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Norsemen
Norsemen
are a group of Germanic people
Germanic people
who inhabited Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and spoke what is now called the Old Norse
Old Norse
language between c. 800 AD and c. 1300 AD. The language belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is the predecessor of the modern Germanic languages of Scandinavia. Norseman means "man from the North" and applied primarily to Old Norse-speaking tribes living in southern and central Scandinavia. In history, "Norse" or "Norseman" could be any person from Scandinavia, even though Norway, Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden
Sweden
were different sets of people by the Middle Ages. The Norse Scandinavians established states and settlements in England, Scotland, Iceland, Wales, the Faroe Islands, Ireland, Russia, Belarus, Greenland, France, Belgium, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland
Poland
and Canada[1][2] as well as southern Italy.

Contents

1 Connection with Normandy 2 Other names 3 Modern Scandinavian usage 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Connection with Normandy[edit] The Old Frankish
Old Frankish
word Nortmann "Northman" was Latinised as Normanni and then entered Old French
Old French
as Normands, whence the name of the Normans
Normans
and of Normandy, which was settled by Norsemen
Norsemen
in the 10th century.[3][4] Other names[edit] In the early Medieval
Medieval
period, as today, Vikings
Vikings
was a common term for attacking Norsemen, especially in connection with raids and monastic plundering by Norsemen
Norsemen
in the British Isles. The Norse were also known as Ascomanni, ashmen, by the Germans,[5] Lochlanach (Norse) by the Gaels
Gaels
and Dene (Danes) by the Anglo-Saxons.[6] The Gaelic terms Finn-Gall (Norwegian Viking
Viking
or Norwegian), Dubh-Gall (Danish Viking
Viking
or Danish) and Gall Goidel (foreign Gaelic) were used for the people of Norse descent in Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland, who assimilated into the Gaelic culture.[7] Dubliners called them Ostmen, or East-people, and the name Oxmanstown (an area in central Dublin; the name is still current) comes from one of their settlements; they were also known as Lochlannaigh, or Lake-people.

In the 8th century the inrush of the Vikings
Vikings
in force began to be felt all over Pictland. These Vikings
Vikings
were pagans and savages of the most unrestrained and pitiless type. They were composed of Finn-Gall or Norwegians, and of Dubh-Gall or Danes. The latter were a mixed breed, with a Hunnish strain in them.[8] — Archibald Black Scott, The Pictish Nation, its People & its Church

However, British conceptions of the Vikings' origins were not quite correct. Those who plundered Britain lived in what is today Denmark, Scania, the western coast of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
(up to almost the 70th parallel) and along the Swedish Baltic coast up to around the 60th latitude and Lake Mälaren. They also came from the island of Gotland, Sweden. The border between the Norsemen
Norsemen
and more southerly Germanic tribes, the Danevirke, today is located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of the Danish-German border. The southernmost living Vikings
Vikings
lived no further north than Newcastle upon Tyne, and travelled to Britain more from the east than from the north. The northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
(with the exception of the Norwegian coast) was almost unpopulated by the Norse, because this ecology was inhabited by the Sami, the native people of northern Sweden
Sweden
and large areas of Norway, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula
Kola Peninsula
in today's Russia. The Slavs, the Arabs
Arabs
and the Byzantines knew them as the Rus' or Rhōs, probably derived from various uses of rōþs-, i.e. "related to rowing", or from the area of Roslagen
Roslagen
in east-central Sweden, where most of the Vikings
Vikings
who visited the Slavic lands originated. Archaeologists and historians of today believe that these Scandinavian settlements in the Slavic lands formed the names of the countries of Russia
Russia
and Belarus. The Slavs
Slavs
and the Byzantines also called them Varangians (ON: Væringjar, meaning "sworn men"), and the Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian
Varangian
Guard. Modern Scandinavian usage[edit] In the Old Norse
Old Norse
language, the term norrœnir menn (northern men), was used correspondingly to the modern English name Norsemen, referring to Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, Faroe Islanders, Icelanders, etc. The modern Scandinavian languages have a common word for Norsemen: the word nordbo, (Sw.: nordborna, Da.: nordboerne, No.: nordboerne or nordbuane in the definite plural) is used for both ancient and modern people living in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
and speaking one of the Scandinavian Germanic languages. The word Vikings: Vikinger in Danish and Norwegian Bokmål, and Vikingar in Swedish and Norwegian Nynorsk is not used as a word for Norsemen
Norsemen
by natives, as "Viking" is the name for a specific activity/occupation (a "raid"), and not a demographic group. The Vikings
Vikings
were simply people (of any ethnicity, or origin) partaking in the raid (known as "going viking").[9] On occasions Finland is also mentioned as a "Scandinavian country".[10] The Finnish language
Finnish language
is not Germanic or even Indo-European, but Finland was for around six centuries a part of Sweden
Sweden
(late 12th century to 1809), and around 6% of the Finnish population still use Swedish as their first language. In the Åland islands Swedish is by far the dominant language, seeing as how the population there are ethnic Swedes
Swedes
but belonging administratively to Finland since 1917. Elsewhere in Finland the share of Swedish-speaking people has been dropping ever since Finland gained independence in 1917,[citation needed] after the Russian Revolution. Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
are also geographically separate from the Scandinavian peninsula. The term Nordic countries
Nordic countries
is therefore used to encompass the Scandinavian countries, Iceland, Greenland, the Faroes and Finland.[11] See also[edit]

Ancient Germanic culture portal

Danes Danes
Danes
(Germanic tribe) Faroese Geats Goths Gotlander Haplogroup I-M253 Icelanders Norse-Gaels Norwegians Swedes Swedes
Swedes
(Germanic tribe)

References[edit]

^ Linden, Eugene (December 2004). "The Vikings: A Memorable Visit to America". Smithsonian Magazine.  ^ Pringle, Heather (October 19, 2012). "Evidence of Viking
Viking
Outpost Found in Canada". National Geographic News.  ^ Michael Lerche Nielsen, Review of Rune Palm, Vikingarnas språk, 750–1100, Historisk Tidskrift 126.3 (2006) 584–86 (pdf pp. 10–11) (in Swedish) ^ Louis John Paetow, A Guide to the Study of Medieval
Medieval
History for Students, Teachers, and Libraries, Berkeley: University of California, 1917, OCLC 185267056, p. 150, citing Léopold Delisle, Littérature latine et histoire du moyen âge, Paris: Leroux, 1890, OCLC 490034651, p. 17. ^ Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
2.29. ^ Richards, Julian D. (8 September 2005). Vikings : A Very Short Introduction. UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9780191517396. Retrieved 7 February 2018.  ^ Baldour, John Alexander; Mackenzie, William Mackay (1910). The Book of Arran. Arran society of Glasgow. p. 11.  ^ Scott, Archibald Black (1918). The Pictish Nation, its People & its Church. Edinburgh/London: T. N. Foulis. p. 408. OCLC 4785362.  ^ "Primary History, Vikings: Who were the Vikings". BBC. Retrieved 19 January 2017. The name 'Viking' comes from a language called 'Old Norse' and means 'a pirate raid'. People who went off raiding in ships were said to be 'going Viking'.  ^ "Scandinavia". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 19 January 2017.  ^ "About Nordic co-operation". Nordic Council of Ministers & Nordic Council. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and the Faroe Islands, Greenland
Greenland
and Åland
Åland
work together in the official Nordic co-operation. 

External links[edit]

HowStuffWorks.com – Norsemen

v t e

Vikings

Viking
Viking
Age

Culture

Old Norse
Old Norse
language Norse pantheon Norse mythology Norse religion Norsemen Danegeld Berserker

Homelands and colonies

Sweden Norway Denmark Iceland Greenland Vinland Faroe Islands Orkney Islands Shetland Islands Danelaw Normandy North Sea Empire

History

Viking
Viking
expansion British Isles

Scotland

Battles

Tactics and warfare Raid on Seville Sack of Paris Siege of Paris Brunanburh Cnut the Great's Invasion of England Raids in the Rhineland Stamford Bridge

Arms and armour and fortifications

Halberd

Atgeir Skeggöx Dane axe

Sword

Ulfberht Ingelrii

Ring fortress

Historical figures

Erik the Red Leif Erikso

.