Normandy (/ˈnɔːrməndi/; French: Normandie,
pronounced [nɔʁmɑ̃di] ( listen), Norman:
Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally
from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is
one of the 18 regions of France, roughly corresponding to the
Duchy of Normandy.
Normandy is divided into five départements:
Calvados, Eure, Manche, Orne, and Seine-Maritime. It covers 30,627
square kilometres (11,825 sq mi), comprising roughly 5%
of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of
3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France.
Normans is the name given to the inhabitants of Normandy, and the
region is the homeland of the Norman language.
The historical region of
Normandy comprised the present-day region of
Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements of
Mayenne and Sarthe. The
Channel Islands (French: Îles
Anglo-Normandes) are also historically part of Normandy; they cover
194 km² and comprise two bailiwicks:
Guernsey and Jersey,
which are British
Crown dependencies over which Queen Elizabeth II
reigns as Duke of Normandy.
Normandy's name is derived from the settlement of the territory by
mainly Danish and Norwegian
Vikings ("Northmen") from the 9th century,
and confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III
France and the
Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half
Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England in 1066,
Normandy and England
were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
1.1 Norman expansion
1.2 13th to 17th centuries
1.3 Modern history
2.1.1 Channel Islands
7 Image gallery
8 See also
10 External links
Main article: History of Normandy
Roman theatre in Lillebonne
Bayeux Tapestry (Scene 23): Harold II swearing oath on holy relics to
William the Conqueror
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were
present in the region in prehistoric times.
Celts (also known as
Belgae and Gauls) invaded
Normandy in successive
waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC. When
Julius Caesar invaded
Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy.
Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman
roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many
Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy.
In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal
settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity also began to
enter the area during this period. In 406,
Germanic tribes began
invading from the east, while the
Saxons subjugated the Norman coast.
As early as 487, the area between the
River Somme and the River Loire
came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis.
Vikings started to raid the
Seine valley during the middle of the
9th century. As early as 841, a
Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of
the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom.
After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at
Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the
disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France. The
Normandy was created for the
Viking leader Hrólfr
Rollo (also known as Robert of Normandy).
besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West
Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of
Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo
legally gained the territory which he and his
Viking allies had
previously conquered. The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking
(i.e. "Norseman") origins.
The descendants of
Rollo and his followers adopted the local
Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native
Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the
Normans – a Norman-speaking
Norsemen and indigenous Franks,
Celts and Romans.
Rollo's descendant William, became king of England in 1066 after
defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the
Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of
himself and his descendants.
Norman possessions in the 12th century
Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of
Wales and Ireland, the
Normans expanded into other areas. Norman
families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville,
Rainulf Drengot and
Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern
Italy and the Crusades.
The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm, Drogo, and
Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively
claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of
Sicily in 1130. They also carved out a place for themselves and their
descendants in the
Crusader states of
Asia Minor and the Holy Land.
The 14th century explorer
Jean de Béthencourt
Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom
Canary Islands in 1404.He received the title King of the Canary
Pope Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII but recognized
Henry III of Castile
Henry III of Castile as
his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest.
13th to 17th centuries
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc burning at the stake in the city of Rouen, painting by
Jules Eugène Lenepveu
In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland
taken from England by
France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy
(the Channel Islands) remained however under English control. In 1259,
Henry III of England
Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of
Normandy under the Treaty of Paris. His successors, however,
often fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom.
The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of
France in 1315 (and
later re-confirmed in 1339) – like the analogous
Magna Carta granted
in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and
privileges of the province of Normandy.
Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred
Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450.
three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward
prosperity returned to
Normandy until the Wars of Religion. When many
Norman towns (Alençon, Rouen, Caen, Coutances, Bayeux) joined the
Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the
Channel Islands, a period of
Calvinism following the Reformation was
Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain left the port of
Honfleur in 1604 and founded
Acadia. Four years later, he founded Québec City. From then onwards,
Normans engaged in a policy of expansion in North America. They
continued the exploration of the New World: René-Robert Cavelier de
La Salle travelled in the area of the Great Lakes, then on the
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and his brother Lemoyne
de Bienville founded Louisiana, Biloxi, Mobile and New Orleans.
Territories located between Québec and the
Mississippi Delta were
opened up to establish Canada and Louisiana. Colonists from Normandy
were among the most active in New France, comprising Acadia, Canada,
Le Havre were two of the principal slave trade ports of
Although agriculture remained important, industries such as weaving,
metallurgy, sugar refining, ceramics, and shipbuilding were introduced
In the 1780s, the economic crisis and the crisis of the Ancien Régime
Normandy as well as other parts of the nation, leading to the
French Revolution. Bad harvests, technical progress and the effects of
Eden Agreement signed in 1786 affected employment and the economy
of the province.
Normans laboured under a heavy fiscal burden.
In 1790 the five departments of
Normandy replaced the former province.
13 July 1793, the Norman
Charlotte Corday assassinated Marat.
Normans reacted little to the many political upheavals which
characterized the 19th century. Overall they warily accepted the
changes of régime (First French Empire, Bourbon Restoration, July
Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third
There was an economic revival (mechanization of textile manufacture,
first trains...) after the
French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars and the
Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815).
And new economic activity stimulated the coasts: seaside tourism. The
19th century marks the birth of the first beach resorts.
Allied invasion of Normandy, D-Day, 1944
During the Second World War, following the armistice of 22 June 1940,
Normandy was part of the German occupied zone of France.
Channel Islands were occupied by German forces between 30 June
1940 and 9 May 1945. The town of
Dieppe was the site of the
Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces.
The Allies, in this case involving Britain, the U.S, Canada and Free
France, coordinated a massive build-up of troops and supplies to
support a large-scale invasion of
Normandy in the
D-Day landings on 6
June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord. The Germans were dug
into fortified emplacements above the beaches. Caen, Cherbourg,
Carentan, Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in
the Battle of Normandy, which continued until the closing of the
so-called Falaise gap between Chambois and Mont Ormel. The liberation
Le Havre followed. This was a significant turning point in the war
and led to the restoration of the French Republic.
The remainder of
Normandy was liberated only on 9 May 1945 at the end
of the war, when the Channel Island occupation effectively ended.
Between 1956 and 2015
Normandy was divided into two administrative
Lower Normandy and Upper Normandy; the regions were merged
into one single region on 1 January 2016. Upper Normandy
(Haute-Normandie) consisted of the French departments of
Seine-Maritime and Eure, and
Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie) of the
departments of Orne, Calvados, and Manche.
The medieval island of Mont-Saint-Michel, the most visited monument in
The Arche and the Aiguille of the cliffs of Étretat
A typical Norman house
Duchy of Normandy
Duchy of Normandy was a formerly independent duchy
occupying the lower
Seine area, the
Pays de Caux
Pays de Caux and the region to the
west through the
Pays d'Auge as far as the
Normandy belongs to the Armorican Massif, whereas the major
part of the region belongs to the Paris Basin. France's oldest rocks
crop out in Jobourg in the
Cotentin peninsula. The region is
bordered along the northern coasts by the English Channel. There are
granite cliffs in the west and limestone cliffs in the east. There are
also long stretches of beach in the centre of the region. The bocage
typical of the western areas caused problems for the invading forces
in the Battle of Normandy. A notable feature of the landscape is
created by the meanders of the
Seine as it approaches its estuary.
The highest point is the Signal d'Écouves (417m) in the Massif
Normandy is sparsely forested: 12.8% of the territory is wooded,
compared to a French average of 23.6%, although the proportion varies
between the departments.
Eure has most cover (21%) while
least (4%), a characteristic shared with the Islands.
The bocage virois
The campagne d'Alençon
The campagne d'Argentan
The campagne de Caen
The campagne de Falaise
The campagne du Neubourg
The campagne de Saint-André (or d’Évreux)
The Domfrontais or Passais
The pays d'Auge, central Normandy, is characterized by excellent
The pays de Bray
The pays de Caux
The pays d'Houlme
The pays de Madrie: territoire entre la
Seine et L'Eure
The pays d'Ouche
Roumois et Marais-Vernier
The Suisse normande (Norman Switzerland), in the south, presents
The Val de Saire
The Vexin normand
The bailliage of Jersey
The bailliage of Guernsey
Channel Islands are considered culturally and historically a part
of Normandy. However, they are British Crown Dependencies, and are not
part of the modern French region of Normandy,
Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy, France,
and other French possessions in 1801, the monarch of the United
Kingdom retains the title
Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel
Channel Islands (except for Chausey) remain Crown
dependencies of the British Crown in the present era. Thus the Loyal
Toast in the
Channel Islands is La Reine, notre Duc ("The Queen, our
Duke"). The British monarch is understood to not be the Duke with
regards to mainland
Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty
of Paris of 1259, the surrender of French possessions in 1801, and the
belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to
Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs.[citation
Seine in Les Andelys
Seine and its tributaries:
And many coastal rivers:
the Couesnon, which traditionally marks the boundary between the Duchy
Brittany and the
Duchy of Normandy
the Veules, the shortest French river
Main article: Politics of Normandy
Historic photograph of the Caserne Jeanne d'Arc in Rouen, today seat
of the Norman regional assembly
The modern region of
Normandy was created by the territorial reform of
French Regions in 2014 by the merger of Lower Normandy, and Upper
Normandy. The new region took effect on 1 January 2016, after the
regional elections in December 2015.
The Regional Council has 102 members who are elected under a system of
proportional representation. The executive consists of a president and
Hervé Morin from the Centre party was elected
president of the council in January 2016.
Normandy is predominantly agricultural in character, with
cattle breeding the most important sector (although in decline from
the peak levels of the 1970s and 1980s). The bocage is a patchwork of
small fields with high hedges, typical of western areas. Areas near
Seine (the former
Upper Normandy region) contain a higher
concentration of industry.
Normandy is a significant cider-producing
region, and also produces calvados, a distilled cider or apple brandy.
Other activities of economic importance are dairy produce, flax (60%
of production in France), horse breeding (including two French
national stud farms), fishing, seafood, and tourism. The region
contains three French nuclear power stations. There is also easy
access to and from the UK using the ports of Cherbourg, Caen
Le Havre and Dieppe.
Labour force in agriculture
Labour force in industry
Labour force in services
GDP (in million of Euros) (2006)
Unemployment (% of the labour force) (2007)
In January 2006 the population of
Normandy (including the part of
Perche which lies inside the
Orne département but excluding the
Channel Islands) was estimated at 3,260,000 with an average population
density of 109 inhabitants per km², just under the French national
average, but rising to 147 for Upper Normandy.
Half-timbered houses in Rouen
See also: Norman toponymy
The main cities (population given from the 1999 census) are Rouen
(518,316 in the metropolitan area), the capital since 2016 of the
province and formerly of Upper Normandy;
Caen (420,000 in the
metropolitan area) and formerly the capital of Lower Normandy; Le
Havre (296,773 in the metropolitan area); and
Cherbourg (117,855 in
the metropolitan area).
The traditional provincial flag of Normandy, gules, two leopards
passant or, is used in both modern regions. The historic three-leopard
version (known in the
Norman language as les treis cats, "the three
cats") is used by some associations and individuals, especially those
who support reunification of the regions and cultural links with the
Channel Islands and England.
Guernsey use three leopards in
their national symbols. The three leopards represents the strength and
Normandy has towards the neighbouring provinces.
The unofficial anthem of the region is the song "Ma Normandie".
"Two-leopard" version, which is the main one.
Nordic Cross version
Flag used by the sailors of the Normandy.
Flag used by the hometown of William the Conqueror.
"Two-leopard" flag of Sark
Coat of arms of the
Duchy of Normandy
Coat of arms of Guernsey
Coat of arms of Jersey
Main article: Norman language
The Norman language, a regional language, is spoken by a minority of
the population on the continent and the islands, with a concentration
Cotentin Peninsula in the far West (the
and in the
Pays de Caux
Pays de Caux in the East (the Cauchois dialect). Many place
names demonstrate the Norse influence in this Oïl language; for
example -bec (stream), -fleur (river),
-hou (island), -tot
(homestead), -dal or -dalle (valley) and -hogue (hill, mound).
French is the only official language in continental
English is also an official language in the Channel Islands.
A Norman style construction in Deauville
Main article: Architecture of Normandy
Architecturally, Norman cathedrals, abbeys (such as the Abbey of Bec)
and castles characterise the former duchy in a way that mirrors the
similar pattern of
Norman architecture in England following the Norman
Conquest of 1066.
Domestic architecture in upper
Normandy is typified by half-timbered
buildings that also recall vernacular English architecture, although
the farm enclosures of the more harshly landscaped
Pays de Caux
Pays de Caux are a
more idiosyncratic response to socio-economic and climatic
imperatives. Much urban architectural heritage was destroyed during
the Battle of
Normandy in 1944 – post-war urban reconstruction, such
Le Havre and Saint-Lô, could be said to demonstrate both the
virtues and vices of modernist and brutalist trends of the 1950s and
1960s. Le Havre, the city rebuilt by Auguste Perret, was added to
Unesco’s World Heritage List in 2005.
Vernacular architecture in lower
Normandy takes its form from granite,
the predominant local building material. The
Channel Islands also
share this influence –
Chausey was for many years a source of
quarried granite, including that used for the construction of Mont
The south part of Bagnoles-de-l'
Orne is filled with bourgeois villas
Belle Époque style with polychrome façades, bow windows and
unique roofing. This area, built between 1886 and 1914, has an
authentic “Bagnolese” style and is typical of high-society country
vacation of the time. The Chapel of Saint Germanus (Chapelle
Querqueville with its trefoil floorplan incorporates
elements of one of the earliest surviving places of Christian worship
Cotentin – perhaps second only to the
at Port-Bail. It is dedicated to Germanus of Normandy.
Normandy consist of rolling countryside typified by pasture
for dairy cattle and apple orchards. A wide range of dairy products
are produced and exported. Norman cheeses include Camembert, Livarot,
Pont l'Évêque, Brillat-Savarin, Neufchâtel, Petit Suisse and
Normandy butter and
Normandy cream are lavishly used in
Cider from Normandy
Fish and seafood are of superior quality in Normandy.
Turbot and oysters from the
Cotentin Peninsula are major delicacies
Normandy is the chief oyster-cultivating,
scallop-exporting, and mussel-raising region in France.
Normandy is a major cider-producing region (very little wine is
Perry is also produced, but in less significant quantities.
Apple brandy, of which the most famous variety is calvados, is also
popular. The mealtime trou normand, or "Norman hole", is a pause
between meal courses in which diners partake of a glassful of calvados
in order to improve the appetite and make room for the next course,
and this is still observed in many homes and restaurants.
an apéritif produced by blending unfermented cider and apple brandy.
Another aperitif is the kir normand, a measure of crème de cassis
topped up with cider.
Bénédictine is produced in Fécamp.
Apples are also widely used in cooking: for example, moules à la
normande are mussels cooked with apples, cream and cheese, bourdelots
are apples baked in pastry, partridges are flamed with reinette
apples, and localities all over the province have their own variation
of apple tart, that is more popular named tan tan tan tan, because the
people can't say the correct name "Tarte Tatin", a classic pastry dish
from the region is
Norman Tart a pastry-based variant of the apple
Other regional specialities include tripes à la mode de Caen,
andouilles and andouillettes, salade cauchoise, salt meadow (pré
salé) lamb, seafood (mussels, scallops, lobsters, mackerel…), and
teurgoule (spiced rice pudding).
Normandy dishes include duckling à la rouennaise, sautéed chicken
yvetois, and goose en daube. Rabbit is cooked with morels, or à la
havraise (stuffed with truffled pigs' trotters). Other dishes are
sheep's trotters à la rouennaise, casseroled veal, larded calf's
liver braised with carrots, and veal (or turkey) in cream and
Normandy is also noted for its pastries. It is the birthplace of
brioches (especially those from
Évreux and Gisors) and also turns out
douillons (pears baked in pastry), craquelins, roulettes in Rouen,
fouaces in Caen, fallues in Lisieux, sablés in Lisieux. Confectionery
of the region includes
Rouen apple sugar, Isigny caramels,
chews, Falaise berlingots,
Le Havre marzipans,
Normandy is the native land of Taillevent, cook of the kings of France
Charles V and Charles VI. He wrote the earliest French cookery book
named Le Viandier.
Confiture de lait was also made in
the 14th century.
Wace presents his
Roman de Rou
Roman de Rou to Henry II, Illustration 1824
Anglo-Norman literature and Gesta Normannorum Ducum
The dukes of
Normandy commissioned and inspired epic literature to
record and legitimise their rule. Wace,
Orderic Vitalis and Stephen of
Rouen were among those who wrote in the service of the dukes. After
the division of 1204, French literature provided the model for the
development of literature in Normandy.
Olivier Basselin wrote of the
Vaux de Vire, the origin of literary vaudeville. Among notable Norman
writers in French are Jean Marot, Rémy Belleau, Guy de Maupassant,
Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly, Gustave Flaubert, Octave Mirbeau, and Remy
de Gourmont, and Alexis de Tocqueville. The Corneille brothers, Pierre
and Thomas, born in Rouen, were great figures of French classical
David Ferrand (1591–1660) in his Muse Normande established a
Norman language literature. In the 16th and 17th
centuries, the workers and merchants of
Rouen established a tradition
of polemical and satirical literature in a form of language called the
parler purin. At the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th
century a new movement arose in the Channel Islands, led by writers
such as George Métivier, which sparked a literary renaissance on the
Norman mainland. In exile in
Jersey and then Guernsey, Victor Hugo
took an interest in the vernacular literature. Les Travailleurs de la
mer is a well-known novel by Hugo set in the Channel Islands. The boom
in insular literature in the early 19th century encouraged production
especially in La Hague and around Cherbourg, where Alfred Rossel,
Louis Beuve and
Côtis-Capel became active. The typical medium for
literary expression in Norman has traditionally been newspaper columns
and almanacs. The novel Zabeth by André Louis which appeared in 1969
was the first novel published in Norman.
Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son, 1875
Normandy has a rich tradition of painting and gave to
France some of
its most important artists.
In the 17th century some major French painters were
Nicolas Poussin, born in
Les Andelys and Jean Jouvenet.
Romanticism drew painters to the Channel coasts of Normandy. Richard
Parkes Bonington and
J. M. W. Turner
J. M. W. Turner crossed the Channel from Great
Britain, attracted by the light and landscapes. Théodore Géricault,
a native of Rouen, was a notable figure in the Romantic movement, its
famous Radeau de la Méduse being considered come the breakthrough of
pictorial romanticism in
France when it was officially presented at
the 1819 Salon. The competing Realist tendency was represented by
Jean-François Millet, a native of La Hague. The landscape painter
Eugène Boudin, born in Honfleur, was a determining influence on the
impressionnists and was highly considered by Monet.
Robert Antoine Pinchon, Un après-midi à l'Ile aux Cerises, Rouen,
oil on canvas, 50 x 61.2 cm
Breaking away from the more formalised and classical themes of the
early part of the 19th century, Impressionist painters preferred to
paint outdoors, in natural light, and to concentrate on landscapes,
towns and scenes of daily life.
Leader of the movement and father of modern painting,
Claude Monet is
one of the best known Impressionists and a major character in
Normandy's artistic heritage. His house and gardens at
Giverny are one
of the region's major tourist sites, much visited for their beauty and
their water lilies, as well as for their importance to Monet's
Normandy was at the heart of his creation, from
the paintings of Rouen's cathedral to the famous depictions of the
cliffs at Etretat, the beach and port at
Fécamp and the sunrise at Le
Havre. It was Impression, Sunrise, Monet's painting of Le Havre, that
led to the movement being dubbed Impressionism. After Monet, all the
main avant-garde painters of the 1870s and 1880s came to
paint its landscapes and its changing lights, concentrating along the
Seine valley and the Norman coast.
Landscapes and scenes of daily life were also immortalised on canvas
by artists such as William Turner, Gustave Courbet, the
Eugène Boudin, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Auguste Renoir,
Gustave Caillebotte, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Pierre
Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. While Monet's work adorns
galleries and collections all over the world, a remarkable quantity of
Impressionist works can be found in galleries throughout Normandy,
such as the Museum of Fine Arts in Rouen, the Musée
Eugène Boudin in
Honfleur or the André Malraux Museum in Le Havre.
Maurice Denis, one of the leaders and theoricists of the Nabis
movement in the 1890s, was a native of Granville, in the Manche
Société Normande de Peinture Moderne
Société Normande de Peinture Moderne was founded in 1909 by
Pierre Dumont, Robert Antoine Pinchon, Yvonne Barbier and Eugène
Tirvert. Among members were Raoul Dufy, a native of Le Havre, Albert
Francis Picabia and Maurice Utrillo. Also in this movement
were the Duchamp brothers,
Jacques Villon and Marcel Duchamp,
considered one of the father of modern art, also natives of Normandy.
Jean Dubuffet, one of the leading French artist of the 1940s and the
1950s was born in Le Havre.
Christian missionaries implanted monastic communities in the territory
in the 5th and 6th centuries. Some of these missionaries came from
across the Channel. The influence of
Celtic Christianity can still be
found in the Cotentin. By the terms of the treaty of
Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Rollo, a
Viking pagan, accepted Christianity and
was baptised. The
Duchy of Normandy
Duchy of Normandy was therefore formally a Christian
state from its foundation. The cathedrals of
Normandy have exerted
influence down the centuries in matters of both faith and politics.
King Henry II of England, did penance at the cathedral of Avranches on
21 May 1172 and was absolved from the censures incurred by the
assassination of Thomas Becket.
Mont Saint-Michel is a historic
Normandy does not have one generally agreed patron saint, although
this title has been ascribed to Saint Michael, and to Saint Ouen. Many
saints have been revered in
Normandy down the centuries, including:
Aubert who's remembered as the founder of Mont Saint-Michel
Marcouf and Laud who are important saints in Normandy
Samson of Dol
Samson of Dol who are evangelizers of the Channel Islands
Thomas Becket, an Anglo-Norman whose parents were from Rouen, who was
the object of a considerable cult in mainland
Normandy following his
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc who was martyred in Rouen, and who is especially
remembered in that city
Lisieux whose birthplace in
Alençon and later home in
Lisieux are a focus for religious pilgrims.
Germanus of Normandy
Since the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the
State there is no established church in mainland Normandy. In the
Channel Islands, the
Church of England
Church of England is the established church.
See Category:People from Normandy
Cathedral by Claude Monet
World War II
World War II 15cm TbtsK C/36 German coastal gun.
Arromanches, Mulberry Harbour
Half-timbered houses in Rouen
Château d'Ételan (1494)
Duchy of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
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^ "La carte à 13 régions définitivement adoptée" (in French). Le
Monde. Agence France-Presse. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 13 January
^ Houses and properties for sale.
Normandy Property. Retrieved on 19
^ (in French) L’état des régions françaises 2004, page 189
^ (in French) INSEE, Emploi-Chômage
France in CIA factbook"
^ (in French) INSEE
^ (in French) INSEE
Vikings in Normandy: The Scandinavian contribution in
^ "Norman cheeses: History". fromages.org.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Normandy.
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia
(in French) Normandie Héritage
The Norman Worlds
Gallery of photos of Normandy
Administrative regions of France
Current administrative regions (since 2016)
Centre-Val de Loire
Pays de la Loire
Former administrative regions (1982–2015)
Centre-Val de Loire
Pays de la Loire
Historical provinces of France
Flanders and Hainaut