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Norrland
Norrland
(Swedish: [ˈnɔrːland] ( listen), "Northlands") is the northernmost, largest, least populated and least densely populated of the three traditional lands of Sweden, consisting of nine provinces. The term Norrland
Norrland
is not used for any administrative purpose, but as a historical region, it is common in everyday language, e.g., in weather forecasts.

Contents

1 Provinces and counties 2 Geography 3 History 4 Sport 5 In fiction 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Provinces and counties[edit] Norrland
Norrland
comprises the historical provinces (landskap) Gästrikland, Medelpad, Ångermanland, Hälsingland, Jämtland, Härjedalen, Västerbotten, Norrbotten
Norrbotten
and Lappland, roughly 59 percent of Sweden's total area[1]. Historically, Jämtland
Jämtland
and Härjedalen
Härjedalen
belonged to Norway
Norway
until 1645, and are thus often considered outside of the historical Norrland. Administratively, Sweden
Sweden
is not divided into provinces but into counties (Län). Although Norrland
Norrland
is defined in terms of the historical provinces and not the counties, it roughly comprises the modern counties of Gävleborg, Jämtland, Norrbotten, Västerbotten and Västernorrland. Sometimes, Norrland
Norrland
is subdivided into Northern Norrland
Norrland
(norra Norrland) and Southern Norrland
Norrland
(södra Norrland). The northern part of the region typically covers the historical provinces of Norrbotten, Västerbotten
Västerbotten
and Lappland (the modern counties of Norrbotten
Norrbotten
and Västerbotten), while the southern part covers the remainder of the region. Geography[edit] See also: Norrland
Norrland
terrain

The village Stora Blåsjön
Stora Blåsjön
and the lake of Stora Blåsjön
Stora Blåsjön
in Strömsund Municipality, Jämtland.

Except for the coastal areas, Norrland
Norrland
is sparsely populated. Approximately 12 percent of Sweden's population lives in Norrland.[2] Except for some coastal areas most of Norrland
Norrland
is made up by the Norrland
Norrland
terrain– hilly and mountainous land covered by boreal forests.[3][4] More in detail Norrland
Norrland
is made up of three north-south belts: the Scandinavian Mountains
Scandinavian Mountains
in the west, the Muddus Plains covering much of the inland, and the mixed relief[A] of the eastern coast.[5] Unlike the much more densely populated Svealand
Svealand
and Götaland, which are better known for big cities (Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö) with landmarks and tourist attractions, Norrland
Norrland
is known for its nature: wide forests, large rivers and untouched wilderness. Most inhabitants live in rural areas and small villages, and in cities along the coast. Towards the end of the 20th Century there was a noticeable increase of the population in Norrland, mainly from people moving from bigger cities. The largest cities in Norrland, from north to south, are Luleå, Skellefteå, Umeå, Östersund, Sundsvall
Sundsvall
and Gävle. With the exception of Östersund, all these cities are located near the coast. During the industrial revolution, which reached Sweden
Sweden
in the mid-19th Century, Norrland
Norrland
became the source for the important wood and pulp industry. All of the major Norrland
Norrland
rivers but four have been exploited for water power. The rivers in Norrland
Norrland
account for the bulk of hydroelectric power in Sweden
Sweden
– in many countries a limited energy source, but in Sweden
Sweden
hydroelectrical power accounts for approximately 40 percent of Sweden's total production of electricity. Mines for producing precious metals have also been located in Norrland. In older history, the administration in Stockholm
Stockholm
viewed Norrland
Norrland
pretty much as a colony consisting of natural resources to be exploited. "In Norrland
Norrland
we have an India
India
within our borders, if only we realize we should be taking advantage of it" (I Norrland
Norrland
hava vi inom våra gränser ett Indien, blott vi förstå att bruka det) is a quote attributed to Axel Oxenstierna
Axel Oxenstierna
that fairly well describes the attitude. In the official history of Sweden
Sweden
not much is written about the northern parts of the country. Kebnekaise, Sweden's tallest mountain at 2,111 metres (6,926 feet), is located in Lappland in the north of Norrland. Norrland
Norrland
has a highly variable climate depending on altitude, latitude and distance to water. The southern coastal areas have a humid continental climate, but further north the subarctic climate is abundant, although it in many areas is very mild for that classification, especially in coastal regions. In the mountain ranges the tundra climate can be found with summer temperatures averaging below 10 °C (50 °F), although this is due to altitude and not in populated areas. All low-lying areas of Norrland
Norrland
are below the tree line due to the mild summers, meaning that the boreal forest is dominant. History[edit] In older history, Norrland
Norrland
is one of the four lands of Sweden. To the west it represented the northern half of Sweden
Sweden
bounded to the south by Svealand
Svealand
and to the east it represented the northern half of Finland
Finland
– which was then a part of Sweden
Sweden
– bounded to the south by Österland. In Svealand
Svealand
and Götaland, the land boundaries were of major juridical and administrative importance, but this was not the case with Norrland. The name Norrland
Norrland
just gradually became a denomination of everything north of Svealand. Up to the Middle Ages, the northern part of Norrland
Norrland
( Norrbotten
Norrbotten
and Lappland) was basically a no man's land. The area was sparsely populated by Sami, Kvens
Kvens
and different tribes/people related to the Finns. In the southern part of Norrland, Swedish and Norwegian settlers lived side by side with the Sami population. From the Middle Ages on, the Swedish kings tried hard to colonize and Christianize the area. But it took time – even today, Finnish and Sami minorities live in the northern parts of Norrland
Norrland
and have maintained their culture and customs. As a result of the changing relations to Finland, the northern borders of Norrland
Norrland
have shifted. While the word Finland
Finland
originally meant only the southwestern part of what is now Finland
Finland
( Finland
Finland
Proper), the border of Norrland
Norrland
was drawn at the rivers Kaakamojoki or, later, Simojoki. This changed when the eastern half of Sweden
Sweden
(Finland) was lost to Russia
Russia
in 1809, and the new border was drawn at Torne River. The southern border was originally everything north of the Gästrikland
Gästrikland
province (until the 14th or 15th century a part of Uppland), but since the mid 17th century, Gästrikland
Gästrikland
is also considered a part of Norrland. The name can be first traced from Karl's Chronicle, explaining how Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson
Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson
in 1433 sent a letter to Erik Puke requesting assistance to conquer entire Norrland
Norrland
(al norland vnte han honom wolla). Sport[edit] Three Norrland
Norrland
teams compete at the Swedish Hockey League: Brynäs IF, Skellefteå
Skellefteå
AIK and Luleå
Luleå
HF. But also Timrå IK, MoDo Hockey
MoDo Hockey
and Björklöven IF have long traditions within Swedish Ice Hockey. Notable Norrland
Norrland
soccer (football) teams include Sandvikens IF, Gefle IF, Östersunds FK, and GIF Sundsvall. In fiction[edit]

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Norrland
Norrland
is often portrayed slightly negatively in Swedish fiction, often being a place of terror and dread. The thriller films The Hunters and False Trail
False Trail
(The Hunters 2) show a highly negative portrait of Norrland, filled with racial prejudice and violence. The people of Norrland
Norrland
in their turn tend to have a fairly negative view of people from Stockholm
Stockholm
and the rest of southern Sweden, for example by referring to Stockholm
Stockholm
as "fjollträsk", which loosely translated means "sissy town". This dynamic is portrayed in movies and series such as Sällskapsresan 2 – Snowroller, The Hunters and Pistvakt – En vintersaga. Despite Norrland
Norrland
being the most diverse of the three lands of Sweden
Sweden
in terms of languages and cultures it is usually portrayed as one homogeneous region. Fiction usually portrays characters from Norrland
Norrland
as villagers from the wilderness even though the majority of the population live in and around the coastal cities. In the 2006 horror film Frostbite, the portrait is more balanced. Unlike most other Swedish films, it takes place in a larger community at the northern peak of Sweden, being filmed in Kalix
Kalix
and Kiruna. The people are shown to be pretty warm and welcoming towards outsiders. Rather than the people, the nature of Norrland
Norrland
is shown to be hostile. A constant darkness roams over the town and there is extreme cold. Vampires have been shown taking a liking to the land and hunt the towns people in the arctic night. The film is notorious for not having the actors speak without the district Norrland
Norrland
accent, even the actors in the film which are native to Norrland. A mixed portrait of the region is found in As It Is in Heaven (2004), which "vividly conveys both the delights and the challenges of small town living."[6] The northern town is initially inhospitable to the main character as a boy, whose mother chooses to take him out of the town to escape bullying. He returns years later as an accomplished musician, only to find an insular town where bullying continues in several forms, including from the original classmates who troubled him as a youth. It is through his outside status -- along with his music and desire share its joy -- that the town finds redemption. The plot of the well-known thriller The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo shifts back and forth between Stockholm
Stockholm
and the fictional Norrland town of Hedestad. A constantly repeated theme in the book's background are the social, cultural and physical differences between these two locations: Norrland
Norrland
is more sedate, conservative and slow-moving in comparison with the cosmopolitan Stockholm; a Stockholmer having to live for an extended period in Norrland
Norrland
feels "exiled to the back of beyond"; Norrland
Norrland
is also colder, and a Stockholmer coming there must urgently buy warmer clothes (a theme highlighted also in As It Is in Heaven); Norrlanders often speak regional dialects which Stockholm people find nearly incomprehensible; Stockholm
Stockholm
people look down their noses at "a working class boy from Norrland" even when he had lived many years in Stockholm. The book's great success and translation into numerous languages made non-Swedish people more aware of Norrland
Norrland
and its special characteristics. See also[edit]

Svealand Götaland Österland Upper Norrland Middle Norrland Sápmi Lappland Historical provinces of Finland Norrland
Norrland
Grand Regiment Norrland
Norrland
County Norland (other) Nordland
Nordland
(other)

Notes[edit]

^ This includes coastal plains and parts of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain.[5]

References[edit]

article Norrland
Norrland
from Nordisk familjebok. In Swedish.

^ " Norrland
Norrland
region, Sweden". Brittanica.com. Encycopaedia Brittanica. Retrieved 5 February 2018.  ^ Population of Sweden
Sweden
2008-12-31 Archived 2010-08-20 at the Wayback Machine., Statistics Sweden ^ Lidmar-Bergströrm, Karna (1995). "Relief and saprolites trough time on the Baltic Shield". Geomorphology. Elsevier. 12: 45–61.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Sporrong, Ulf (2003). "The Scandinavian landscape and its resources". In Helle, Knut. The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Cambridge University Press. p. 22.  ^ a b Lidmar-Bergström, Karna (2002). "Berggrundens ytformer". In Fredén, Curt. Berg och jord. Sveriges Nationalatlas (in Swedish). Sveriges Nationalatlas. pp. 44–54. ISBN 91-87760-50-9.  ^ Brussat, Frederic; Brussat, Mary Ann. "An astonishing Swedish drama about a church choir and its creative director who take a meaningful and loving journey together". Spirituality & Practice. Retrieved 2017-01-24. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Norrland.

Media related to Norrland
Norrland
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Lands and Provinces of Sweden

Götaland

Blekinge Bohuslän Dalsland Gotland Halland Öland Östergötland Scania Småland Västergötland

Svealand

Dalarna Närke Södermanland Uppland Värmland Västmanland

Norrland

Ångermanland Gästrikland Hälsingland Härjedalen Jämtland Lappland Medelpad Norrbotten Västerbotten

Coordinates: 63°11′00″N 14°40′00″E / 63.1833°N 14.6667°E / 63.1

.