Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR; Northern German Broadcasting) is a public
radio and television broadcaster, based in Hamburg. In addition to the
city-state of Hamburg, NDR transmits for the German states of Lower
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Schleswig-Holstein. NDR is a member
of the ARD consortium.
2 Organization and finances
2.1 Chairmen of the Norddeutscher Rundfunk
4 Musical organizations
5.1 FM, MW and TV
5.2 FM and TV
6 Other facilities
7.3 Länder control
7.4 NWDR split
8 NDR history
10 External links
NDR television buildings in Hamburg
NDR's studios in
Hamburg are in two locations, both within the borough
of Eimsbüttel: the television studios are in the quarter of Lokstedt
while the radio studios are in the quarter of
they are called "Funkhaus am Rothenbaum"), a little closer to the city
centre. There are also regional studios, having both radio and
television production facilities, in the state capitals Hanover, Kiel
and Schwerin. The facility in
Hanover is now called the Landesfunkhaus
Niedersachsen. In addition NDR maintains facilities at ARD's national
studios in Berlin.
Organization and finances
Chairmen of the Norddeutscher Rundfunk
NDR is in part funded by the limited sale of on-air commercial
advertising time; however, its principal source of income is the
revenue derived from viewer and listener licence fees. As of 2015 the
monthly fee due from each household for radio and television reception
was €17.50. These fees are collected not directly by NDR but by a
joint agency of ARD (and its member institutions), ZDF, and
Map of the ARD broadcasting regions in Germany
NDR currently provides a number of services on its own or in
co-operation with other broadcasters:
Das Erste – joint national channel
NDR Fernsehen (formerly N3 and Norddeutsches Fernsehen) – third
public service channel for NDR area and Bremen, in co-operation with
Phoenix – events channel produced by ARD and ZDF
KI.KA – children's channel produced by ARD and ZDF
Arte – Franco-German culture channel
3sat— cultural channel, co-produced by ARD, ZDF, ORF, and SRG
NDR 90.3 – Local station for Hamburg, playing music for older
NDR 1 Niedersachsen – Local station for Lower Saxony, run from
Hanover with some regional opt-outs. Plays music for older listeners.
NDR 1 Welle Nord – Local station for Schleswig-Holstein, run from
Kiel with some regional opt-outs. Plays music for older listeners.
NDR 1 Radio MV – Local station for Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, run from
Schwerin with some regional opt-outs. Plays music for older listeners.
NDR 2 – Popular music station for middle-aged listeners. This is a
commercial public service station.
NDR Kultur – Arts and culture station (formerly NDR 3). Plays
NDR Info – News and information station (formerly NDR 4 or NDR 4
NDR Info Spezial - Same programming as NDR Info with opt-outs for
sports, parliament sittings, maritime forecast, multicultural
broadcasts and the ARD Infonacht.
N-Joy – youth station.
Nordwestradio – Cultural station for northwest
Lower Saxony and
Bremen, produced jointly with Radio Bremen.
NDR Blue – Music "away from the charts".
NDR Plus - a music station with the programming format schlager music
and easy listening
NDR has four musical organizations, including two orchestras, a chorus
and a "big band":
NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchester – the North German Radio
Elbphilharmonie Orchestra; created in 1945 as the Symphony Orchestra
of the NWDR and continued by NDR under the name NDR Sinfonieorchester
between 1955 – 2016. It was renamend in 2016 to its current name.
Principal conductors have included
Günter Wand and John Eliot
Gardiner. Currently it is Thomas Hengelbrock.
NDR Radiophilharmonie – the NDR Radio Philharmonic; created in 1950
Hanover Radio Orchestra of the NWDR and continued by NDR under
its current name since 1955. Principal conductors have included Willy
Steiner and Bernhard Klee. The orchestra plays light classical or
"concert hall" music.
NDR Chor or Chor des Norddeutschen Rundfunks – created in 1946 by
the NWDR and continued under its current name by NDR since 1955. The
choir specializes in "Alte Musik", but a broad repertory also includes
NDR Bigband; created by the NWDR and continued by NDR in 1955 as the
NDR Studioband. Renamed NDR Bigband in 1971.
FM, MW and TV
Hemmingen (for Hannover)
Kronshagen (for Kiel, no AM broadcasts currently)
FM and TV
Torfhaus (Sender Harz-West (de))
Kronshagen (near Kiel)
In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, in the former East Germany, NDR programmes
are broadcast from facilities owned by Media Broadcast GmbH, a former
subsidiary of the Deutsche Telekom AG.
Wittmoor Measurement and Reception Station
For 1924–1955 in detail, see Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk.
In 1924 broadcasting began in Hamburg, when Norddeutsche Rundfunk AG
(NORAG) was created. In 1934 it was incorporated into the
Großdeutscher Rundfunk, the national broadcaster controlled by Joseph
Goebbels's Propagandaministerium, as Reichssender Hamburg.
In 1930, NORAG commissioned the Welte-Funkorgel – a large theatre
organ custom-built by the firm of M. Welte & Sons to meet the
specific acoustic requirements of radio broadcasting – and installed
it in their radio studio (today the world's oldest such facility still
in use) on Rothenbaumchaussee 132, Hamburg, where it continues to be
played, now maintained by volunteers.
In the British Zone of occupied Germany, the military authorities
quickly established Radio
Hamburg to provide information to the
population of the area.
The British Control Commission appointed
Hugh Greene to manage the
creation of public service broadcasting in their Zone. On 22 September
Hamburg became Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk, the single
broadcasting organisation of the British Zone.
In 1948, the Control Commission transferred the Nordwestdeutscher
Rundfunk (NWDR) to the control of the constituent Länder. At first,
NWDR had just one radio station, later known as NWDR1. In 1950, it
introduced a regional station for the north, NWDR Nord (later to
become NDR2), and a regional station for the west, NWDR West (later
That same year, NWDR became a founding member of ARD. The NWDR also
played a founding role in launching 625-line television in Germany,
starting broadcasts on 25 December 1952.
In February 1955, North Rhine-Westphalia decided to establish its own
broadcaster, whilst Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein
continued with the existing system. To this end, the NWDR was split
into two broadcasters,
Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR) in the north and
Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR) in North Rhine-Westphalia.
NDR continued to operate out of Hamburg. The split was effective from
1 January 1956, although the station NWDR1 remained a joint operation
with regional opt-outs.
The NWDR television service also remained a joint operation, from 1
April 1956 under the name Nord- und Westdeutsche Rundfunkverband
(North and West German Broadcasting Federation – NWRV). NDR and WDR
launched separate television services for their respective areas in
The former logo of NDR, in use until 1980
The previous logo of NDR (1984−2001), which featured Antje the
Walrus, the mascot of the broadcaster for the north.
On 1 December 1956 NDR started its third radio channel, NDR3 (from
1962 to 1973, it was operated jointly with Sender Freies Berlin).
In 1958 Han Koller became the musical director of Hamburg's NDR Jazz
Workshop, which became a popular radio broadcast. Numerous names in
Jazz performed on these broadcasts including; Kenny Clarke, Lucky
Thompson, Wes Montgomery, Johnny Griffin, Oscar Peterson, Ben Webster,
Sahib Shihab, Carmell Jones, Lee Konitz, Cecil Payne, Slide Hampton,
Jazz Composers Orchestra, Howard Riley, Barry Guy, John
Surman, the Kuhn Brothers and Barney Wilen. Some of these have been
released since 1987, while the older ones only exist as rare bootlegs,
sought after by many
On 4 January 1965 NDR,
Radio Bremen and SFB began a joint "third
channel" television service, Norddeutsches Fernsehen, later Nord 3 and
N3. Since December 2001, this service is called NDR Fernsehen. SFB
started a separate TV channel for
Berlin in 1992, called B1, later
SFB1, now RBB Fernsehen.
In 1977, Gerhard Stoltenberg, the minister-president of
Schleswig-Holstein unilaterally cancelled the NDR-Staatsvertrag, the
governing body of NDR. This caused a discussion how to organise
broadcasting in the North German region.
In 1980, NDR signed a new convention with the three Länder, changing
the pattern of broadcasting and creating new regional services. NDR1
was divided into three independent radio stations from 2 January 1981:
NDR 1 Radio Niedersachsen (from 2002, NDR 1 Niedersachsen) for Lower
NDR 1 Welle Nord for Schleswig-Holstein
NDR Hamburg-Welle 90.3 (from 2 December 2001, NDR 90.3) for Hamburg
NDR2 and NDR3 (now NDR Kultur) continued as regional stations.
These regional services were further subdivided with opt-outs for
specific areas. NDR 1 Niedersachsen established regions based around
Oldenburg-Ostfriesland-Bremen-Cuxhaven, Osnabrück-Emsland, greater
Lower Saxony and northern Lower Saxony.
NDR 1 Welle Nord was subdivided with studio centres in Flensburg,
Heide, Norderstedt, Lübeck and Kiel.
On 30 September 1988 NDR introduced a teletext service on its N3
television channel. Originally called Nordtext, it became NDR Text on
2 December 2001. The teletext service also offers information for
viewers in the
Radio Bremen area under the title
Radio Bremen Text.
On 1 April 1989, NDR introduced its fourth radio service, NDR4. This
service was later renamed NDR4 Info and since 2 June 2002 has been
known as NDR Info. The station is a news and information service for
the whole NDR region.
On 1 January 1992,
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in the former East Germany
joined NDR as the fourth state in the organisation. The area receives
the main NDR radio and television stations, plus the regional NDR 1
Radio mV, which has subregions based in Schwerin, Rostock,
Neubrandenburg and Greifswald. In October of the same year, SFB in
Berlin stopped relaying the Nord 3 television service in favour of its
Berlin 1 TV channel.
On 4 April 1994, NDR introduced
N-Joy Radio (known simply as N-Joy
since 2001), a radio station aimed at 14 to 29-year-old listeners.
On 3 October 1997, NDR3 was relaunched as Radio 3, produced in
co-operation with Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg. At the end of
2000, SFB joined Radio 3. This arrangement lasted until ORB and SFB
merged on 1 January 2003 and started íts own classical and culture
network. NDR3 became NDR Kultur on 1 January 2003.
On 1 November 2001, NDR and
Radio Bremen launched a joint radio
station, Nordwestradio, to serve Bremen and northwestern Lower Saxony.
This service replaced
Radio Bremen 2 and control of the service
remains with Radio Bremen.
As the organization responsible within the ARD consortium of German
public-service broadcasters for overseeing the country's participation
in the Eurovision Song Contest, NDR staged the 56th annual contest
which was held in
Düsseldorf on 10–14 May 2011, outside their own
^ Staff (14 December 2008). "www.weltefreunde.de" (in German). Freunde
Hamburg e.V. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
^ "Antje (1976–2003) – Nachruf auf ein Walross" (in German). TV
wunschliste. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 23
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