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Noricum
Noricum
is the Latin
Latin
name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes,[1] that included most of modern Austria
Austria
and part of Slovenia. In the first century AD, it became a province of the Roman Empire. Its borders were the Danube
Danube
to the north, Raetia
Raetia
and Vindelicia
Vindelicia
to the west, Pannonia
Pannonia
to the east and southeast, and Italia (Venetia et Histria) to the south. The kingdom was founded around 400 BC, and had its capital at the royal residence at Virunum
Virunum
on the Magdalensberg.[2][3]

Contents

1 Area and population 2 Language 3 Steel for Roman weaponry 4 Roman rule 5 In modern politics 6 Episcopal sees 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Area and population[edit] Its area corresponded to the greater part of modern Styria
Styria
and Carinthia, Upper/Lower Austria
Austria
west of Vienna, Salzburg, a part of Bavaria, and a part of Slovenia. The original population appears to have consisted of Illyrians, who after the great migration of the Gauls, became subordinate to various Celto-Ligurians
Celto-Ligurians
tribes, chief amongst them being the Norici (so called after their capital Noreia), who were possibly identical with the Taurisci
Taurisci
of Roman sources.[4] The country is mountainous and the soil relatively poor except in the southeastern parts, but it proved rich in iron and supplied material for the manufacturing of arms in Pannonia, Moesia, and northern Italy. The famous Noric steel was largely used in the making of Roman weapons (e.g. Horace, Odes, i.16.9-10: Noricus ensis, "a Noric sword"). Gold[5] and salt[citation needed] were found in considerable quantities. The plant called saliunca (the wild or Celtic nard, a relative of the lavender) grew in abundance and was used as a perfume according to Pliny the Elder.[6] The inhabitants were a warlike people, who paid more attention to cattle-breeding than to agriculture,[citation needed] although when the area became a Roman province, the Romans probably increased the fertility of the soil by draining the marshes and cutting down timber.[citation needed] Noric steel was famous for its quality and hardness. When the Celts
Celts
had superseded the Illyrians, Noricum
Noricum
was the southern outpost of the northern Celtic peoples, and during the later period of the Iron Age, the starting point of their attacks upon Italy.[citation needed] In Noricum, almost all those Celtic invaders are mentioned. Archaeological research, particularly in the cemeteries of Hallstatt, has shown that a vigorous civilization was in the area centuries before recorded history, but the Hallstatt
Hallstatt
civilization was a cultural manifestation prior to the Celtic invasions and close to the earlier Illyrians. The Hallstatt
Hallstatt
graves contained weapons and ornaments from the Bronze age, through the period of transition, up to the "Hallstatt culture", i.e., the fully developed older period of the Iron age.[citation needed] William Ridgeway made a strong case for the theory that the cradle of the Homeric Achaeans was in Noricum
Noricum
and neighbouring areas.[7][8][contradictory] Language[edit] The Noric language, a continental Celtic language, is attested in only fragmentary inscriptions, one from Ptuj[9][10] and two from Grafenstein,[11][12] neither of which provide enough information for any conclusions about the nature of the language.[9][11] Steel for Roman weaponry[edit]

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The kingdom of Noricum
Noricum
was a major provider of weaponry for the Roman armies from the mid-Republic onwards. Roman swords were made of the best-quality steel then available from this region, the chalybs Noricus. The strength of iron is determined by its carbon content. The wrought iron produced in the Greco-Roman world
Greco-Roman world
generally contained only minimal traces of carbon and was too soft for tools and weapons. It thus needed to be carburised to at least 1.5% carbon content. The main Roman method of achieving this was to repeatedly heat the wrought iron to a temperature of over 800 C (i.e. to "white heat") and hammer it in a charcoal fire, causing the iron to absorb carbon from the charcoal.[13] This technique had been developed empirically, as there is no evidence that ancient iron producers understood the chemistry involved. The rudimentary methods of carburisation used rendered the quality of the iron ore critical to the production of good steel. The ore needed to be rich in manganese (an element which remains essential in modern steelmaking processes), but also to contain very little, or preferably zero, phosphorus, whose presence would compromise the steel's hardness.[14] The ore mined in Carinthia
Carinthia
(S. Noricum) fulfills both criteria to an unusual degree.[15] The Celtic peoples of Noricum
Noricum
(predominantly the Taurisci
Taurisci
tribe) empirically discovered that their ore made superior steel around 500 BC and established a major steel-making industry around it.[16] At Magdalensberg, a major production and trading centre was established, where a large number of specialised blacksmiths crafted a range of metal products, especially weapons. The finished products were mostly exported southwards, to Aquileia, a Roman colony founded in 180 BC. From 200 BC onwards, it appears that the tribes of Noricum
Noricum
were gradually united in a native Celtic kingdom, known to the Romans as the regnum Noricum, with its capital at an uncertain location called Noreia. Noricum
Noricum
became a key ally of the Roman Republic, providing a reliable supply of high-quality weapons and tools in return for Roman military protection. Although there was no formal treaty of military alliance, the Norici could count on Roman military support, as demonstrated in 113 BC, when a vast host of Teutones
Teutones
invaded Noricum. In response to a desperate appeal by the Norici, the Roman consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo rushed an army over the Alps and attacked the Germanic tribe or tribes near Noreia
Noreia
(although, in the event, he was heavily defeated). Roman rule[edit] Noricum
Noricum
was incorporated into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 16 BC. For a long time previously, the Noricans had enjoyed independence under princes of their own and carried on commerce with the Romans. In 48 BC they took the side of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in the civil war against Pompey. In 16 BC, having joined with the Pannonians in invading Histria, they were defeated by Publius Silius, proconsul of Illyricum.[citation needed] Thereafter, Noricum
Noricum
was called a province, although it was not organized as such and remained a kingdom with the title of regnum Noricum, yet under the control of an imperial procurator.[citation needed] Under the reign of Emperor Claudius
Claudius
(41–54) the Noricum Kingdom was ultimately incorporated into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
apparently without offering resistance. It was not until the reign of Antoninus Pius that the Second Legion, Pia (later renamed Italica) was stationed in Noricum, and the commander of the legion became the governor of the province.[citation needed] Under Diocletian
Diocletian
(245–313), Noricum
Noricum
was divided into Noricum
Noricum
ripense (" Noricum
Noricum
along the river", the northern part southward from the Danube), and Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum ("landlocked Noricum", the southern, more mountainous district). The dividing line ran along the central part of the eastern Alps.[17] Each division was under a praeses, and both belonged to the diocese of Illyricum in the Praetorian prefecture of Italy. It was in this time (304 A.D.) that a Christian serving as a military officer in the province suffered martyrdom for the sake of his faith, later canonised as Saint Florian.[18] The Roman colonies and chief towns were Virunum
Virunum
(near Maria Saal
Maria Saal
to the north of Klagenfurt), Teurnia
Teurnia
(near Spittal an der Drau), Flavia Solva (near Leibnitz), Celeia (Celje) in today's Slovenia, Juvavum (Salzburg), Ovilava (Wels), Lauriacum (Lorch at the mouth of the Enns, the ancient Anisus). Knowledge of Roman Noricum
Noricum
has been decisively expanded by the work of Richard Knabl, an Austrian epigrapher of the 19th century. In modern politics[edit] In 1919, Heinrich Lammasch, the last prime minister of Imperial Austria, proposed to give the young republic the name of Norische Republik or Noric Republic,[19] because the ancient borders were similar to those of the new state which, at that time, did not wish to be considered the heir of the Habsburg monarchy but an independent, neutral and peaceful state.[20] Episcopal sees[edit] Episcopal sees of Noricum
Noricum
that are now listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees include:[21]

Aguntum Virunum

References[edit]

^ Mackensen, Michael (1975). "The state of research on the 'Norican' silver coinage". World Archaeology. 6 (3): 249–275. doi:10.1080/00438243.1975.9979607. JSTOR 124094.  ^ Heather, Peter (2010). The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History. Macmillan. p. 407.  ^ Cunliffe, Barry (1997). The Ancient Celts. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-19-815010-7.  ^ While Pliny states that they are identical (Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia), the Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde places the Celtic Norici northwest of the Celtic Taurisci. Hungarian historian Géza Alföldy suggests that the Norici were a federated tribe of the Taurisci. Alföldy, Géza (1966). " Taurisci
Taurisci
und Norici". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte (in German). 15 (2): 224–241. JSTOR 4434926.  ^ From a statement of Polybius, in his own time in consequence of the great output of gold from a mine in Noricum, gold went down one-third in value. Ridgeway, William (1892). The Origin of Metallic Currency and Weight Standards. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 139.  ^ Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
xxi. 20.43) ^ William Ridgeway, The Early Age of Greece, vol. I, chapter 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1901 ^ Goodale, Stephen Lincoln (1920). Speer, James Ramsey, ed. Chronology of iron and steel. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh Iron & Steel Foundries Company. p. 21. OCLC 345148.  ^ a b Eichner, Heiner; Istenič, Janka & Lovenjak, Milan (1994). "Ein römerzeitlisches Keramikgefäs au Ptuj
Ptuj
(Pettau, Poetovio) in Slowien mit Inschrift in unbekanntem Alphabet und epichorischer (vermutlich keltischer) Sprache" (PDF). Arheološki vestnik (in German). 45: 131–142. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2015.  ^ "Vase de Ptuj". Encyclopédie de l'arbre celtique. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008.  ^ a b Eska, Joseph F. & Evans, D. Ellis (2009). "Continental Celtic". In Ball, Martin J. & Müller, Nicole. The Celtic languages (second ed.). London: Routledge. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-415-42279-6.  ^ "Tuile de Grafenstein". Encyclopédie de l'arbre celtique. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008.  ^ Healy (1978) 231 ^ Buchwald (2005) 124 ^ Buchwald (2005) 115 ^ Healy (1978) 236 ^ "The province of Noricum
Noricum
Ripense extended along the right or southern bank of the Danube, between the river and the Noric Alps, and was bounded on one side by Raetia
Raetia
Secunda and the river Inn (Aenus) and on the other by the confines of Pannonia
Pannonia
Superior — the district included in the modern province of Carinthia
Carinthia
in Austria. Noricum Mediterraneum lay directly to the south, beyond the Noric Alps." Mierow, Charles C. (1915). "Eugippius and the Closing Years of the Province of Noricum
Noricum
Ripense". Classical Philology. 10 (2): 166–187. JSTOR 261764.  ^ Stülz, Jodok (1835). Geschichte des regulirten Chorherrn-Stiftes St. Florian: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Landes Österreich ob der Enns (in German). Linz: Haslinger. pp. 2–3.  ^ Anna Maria Drabek, Der Österreichbegriff und sein Wandel im Lauf der Geschichte, in: Marktgemeinde Neuhofen/Ybbs (ed.): Ostarrichi Gedenkstätte Neuhofen/Ybbs, no date (1980), pp. 32–41 ^ Dieter Köberl, Zum Wohle Österreichs. Vor 90 Jahren starb Heinrich Lammasch, in: Die Furche, 18 February 2010 ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013

Bibliography[edit]

Géza Alföldy. Noricum. Routledge & K. Paul, 1974 Healy, John F., Mining and Metallurgy in the Greek and Roman World, Thames and Hudson, 1978.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Noricum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 748. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Noricum.

Noricum
Noricum
(in German) Noricum, its cities and traffic routes in the 2nd century

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia
Pannonia
Inferior Pannonia
Pannonia
Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126687

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