split with the Opel Manufacturing Poland
Poland
site at Gliwice in southern Poland; the Corsa is made at Opel Zaragoza in north-east Spain, with 3-door versions at Opel Eisenach; the Insignia is made at Opel Rüsselsheim

Cheshire
Cheshire
is linked with the salt industry. AstraZeneca, the fifth largest pharmaceutical company in the world, has a manufacturing site in the north-east of Macclesfield
Macclesfield
on Hurdsfield
Hurdsfield
Ind Est (former ICI Pharmaceuticals) off the A523, where it makes Zoladex (goserelin); it was formerly ICI until June 1993 when it became Zeneca. Vauxhall, home of the Astra, is on a former airfield next to the M53, and Essar Energy (former Shell, partly in Thornton-le-Moors) are in Ellesmere Port. SGS UK, the world's leading industrial inspection organisation, is based off junction 8 of the M53 at Rossmore Business Park off the B5463. Innospec (former Octel) is west of the refinery near junction 9 of the M53 (A5032); Innospec also has a site at Widnes
Widnes
(former Aroma Fine Chemicals) which makes Lilestralis. Encirc Glass (former Aventas group) make glass bottles to the east of the refinery at Elton; the Shell Technology Centre on the southern side of the railway, off the A5117 and the M56 Hapsford
Hapsford
Interchange on the east side of the refinery, closed in 2014; to the east is the large site of CF Fertilisers UK (former Shellstar) who make the Nitram brand of fertiliser. Lex Autolease, the UK's largest vehicle leasing company is in the east of Chester, towards Hoole. Ball Packaging Europe is based on the A483 at Chester
Chester
Business Park, near the A55 junction in Eccleston, which has a main office of M&S; east of M&S, south of the A55 bypass is Sira, which issues ATEX product approvals. To the north at Dunkirk at the end of the M56 on the A5117, is Max Spielmann (including the former Klick) in Lea-by-Backford; further north at Capenhurst, next to the railway, Urenco Group
Urenco Group
have a uranium enrichment plant, partly in Ledsham. Sandbach
Sandbach
used to be home of ERF and Fodens trucks. Tata Chemicals Europe (former Brunner Mond) next to the A530, next to the railway, is partly in Lostock Gralam
Lostock Gralam
just west of Northwich; there is another main site at Winnington
Winnington
on the A533 north-west of Northwich. British Salt
British Salt
is in Middlewich; Bisto
Bisto
used to be made there by Centura Foods (RHM), but production moved to Worksop
Worksop
(Nottinghamshire) in 2008. Henkel
Henkel
UK (the consumer adhesive division, maker of Pritt and Sellotape) is on the Winsford
Winsford
Ind Estate in the east of Winsford, home of the UK's largest salt mine at Meadowbank run by Salt Union, who are owned by Compass Minerals. Mornflake is in Crewe
Crewe
on the B5071, Focus closed in July 2011, and Orion Optics make telescopes. Bentley
Bentley
Motors (owned by Volkswagen since 1998) have their main plant in the west of the town between the A530 and A532, next to the railway to Chester. Crewe
Crewe
Works built the HST (Class 43) power cars, and now carries out maintenance for Bombardier. Unipart
Unipart
Rail is on the B5071 next to Crewe
Crewe
railway station. Bargain Booze
Bargain Booze
is at the A532/A5020 roundabout in the east of the town, and further along the A532 Whitby Morrison
Whitby Morrison
are the world's leading manufacturer of ice cream vans. Air Products have a main HQ off the A534 in central Crewe
Crewe
near the Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
training academy. UK Fuels (fuel cards) are off the A532, north of Crewe
Crewe
train station. BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Global Combat Systems at Radway Green, Barthomley
Barthomley
north of M6 junction 16, south of Alsager
Alsager
makes small arms ammunition, and Freshpack make pies next to the A5011 towards the east of the town; Twyford Bathrooms
Twyford Bathrooms
(owned since 2001 by the Finnish Sanitec) are off the B5077, but their enormous factory next to the railway closed in early 2011, with production moving overseas. Oliver Valves based off the B5085 in Shaw Heath, Knutsford, makes needle, check, gate, relief and ball valves for the oil and gas industry. Amec is south of Knutsford at Booths Hall off the A537, now the HQ of Amec Foster Wheeler; also in the town is Edmundson Electrical. Between Knutsford and Wilmslow
Wilmslow
in Mobberley
Mobberley
off the B5085, close to the southern approach of Manchester
Manchester
Airport, is a large site of Harman Technology (known worldwide as Ilford Photo). Four Seasons Health Care is in central Wilmslow; north of the town on the A538 is a large £60m mass spectrometry research site of the Waters Corporation, built in 2014 on a former research site of Ciba-Geigy
Ciba-Geigy
Pharmaceuticals (who formed Novartis
Novartis
in 1996), next to the River Bollin. Pets at Home
Pets at Home
is next to the railway at Handforth
Handforth
near Wilmslow
Wilmslow
and the Stockport
Stockport
boundary near Handforth
Handforth
Dean (A34). Boalloy Industries are on Radnor Park Ind Est in West Heath in west Congleton
Congleton
north of the A534/A34 junction, make trailers, and pioneered the Tautliner
Tautliner
curtain-sided trailer design in the 1970s. Reginox UK (kitchen sinks) are in the north of Congleton; Siemens Industry Automation & Drive Technologies UK make variable-speed drives, exporting 98% of production, on Eaton Bank Trading Est near the River Dane; Airbags International (part of Autoliv) make airbags on Congleton
Congleton
Business Park in Hulme Walfield, on the north edge of the town. OK Diner
OK Diner
is in Macclesfield
Macclesfield
(previously in Middlewich); Tullis Russell at Bollington
Bollington
makes the paper for all Royal Mail stamps, and has done for many years.

Ineos
Ineos
ChlorVinyls at Runcorn
Runcorn
in 2006; the UK chemicals industry is worth £57bn, with 180,000 people in around 3,000 companies

Ineos
Ineos
Fluor (the site was previously owned by ICI Chemicals) is at Runcorn
Runcorn
which produces chlorine and caustic soda from Cheshire
Cheshire
salt, piped from Lostock Gralam, south of Northwich; most of the chlorine in the UK comes from this plant; it also makes hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) for metered-dose inhalers and the anaesthetic halothane. There is Ineos
Ineos
Chlor and Ineos
Ineos
Vinyls. BNFL
BNFL
and its subsidiary Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd (former British Nuclear Group), and ABB UK are based in Daresbury
Daresbury
near Runcorn, although most of BNG's operations take place at Sellafield
Sellafield
in Cumbria. Daresbury
Daresbury
is also home of the EMMA and ALICE FFAG accelerators. Diageo
Diageo
bottles Guinness
Guinness
at Preston Brook, between the A56 and A533, and nearby Saint-Gobain
Saint-Gobain
UK make Isover insulation. Kawneer UK (part of Alcoa) make architectural aluminium systems (curtain walls) off the A533 at Astmoor
Astmoor
in north Runcorn. APPH (aircraft undercarriage) is based off the A558 on Manor Park in Sandymoor
Sandymoor
near TALL Security Print, the UK's leading provider of business cheques; further to the west is Yokogawa Electric
Yokogawa Electric
UK. Schachihata UK (Xstamper and Artline) are based at Ashville Ind Est on the A557 at junction 12 of the M56 next to the Weaver Navigation and the 3,200 ft Weaver Viaduct
Weaver Viaduct
south of Runcorn
Runcorn
towards Sutton Weaver. At the A5080 junction in Widnes, on the western side of the A557 is a Marley Eternit
Eternit
plant ( Eternit
Eternit
roofing), and on the other side is a plant of Rockwood Additives UK (former Laporte). Croda Enterprise Technology Group does its important R&D in Halebank, Widnes, south of Ditton. The Thermphos factory on the A557 south of Widnes
Widnes
closed in 2013. United Utilities
United Utilities
is based in the west of Warrington
Warrington
at Lingley Mere Business Park in Great Sankey, next to the St Helens boundary; in Lingley Green to the south on the A57 was the former HQ of North West Water; to the north, Amazon have a fulfilment centre. Unilever
Unilever
makes Persil
Persil
and Surf washing powders next to the Bank Quay railway station; next door between the A5061 and River Mersey is PQ Silicas (former Joseph Crosfield). Cogent Skills (the UK's SSC for science) is in the south of Warrington
Warrington
off the A5060, on the other side of the railway from Bank Quay. New Balance
New Balance
UK is at Centre Park, off the A5060 in south-west Warrington, with a factory at Flimby, on the Cumbria
Cumbria
coast. Konftel UK is at Thelwall. Eagle Ottawa makes leather upholstery for cars off the A50 at Westy Park in east Warrington
Warrington
next to the Manchester
Manchester
Ship Canal. ASICS
ASICS
UK (sportswear) is on the Gemini Business Park, off the A574 in Burtonwood and Westbrook
Burtonwood and Westbrook
north of Warrington, next to the M62 and a large IKEA
IKEA
and M&S on Gemini Retail Park; next door is KYB
KYB
UK, part of the world's largest (Japanese) manufacturer of shock absorbers; nearby is Krauss-Maffei
Krauss-Maffei
UK (injection moulding machines); AlphaBiolabs provide the DNA paternity testing
DNA paternity testing
for The Jeremy Kyle Show
The Jeremy Kyle Show
on Carina Park in Westbrook. Burtonwood Brewery (the HQ of Thomas Hardy Burtonwood, who developed Britain's alcopop drinks in the 1990s) is on the B5204 in the west of Burtonwood, towards St Helens borough. Birchwood Park
Birchwood Park
has to be the main technical business park in the North West. The Bank of England MPC's Agency for the North West is on Birchwood Park
Birchwood Park
near the HQ of GB Oils, the UK's leading fuel oil supplier (owned by DCC), and the operator of Gulf Oil petrol stations in the UK. Electricity North West (the North West's distribution network operator) is near by, with ESR Technology, who did work for the Philae space probe and owns the National Centre of Tribology at Whittle House in Risley, with TalkTalk Business to the west, near International Nuclear Services
International Nuclear Services
and Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd at Hinton House. Terberg Matec UK (Dutch) supply lifts for bin wagons next to M62 junction 11. Also west of the park is Nuvia UK (part of Soletanche Freyssinet). Betfred
Betfred
(having the largest turnover in the region—£13.3bn) is at the western end of Birchwood itself, next to the M6 and Birchwood railway station. Birchwood was built on the former ROF Risley. Lancashire[edit] Main article: Lancashire
Lancashire
§ Economy

English Electric Canberra
English Electric Canberra
gate guard at BAE's Samlesbury
Samlesbury
site

The ONS 2010 Annual Business Survey states that 30.3% of jobs in the British aerospace industry are based in Lancashire.[45] The main private employer in the county is BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Military Air & Information who have two sites east and west of Preston for the manufacture of military aircraft. Samlesbury
Samlesbury
(4000 employees) makes air-frames; the front fuselage, canards and tailfin of the Eurofighter. Warton, BAE Systems' main site (former English Electric, then BAC), in Bryning-with-Warton
Bryning-with-Warton
(6500 employees).[46] BAE builds a Eurofighter every two weeks (takt time). Rolls-Royce make turbofan blades in Barnoldswick
Barnoldswick
(950 employees).[47] Nearby Weston EU manufacture components in Foulridge
Foulridge
(250)[48] and engine maintenance contractor Euravia are in Kelbrook
Kelbrook
(100).[49] Safran
Safran
Aircelle make engine nacelles and thrust reversers in Burnley
Burnley
(800), and mostly make thrust reversers for the Trent 700.[50] GE subsidiary Unison Engine Components (320),[49] are the largest of several others in the area. (Westinghouse) (BNFL) make nuclear fuel at the Springfields
Springfields
site at Salwick, off the A583 in Newton with Clifton. The boiler firm BAXI have a factory in the south of Preston, and next door, Assystem
Assystem
UK (engineering consultancy) are off the B5258 in Bamber Bridge. AB InBev have a brewery on the B6230 in nearby in Samlesbury
Samlesbury
(former Whitbread, and brews Stella Artois); further east the BAE Systems
BAE Systems
factory is between the A677 and A59, mainly in Balderstone. To the north-east of Preston, Bodycare Group make toiletries at the Red Scar Business Park on the B6243, near junction 31a of the M6, where Goss International UK make printing presses. Webb Ivory (charity fundraising, owned by Findel plc) is off the A6 in Avenham, in the south of Preston. Alstom Transport (former GEC Traction) is at TLS Preston; company's main Trafford
Trafford
Park site closed in the early 1990s. Bosal was the UK's leading manufacturer of car exhausts on Walton Summit, between the M6 and M61 until they closed operations. The Pilkington
Pilkington
European Technical Centre is at Lathom. Oaktec are small motorsport company on the A588 at Cockerham, south of Lancaster. Standfast & Barracks make high-end intricately designed furnishings on the A683 north of Lancaster, next to the River Lune. Voith Paper have a site in Stubbins, at the northern end of the M66, off the A676. Silentnight
Silentnight
(600)[49] is in Barnoldswick, where Hope Technology make mountain bike components; nearby Johnson Matthey
Johnson Matthey
make automotive catalysts. At Whitworth on the A671, BCH engineer equipment for the food processing industry ( Nestlé
Nestlé
and Mars). Brands originating in Lancashire
Lancashire
include: TVR, Reebok, Jaguar Cars
Jaguar Cars
and Warburtons. Leyland Trucks
Leyland Trucks
manufactures several truck ranges from Leyland, home of Enterprise plc, and where Albion Automotive (part of American Axle) make crankshafts at Farington. CCA Occasions makes greeting cards on the B5253 on the Moss Side
Moss Side
Ind Estate and nearby Dr Oetker makes Chicago Town and Pizza Ristorante pizzas (330);[51] 40% of the UK's frozen pizzas are made here, and the Pizza Ristorante brand, solely made in Lancashire, is Italy's best-selling frozen pizza with 20% of the Italian market.[52] Nearby, Nitecrest is the UK's leading manufacturer of gift, payment, loyalty and phone cards, and exports most of its products. Walker's make Monster Munch
Monster Munch
at junction 5 of the M58 on the Pimbo Ind Est in Up Holland; nearby SCA Hygiene has their Skelmersdale
Skelmersdale
Mill which makes kitchen towel, with Uretek UK (polyurethane). To the east is Frederick's Dairies in East Pimbo, who make Cadbury's ice creams, near TAAG Steelwork, who built the Olympic Energy Centre. To the west, Turtle Wax
Turtle Wax
Europe are next to M58 junction 4 on Gillibrands Ind Est. The Co-operative Bank
The Co-operative Bank
are administered from Delf House in the centre of Skelmersdale. Victrex
Victrex
make PEEK
PEEK
(a thermoplastic) just north of Blackpool
Blackpool
at Cleveleys. Next door, AGC Chemicals Europe, owned by Asahi Glass Co., makes ETFE
ETFE
(fluon) for electrical wire insulation, and silica gel off the B5268 at Thornton-Cleveleys. HTI Group in Fleetwood
Fleetwood
makes toys and owns Barbie. Ennis Prismo make traffic white line products at Chorley; Walmsleys is a paper manufacturer off the A675 in Withnell. DXC Technology
DXC Technology
(former CSC) have sites in Chorley
Chorley
and Preston. Along the M65, Fort Vale based in Simonstone (near Burnley) (300) are a world leader in valves and fittings for road tankers.[53] Close by, office furniture manufacturer Senator International (800)[49][54] and household plastic container manufacturer What More UK (170)[55] are the largest in the UK in their respective fields. Off the A646 in Habergham Eaves, east of Burnley, is AMS Neve, a renowned manufacturer of audio mixing desks. Telecoms provider Daisy Group (former Pipex,400),[49] based in Nelson is one of the UK's fastest growing companies, on Lomeshaye Ind Est north of M65 junction 12 in Brierfield;[56] Cott
Cott
Beverages (former Macaw Soft Drinks before 2006) is off junction 12 of the M65 in Brierfield, west of Nelson, next to Pendle
Pendle
Water. Jura UK (Swiss coffee machines) is off the A6068 in Colne. At Horrocksford near Clitheroe, Hanson Cement have their large Ribblesdale Cement works, next to the River Ribble, which supplied construction of the Liverpool
Liverpool
Metropolitan Cathedral. Bensons for Beds
Bensons for Beds
(previously in Burtonwood near Warrington) and Sleepmasters (both owned by Steinhoff International) are in the north of Accrington, off junction 8 (A56) of the M65, near Huncoat railway station. Kleeneze (owned by Findel plc) is based with Express Gifts off the A678 in Clayton-le-Moors
Clayton-le-Moors
off the M65 Hyndburn
Hyndburn
Interchange between Blackburn
Blackburn
and Burnley, north of Accrington
Accrington
with a main distribution centre off the A679 in Church on the other side of the M65 in the west of Accrington, with both sites next to the Leeds- Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal. Off the A678 near the River Calder in Altham (north east of Clayton le Moors) is Senator who claim to be the UK's largest manufacturer of office furniture; Simon Jersey designed and made the Team GB
Team GB
clothing for the 2016 Olympics opening and closing ceremonies. In Blackpool
Blackpool
is the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB), Amber Taverns, Premium Bonds and National Savings and Investments. Dennis Eagle makes bin wagons in Marton; Tangerine Confectionery
Tangerine Confectionery
are based at Little Marton, with another factory to the east, just south of the main government building site. The Service Personnel and Veterans Agency (MoD's pensions, former Veterans Agency) is off the A585 in east Blackpool
Blackpool
at the B268 roundabout at Norcross in the south of Anchorsholme. The NS & I office of Blackpool
Blackpool
is on the A583, off the M55 Marton Circle, in Little Marton on the eastern edge of the town. Disability Living Allowance, replaced by Personal Independence Payment, is administered by the DWP, with the Disablement Services Authority at Warbreck House west of the A587, accessed from the B5265 and next to Bispham High School. At the end of the M55 (junction 4) off the A5230 in Westby-with-Plumptons
Westby-with-Plumptons
is DWP's large Peel Park Control Centre, on the Blackpool
Blackpool
boundary. Amber Taverns is near Blackpool
Blackpool
North railway station. To the north of Peel Park, next to the Clifton Retail Park in Mereside is Glasdon (roadside furniture), off the A583. Burton's Biscuit Company (owned since November 2013 by the Ontario
Ontario
Teachers' Pension Plan) have many head office functions in Layton, Blackpool
Blackpool
and a factory off the B5124, in the south of Warbreck, next to the railway line, which makes Maryland Cookies, Cadbury Fingers
Cadbury Fingers
and Wagon Wheels
Wagon Wheels
(with another main factory in Torfaen, south Wales); it is the UK's second largest biscuit maker and was founded in Blackpool. Crown Paints is in Darwen
Darwen
(500).[49] DS Smith
DS Smith
have the Hollins paper mill just south of junction 4 of the M65, off the A666 in Darwen, which is set to close. Across the M65 to the north Apeks make diving equipment at Blackamoor. Graham & Brown at Blackburn
Blackburn
make fancy wallpaper, next to the Leeds
Leeds
& Liverpool
Liverpool
Canal, and off the A6077 is CWV ( Coloroll and Crown Wallpaper); Capita Group
Capita Group
runs TV Licensing in the middle of the town; Lucite
Lucite
International has its main plant on the A666 in the north of the town centre, where it makes Lucite; this site, under ICI Acrylics, manufactured the perspex for wartime aircraft canopies from 1940, becoming Ineos
Ineos
Acrylics from 1999 until 2002 and the company is the world's largest manufacturer of methyl methacrylate (MMA); ICI Acrylics invented the process to make perspex in 1936; the granular form of Perspex
Perspex
was known by ICI as Leukon. Tensar International, invented and manufacture geogrids for construction, off the A6077 near junction 5 of the M65 in Blackburn near the B6231 roundabout; nearby is Castle Metals UK; also on the Shadsworth Business Park is Evertaut, who make auditorium seating. Greater Manchester[edit] Main article: Greater Manchester
Manchester
§ Economy See also: Economy of Manchester, List of companies based in Greater Manchester, and Liverpool– Manchester
Manchester
rivalry Tyco UK is based on the A62 in Newton Heath. Joseph Holt's Brewery
Joseph Holt's Brewery
is off the A665 next to Strangeways prison; Boddingtons' Strangeways Brewery closed in 2006. Avecia (biotechnology) is off the A664 in the Hexagon Tower in Blackley
Blackley
near the North Manchester
Manchester
General Hospital. North of the hospital at Crumpsall
Crumpsall
was B3 Cable Solutions, the UK's only former manufacturer of telecommunications cables, based next to the River Irk. Heineken (former Scottish & Newcastle) have their large Royal Brewery in Moss Side
Moss Side
next to the A5103, north of the B5219 junction. Admiral Sportswear
Admiral Sportswear
are in Northenden. British Textile Technology Group is in Didsbury. Timpson is in Wythenshawe; Sharwood's used to make their sauces there until Premier Foods
Premier Foods
moved production to Bury
Bury
St Edmunds in 2008. Duerr's
Duerr's
make honey and jam at the Roundthorn Ind Estate in Wythenshawe, off the A560. Shell UK
Shell UK
(retail) was at Rowlandsway House in Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
until 2011 and has moved to Brabazon House nearby on the Concord Business Park; Royal Dutch Shell, by revenue ($458bn) in 2010, was the world's largest company, with ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
second. Electrium make their Wylex fuse boxes on the B5168 and B5166 in Wythenshawe, north of the Sharston
Sharston
Interchange of the M56; to the west is a plant of the Heimbach Group. PZ Cussons
PZ Cussons
(formerly in Cheadle Heath) is off the Airport Interchange of the M56, with a manufacturing site on the former Agecroft Colliery next to the railway in Pendlebury, Salford, off the A6044. Nearby in Moss Nook is Franke UK, the world's largest manufacturer of domestic sinks and Simon Carves (process engineering), and Renold
Renold
plc is an international chain company based on the B5166, off the Manchester
Manchester
Airport spur of the M56. Amazon have a fulfilment centre off the A538 west of the airport, south of the Hale Four Seasons Roundabout of the M56. N Brown Group
N Brown Group
(JD Williams) is one of Britain's main clothing manufacturers and retailers, and based in central Manchester
Manchester
near the A62/A665 junction and Sir Owen William's Daily Express
Daily Express
Building, and owns well-known brands. Gazprom
Gazprom
Energy is on Quay Street
Quay Street
(A34) towards the River Irwell.

Heinz, although based in Hayes in Middlesex, has the largest food processing complex in Europe at a 55-acre (220,000 m2) site at Kitt Green
Kitt Green
in Wigan, which produces 1.4 billion cans of food each year; it is accessed to the east of the Orrell Interchange of the M6 (A577); the 38-acre Heinz NDC is next door

JJB Sports
JJB Sports
is at Marsh Green near the River Douglas, set up by former footballer Dave Whelan
Dave Whelan
who owns Wigan
Wigan
Athletic F.C.; also in Wigan
Wigan
are The Tote, Shearings Holidays and Girobank, and R&R Ice Cream (former Richmond Foods) make De Roma ice cream. Contitech UK (part of Continental AG) makes industrial belts off the A587 in Bickershaw, between Wigan
Wigan
and Leigh. Bulldog Tools make spades on the A577 in the east of Wigan. Electrium (Volex) make electrical wiring off the A578, north of Westleigh. Ainscough Crane Hire is the UK's largest lifting services company on Bradley Hall Est in Standish, next to the WCML. Off the A580 at the A573 roundabout at Golborne, at Stone Cross Park south of the borough, is Alpla
Alpla
UK (plastic bottles) and Sofology (furniture). Makro
Makro
is in Eccles. Akcros Chemicals are off the A576. Cooper & Stollbrand make premium garments next to the River Irwell on Cambridge Ind Est in Lower Broughton. On the Bolton
Bolton
boundary in north of the borough in Little Hulton, Eaton Transmissions closed in 2006, with production moving to Tczew
Tczew
in Poland. Colgate closed its toothpaste factory in October 2008, on the A5066, and is now called Soapworks, near the former Pomona Docks in Ordsall. Pentair
Pentair
Safety Systems have a main site in Linnyshaw, west of the M61 Worsley Braided Interchange.

Head office of Warburtons
Warburtons
in Bolton
Bolton
in April 2006

Sock Shop
Sock Shop
is in Bolton, and MBDA
MBDA
( Matra
Matra
BAe Dynamics Alenia, owned 37.5% by BAE Systems) makes missiles in Lostock near the Horwich
Horwich
Link Interchange of the M61; it is the historic main manufacturing site of Britain's aircraft-launched missiles; MBDA
MBDA
Lostock is MBDA's largest production site (of the whole company) and makes the air-to-air ASRAAM (found on the Eurofighter) and the air-to-surface active radar homing Brimstone (missile)
Brimstone (missile)
designed by GEC-Marconi in the 1990s, and previously made the Rapier surface-to-air missile, and the De Havilland Firestreak, Britain's first (infrared homing) air-to-air missile. Cash Generator
Cash Generator
is south of the borough off the A575 in Farnworth, north of the Salford boundary; Cosatto (nursery equipment) is on the A575 Moses Gate, in East Farnworth. dabs.com, an e-commerce site owned by BT, is in Wingates
Wingates
(Westhoughton), west of Bolton
Bolton
off the A6 and the Horwich
Horwich
Link Interchange of the M61, next to Krones
Krones
UK (German) on the Wingates
Wingates
Ind Est, which produces machinery for bottling manufacture; nearby is a hologram factory of De La Rue. Benteler UK (carbon steel tubes) is next to the River Croal
River Croal
off the A58 at Tonge Moor next to Astley Bridge in north Bolton
Bolton
and to the south PMT Industries makes paper drying machines. Watson Steel Structures (Severfield, opposite MBDA
MBDA
in Lostock) built steel structures for Olympic Stadium, the Velodrome, the Basketball Arena, the ArcelorMittal Orbit, and the Handball Centre, as well as numerous well-known steel structures around the UK, such as Aspire, and the Clyde Arc. BAE Systems
BAE Systems
built aircraft in Chadderton
Chadderton
and Woodford in Stockport (former Avro) off the A5102 (the eastern half of the airfield is in Cheshire
Cheshire
East); the BAe 146 ( Avro
Avro
RJ) was manufactured at Woodford until 2001. Senior Aerospace BWT at Adlington, Cheshire
Cheshire
off the A523 at the eastern end of Woodford Aerodrome, make air-conditioning systems for business jets. DNV UK (engineering standards), National Tyre Service (at the A5145/A6 junction) and Britain's first internet bank Smile (founded by the Co-op in 1999) are nearby in Stockport. Wienerberger
Wienerberger
UK, the Austrian brick company who own Baggeridge, are based at the Cheadle Royal Business Park at the B5358/A34 junction, as is Umbro, and Agilent Technologies
Agilent Technologies
UK (biomedical equipment), and Chiesi UK (respiratory medicine). DBS Civilian HR (the former Pay and Personnel Agency) is off A555 at Cheadle Hulme. Adidas
Adidas
UK is in Bramhall
Bramhall
Moor, Hazel Grove
Hazel Grove
off the A5143, and further south is NXP Semiconductors UK make MOSFETs; on the opposite side of the railway is MAN Diesel & Turbo, which is next to Stepping Hill Hospital. BASF UK is in Handforth
Handforth
next to the A34/A555 junction on the Cheshire boundary. Thales Underwater Systems (former Ferranti
Ferranti
Thomson Sonar Systems) is in Cheadle Heath. McVitie's
McVitie's
make their Jaffa Cakes, Penguins and chocolate digestives at a factory in South Manchester
Manchester
on the A6.[57] JYSK UK (mattresses) are off the A523 near the A6 junction. Pilkington's Tiles are based on Bredbury
Bredbury
Park Ind Est, near a main factory of Renold
Renold
Chain on the A6017 off the M60 Bredbury Interchange; also in Bredbury
Bredbury
off the A6017 is Janome
Janome
UK (sewing machines). Russell Hobbs
Russell Hobbs
is in the south of the borough at Failsworth
Failsworth
on the A62, west of the M60 Hollinwood Interchange; nearby to the Hollinwood railway station in Oldham, Trinity Mirror
Trinity Mirror
(former Mirror Colour Print before 2006) prints the Mirror and Independent for the north of England, as well as the Manchester
Manchester
Evening News and Liverpool
Liverpool
Echo. Diodes Semiconductors (former Zetex) based off the A669 in Alder Root, Chadderton, is a leader in LED lighting. Money Controls, in Royton
Royton
in the north of the borough, make currency detectors, being owned by Crane Payment Solutions, and Pulse Home Products
Pulse Home Products
(makes Breville, owned by Jarden
Jarden
in Florida) is on the B6195. BAE Chadderton
Chadderton
was next to the M60 and B6393, and a railway, and closed in March 2012; later a repair facility, it built the Lancaster and Vulcan. Mölnlycke Health Care UK on the B6194 in central Oldham
Oldham
make surgical clothing and masks. Shop Direct
Shop Direct
have their Shaw National Distribution Centre. Revolution Bars Group (former Inventive Leisure beore December 2014), who own the Revolution pub chain, are in Ashton-under-Lyne. Kerry Foods at Godley Hill (Hyde) on the A57 make Richmond and Wall's sausages. Robertson's
Robertson's
(now owned by Premier Foods
Premier Foods
since it was bought from Rank Hovis McDougall) moved their marmalade (Golden Shred) and jam processing from Droylsden
Droylsden
to Histon and Impington
Histon and Impington
(Cambridgeshire) in October 2008. Brother Europe (typewriters and sewing machines) are at Hooley Hill on the A6017 next to Guide Bridge railway station, east of the Snipe Interchange of the M60. Outdoor Sports Company owner of Mountain Equipment, Ronhill (running clothing), and Sprayway, are based off the B6468 in Hyde.

Unilever UK Foods
Unilever UK Foods
(Brooke Bond) make PG Tips, launched in 1930, on Trafford
Trafford
Park Road next to a P&G factory, off the A576 Tenax Circle roundabout near Centenary Bridge; Arthur Brooke of Ashton-under-Lyne
Ashton-under-Lyne
started his tea shop in 1869; Unilever
Unilever
bought Pukka Herbs in 2017, and is now the world's largest tea company

Cotton Traders
Cotton Traders
are in Altrincham, and Dulux
Dulux
Decorator Centres is in West Timperley. Britannia Hotels
Britannia Hotels
is on the A538 in Hale near the A5144 junction. LyondellBasell
LyondellBasell
UK (former Basell Polyolefins), makes polypropylene resin at Carrington Works, off the A6144 (former motorway) in Carrington, off the Carrington Interchange of the M60, which was set up to exploit the British-invented Catarole process, later bought by Shell in 1955. Ethel Austin
Ethel Austin
is in Altrincham
Altrincham
(formerly Knowsley until 2010). Virtalis (virtual reality) is off the B5397 near Dane Road Metrolink station
Dane Road Metrolink station
in Sale. S2Blue, a radio jingles company run by Steve England, is off the A6144 near the B5165 junction, in Ashton upon Mersey
Ashton upon Mersey
in the former studios of Alfasound (having moved from Leek in 2013). HomeForm Group, owner of Möben Kitchens, Sharps Bedrooms and Dolphin Bathrooms until 2011, was on the A56 in Old Trafford. Itron
Itron
UK (flow metering) have a plant at the A56/A5014 junction at Gorse Hillin Stretford; further along the A5014 there is Kelloggs
Kelloggs
UK HQ next to the Old Trafford
Trafford
cricket ground. Regatta and Craghoppers are on Barton Dock Road (B5211), near the Trafford
Trafford
Centre (the base of The Peel Group), on the other side of the A5081. Holt Lloyd, known as Holts, the largest car care company in the world in the 1980s, now owned by Honeywell Consumer Products Group, is based on Barton Dock Road (B5211), at Merlin Park on the south of Trafford Park, off the M60 Lostock Circle. On Trafford
Trafford
Park near the A576 Centenary Bridge SCA makes household tissue products (owned by P&G before 2007), and next door is P&G's Manchester
Manchester
Plant which makes its Pampers
Pampers
nappies. The Fragrance Shop is based near Trafford
Trafford
Ecology Park, on Trafford
Trafford
Park. Soreen is made south of Trafford
Trafford
Park, next to the Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
off the A5081 Parkway Circle roundabout; next door UK Data Capture (Lockheed Martin) processed all the 2011 Census data.

Kelloggs
Kelloggs
in Manchester, looking north along the A5181 next to GMFRS's Stretford
Stretford
Area Command HQ; the site is the largest producer of cereals in Europe

Kelloggs
Kelloggs
is in Trafford
Trafford
Park (Manchester); to the north Adidas
Adidas
have their European distribution centre, and nearby TDG was on the industrial estate, until bought by Norbert Dentressangle
Norbert Dentressangle
in 2011. DHL Freight UK is at Manchester
Manchester
International Freight Terminal, west of the Old Trafford
Trafford
football ground. Chemtura
Chemtura
(chemicals, former site of Ciba-Geigy) is between the A576 and B5214 towards the north end of the industrial park. Lucchini UK (railway wheelsets and axles) are on Trafford
Trafford
Park off the B5214, and are a main supplier for UK trains. Ocean Finance is on Trafford
Trafford
Park (previously in Tamworth). Hot Animation, who made Bob the Builder, are on Hanover Business Park in the east of Altrincham, in Broadheath; to the south towards the Bridgewater Canal, across a former railway, on the Altrincham
Altrincham
Ind Est, Girlguiding
Girlguiding
UK run their trading service.

JD Sports
JD Sports
(in Belfast), the largest company in Bury

JD Sports
JD Sports
is west of the Pilsworth Interchange of the M66 in Hollins south of Bury; Birthdays is west of the Heap Bridge Interchange; Tetrosyl Group Ltd, UK maker of car care products are at Walmersley, off the A56 and also at junction 2 (A58) of the M66. At A6053/A56 junction in Redvales, to the south of Bury
Bury
is Melba Swintex, a main supplier of street furniture—traffic cones and barriers, claiming to be a world leader. Milliken make airbags on the A58, south-west of Bury. PTG (Holroyd Machine Tools) are based off the M62 Milnrow
Milnrow
Interchange; nearby off the A6193 are Takeuchi Manufacturing
Takeuchi Manufacturing
UK (construction equipment). Premier Foods
Premier Foods
make Sarson's
Sarson's
on the A669 near Mills Hill railway station in Middleton; on the opposite side of the railway Vita Group make polyurethane foam (Vitafoam, the largest supplier in the UK). Voith Paper have a servicing centre on the A576, west of Middleton town centre. The Co-op is based in Manchester
Manchester
and Rochdale. Minky Homecare (household cleaning) and Freudenberg Household Products UK is in the centre of Rochdale
Rochdale
off the A671. Zen Internet is at Sandbrook House on Sandbrook Park at end of the A627(M) off the A664 in Stoneyfield in the south of Rochdale, and next door is the HQ of The Co-operative Pharmacy. We Buy Any Car
We Buy Any Car
is at Castleton near the A664, in the south-west of Rochdale, the same site of Carcraft. Guenther Bakeries (owned by Golden West, part of RHM, until 2005) in the south of Heywood, east of the large Heywood Distribution Park, makes the bread buns for McDonald's
McDonald's
(with another site in Banbury). Merseyside[edit] Main article: Merseyside
Merseyside
§ Economy See also: Economy of Liverpool

The 1938 Littlewood's Building next to Wavertree Technology Park, on Edge Lane, looking east from Liverpool
Liverpool
Cathedral

Pilkington
Pilkington
is in St. Helens; Knauf Insulation UK, is south-west of the town centre. Alumasc Exterior Building Products is on B5204 near St Helens Junction railway station in Sutton. Kalzip, a division of Tata Steel Europe, make aluminium roofs in Haydock; GCE Group UK, who make medical gas controllers and diving regulators, are on the A599 near the M6 Haydock
Haydock
Island; to the north-west is a large Sainsbury's RDC; further up the A49 before Ashton-in-Makerfield
Ashton-in-Makerfield
and Byrchall High School is Speedy Hire, the biggest hire firm in the UK. Vimto
Vimto
is owned by Nichols plc of Newton-le-Willows, although actually made by Cott Beverages in north Leicestershire. Littlewoods
Littlewoods
are in Garston, who are owned by the Shop Direct Group
Shop Direct Group
in Speke. Princes, Johnsons Cleaners UK, Maersk Line UK, the Beetham Organization, John West Foods, Bibby Line, Home Bargains, the Royal Liver Assurance and T J Hughes
T J Hughes
have their headquarters in Liverpool. Towards Aintree, Jacob's
Jacob's
and their crackers are historically based, and also make Twiglets at their site at Hartley's Village in Fazakerley, and nearby is Sportech PLC, owner of the football pools; Trigon Snacks make Big D (peanuts) in Aintree, and have done since the 1970s on the Greylaw Ind Est off the B5187, near the Archbishop Beck Catholic
Catholic
Sports College. HMRC's (former Inland Revenue) National Insolvency Unit is at Regian House (previously at Queen's Dock) opposite Liverpool
Liverpool
James Street railway station and next to Liverpool's Armed Forces Careers Office. The Criminal Records Bureau is on Prince's Dock, since 2013 part of the new Disclosure and Barring Service (with the former ISA in Darlington). The Defence Bills Agency was at Mersey House next to St James railway station, now part of DBS Finance. Tangerine Confectionery
Tangerine Confectionery
makes its Princess marshmallows off Edge Lane (A5047) in east Liverpool, west of Wavertree Technology Park. Home Bargains are off the A580 west of junction 4 of the M57, on the Knowsley boundary at Stonebridge Park. JF Renshaw (Renshaw Napier), who have a Royal warrant, make cake icing on the A562 next to the Liverpool
Liverpool
Women's Hospital in Edge Hill; 90% of the UK's marzipan comes from this factory. At Speke
Speke
on the A561, west of the JLR plant, partly in Knowsley, Novartis
Novartis
make vaccines such as Fluvirin, and directly to the south MedImmune
MedImmune
(owned by AstraZeneca) makes components of influenza vaccine (FluMist); Briggs Automotive Company is on Speke
Speke
Hall Ind Est, with HP Chemie Pelzer UK (automobile acoustics). At Hunts Cross
Hunts Cross
on the northern side of the railway line, the large Eli Lilly Speke
Speke
Operations manufacturing plant produces antibiotics such as Capreomycin, and in 1981 produced the world's first biosynthetic product, by manufacturing biologic insulin, and has also produced biosynthetic human growth hormone since 1985; the plant was owned by The Distillers Company
The Distillers Company
after the war until 1962, where it made penicillin and later made thalidomide. Near the A561/A562 junction, the NWDA-funded National Biomanufacturing Centre was built in 2006. On the south side of the A561 in Speke
Speke
is Estuary Commerce Park. Further to south is Prinovis UK and B & M (previously in Blackpool) on the Liverpool
Liverpool
International Business Park; on the former Speke
Speke
Aerodrome is Shop Direct
Shop Direct
near the National Biomanufacturing Centre.

Cereal Partners UK (Nestlé) make Cheerios
Cheerios
and Golden Nuggets on the A41 opposite Port Sunlight
Port Sunlight
at Bromborough, also the base of CSM UK, the baking ingredients company based at a former Unilever
Unilever
Stork margarine site.

Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover
has 166 acres of its main production site (formerly owned by Ford) in Halewood, making the Freelander and Range Rover Evoque. Getrag Ford Transmissions, make 400,000 automatic and manual transmissions next door to the east of JLR's Halewood
Halewood
plant, for Ford, Volvo and Mazda vehicles. Magna Decoma, west of JLR Halewood
Halewood
and east of Novartis, make car interiors and exteriors. Dairy Crest
Dairy Crest
makes Vitalite and Utterly Butterly
Utterly Butterly
on the A5207 in Kirkby, off the M57 Randles Farm Interchange, opposite a former site of Ethel Austin; to the east of Dairy Crest
Dairy Crest
is Yorkshire Copper Tube, Britain's main manufacturer of copper tubing, owned by Italian KME Group; Counterline make foodservice counters on Knowsley Business Park; Clarke Energy
Clarke Energy
is on the A5208. Further north on the estate next to the A5208 is QVC UK's distribution centre, with all three in Kirkby. Further north, next to the Lancashire
Lancashire
boundary is Goodrich Actuation Systems on the Huyton
Huyton
Ind Est (in former Huyton
Huyton
Quarry) on the north-west side of the M62 Tarbock Island
Tarbock Island
M62 (off the A5080) in Tarbock. Next door Halewood International, who make Lambrini, Red Square, Lamb's Navy Rum and some alcopops, are in Whitefield Lane End, in the south of Huyton
Huyton
at the M62/M57 junction. Belling Ltd (owned by Glen Dimplex) is in Whiston, next to the large Whiston Hospital; Glen Dimplex
Glen Dimplex
Whiston is the UK's only manufacturer of cookers, around 350,000 a year (Stoves plc before 2001), and also owns LEC fridges. Manesty manufactures medicine tablets off the B5194 on the Knowsley Business Park. Nationwide fashion retailer Matalan
Matalan
has its head office and main distribution centre in the north of the Knowsley Ind Est (at Skelmersdale
Skelmersdale
until 2014); the Knowsley Ind Estate is all on the former ROF Kirkby. Camelot Group
Camelot Group
have their Liverpool
Liverpool
Prize Payout Centre on the Kings Business Park on the A57, west of the M57 Forest House Interchange.

Unilever
Unilever
Research Laboratory at Port Sunlight
Port Sunlight
(Bebington) looking west, next to the Wirral Line

Typhoo
Typhoo
tea is made in Moreton off the A551 next to Moreton railway station, and on the same site there is Manor Bakeries (Premier Foods, former Lyons Cakes, before April 1995) who make mini rolls, and a factory of Burton's Biscuit Company closed in December 2011 which made Cadbury's biscuits (Cadbury Fingers) and Wagon Wheels, where they still have a chocolate refinery. Bristol-Myers Squibb
Bristol-Myers Squibb
UK have their main research laboratories east of the Moreton bakery, near Leasowe railway station. CML Group (part of Teledyne) makes composites and aircraft components off the A41 at Bromborough
Bromborough
near Eastham Country Park; to the south is Einhell
Einhell
UK (power tools). Stiebel Eltron UK (heat pumps) nearby, are near Meyer Prestige who make cookware (who also own Circulon and Anolon) and Givaudan UK have a fragrances factory. FMC Lithium, east of the A41 at Wirral International Business Park, makes butyllithium and other organometallic compounds. At Port Sunlight, Unilever
Unilever
make and research detergents and shampoo, such as Timotei
Timotei
and Sunsilk, as well as Comfort and Persil
Persil
Liquid. Cammell Laird at Birkenhead
Birkenhead
build ships, including two Polaris Resolution-class submarines in the 1960s; on Twelve Quays
Twelve Quays
off the A554 is Faiveley Transport
Faiveley Transport
UK (railway electrical components). RFD Beaufort (known as Beaufort Air-Sea Equipment in the 1980s) make G-suits for fighter aircraft and liferafts. Eastham Refinery off junction 6 of the M53, at Eastham in Wirral, just north of Hooton Park (in Cheshire), is owned by Nynas.

Former head office of the Girobank
Girobank
in Bootle; it closed in 2003; it was taken over by Alliance & Leicester in 1990; it was established in Bootle
Bootle
in the late 1960s with help from Hugh Baird; it was the first financial institution in Europe to be fully computerised from the start

Pontins
Pontins
is in Ainsdale, Sefton. HMRC at St John's House on the A5057 in Bootle, is the national office for dealing with tax for Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs) and other savings schemes, charities (Gift Aid), non-resident trusts, and domicile status; opposite is Sefton Council's Magdalen House. Nearby to the west on the A5057, the HSE and Office for Nuclear Regulation have their head office at Redgrave Court, near the main site of Hugh Baird College. The Inland Revenue had its main office at The Triad in Bootle, next to the Strand Shopping Centre, and the site is still run by HMRC. Unipart
Unipart
Dorman make LED traffic lights near Meols Cop railway station
Meols Cop railway station
in Blowick, east of Southport; to the north at Crossens, Railex make filing cabinets. Cumbria[edit] Main article: Cumbria
Cumbria
§ Economy Royal Navy
Royal Navy
submarines and ships are made by BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness. The coast of Cumbria
Cumbria
is known as Britain's Energy Coast due to the large amounts of energy being produced along the coast of the county; Sellafield
Sellafield
is a power station which is located in West Cumbria
Cumbria
and is a major contributor to the "Energy Coast" also, Barrow-in- Furness
Furness
is major town in contributing to the "Energy Coast" with a power station (Roosecote Power Station), Gas Terminals (Rampside Gas Terminal) and an offshore wind farm (Walney Wind Farm) which is approximately 14 km (8.6 miles) west of the town's coastline with some of the largest wind turbines on Earth. On the Westlakes Science & Technology Park off the A595 south of Whitehaven, is the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
(in Herdus House). The British Cattle Movement Service
British Cattle Movement Service
is at Workington
Workington
next to Tata Steel Projects, near a site of the National Nuclear Laboratory on Derwent Howe Ind Est. Iggesund Paperboard
Iggesund Paperboard
is south of Workington, off the A596; next door is Eastman Chemical. Amcor
Amcor
Flexibles Cumbria (former Alcan before 2009) in the south of Workington
Workington
prints crisp packets and confectionery wrappers, for distribution around the UK's factories. The Lake District
Lake District
is popular with holiday makers. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is near Whitehaven. Lakeland, who make kitchenware, are in Windermere. Stobart Group
Stobart Group
is in Carlisle. M-Sport, the rally team at Dovenby Hall, and Jennings Brewery
Jennings Brewery
are in Cockermouth. James Cropper, Europe's leading manufacturer of coloured paper, is in Burneside, north of Kendal, on the River Kent
River Kent
near the A591. Pirelli have their main UK tyre plant (for prestige cars) on the B5299 in south Carlisle; to the south in Cummersdale
Cummersdale
next to the River Caldew, Stead McAlpin have a large textile site, formerly owned by John Lewis. BSW Timber, the UK's largest sawmilling company, has a large site north of Carlisle at Cargo in Kingmoor, next to Carlisle Kingmoor
Kingmoor
TMD on the WCML. BillerudKorsnäs
BillerudKorsnäs
had a paper mill at Beetham on the A6 next to the River Bela
River Bela
in the south of the county. Sealy UK make beds and mattresses on the B5031 next to Aspatria railway station in north Cumbria, west of Carlisle; next door First Milk make Lake District Cheddar. Further east along the A596, Innovia Films (former British Rayophane) have a large site at Wigton. GSK Ulverston, built in 1949 as Glaxo to produce penicillin with a new plant to be built, makes cephalosporin antibiotics including cefuroxime and ceftazidime. Oxley Developments (electronics) are at Ulverston
Ulverston
near Conishead Priory. Education[edit] Main article: Lists of schools in England
England
§ North West of England Secondary education[edit] Secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, but Trafford
Trafford
retains a wholly selective school system, and there are some other grammar schools in Lancashire, Wirral, Liverpool
Liverpool
and Cumbria. There are around 345,000 at secondary school in the region, the third highest in England, after South East England
England
and Greater London. This is around three times as much as there are in North East England. For school truancy the most number of persistent truants are in Manchester with a rate of 7.3%, followed by Knowsley with 6.9%, and Blackpool with 6.6%. The lowest truancy rate is in South Ribble
South Ribble
with 2.4% followed by Ribble Valley
Ribble Valley
with 2.9% (both in Lancashire). At A level in 2010, Trafford
Trafford
performed the best and, again like its results at GCSE, is one of the best areas in England. The lowest performing area is, again, Knowsley but followed by Rochdale. Knowsley has had some dreadful results at A-level; Halewood
Halewood
Academy, its last school sixth-form, closed in 2016; there is now no school-based A-level provision in Knowsley, it is provided by the Knowsley Community College. For traditional counties, Lancashire
Lancashire
gets excellent results at A-level, being one of the best in England. Areas also performing above the England
England
average, in order of results, are Blackpool, Warrington, Wigan, Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, Bury, Cumbria, Wirral, and Stockport. Blackpool
Blackpool
performs not particularly well at GCSE, yet produces much better results at A level – even better than Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, and the third best in the region.[citation needed]

Winstanley College

Clitheroe
Clitheroe
Royal Grammar School

Sir John Deane's College

Top ten state schools in the North West (2015 A level results)

Altrincham
Altrincham
Grammar School for Girls (1223) Altrincham
Altrincham
Grammar School for Boys The Blue Coat School, Liverpool Lancaster Girls' Grammar School The Bluecoat CofE School, Oldham Wirral Grammar School for Girls Wirral Grammar School for Boys Loreto Grammar School, Altrincham West Kirby Grammar School Clitheroe
Clitheroe
Royal Grammar School[citation needed]

The areas that have school children most likely to attend university are Trafford
Trafford
and Cheshire, followed by Wirral, Sefton, Stockport
Stockport
and Bury. Four of these areas are or were part of Cheshire.[citation needed] Colleges[edit]

Carmel College

Blackburn
Blackburn
College

Trafford
Trafford
College

Manchester
Manchester
City College, Didsbury

Aquinas College, Stockport Ashton Sixth Form College, Ashton-under-Lyne Barrow-in- Furness
Furness
Sixth Form College, Barrow-in-Furness Blackburn
Blackburn
College, Blackburn Blackpool
Blackpool
and The Fylde
The Fylde
College, Blackpool Blackpool
Blackpool
Sixth Form College, Blackpool Bolton
Bolton
College, Bolton Bolton
Bolton
Sixth Form College, Bolton Burnley
Burnley
College, Burnley Bury
Bury
College, Bury Carmel College, St Helens Cheadle and Marple Sixth Form College, Cheadle Furness
Furness
College, Barrow-in-Furness Holy Cross College (UK), Bury Hopwood Hall College, Rochdale Hugh Baird College, Bootle Kendal
Kendal
College, Kendal King George V College, Southport Lancaster and Morecambe
Morecambe
College, Lancaster Liverpool
Liverpool
Community College, Liverpool Loreto College, Manchester Macclesfield
Macclesfield
College, Macclesfield The Manchester
Manchester
College, Manchester Mid Cheshire
Cheshire
College, Northwich The Oldham
Oldham
College, Oldham Oldham
Oldham
Sixth Form College, Oldham Preston College, Preston Priestley College, Warrington Rainford College, St Helens Runshaw College, Leyland Salford City College, Salford South Cheshire
Cheshire
College, Crewe Southport
Southport
College, Southport Sir John Deane's College, Northwich Stockport
Stockport
College, Stockport St Helens College, St Helens St John Rigby College, Wigan St. Mary's 6th form College, Blackburn St. Wilfrids C of E Sixth Form College, Blackburn Thomas Whitham Sixth Form, Burnley Trafford
Trafford
College, Trafford West Cheshire
Cheshire
College Ellesmere Port Wigan
Wigan
and Leigh College, Wigan Winstanley College, Wigan Xaverian College, Manchester

The two main higher education colleges in the region are Blackburn College and Blackpool
Blackpool
and The Fylde
The Fylde
College. There are forty three FE colleges. The regional LSC was in central Manchester; this is now the SFA and the YPLA. Universities[edit]

Manchester
Manchester
Metropolitan University's Hollings Campus – the Toast Rack

The universities in the North West are listed below:

University of Manchester, Manchester
Manchester
– The largest single-site University in the UK with 36,907 students Manchester
Manchester
Metropolitan University, Manchester
Manchester
– Also one of the country's largest universities with 40,420 students – second largest university in the region UCLAN, Preston – The University of Central Lancashire
Lancashire
in Preston, 28,850 students – third largest university in the region Liverpool
Liverpool
John Moores University, Liverpool
Liverpool
– 24,085 students University of Liverpool, Liverpool
Liverpool
– 20,765 students University of Salford, Salford – 20,185 students Lancaster University, Lancaster – 17,415 students The University of Law, Chester, Manchester Edge Hill University, Ormskirk
Ormskirk
– 15,645 students University of Chester, Chester
Chester
and Warrington
Warrington
– 15,095 students University of Bolton, Bolton
Bolton
– 8,540 students Liverpool
Liverpool
Hope University, Liverpool
Liverpool
– 8,205 students University of Cumbria
Cumbria
– The region's newest university located across Cumbria, parts of Lancashire
Lancashire
and London, and formerly known as the Cumbria
Cumbria
Institute of the Arts

Over 60% of university students in the region are native to the region. The region with the next-highest number of students in the North-West is Yorkshire and the Humber, so approximately 80% of university students in the area are from the north of England. The region's students have the highest proportion of students from so-called low-participation neighbourhoods.[citation needed] Local media[edit]

ITV Granada
ITV Granada
former studios in Castlefield, Manchester

TV

Regional news programmes for the Isle of Man, North West England
England
and south of Cumbria
Cumbria
– North West Tonight (BBC North West) and Granada Reports (ITV Granada), both based in Salford Quays
Salford Quays
since Autumn 2011 and Spring 2013 respectively. Regional news programmes for the north of Cumbria
Cumbria
– Look North (BBC North East and Cumbria) based in Newcastle and Lookaround
Lookaround
(ITV Tyne Tees & Border) based in Gateshead. Regional news programmes for the West Craven area of Lancashire, historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire
West Riding of Yorkshire
– Look North and ITV News Calendar both based in Leeds. Both are broadcast from the Skipton transmitter which is part of the Emley Moor
Emley Moor
transmitter group.

N.B. Digital TV comes from Winter Hill for the south of the region, and Caldbeck for Cumbria. Digital switchover took place in mid-2009 for Cumbria
Cumbria
and late-2009 for the south of the region.

Radio

BBC Radios Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire
Lancashire
and Cumbria. National radio comes from Holme Moss
Holme Moss
(for Merseyside, Greater Manchester, and Cheshire) and Sandale for Cumbria. There is a main MW transmitter for the region (and England), over the border in Kirklees, at Moorside Edge. Several commercial radio stations including: Real (former 105.4 Century FM – Salford), Rock FM (Preston), Radio City (Liverpool), Capital (former Galaxy Manchester), Key 103
Key 103
(Castlefield), Juice FM (Liverpool), The Bay (Lancaster, Barrow-in-Furness, Morecambe
Morecambe
and other surrounding areas), CFM (Carlisle), Lakeland Radio (Kendal), XFM (Salford), Wire FM
Wire FM
in Warrington, The Revolution (Oldham), Imagine FM (Stockport), Central Radio (former Proud FM – Preston), Heart, Tower FM (Bolton), RadioWave 96.5
RadioWave 96.5
(Blackpool), Dune FM (Southport), Wish FM ( Wigan
Wigan
and St Helens), 2BR
2BR
( Burnley
Burnley
and Pendle), The Bee (Blackburn) and Dee 106.3 (Chester).

The UK's Time signal comes from Anthorn Radio Station
Anthorn Radio Station
on the north-west Cumbrian coast, where there are three atomic clocks.

MediaCityUK
MediaCityUK
being built at Salford Quays

Newspapers

Blackpool
Blackpool
Gazette, Blackpool Bolton
Bolton
News, Bolton Bury
Bury
Times, Bury Chester
Chester
Evening Leader, Chester Lancashire
Lancashire
Evening Post, Preston Lancashire
Lancashire
Telegraph, Blackburn Liverpool
Liverpool
Daily Post, Liverpool Liverpool
Liverpool
Echo, Liverpool Manchester
Manchester
Evening News, Manchester News and Star, Carlisle North-West Evening Mail, Barrow-in-Furness Oldham
Oldham
Evening Chronicle, Oldham Southport
Southport
Visiter, Southport The Reporter,[58] St Helens The Star,[59] St Helens Westmorland Gazette, Kendal Wigan
Wigan
Evening Post, Wigan

See also: List of newspapers in the United Kingdom

1939 Sir Owen Williams Daily Express
Daily Express
Building, Manchester

Guardian Media Group have a printing site at Trafford
Trafford
Park Printers off the A5081 (M60 junction 9) between the Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
and the A576 roundabout which prints the Guardian (it is owned 50% with the Telegraph and 50% by Guardian Print Centre); it printed the Telegraph until 2008, and is known also as GPC Manchester. From 2008, the Telegraph has been printed at the Newsprinters huge site at Knowsley. Newsprinters have a site near Dairy Crest
Dairy Crest
at Knowsley, and prints the Times, Telegraph and Sun titles, near the B5202. Broughton Printers, owned by Northern & Shell, print the Express and Star at Fulwood on the B6241 south of the M55/M6 junction, on the same site as the Lancashire
Lancashire
Evening Post.

Magazines

Prinovis in Liverpool
Liverpool
(Speke) prints OK!, the Sun on Sunday magazine (Fabulous), and the Sunday Times magazine. Town and city twinnings[edit]

Ashton-under-Lyne Chaumont, France

Blackburn Altena, Germany Péronne, France

Blackpool Bottrop, Germany

Bolton Le Mans, France Paderborn, Germany

Burnley Vitry Sur Seine, France

Bury Angoulême, France Datong, China Tulle, France Schorndorf, Germany Woodbury, New Jersey, US

Carlisle Flensburg, Germany Słupsk, Poland

Carnforth Sailly-sur-la-Lys, France

Chadderton Geesthacht, Germany

Chester Sens, France Lörrach, Germany Senigallia, Italy

Chorley Székesfehérvár, Hungary

Dalton-in-Furness Dalton, Pennsylvania, US

Denton Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France

Droylsden Villemomble, France

Dukinfield Champagnole, France

Ellesmere Port Reutlingen, Germany

Failsworth Landsberg am Lech, Germany

Fleetwood Fleetwood, Pennsylvania, US

Halton Leiria, Portugal Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Germany Tongling, China Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic

Heywood Peine, Germany

Kendal Killarney, Ireland Rinteln, Germany

Knowsley Moers, Germany

Lancaster Aalborg, Denmark Rendsburg, Germany

Liverpool Cologne, Germany Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Dublin, Ireland Odessa, Ukraine Shanghai, China

Longdendale Ruppichteroth, Germany

Manchester Amsterdam, Netherlands Chemnitz, Germany Córdoba, Spain Faisalabad, Pakistan Los Angeles, California, US Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua Rehovot, Israel Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Russia Wuhan, China

Mossley Hem, France

Oldham Kranj, Slovenia

Oswaldtwistle Falkenberg, Sweden

Preston Almelo, Netherlands Kalisz, Poland Nîmes, France Recklinghausen, Germany

Rochdale Bielefeld, Germany Lviv, Ukraine Sahiwal, Pakistan Tourcoing, France

Salford Clermont-Ferrand, France Lunen, Germany Narbonne, France Saint-Ouen, France

Sedbergh Zreĉe, Slovenia

Sefton Gdańsk, Poland Mons, Belgium Fort Lauderdale, US

Stalybridge Armentières, France

Stockport Béziers, France Heilbronn, Germany

St. Helens Stuttgart, Germany Chalon-sur-Saône, France

Tameside Bengbu, China Mutare, Zimbabwe

Ulverston Albert, France

Warrington Hilden, Germany Lake County, Illinois, US Náchod, Czech Republic

Whitehaven Kozloduy, Bulgaria

Wigan Angers, France

Workington Selm, Germany Val-de-Reuil, France

Wrea Green St Bris le Vineux, France

Sport[edit] The modern dart board was invented in 1896 by Lancashire
Lancashire
carpenter Brian Gamlin from Bury, aged 44. Oulton Park, in central Cheshire, is the home of the British Touring Car Championship
British Touring Car Championship
in June. The International Netball Federation
International Netball Federation
is situated in Manchester, home to the National Squash Centre
National Squash Centre
and the National Cycling Centre
National Cycling Centre
(Manchester Velodrome and British Cycling) at Sportcity. The first greyhound racing in the UK was in July 1926 in Manchester
Manchester
at the purpose-built oval Belle Vue Stadium. The National Football Museum
National Football Museum
is in Manchester. Football[edit] Here is a list of the Premier League
Premier League
and Football League
Football League
teams in the North West. Teams from the north-west have won more than half of all Football League
Football League
(before 1992) and Premier League
Premier League
seasons with Manchester
Manchester
United having won more than any other team. Premier League
Premier League
teams[edit]

Burnley
Burnley
F.C (Burnley, Lancashire) Everton F.C.
Everton F.C.
(Liverpool, Merseyside) Liverpool
Liverpool
F.C. (Liverpool, Merseyside) Manchester
Manchester
City F.C. (Bradford with Beswick, Manchester, Greater Manchester) Manchester
Manchester
United F.C. (Old Trafford, Stretford, Greater Manchester)

Championship teams[edit]

Bolton
Bolton
Wanderers (Horwich, Bolton, Greater Manchester) Preston North End F.C.
Preston North End F.C.
(Preston, Lancashire)

League One teams[edit]

Blackburn
Blackburn
Rovers F.C. (Blackburn, Lancashire) Blackpool
Blackpool
F.C. (Blackpool, Lancashire) Rochdale
Rochdale
A.F.C. (Rochdale, Greater Manchester) Fleetwood
Fleetwood
Town F.C. (Fleetwood, Lancashire) Oldham
Oldham
Athletic A.F.C. (Oldham, Greater Manchester) Crewe
Crewe
Alexandra F.C. (Crewe, Cheshire) Bury
Bury
F.C. (Bury, Greater Manchester) Wigan
Wigan
Athletic F.C. (Wigan, Greater Manchester)

League Two teams[edit]

Morecambe
Morecambe
F.C. (Morecambe, Lancashire) Accrington
Accrington
Stanley F.C. (Accrington, Lancashire) Carlisle United F.C.
Carlisle United F.C.
(Carlisle, Cumbria)

There are 18 Premier League
Premier League
and Football League
Football League
teams in the North West as of the 2015–16 season with: 7 from Greater Manchester
Manchester
(38%) 7 from Lancashire
Lancashire
(38%) 2 from Merseyside
Merseyside
(11%) 1 from Cheshire
Cheshire
(6%) 1 from Cumbria
Cumbria
(6%) Teams in the North West have won 58 out of 116 English football League titles (50%), more than any other region. Golf[edit] Royal Birkdale Golf Club
Royal Birkdale Golf Club
is at Southport
Southport
and there is the Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club. Rugby League[edit] A popular trophy for rugby league teams in the north-west is the Challenge Cup. Super League and National League teams in the North West ranked on their 2012 league position:

1) Wigan
Wigan
Warriors- Super League (1st) 2) Warrington
Warrington
Wolves- Super League (2nd) 3) St. Helens- Super League (3rd) 4) Salford City Reds- Super League (11th) 5) Widnes
Widnes
Vikings- Super League (14th) 6) Leigh Centurions- Co-operative Championship (2nd) 7) Swinton Lions- Co-operative Championship (8th) 8) Barrow Raiders- Co-operative Championship 1 (2nd) 9) Workington
Workington
Town- Co-operative Championship 1 (3rd) 10) Whitehaven- Co-operative Championship 1 (4th) 11) Rochdale
Rochdale
Hornets- Co-operative Championship 1 (5th) 12) Oldham
Oldham
Roughyeds- Co-operative Championship 1 (6th)

Swimming[edit] British Swimming
British Swimming
have one of its three Intensive Training Centres at the Grand Central Pools in Stockport. Weather[edit] The North West is generally regarded as having the most average weather in the UK. Temperatures are generally close to the national average. Cumbria
Cumbria
usually experiences the most severe weather, with high precipitation in the mountainous regions of the Lake District
Lake District
and Pennines. In winter, the most severe weather occurs in the more exposed and elevated areas of the North West, once again this is mainly the Lake District
Lake District
and Pennine areas. Parts of the North West experienced a White Christmas in 2009, and again in 2010, where sleet and snow fell on 25 December. The A635
A635
was closed for almost a month in January 2010 due to high amounts of snowfall.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal England
England
portal North West England
England
portal

Outline of England Cumbric
Cumbric
language Envirolink Northwest List of schools in the North West of England Northwest Development Agency

References[edit]

^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for England
England
and Wales, March 2011" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ "Office for National Statistics". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ Manchester ^ Blackpool ^ Bartlett, David (17 July 2012). "Census data shows 5.5% increase in Liverpool's population, which is now 466,400".  ^ "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  ^ Collinson, Dawn (28 February 2015). "St David's Day: why are Liverpool's Welsh links so strong?".  ^ http://www.ashtoninmakerfieldanddistrictu3a.co.uk/About%20Ashton-in-Makerfield.html ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/census-2001-key-statistics/urban-areas-in-england-and-wales/urban-areas-in-england-and-wales-ks06--ethnic-group.xls ^ Green, David (29 November 2003). "Italians revolt over church closure". BBC News.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics: Manchester, Office for national Statistics, 18 November 2004. ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, 60 most common countries of birth, January 2008 to December 2008". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2009.  ^ "The Catholic
Catholic
Vote In Britain Helped Carry Blair To Victory". Ipsos MORI. 23 May 2005. Retrieved 16 October 2011. There are considerable regional variations, of course, Catholics being most widespread in London, Scotland
Scotland
and particularly the North-West (where one in five is Catholic)  ^ Cheney, David M. "Great Britain, Statistics by Diocese, by Catholic Population [Catholic-Hierarchy]".  ^ Kevin Phillips, The Cousins' Wars (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 480–84. Phillips notes: "The subjugation [of the Irish] of the seventeenth century was almost complete.... During the first quarter of the eighteenth century [after the Treaty of Union], Catholic bishops were banned and priests required to register. Catholics lost their right to vote, hold office, own a gun or a horse worth more than 5 pounds, or live in towns without paying special fees... Once again the Irish were pushed west to poorer lands, an exodus that prefigured the disposition of the American Indians over the next two centuries." ^ "LSOA data 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "2007 deprivation data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ Claimant count[dead link] ^ NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics), by regional level, version 2013 accessed 11 March 2016 ^ NUTS: North West (England) Directory, Office for National Statistics, accessed 11 March 2016 ^ a b c d e f g "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. p. 119. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ "Shrinking cities and growing regions – emerging trends of new rural-urban relationships in the UK and Germany
Germany
( Manchester
Manchester
eScholar – The University of Manchester)". Escholar.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "World Gazetteer: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
- largest cities (per geographical en…". Archived from the original on 5 January 2013.  ^ Martin Wainwright (23 October 2006). "Seeking peace and quiet? Here's where to find it UK news". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Regional Transport Strategy: the National Picture". Government Office for Yorkshire and The Humber. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ "The LTP Process". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Blackburn with Darwen
Blackburn with Darwen
2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Blackburn with Darwen
Darwen
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Blackpool
Blackpool
2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Blackpool
Blackpool
Council. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Cumbria
Cumbria
2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ "Greater Manchester2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Greater Manchester LTP. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ "Halton 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Halton Borough Council. Archived from the original on 14 June 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Lancashire
Lancashire
2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Merseyside
Merseyside
2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Merseyside
Merseyside
LTP. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Warrington
Warrington
2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Warrington
Warrington
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council Home Page". Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  ^ "Final strategy report – Area 9, M6 (Jct 11a to Jct 20)". Route Management Strategy. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.  ^ "Road Traffic Statistics 2006". Department for Transport. Archived from the original (XLS) on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2007.  ^ "A590 High and Low Newton Bypass". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.  ^ "Road Policing". Cheshire
Cheshire
Police Web Site. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.  ^ a b c "CAA 2007 Annual Airport Statistics". Caa.co.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "London and Manchester
Manchester
lead UK business survey". Cushman & Wakefield web pages. Cushman & Wakefield. 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 27 November 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2008.  ^ "Living in the North West". AstraZeneca. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.  ^ "The aerospace industry". Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council - Office of the chief executive. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ "BAE Systems' annual sales fall by 14%". BBC News. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ "Where in the world? Barnoldswick". Rolls-Royce. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ " Pendle
Pendle
aero firm Weston EU sold for £54m". Lancashire
Lancashire
Telegraph. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ a b c d e f "East Lancashire's biggest firms plan to recruit staff in 2011". Lancashire
Lancashire
Telegraph. 9 January 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ "Aircelle Ltd. wins the "Business of the Year" recognition in Lancashire, England". Aircelle. 18 November 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ "40 new jobs are just what the Dr ordered". Leyland Guardian. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2012.  ^ Henley, Jon (21 June 2011). "How good is Dr Oetker's pizza?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2012.  ^ " Lancashire
Lancashire
Telegraph Business Awards: Export winner Fort Vale Engineering". Lancashire
Lancashire
Telegraph. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ "Senator scoops business of year award". Lancashire
Lancashire
Telegraph. 6 December 2006. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ "Phoenix firm is boxing clever with exports across the globe". This is Money. 30 January 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ "Group Celebrates a Daisy Decade". Comms Business. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2012.  ^ "About". United Biscuits. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "St Helens Today: News, Sport, Jobs, Property, Cars, Entertainments & More". Sthelensreporter.co.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "St Helens Star – News, Sport, Saints Rugby League, Property for sale, rent in St Helens, Merseyside". Sthelensstar.co.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 

External links[edit]

North West England
England
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

United Kingdom articles

History

Chronology

Formation Georgian era Victorian era Edwardian era First World War Interwar Second World War UK since 1945 (social history)

By topic

Economic Empire Maritime Military

Geography

Administrative

Countries of the United Kingdom Crown dependencies Overseas territories City status Towns Former colonies

Physical

British Isles

terminology Great Britain

Coastline Geology Lakes and lochs Mountains Rivers Volcanoes

Resources

Energy/Renewable energy

Biodiesel Coal Geothermal Hydraulic frac. Hydroelectricity Marine North Sea oil Solar Wind

Food

Agriculture Fishing

English Scottish

Hunting

Materials

Flora Forestry Mining

Politics

Constitution Courts Elections Foreign relations Human rights Judiciary Law Law enforcement Legislation Monarchy

monarchs

Nationality Parliament

House of Commons House of Lords

Political parties

Government

Cabinet

list

Civil service Departments Prime Minister

list

Military

Royal Navy Army Royal Air Force Weapons of mass destruction

Economy

Banks

Bank of England

Budget Economic geography Manufacturing Pound (currency) Stock Exchanges (London Exchange) Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transport British Rail

Society

Affordability of housing Crime Demography Drug policy Education Ethnic groups Health Immigration Innovation Languages Poverty Prostitution Public holidays Social care Social structure

Culture

Art Cinema Cuisine Identity Literature Media Music Religion Sport Symbols Theatre

Countries of the United Kingdom

England

History

social timeline

Geography Politics Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Northern Ireland

History Geography Politics

Assembly Executive First Minister and deputy

Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Scotland

History

timeline

Geography Politics

Parliament Government First Minister

Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Wales

History Geography Welsh Government Politics

Assembly First Minister

Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

Regions of England

East of England East Midlands London North East North West South East South West West Midlands Yorkshire and the Humber

v t e

Districts of North West England

Cheshire

Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Halton Warrington

Cumbria

Allerdale Barrow-in-Furness Carlisle Copeland Eden South Lakeland

Greater Manchester

Bolton Bury Manchester Oldham Rochdale Salford Stockport Tameside Trafford Wigan

Lancashire

Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool Burnley Chorley Fylde Hyndburn Lancaster Pendle Preston Ribble Valley Rossendale South Ribble West Lancashire Wyre

Merseyside

Knowsley Liverpool St Helens Sefton Wirral

Coordinates: 54°01′00″N 2°38′00″W / 54.0167°N 2.6333°W

.