Norimasa Kaeriyama


(1 March 1893 – 6 November 1964) was a pioneering Japanese
film director A film director controls a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through ...
film theorist Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of film studies, film or cinema studies that began in the 1920s by questioning the formal essentialism, essential attributes of film, motion pictures; and that now provides ...


Beginning with articles he submitted to Yoshizawa Shōten's magazine ''Katsudō shashinkai'' while still a student, Kaeriyama developed a long series of critiques of contemporary
Japanese cinema The has a history that spans more than 100 years. Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Ja ...
that would make him the leading spokesman of the
Pure Film MovementThe was a trend in film criticism and filmmaking in 1910s and early 1920s Japan that advocated what were considered more modern and cinematic modes of filmmaking. Critics in such magazines as ''Kinema Record'' and ''Kinema Junpo'' complained that ex ...
in the 1910s. The ideas about what cinema should be that he developed in the journal '' Kinema Record'', which he helped found with Yukiyoshi Shigeno, were accumulated in his 1917 book, ''The Production and Photography of Moving Picture Drama'' (Katsudō shashingeki no sōsaku to satsueihō), an influential work that continued to be reprinted into the 1920s. Although an engineer by training, Kaeriyama entered the film industry, first at Nihon Kinetophone in 1914, and then at Tennenshoku Katsudō Shashin (Tenkatsu) in 1917. It was at the latter that he was able to put his ideals into practice with films such as ''The Glow of Life'' (Sei no kagayaki) and ''Maid of the Deep Mountains'' (Miyama no otome), which were filmed in 1918 with his production group, the Geijutsu Eiga Kyōkai, but released in 1919. These were hailed as some of the first "pure films" in Japan, in part because Kaeriyama was one of the first to use actresses in a Japanese produced film. Several figures who later made significant contributions to Japanese cinema worked with him on these projects, including Minoru Murata (later a director), Shizue Natsukawa, Iyokichi Kondō, and Sugisaku Aoyama (the latter all actors). Kaeriyama continued directing films until the mid-1920s, but rarely to much success. Afterwards, he returned to engineering work, while continuing to write how-to books on filmmaking as well as pursuing the study of sex in cinema.




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* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Kaeriyama, Norimasa Japanese film directors Film theorists 1893 births 1964 deaths Silent film directors