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NORMANDY (/ˈnɔːrməndi/ ; French : _Normandie_, pronounced , Norman : _Normaundie_, from Old French _Normanz_, plural of _Normant_, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the regions of France
France
, roughly corresponding to the historical Duchy of Normandy .

Administratively, Normandy
Normandy
is divided into five _departments _: Calvados , Eure
Eure
, Manche
Manche
, Orne , and Seine-Maritime . It covers 30,627 km² (11,926 sq mi), forming roughly 5% of the territory of France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. Normans is the name given to the inhabitants of Normandy, and the region is the homeland of the Norman language .

The historical region of Normandy
Normandy
comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the "départements," or departments of Mayenne and Sarthe
Sarthe
. The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
(referred to as _Îles Anglo-Normandes_ in French ) are also historically part of Normandy; they cover 194 km² and comprise two bailiwicks : Guernsey and Jersey
Jersey
, which are British Crown dependencies over which Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
reigns as Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
.

Normandy's name is derived from the settlement of the territory by mainly Danish and Norwegian Vikings
Vikings
("Northmen ") from the 9th century, and confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France
France
and Earl Rollo of Møre , Norway
Norway
. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Norman expansion * 1.2 13th to 17th centuries * 1.3 Modern history

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Regions

* 2.1.1 Channel Islands
Channel Islands

* 2.2 Rivers

* 3 Politics

* 3.1 Government

* 4 Economy * 5 Demographics

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Flag * 6.2 Language * 6.3 Architecture * 6.4 Gastronomy * 6.5 Literature * 6.6 Painting * 6.7 Religion * 6.8 People

* 7 Image gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Normandy
History of Normandy
Roman theatre in Lillebonne Bayeux Tapestry (Scene 23): Harold II swearing oath on holy relics to William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
.

Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings , prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times .

Celts
Celts
(also known as Belgae and Gauls
Gauls
) invaded Normandy
Normandy
in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC. When Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy
Normandy
was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads
Roman roads
and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy.

In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity also began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast. The Roman Emperor withdrew from most of Normandy. As early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire
Loire
came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis .

The Vikings
Vikings
started to raid the Seine
Seine
Valley during the middle of the 9th century. As early as 841, a Viking
Viking
fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges , they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
's empire to take northern France. The fiefdom of Normandy
Normandy
was created for the Norwegian Viking
Viking
leader Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson, or Rollo (also known as Robert of Normandy). Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks
Franks
, Charles the Simple
Charles the Simple
, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur- Epte . In exchange for his homage and fealty , Rollo legally gained the territory which he and his Viking
Viking
allies had previously conquered. The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking (i.e. " Norseman ") origins.

The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's original inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman -speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks
Franks
and Celts
Celts
.

Rollo's descendant William, Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
, became king of England in 1066 in the Norman Conquest culminating at the Battle of Hastings , while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy
Normandy
for himself and his descendants.

NORMAN EXPANSION

Norman possessions in the 12th century

Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland , the Normans expanded into other areas. Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville , Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and Crusades
Crusades
.

Drengot lineage and Tancred's sons William Iron Arm , Drogo of Hauteville , Humphrey of Hauteville , Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively conquered territories in Southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130. They also carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states
Crusader states
of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Holy Land .

The 14th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
. Béthencourt received the title King of the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
but recognised as his overlord Henry III of Castile , who had provided aid during the conquest.

13TH TO 17TH CENTURIES

Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
burning at the stake in the city of Rouen
Rouen
, painting by Jules Eugène Lenepveu

In 1204, during the reign of England's King John , mainland Normandy was taken from England by France
France
under Philip II of France
France
. Insular Normandy
Normandy
(the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
) remained under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognised the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy
Normandy
under the Treaty of Paris . His successors, however, often fought to regain control of mainland French Normandy.

The _Charte aux Normands_ granted by Louis X of France
France
in 1315 (and later re-confirmed in 1339) – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy.

French Normandy
Normandy
was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years\' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy
Normandy
lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy
Normandy
until the Wars of Religion . When many Norman towns ( Alençon , Rouen
Rouen
, Caen
Caen
, Coutances
Coutances
, Bayeux
Bayeux
) joined the Protestant Reformation , battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War .

Samuel de Champlain left the port of Honfleur in 1604 and founded Acadia . Four years later, he founded Quebec City . From then onwards, Normans engaged in a policy of expansion in North America. They continued the exploration of the New World : René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle travelled in the area of the Great Lakes , then on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
. Pierre Le Moyne d\'Iberville and his brother Lemoyne de Bienville founded Louisiana
Louisiana
, Biloxi , Mobile and New Orleans . Territories located between Quebec
Quebec
and the Mississippi Delta were opened up to establish Canada and Louisiana
Louisiana
. Colonists from Normandy
Normandy
were among the most active in New France
France
, comprising Acadia , Canada , and Louisiana
Louisiana
.

Honfleur and Le Havre were two of the principal slave trade ports of France.

MODERN HISTORY

Although agriculture remained important, industries such as weaving, metallurgy, sugar refining, ceramics, and shipbuilding were introduced and developed.

In the 1780s, the economic crisis and the crisis of the _Ancien Régime _ struck Normandy
Normandy
as well as other parts of the nation, leading to the French Revolution . Bad harvests, technical progress and the effects of the Eden Agreement signed in 1786 affected employment and the economy of the province. Normans laboured under a heavy fiscal burden.

In 1790 the five departments of Normandy
Normandy
replaced the former province.

13 July 1793, the Norman Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
assassinated Marat .

The Normans reacted little to the many political upheavals which characterized the 19th century. Overall they warily accepted the changes of régime ( First French Empire
First French Empire
, Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
, July Monarchy , French Second Republic , Second French Empire
Second French Empire
, French Third Republic ).

There was an economic revival (mechanization of textile manufacture, first trains...) after the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and the Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815).

And new economic activity stimulated the coasts: seaside tourism. The 19th century marks the birth of the first beach resorts. Allied invasion of Normandy, D-Day
D-Day
, 1944

During the Second World War, following the armistice of 22 June 1940 , continental Normandy
Normandy
was part of the German occupied zone of France . The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
were occupied by German forces between 30 June 1940 and 9 May 1945. The town of Dieppe was the site of the unsuccessful Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces.

The Allies in this case involving Britain, the U.S, Canada and Free France
France
, coordinated a massive build-up of troops and supplies to support a large-scale invasion of Normandy
Normandy
in the D-Day
D-Day
landings on 6 June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord . The Germans were dug into fortified emplacements above the beaches. Caen
Caen
, Cherbourg
Cherbourg
, Carentan , Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in the Battle of Normandy
Normandy
, which continued until the closing of the so-called Falaise gap between Chambois and Mont Ormel . The liberation of Le Havre followed. This was a significant turning point in the war and led to the restoration of the French Republic.

The remainder of Normandy
Normandy
was liberated only on 9 May 1945 at the end of the war, when the Channel Island occupation effectively ended.

Between 1956 and 2015 Normandy
Normandy
was divided into two administrative regions : Lower Normandy and Upper Normandy ; the regions were merged into one single region on 1 January 2016. Upper Normandy (_Haute-Normandie_) consisted of the French _departments _ of Seine-Maritime and Eure
Eure
, and Lower Normandy (_Basse-Normandie_) of the _departments _ of Orne , Calvados , and Manche
Manche
.

GEOGRAPHY

_ The medieval island of Mont-Saint-Michel , the most visited monument in Normandy
Normandy
The Arche_ and the _Aiguille_ of the cliffs of Étretat A typical Norman house

The historical Duchy of Normandy was a formerly independent duchy occupying the lower Seine
Seine
area, the Pays de Caux and the region to the west through the Pays d\'Auge as far as the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
.

Western Normandy
Normandy
belongs to the Armorican Massif
Armorican Massif
, whereas the major part of the region belongs to the Paris Basin . France
France
's oldest rocks crop out in Jobourg in the Cotentin peninsula. The region is bordered along the northern coasts by the English Channel. There are granite cliffs in the west and limestone cliffs in the east. There are also long stretches of beach in the centre of the region. The _bocage _ typical of the western areas caused problems for the invading forces in the Battle of Normandy
Normandy
. A notable feature of the landscape is created by the meanders of the Seine
Seine
as it approaches its estuary.

The highest point is the Signal d'Écouves (417m) in the Massif armoricain.

Normandy
Normandy
is sparsely forested: 12.8% of the territory is wooded, compared to a French average of 23.6%, although the proportion varies between the departments. Eure
Eure
has most cover (21%) while Manche
Manche
has least (4%), a characteristic shared with the Islands.

REGIONS

* The Avranchin * The Bessin * The Bauptois * The bocage virois * The campagne d\' Alençon * The campagne d\' Argentan * The campagne de Caen
Caen
* The campagne de Falaise * The campagne du Neubourg * The campagne de Saint-André (or d’Évreux) * The Cotentin * The Perche * The Domfrontais or Passais * The Hiémois * The Lieuvin * The Mortainais * The pays d\'Auge , central Normandy, is characterized by excellent agricultural land. * The pays de Bray * The pays de Caux * The pays d\'Houlme * The pays de Madrie : territoire entre la Seine
Seine
et L'Eure * The pays d\'Ouche * The Roumois et Marais-Vernier * The Suisse normande (Norman Switzerland), in the south, presents hillier terrain. * The Val de Saire * The Vexin normand

Channel Islands

* The bailliage of Jersey
Jersey
* The bailliage of Guernsey
Guernsey

The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are considered culturally and historically a part of Normandy. However, they are British Crown Dependencies , and are not part of the modern French region of Normandy,

Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy, France, and other French possessions in 1801, the monarch of the United Kingdom retains the title Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
in respect to the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
(except for Chausey ) remain Crown dependencies of the British Crown in the present era. Thus the Loyal Toast in the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
is _La Reine, notre Duc_ ("The Queen, our Duke"). The British monarch is understood to _not_ be the Duke with regards to mainland Normandy
Normandy
described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris of 1259 , the surrender of French possessions in 1801, and the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law
Salic Law
which excludes inheritance through female heirs.

RIVERS

The Seine
Seine
in Les Andelys The Bresle

Rivers in Normandy
Normandy
include:

* the Seine
Seine
and its tributaries:

* the Andelle * the Epte * the Eure
Eure
* the Risle * the Robec

And many coastal rivers:

* the Bresle * the Couesnon , which traditionally marks the boundary between the Duchy
Duchy
of Brittany
Brittany
and the Duchy of Normandy * the Dives * the Orne * the Sée * the Sélune * the Touques * the Veules, the shortest French river * the Vire

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Normandy _ Historic photograph of the Caserne Jeanne d'Arc_ in Rouen, today seat of the Norman regional assembly

The modern region Normandy
Normandy
was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 by the merger of Lower Normandy , and Upper Normandy
Normandy
. The new region took effect on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections in December 2015 .

GOVERNMENT

The Regional Council has 102 members who are elected under a system of proportional representation . The executive consists of a president and vice-presidents. Hervé Morin from the Centre party was elected president of the council in January 2016.

ECONOMY

Much of Normandy
Normandy
is predominantly agricultural in character, with cattle breeding the most important sector (although in decline from the peak levels of the 1970s and 1980s). The _bocage _ is a patchwork of small fields with high hedges, typical of western areas. Areas near the Seine
Seine
(the former Upper Normandy region) contain a higher concentration of industry. Normandy
Normandy
is a significant cider -producing region, and also produces calvados , a distilled cider or apple brandy . Other activities of economic importance are dairy produce, flax (60% of production in France), horse breeding (including two French national stud farms), fishing, seafood , and tourism. The region contains three French nuclear power stations . There is also easy access to and from the UK using the ports of Cherbourg
Cherbourg
, Caen ( Ouistreham
Ouistreham
), Le Havre and Dieppe .

YEAR AREA LABOUR FORCE IN AGRICULTURE LABOUR FORCE IN INDUSTRY LABOUR FORCE IN SERVICES

2003 UPPER NORMANDY 2.30 % 36.10 % 61.60 %

2006 LOWER NORMANDY 6.50 % 25.00 % 68.50 %

2006 FRANCE 2.20 % 20.60 % 77.20 %

AREA GDP (IN MILLION OF EUROS) (2006) UNEMPLOYMENT (% OF THE LABOUR FORCE) (2007)

UPPER NORMANDY 46,853 6.80 %

LOWER NORMANDY 34,064 7.90 %

FRANCE 1,791,956 7.50 %

DEMOGRAPHICS

In January 2006 the population of Normandy
Normandy
(including the part of Perche which lies inside the Orne _département _ but excluding the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
) was estimated at 3,260,000 with an average population density of 109 inhabitants per km², just under the French national average, but rising to 147 for Upper Normandy . Half-timbered houses in Rouen
Rouen
See also: Norman toponymy

The main cities (population given from the 1999 census) are Rouen (518,316 in the metropolitan area), the capital since 2016 of the province and formerly of Upper Normandy; Caen
Caen
(420,000 in the metropolitan area) and formerly the capital of Lower Normandy; Le Havre (296,773 in the metropolitan area); and Cherbourg
Cherbourg
(117,855 in the metropolitan area).

CULTURE

FLAG

The traditional provincial flag of Normandy
Normandy
, _gules, two leopards passant or_, is used in both modern regions. The historic three-leopard version (known in the Norman language as _les treis cats_, "the three cats") is used by some associations and individuals, especially those who support reunification of the regions and cultural links with the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and England. Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
use three leopards in their national symbols. The three leopards represents the strength and courage Normandy
Normandy
has towards the neighbouring provinces.

The unofficial anthem of the region is the song " Ma Normandie ".

"Two-leopard" version, which is the main one.

"Three-leopard" version

Nordic Cross version

Flag used by the sailors of the Normandy.

Flag used by the hometown of William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
.

"Two-leopard" flag of Sark

Coat of arms of the Duchy of Normandy

Coat of arms of Guernsey
Guernsey

Coat of arms of Jersey
Jersey

LANGUAGE

Main article: Norman language

The Norman language, a regional language , is spoken by a minority of the population on the continent and the islands, with a concentration in the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
in the far West (the Cotentinais dialect), and in the Pays de Caux in the East (the Cauchois dialect ). Many place names demonstrate the Norse influence in this Oïl language ; for example _-bec_ (stream), _-fleur_ (river), _ -hou _ (island), _-tot_ (homestead), _-dal_ or _-dalle_ (valley) and _-hogue_ (hill, mound). French is the only official language in continental Normandy and English is also an official language in the Channel Islands.

ARCHITECTURE

A Norman style construction in Deauville
Deauville
Main article: Architecture of Normandy

Architecturally, Norman cathedrals, abbeys (such as the Abbey of Bec ) and castles characterise the former Duchy
Duchy
in a way that mirrors the similar pattern of Norman architecture in England following the Norman Conquest of 1066.

Domestic architecture in upper Normandy
Normandy
is typified by half-timbered buildings that also recall vernacular English architecture, although the farm enclosures of the more harshly landscaped Pays de Caux are a more idiosyncratic response to socio-economic and climatic imperatives. Much urban architectural heritage was destroyed during the Battle of Normandy
Normandy
in 1944 – post-war urban reconstruction, such as in Le Havre and Saint-Lô, could be said to demonstrate both the virtues and vices of modernist and brutalist trends of the 1950s and 1960s. Le Havre, the city rebuilt by Auguste Perret , was added to Unesco’s World Heritage List in 2005.

Vernacular architecture
Vernacular architecture
in lower Normandy
Normandy
takes its form from granite , the predominant local building material. The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
also share this influence – Chausey was for many years a source of quarried granite, including that used for the construction of Mont Saint-Michel .

The south part of Bagnoles-de-l\' Orne is filled with bourgeois villas in _ Belle Époque _ style with polychrome façades, bow windows and unique roofing. This area, built between 1886 and 1914, has an authentic “Bagnolese” style and is typical of high-society country vacation of the time. The Chapel of Saint Germanus (_Chapelle Saint-Germain_) at Querqueville with its trefoil floorplan incorporates elements of one of the earliest surviving places of Christian worship in the Cotentin – perhaps second only to the Gallo-Roman baptistry at Port-Bail . It is dedicated to Germanus of Normandy
Normandy
.

GASTRONOMY

Normande cow

Parts of Normandy
Normandy
consist of rolling countryside typified by pasture for dairy cattle and apple orchards. A wide range of dairy products are produced and exported. Norman cheeses include Camembert , Livarot , Pont l\'Évêque , Brillat-Savarin , Neufchâtel , Petit Suisse and Boursin . Normandy
Normandy
butter and Normandy
Normandy
cream are lavishly used in gastronomic specialties. Cider
Cider
from Normandy
Normandy

Fish and seafood are of superior quality in Normandy. Turbot and oysters from the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
are major delicacies throughout France. Normandy
Normandy
is the chief oyster -cultivating, scallop-exporting, and mussel-raising region in France.

Normandy
Normandy
is a major cider -producing region (very little wine is produced). Perry
Perry
is also produced, but in less significant quantities. Apple brandy, of which the most famous variety is calvados , is also popular. The mealtime _trou normand_, or "Norman hole", is a pause between meal courses in which diners partake of a glassful of calvados in order to improve the appetite and make room for the next course, and this is still observed in many homes and restaurants. _ Pommeau _ is an _apéritif _ produced by blending unfermented cider and apple brandy. Another aperitif is the _kir normand_, a measure of crème de cassis topped up with cider. _ Bénédictine _ is produced in Fécamp .

Apples are also widely used in cooking: for example, _moules à la normande_ are mussels cooked with apples, cream and cheese, _bourdelots_ are apples baked in pastry, partridges are flamed with reinette apples, and localities all over the province have their own variation of apple tart, that is more popular named tan tan tan tan, because the people can't say the correct name "Tarte Tatin", a classic pastry dish from the region is Norman Tart a pastry -based variant of the apple tart.

Other regional specialities include _tripes à la mode de Caen
Caen
_, _andouilles _ and _andouillettes_, salade cauchoise , salt meadow (_pré salé_) lamb, seafood (mussels, scallops , lobsters, mackerel…), and _teurgoule _ (spiced rice pudding).

Normandy
Normandy
dishes include duckling _à la rouennaise_, sautéed chicken _yvetois_, and goose _en daube_. Rabbit is cooked with morels , or _à la havraise_ (stuffed with truffled pigs' trotters). Other dishes are sheep's trotters _à la rouennaise_, casseroled veal, larded calf's liver braised with carrots, and veal (or turkey) in cream and mushrooms.

Normandy
Normandy
is also noted for its pastries. It is the birthplace of brioches (especially those from Évreux and Gisors ) and also turns out _douillons_ (pears baked in pastry), _craquelins_, _roulettes_ in Rouen, _fouaces_ in Caen, _fallues_ in Lisieux
Lisieux
, _sablés_ in Lisieux. Confectionery of the region includes Rouen
Rouen
apple sugar, Isigny caramels, Bayeux
Bayeux
mint chews, Falaise berlingots, Le Havre marzipans, Argentan _croquettes_, and Rouen
Rouen
macaroons .

Normandy
Normandy
is the native land of Taillevent , cook of the kings of France
France
Charles V and Charles VI . He wrote the earliest French cookery book named _Le Viandier_. _ Confiture de lait _ was also made in Normandy
Normandy
around the 14th century.

LITERATURE

_ Wace presents his Roman de Rou
Roman de Rou
_ to Henry II, Illustration 1824 See also: Anglo-Norman literature and Gesta Normannorum Ducum

The dukes of Normandy
Normandy
commissioned and inspired epic literature to record and legitimise their rule. Wace , Orderic Vitalis and Stephen of Rouen
Rouen
were among those who wrote in the service of the dukes. After the division of 1204, French literature provided the model for the development of literature in Normandy. Olivier Basselin wrote of the Vaux de Vire, the origin of literary _vaudeville _. Among notable Norman writers in French are Jean Marot , Rémy Belleau , Guy de Maupassant , Jules Barbey d\'Aurevilly , Gustave Flaubert , Octave Mirbeau , and Remy de Gourmont , and Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville
. The Corneille brothers, Pierre and Thomas , born in Rouen, were great figures of French classical literature.

David Ferrand (1591–1660) in his _Muse Normande_ established a landmark of Norman language literature. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the workers and merchants of Rouen
Rouen
established a tradition of polemical and satirical literature in a form of language called the _parler purin_. At the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century a new movement arose in the Channel Islands, led by writers such as George Métivier , which sparked a literary renaissance on the Norman mainland. In exile in Jersey
Jersey
and then Guernsey, Victor Hugo took an interest in the vernacular literature. _ Les Travailleurs de la mer _ is a well-known novel by Hugo set in the Channel Islands. The boom in insular literature in the early 19th century encouraged production especially in La Hague and around Cherbourg, where Alfred Rossel, Louis Beuve and Côtis-Capel became active. The typical medium for literary expression in Norman has traditionally been newspaper columns and almanacs. The novel _Zabeth_ by André Louis which appeared in 1969 was the first novel published in Norman.

PAINTING

_ Claude Monet
Claude Monet
, Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son _, 1875

Normandy
Normandy
has a rich tradition of painting and gave to France
France
some of its most important artists.

In the 17th century some major French painters were Normans like Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
, born in Les Andelys and Jean Jouvenet .

Romanticism drew painters to the Channel coasts of Normandy. Richard Parkes Bonington and J. M. W. Turner crossed the Channel from Great Britain, attracted by the light and landscapes. Théodore Géricault , a native of Rouen, was a notable figure in the Romantic movement, its famous _Radeau de la Méduse _ being considered come the breakthrough of pictorial romanticism in France
France
when it was officially presented at the 1819 Salon. The competing Realist tendency was represented by Jean-François Millet , a native of La Hague. The landscape painter Eugène Boudin , born in Honfleur, was a determining influence on the impressionnists and was highly considered by Monet. _ Robert Antoine Pinchon , Un après-midi à l'Ile aux Cerises, Rouen_, oil on canvas, 50 x 61.2 cm

Breaking away from the more formalised and classical themes of the early part of the 19th century, Impressionist painters preferred to paint outdoors, in natural light, and to concentrate on landscapes, towns and scenes of daily life.

Leader of the movement and father of modern painting, Claude Monet
Claude Monet
is one of the best known Impressionists and a major character in Normandy's artistic heritage. His house and gardens at Giverny are one of the region's major tourist sites, much visited for their beauty and their water lilies, as well as for their importance to Monet's artistic inspiration. Normandy
Normandy
was at the heart of his creation, from the paintings of Rouen's cathedral to the famous depictions of the cliffs at Etretat
Etretat
, the beach and port at Fécamp and the sunrise at Le Havre . It was _ Impression, Sunrise _, Monet's painting of Le Havre, that led to the movement being dubbed Impressionism . After Monet, all the main avant-garde painters of the 1870s and 1880s came to Normandy
Normandy
to paint its landscapes and its changing lights, concentrating along the Seine
Seine
valley and the Norman coast.

Landscapes and scenes of daily life were also immortalised on canvas by artists such as William Turner , Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
, the Honfleur born Eugène Boudin, Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro
, Alfred Sisley
Alfred Sisley
, Auguste Renoir , Gustave Caillebotte , Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
, Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
, Paul Signac
Paul Signac
, Pierre Bonnard , Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso . While Monet's work adorns galleries and collections all over the world, a remarkable quantity of Impressionist works can be found in galleries throughout Normandy, such as the Museum of Fine Arts in Rouen
Rouen
, the Musée Eugène Boudin in Honfleur or the André Malraux Museum in Le Havre .

Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
, one of the leaders and theoricists of the Nabis movement in the 1890s, was a native of Granville, in the Manche department.

The _ Société Normande de Peinture Moderne _ was founded in 1909 by Pierre Dumont , Robert Antoine Pinchon , Yvonne Barbier and Eugène Tirvert. Among members were Raoul Dufy , a native of Le Havre, Albert Marquet , Francis Picabia and Maurice Utrillo . Also in this movement were the Duchamp brothers, Jacques Villon and Marcel Duchamp , considered one of the father of modern art, also natives of Normandy. Jean Dubuffet , one of the leading French artist of the 1940s and the 1950s was born in Le Havre.

RELIGION

Rouen
Rouen
Cathedral
Cathedral

Christian missionaries implanted monastic communities in the territory in the 5th and 6th centuries. Some of these missionaries came from across the Channel . The influence of Celtic Christianity can still be found in the Cotentin . By the terms of the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Rollo, a Viking
Viking
pagan, accepted Christianity and was baptised. The Duchy of Normandy was therefore formally a Christian state from its foundation. The cathedrals of Normandy
Normandy
have exerted influence down the centuries in matters of both faith and politics. King Henry II of England, did penance at the cathedral of Avranches on 21 May 1172 and was absolved from the censures incurred by the assassination of Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
. Mont Saint-Michel is a historic pilgrimage site.

Normandy
Normandy
does not have one generally agreed patron saint , although this title has been ascribed to Saint Michael , and to Saint Ouen . Many saints have been revered in Normandy
Normandy
down the centuries, including:

* Aubert who's remembered as the founder of Mont Saint-Michel * Marcouf and Laud who are important saints in Normandy * Helier
Helier
and Samson of Dol who are evangelizers of the Channel Islands * Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
, an Anglo-Norman whose parents were from Rouen, who was the object of a considerable cult in mainland Normandy
Normandy
following his martyrdom * Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
who was martyred in Rouen, and who is especially remembered in that city * Thérèse de Lisieux
Lisieux
whose birthplace in Alençon and later home in Lisieux
Lisieux
are a focus for religious pilgrims. * Germanus of Normandy

Since the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State there is no established church in mainland Normandy. In the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
, the Church of England is the established church .

PEOPLE

_See Category:People from Normandy
Normandy
_

IMAGE GALLERY

Mont Saint-Michel

Rouen
Rouen
Cathedral
Cathedral
by Claude Monet
Claude Monet

World War II
World War II
15cm TbtsK C/36 German coastal gun.

Pegasus Bridge

Château Gaillard

Honfleur

Le Havre

Arromanches
Arromanches
, Mulberry Harbour

Port Racine

Half-timbered houses in Rouen
Rouen

Saint-Céneri-le-Gérei

Château d\'Ételan (1494)

SEE ALSO

* Normandy
Normandy
portal * France
France
portal

* Duchy of Normandy * Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Norman". _WordReference.com_. Retrieved 23 April 2016. 3. a native or inhabitant of Normandy
Normandy
* ^ "Norman". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 1 April 2010. * ^ Administrative Normandy
Normandy
Archived 1 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Michel Badet (29 May 2010). "Découvertes touristiques Cap Breizh – Les îles Anglo-Normandes". capbreizh.com. Retrieved 8 October 2010. * ^ "Provides the full title of the British Monarch". * ^ "César et les Gaulois" (in French). pagesperso-orange.fr. * ^ Neveux, Francois. _The Normans: The conquests that changed the face of Europe_. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-7624-3371-1 . * ^ Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (1987). _The French Peasantry: 1450-1660_. University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-520-05523-0 . * ^ Bay of Écalgrain and Bay of Cul-Rond Website Lithothèque de Normandie. * ^ _Normandie_, Bonneton, Paris 2001 ISBN 2-86253-272-X * ^ "Channel Islands". The official website of The British Monarchy. Retrieved 20 July 2015. * ^ "La carte à 13 régions définitivement adoptée" (in French). Le Monde . Agence France-Presse . 17 December 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ Houses and properties for sale. Normandy
Normandy
Property. Retrieved on 19 September 2014. * ^ (in French) L’état des régions françaises 2004, page 189 * ^ (in French) INSEE, Emploi-Chômage * ^ " France
France
in CIA factbook" * ^ (in French) INSEE * ^ (in French) INSEE * ^ "The Vikings
Vikings
in Normandy: The Scandinavian contribution in Normandy". * ^ "Norman cheeses: History". fromages.org.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to NORMANDY _.

_ Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New

.