NONVIOLENT VIDEO GAMES are video games characterized by little or no violence . As the term is vague, game designers, developers, and marketers that describe themselves as non-violent video game makers, as well as certain reviewers and members of the non-violent gaming community, often employ it to describe games with comparatively little or no violence. The definition has been applied flexibly to games in such purposive genres as the Christian video game , however a number of games at the fringe of the "non-violence" label can only be viewed as objectively violent.
The purposes behind the development of the nonviolent genre are
primarily reactionary in nature. As video quality and level of gaming
technology have increased, the violent nature of some video games has
gained worldwide attention from moral, political, gender, and
medical/psychological quarters. The popularity of violent video games
and increases in youth violence have led to much research into the
degree to which video games may be blamed for societally negative
behaviors. Despite the inconclusive nature of the scientific results,
a number of groups have rejected violent video games as offensive and
have promoted the development of non-violent alternatives. The
existence of a market for such games has in turn led to the
manufacture and distribution of a number of games specifically
designed for the nonviolent gaming community.
* 1.1 Education * 1.2 Research * 1.3 Lawsuits and legislation * 1.4 Degrees of violence
* 2 Gender perspective
* 3 Religious perspective
* 3.1 Christian games * 3.2 Hindu games * 3.3 Buddhist games * 3.4 Jewish games * 3.5 Muslim games * 3.6 Sikh games * 3.7 Bahá\'í games * 3.8 Taoist games * 3.9 Religion neutral games
* 4 Types of non-violent video games
* 4.1 Traditionally non-violent games
* 4.2 Non-violent action games
* 4.2.1 Non-violent first person shooters
* 4.3 Non-violent role-playing games * 4.4 Non-violent strategy games * 4.5 Non-violent sports games and non-violent vehicle simulations
* 5 See also * 6 References
VIDEO GAME VIOLENCE AND ATTENDANT CONTROVERSIES
Controversies surrounding the negative influences of video games are
nearly as old as the medium itself. In 1964,
Discussion of the impact of violence in video games came as early as
1976's Death Race arcade game (a game with black and white graphics
which involved running over screaming zombies). In the 1980s titles
such as Exidy's Chiller (1986), Namco's
Splatterhouse (1987) and
Midway's NARC (1988) raised concerns about video game violence in the
arcade. Home games such as Palace 's Barbarian (1987) featured the
ability to decapitate opponents. It was not until graphic capabilities
increased and a wave of new ultra-violent titles were released in the
early 1990s that the mainstream news began to pay significant
attention to the phenomenon. In 1992, with Midway 's release of the
first Mortal Kombat video game, and then in 1993 with id 's Doom ,
genuine controversy was first ignited as the wide and growing
popularity of violent video games came into direct conflict with the
moral and religious ethics of concerned citizens. Protests and
game-bannings followed the publicizing of these conflicts, and
controversies would erupt periodically throughout the 1990s with the
releases of such games as
In April 1999, the fears of the media and violence-watch groups were legitimated in their eyes as investigations into the lives of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold , the shooters in the Columbine High School massacre , revealed that they had been fans of the video game, Doom , and had even created levels for it today dubbed "the Harris levels ". A great deal of discussion of violence in video games followed this event with strong arguments made on both sides, and research into the phenomenon which had begun during the 1980s received renewed support and interest.
In December 2001, Surgeon General David Satcher , led a study on violence in youth and determined that while the impact of video games on violent behavior has yet to be determined, "findings suggest that media violence has a relatively small impact on violence," and that "meta-analysis the overall effect size for both randomized and correlational studies was small for physical aggression and moderate for aggressive thinking."
Despite this, the controversies and debate have persisted, and this has been the catalyst for the emergence of the non-violent video game genre. Non-violent video games are defined in the negative by a Modus tollendo ponens disjunctive argument . In other words, in order to recognize a non-violent game, an identifier must recognize the violent game as a distinct class. This has led to a degree of ambiguity in the term as it relies upon a definition of violence which for different identifiers may mean different things. In general, violence may be placed into at least three distinct categories:
* Totally non-violent games - Games in which absolutely no violence occurs. This category contains games characterized by lack of the death of characters, lack of sudden noise or movement, and often lack of traditional conflict. (e.g., Below the Root or Sudoku Gridmaster )
* Games in which the player acts non-violently - Games where violence occurs to the character-player as a result of environmental hazards or enemies but the character-player's reaction is to run away or otherwise distance himself from the violence.
* Games with environmental hazards only - Games lacking enemies, but containing a potentially violent environment (E.g. Alleyway , or Roller Coaster ) * Games with enemies - Games with violent enemies which the player-character must avoid (E.g. the Eggerland series)
* Games in which the player acts non-violently to other sentient beings - Games where a player acts violently against robots or other non-living non-sentient enemies (E.g. Descent )
The majority of these games have not been scientifically tested to see whether children learn the skills the games claim to teach.In another study performed in Chile, educational video games were put into some first and second grade classrooms. Children who had the games in their classroom showed more progress in math, reading comprehension, and spelling than the children who did not use games in their classrooms.
The history of video game development shares approximate contemporaneity with media violence research in general. In the early 1960, studies were conducted on the effects of violence in cartoons , and throughout the 1970s and 1980s a number of studies were conducted on how televised violence influenced viewers (especially younger viewers). The focus of many of these studies was on the effects of exposure of children to violence, and these studies frequently employed the social learning theory framework developed by Albert Bandura to explore violent behavioral modeling. Surgeon General David Satcher has conducted research in the field of video game violence and has concluded that "findings suggest that media violence has a relatively small impact on violence."
With advancements in video technology and the rise of video games containing graphic violence in the late 1980s and early 1990s, media violence research shifted to a great degree from televised violence to video game violence. Although under current debate, a number of researchers have claimed that violent games may cause more intense feelings of aggression than nonviolent games, and may trigger feelings of anger and hostility. Theoretical explanations for these types of effects have been explained in myriad theories including social cognitive theory, excitation transfer theory, priming effect and the General Aggression Model . However recent scholarship has suggested that social cognitive theories of aggression are outdated and should be retired.
One difference between video games and television which nearly all media violence studies recognize is that video games are primarily interactive while television is primarily passive in nature. Video game players identify with the character they control in the video games and there have been suggestions that the interactivity available in violent video games narrows the gap between the theory and practice of youth violence in a manner that goes beyond the effects of televised violence. Acknowledgment of the fact that, for better or worse, video games are likely to remain a part of modern society has led to a brace of comparative studies between violent games and non-violent games. As technology has advanced, such studies have adapted to include the effects of violent games and non-violent games in new media methods such as immersive virtual reality simulations.
Results have varied, with some research indicating correlation between violence in video games and violence in players of the games, and other research indicating minimal if any relationship. Despite the lack of solid conclusion on the issue, the suggestion that violent games cause youth violence together with the clear popularity of violent video game genres such as the first-person shooter have led some game designers to publish non-violent alternatives.
LAWSUITS AND LEGISLATION
As research supporting the view that video game violence leads to
youth violence has been produced, there have been a number of lawsuits
initiated by victims to gain compensation for loss alleged to have
been caused by video-game-related violence. Similarly, in the US
Congress and the legislatures of states and other countries, a number
of legislative actions have been taken to mandate rating systems and
to curb the distribution of violent video games. At times, individual
games considered too violent have been censored or banned in such
In 1997, Christian conservative activist and (now former) attorney
Jack Thompson brought suit against
In 2000, the County Council for St. Louis, Missouri enacted Ordinance 20,193 that barred minors from purchasing, renting, or playing violent video games deemed to contain any visual depiction or representation of realistic injury to a human or a "human-like being" that appealed to minors' "morbid interest in violence." This ordinance was challenged in 2001 by the Interactive Digital Software Association (IDSA) as violative of freedom of expression as guaranteed by the first amendment. The IDSA cited the 7th Circuit case of American Amusement Machine Association v. Kendrick as precedent suggesting that video game content was a form of freedom of expression, however in 2002 the Eastern District Court of Missouri ultimately issued the controversial ruling that "video games are not a form of expression protected by the First Amendment" in Interactive Digital Software Association v. St. Louis County.
In the aftermath of the
Columbine High School massacre
In 2003, Washington State enacted a statute banning the sale or rental to minors of video games containing "aggressive conflict in which the player kill, injures, or otherwise causes physical harm to a human form in the game who is depicted by dress or other recognizable symbols as a public law enforcement officer." In 2004, this statute was subsequently declared an unconstitutional violation of the first amendment right to free speech in the Federal District Court case of Video Software Dealers Ass'n v. Maleng.
In 2005, Jack Thompson brought suit against Sony Computer
Grand Theft Auto
In 2005, California State Senator,
In 2005, in reaction to such controversial games as Grand Theft Auto:
San Andreas , Senator
Hillary Clinton along with Senators Joe
In June 2006, the Louisiana case of Entertainment Software Association v. Foti struck down a state statute that sought to bar minors from purchasing video games with violent content. The statute was declared an unconstitutional violation of the 1st Amendment. Amici filing briefs included Jack Thompson .
On 27 September 2006, Senator
DEGREES OF VIOLENCE
TABLE OF VIOLENCE RATINGS
VIOLENCE LEVEL/RATING SYSTEM
BBFC "> Games such as Nintendo's
A number of studies have been conducted specifically analyzing the differences between male and female preference in video game styles. Studies have vacillated between findings that the gender effect on violence preference in games is significant and insignificant, however no firm conclusions have been achieved to date. The number of studies in this field has blossomed contemporaneously with greater gender studies , and a degree of tension exists in the field between the traditional stereotype of violence as a male-dominant characteristic and the realities of the marketing data for violent games.
In 2008, an example of such studies was funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice to the Center for Mental Health and Media. These studies were released in the book, Grand Theft Childhood , wherein it was found that among girls, nine of the "top ten were nonviolent games such as Mario titles, Dance Dance Revolution or simulation games " compared to a majority of violent games in the top ten favorites of boys. Ultimately, the conclusion reached in Grand Theft Childhood was that "focusing on such easy but minor targets as violent video games causes parents, social activists and public-policy makers to ignore the much more powerful and significant causes of youth violence that have already been well established, including a range of social, behavioral, economic, biological and mental-health factors." This conclusion supports Surgeon General Satcher 's 2001 study (supra).
Despite this conclusion, general awareness of the issue together with traditional stereotyping has led a number of game developers and designers to create non-violent video games specifically for female audiences . Advertisement placement and other marketing techniques have in the past targeted women as more receptive to non-violent video game genres such as life simulation games , strategy games , or puzzle video games . Although these genres often contain certain degrees of violence, they lack the emphasis on graphic violence characterized for instance by the first-person shooter genre.
Criticism for the violent aspects of video game culture has come from a number of anti-violence groups, and perhaps the most vocal of these are the numerous religious opposition groups. The moral codes of nearly all major religions contain prohibitions against murder and violence in general. In some cases this prohibition even extends to aggression, wrath, and anger. Violent video games, while merely vicarious in nature, have been the focus of religious disapproval or outrage in various circles. Notable anti-violent-video-game crusader, former attorney Jack Thompson is a self proclaimed Christian conservative , and his legal actions against violent video games have been intimately linked to his religious views. As groups like the fundamentalist Christian population have increased in number of adherents, new marketing opportunities have developed contemporaneously. Several religion-centric games forums such as GameSpot 's "Religion and Philosophy" forum have developed within the greater gaming community in reaction to this growing niche.
Main article: Christian video game
There has been a rapid increase in Christian video games in the last
decade, however as Christian games have striven to compete with their
more popular secular progenitors, there has been an increasing number
of games released that blur the lines between Christian and
non-Christian values. Jack Thompson, for instance, has publicly
decried such Christian games as Left Behind: Eternal Forces , stating
"It's absurd, ... you can be the Christians blowing away the infidels,
and if that doesn't hit your hot button, you can be the Antichrist
blowing away all the Christians." (The game reviewers
IGN , Ars
GameSpy have disagreed that "Left Behind: Eternal Forces"
is overtly violent. ) Similarly, James Dobson, PhD., founder of the
Focus on the Family
Although Christian games have been around since
Some of these games, despite containing objectively violent content,
have been affirmatively labeled "non-violent video games" by marketers
and faith-based non-violent gaming communities. In direct response to
Columbine High School massacre
An example of a notable
Christian video game organization is the
Christian Game Developers Foundation, focusing on family-friendly
gameplay and Biblical principles. Another well known Christian video
game creator and distributor is
Wisdom Tree which is best known for
its unlicensed Christian video games on the
In 2006, Escapist magazine reported that a Hindu first-person shooter entitled My Hindu Shooter was in the works. In My Hindu Shooter, a game based on the Unreal Engine , the player employs the Vedic abilities of astrology , Ayurvedic healing , breathing (meditation), herbalism , Gandharva Veda music , architecture (which let you purify demonic areas) and yagyas (rituals). Gameplay involved acquisition of the siddhis of clairvoyance, levitation, invisibility, shrinking and strength, and the ultimate goal of the game was to achieve pure consciousness by removing karma through completion of quests and cleansing the six chakras in ascending order. The only way to actually win the game is to complete it without harming or killing any other living creature. Despite the violence-free requirements of the main character, however, a player could die and be reincarnated in a number of different forms like a human, a pig, a dog, or a worm. Whatever form you came back as would limit the way in which you could interact with other characters in the game. Like the majority of games that have been labeled non-violent, violence in the game that is applied to the character rather than that the character applies is not considered to make the game a violent game.
According to Buddhist morality, the first of the
Five Precepts of
* The being must be alive. * There must be the knowledge that it is a sentient living being. * There must be an intention to cause death. * An act must be done to cause death. * There must be death, as the result of the said act.
This section POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (July 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
As the first precept requires an actual living being to be killed to be considered as violated, Buddhists can still enjoy video games with violence because there is no real being that is dying or being hurt. The fuller extent of the first precept is to maintain a harmless attitude towards all. The main problem is the mind, which is the main focus of Buddhism. Violent video games tend to create ill-will and tension, thus it is not conducive for meditation practice. Other than that, the action of the mind also creates kamma (action) which will bear its fruit when the conditions are right.
Although primarily browser games , a number of stand-alone video
games eschewing violence, such as the 2007 Thai game Ethics Game have
been created that promote the
Five Precepts and Buddhism generally.
The Buddhist concept of dharma has been emphasized in a number of
Buddhist games as a reaction to perceptions of the adharmic state of
modern games. The concept of zen has also influenced a number of
nonviolent video games such as
While the earliest games to feature a Jewish main character (the Wolfenstein series ' William "B.J." Blazkowicz) are characterized by militant anti-Nazism , a number of non-violent Jewish games (such as the Avner series by Torah Educational Software (TES)) primarily aimed at younger audiences has emerged with the intention of promoting Jewish religious concepts related to the Torah . One notable non-violent game that explores Jewish themes is The Shivah , a puzzle-adventure game featuring a non-violent battle between Rabbis that takes the form of an insult swordfight .
Despite notoriety in the Western press for controversial violent games such as Under Ash , and Under Siege , Muslim developer Afkar Media has also produced at least one non-violent game entitled Road Block Buster. In Road Block Buster the hero must "jump around  doing tricks to soldiers ... to get over any barrier or road block implanted by Israeli Defense forces without using violence, earn respect by helping surrounded people whom can't get through the separation walls."
Exceptionally rare, the few Sikh games (e.g. Sikh Game ) in existence are primarily browser-based . Sarbloh Warriors , planned to contain mild violence, and characterized by the BBC as Anti-Muslim, entered production as a major Sikh game, but seems to have left active production around 2007.
In January 2007, artist Chris Nelson produced a non-violent art game
called The Seven Valleys which he exhibited during the ACSW conference
University of Ballarat
RELIGION NEUTRAL GAMES
Non-profit organization Heartseed set out to produce several non-violent games, drawing inspiration from a claimed agreement between several religions under the sign of nonviolence: "Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, Judaism and others, - because throughout all of them can be found a common thread of decency meant to propel us toward spiritual enlightenment". This project seems to have been discontinued.
TYPES OF NON-VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES
Non-violent video games as a genre are characterized as a genre by purpose . Unlike genres described by style of gameplay, non-violent video games span a wide number of gameplay genres. Defined in the negative, the purpose of non-violent games is to provide the player with an experience that lacks violence. Many traditional gameplay genres naturally lack violence and application of the term "non-violent video games" to titles that fall under these categories raises no questions regarding accuracy. For game developers and designers who self-identify as non-violent video game makers, however, the challenge has been to expand the concepts of non-violence into such traditionally violent gameplay genres as action games , role-playing games , strategy games , and the first-person shooter .
Emergent and more recent gameplay genres such as music video games are for the most part naturally non-violent. Purposive video game genres such as educational games also are primarily non-violent in nature. Other electronic game genres like audio games are also most frequently non-violent. The indisputably non-violent nature of these games are often considered self-evident by members of both the non-violent gaming community and the gaming community at large. As such they are often not explicitly identified as such. Typically, explicit identification is applied counterintuitively to titles where there might otherwise be a question concerning non-violence. This has led such categorization to be viewed with mistrust, hostility, and mockery by those who fail to recognize the comparative nature of the definition or who disagree fundamentally with the underlying purpose of the genre.
TRADITIONALLY NON-VIOLENT GAMES
Games like Minesweeper contain traditionally non-violent puzzle game aspects, though minesweeper takes its name from a facet of war.
Among traditionally non-violent games are included maze games , adventure games , life simulation games , construction and management simulation games, and some vehicle simulation games among others. These games are generally less frequently described as non-violent due to the self-evident nature of the descriptive term. Prior to the development of games specifically designed for non-violence, non-violent gamers were limited to these traditionally non-violent genres, however a number of games even under the traditionally non-violent umbrella may be considered arguably violent. Minesweeper , for instance, is an abstraction of a scenario that often leads to a patently violent result.
Other common traditionally non-violent genres include adventure games , puzzle games , music video games , programming games , party games , and traditional games .
Examples of traditionally non-violent games include:
* Sudoku Gridmaster - A totally non-violent game wherein the player must assign the mathematically appropriate number to the corresponding blank in a grid. * Roller Coaster - A game featuring a non-violent main-character wherein the player must navigate a dangerous amusement park to collect pieces of money. * Alleyway - A game with only environmental hazards featuring a non-violent main-character wherein the player must break blocks (mild violence) with a ball while avoiding the floor of the level. * The Eggerland series - A series with enemies featuring a non-violent main-character wherein the player must solve block-sliding puzzles in order to secure a key and unlock the door to the next room. * Robots - A game lacking violence to sentient beings wherein a player must either bomb malfunctioning robots or conserve bombs by stepping strategically in order to induce the robots to crash into one another.
NON-VIOLENT ACTION GAMES
Seiklus is a platformer that lacks much of the violence traditionally associated with platformers.
Action games have typically been among the most violent of video
games genres with the liberal employment of enemies to thwart the
actions of the player-character, and an emphasis on killing these
enemies to neutralize them. As action games have developed they have
become progressively more violent over the years as advances in
graphic capabilities allowed for more realistic enemies and death
sequences. Nevertheless, some companies like
Studies have also shown that there are tangible benefits to violence in action games such as increased ability to process visual information quickly and accurately. This has led to support for the development of action games that are non-violent which will allow players to retain the positive visual processing benefits without the negatives associated with violence.
Examples of non-violent action games include:
* Journey - Multi-awarded Game of the Year, Journey is a game
where you as a non-violent player meet and travel with a second
anonymous player on a journey to a mountaintop.
Seiklus - A totally non-violent game wherein the player traverses
a natural landscape as a small person in order to get to the end.
Non-violent First Person Shooters
The application of the term "non-violent" to genres such as the first-person shooter (FPS), that many players consider inherently or definitionally violent, has at times generated vociferous arguments that the concept is inconceivable and at best oxymoronic. This argument typically derives from a strict definition of violence as "extreme, destructive, or uncontrollable force especially of natural events; intensity of feeling or expression, " a definition by which the vast majority of video games may be described as violent. Despite arguments to the contrary, however, such characterizations have been employed as a marketing tool by makers and distributors of non-violent video games, and the degree of popularity enjoyed by games so described may be attributed to the comparative violence of other more violent members of the supergenre.
Non-violent first-person shooter developers have expressed the notion
that it is the challenge of making a non-violent game in a violent
genre that motivates them in part. Rarely, FPS games such as Garry\'s
Often modeled upon violent FPS games, non-violent FPSes such as Chex Quest or the newer Sherlock Holmes games, may bear striking resemblance to the violent game whose engine they are using. Developers of such games often have done little to change the game other than replacing violent or scary imagery and recasting the storyline to describe "zorching", "slobbing", or otherwise non-lethally incapacitating enemies. Examples of simple changes intended to reduce violence for non-violent FPSes include the alteration of the red shroud from the death-sequence in Doom to become the green shroud from the slime-sequence in Chex Quest or the removal of the red shroud from the death-sequence in Half-Life 2 for the deaths in Portal. At times, similarities between violent progenitors and their non-violent descendants have proved strong enough that the non-violent developers have cast their game as a spoof of the violent version. This is apparent in Chex Quest. Off-beat and absurdist humor have been employed in a number of games order to tone down the serious content by makers of non-violent FPSes.
One subgenre of the FPS that typically is not characterized as non-violent despite the fact that gameplay revolves to a great degree around avoidance of battle, is that of stealth games . Although much of the gameplay characteristic to stealth games accords closely with the requirements of the non-violent genre, stealth games most frequently simply delay chaotic violence to focus instead upon controlled precision violence. When stealth and violence are both present as options, stealth is often presented as the superior option for being morally superior or requiring greater skill.
Examples of non-violent FPSes include:
* realMyst - A totally non-violent game wherein the player explores
a lavish 3D environment and solves point-and-click puzzles.
H.U.R.L. - A game featuring a non-violent main-character wherein
the player must navigate a playing-field avoiding enemies as they
attempt to "slob" him with trash.
Narbacular Drop - A game with only environmental hazards featuring
a non-violent main-character wherein the player must navigate her way
out of a dungeon filled with hazards.
Chex Quest - A game with enemies featuring a non-violent
main-character wherein the player must rescue his fellow cereal-pieces
by "zorching" hordes of flemoids back to their home planet with
various zorch guns. Instead of the player's face bleeding, the Chex
piece becomes progressively more covered in slime.
* Descent - A game lacking violence to sentient beings wherein the
player, in a ship, rescues human miners trapped in mines guarded by
malfunctioning mining robots. The player has to navigate maze-like
mines in order to save the hostages and shutdown the malfunctioning
Postal 2 - Even though it's considered one of the most violent
games of all time,
Postal 2 gives the option to be played (and beaten)
without harming a single person. Choosing the pacifist route, the game
will praise the player as "Jesus" at the end of the final screen.
* Plants vs. Zombies: Garden Warfare - A recent FPS, rated everyone
twelve and up, wherein instead of "kill" there is "vanquish".
Chex Quest 2 - The sequel of the original Chex Quest, featuring
the same premise of non-violent action.
NON-VIOLENT ROLE-PLAYING GAMES
The Christian RPG , Spiritual Warfare , features a non-violent hero who spreads repentance by sharing holy fruit
Though infrequently regarded as explicitly violent, role-playing video games (RPGs) have traditionally focused on the adventures of a party of travelers as they spend days and months leveling-up to fight greater and greater foes. Fighting in these games is highly stylized and often turn-based, however the actions of the player-characters and the enemies that attack them are distinctly violent. There have been some attempts made to reduce this violence by rendering it in cartoonish format as in some members of the Final Fantasy series or by recasting the enemies' deaths as "fainting," "sleeping," or becoming "stunned" as in the Pokémon series, however neither of these series has been explicitly labeled non-violent.
One rare example of an RPG that was designed as a non-violent video game is Spiritual Warfare , a game with enemies featuring a non-violent main-character wherein the player wanders about converting the denizens of his town to Christianity while fending off the attacks of wild animals with holy food. Another example is A Tale in the Desert , an MMORPG based on economic development.
Secular examples include Capcom's
In 2015 the fan-funded indie RPG
NON-VIOLENT STRATEGY GAMES
As with role-playing games, strategy games have traditionally focused on the development and expansion of a group as they defend themselves from the attacks of enemies. Strategy games tend not to be explicitly described as violent, however they nearly universally contain violent content in the form of battles, wars, and other skirmishes. Additionally, strategy games tend to more often strive for realistic scenarios and depictions of the battles that result. Counteracting this violence, however, is the fact that strategy games tend to be set at a distant third party perspective and as such the violence of the battles tends to be minute and highly stylized.
For the most part, non-violent groups have not explored this genre of violent game. Gender-marketers have designed strategy games for both male and female audiences, however gender-linked treatment of violence has not occurred in this genre and as such, male- and female-oriented strategy games tend to contain equal degrees of violence. Christian developers have made various attempts at the genre including Left Behind: Eternal Forces in which the player attempts to convert as many civilians in an apocalyptic future as possible by raising their spirit level and shielding them from the corrupting influences of rock-and-roll music and general secularism. The game has been criticized by such anti-violent video game personalities as former attorney Jack Thompson for strategy involving the slaying of infidels and non-believers, and for the ability of players engaged in multi-play modes to play as the Antichrist on the side of the Forces of Satan.
Secular non-violent video game designers have emerged from the
serious games movement and include such anti-violence titles as
PeaceMaker , a game where the player tries to foster peace between
Israelis and Palestinians, and
A Force More Powerful , a
nonviolence-themed game designed by
Steve York , a documentary
filmmaker and director of Bringing Down a Dictator, a non violent
resistance film featuring Ivan Marovic, a resistance leader against
Some examples of relatively nonviolent strategy games include:
NON-VIOLENT SPORTS GAMES AND NON-VIOLENT VEHICLE SIMULATIONS
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (October 2008)
According to the Funk and Buchman method for classifying video games , there are six categories into which games may be divided:
* general entertainment (no fighting or destruction) * educational (learning or problem solving) * fantasy violence (cartoon characters that must fight or destroy things, and risk being killed, in order to achieve a goal) * human violence (like fantasy violence, but with human rather than cartoon characters) * nonviolent sports (no fighting or destruction) * sports violence (fighting or destruction involved)
The separation of violent and nonviolent sports here illustrates a phenomenon also recognizable in the vehicle simulation game genre. With both sport and vehicle simulation games, gameplay has traditionally been highly bipolar with nearly as many violent titles as non-violent. Just as there are non-violent and violent sports games, so too are there flight and combat flight simulators , space flight and space combat simulators , and racing games and vehicular combat games . Distinction of games as violent or non-violent here serves a purely practical purpose as gameplay may differ considerably beyond the merely aesthetic.
Such sports as Ping-pong , golf , and billiards , have in the past been identified as nonviolent. A common example of a nonviolent game that has been employed in a number of studies and government committee reports is NBA Jam: Tournament Edition .
An example of a notable non-violent sports game company is Kush Games .
* ^ Christian Video Games Offer Wholesome Action: Game Makers Hope
Non-Violent Alternatives Will Catch On. ABC News/Technology . 17
* ^ McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man .
Signet. 1964. Re-issued 1994. ISBN 0-262-63159-8 .
* ^ A B C D E Gonzalez, Lauren. When Two Tribes Go to War: A
History of Video Game Controversy.
GameSpot feature. Retrieved 8
* ^ Violent Video Games Produce Violent Behavior. About.com
article. 9 November 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
* ^ http://www.cmch.tv/mentors_teachers/video_games_benefits.asp
"Are there any benefits of playing video games" Accessed 13 April 2014
* ^ Mussen, P., & Rutherford, E. (1961). Effects of aggressive
cartoons on children’s aggressive play. Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, 62, 461-464.
* ^ Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent
games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect,
physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytical
review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12,
* ^ name=Ferguson ">(PDF). Aggression and
Violence Behavior (17):
* ^ Kirsh, Stephen J. Children, Adolescents, and Media
Violence - A
Critical Look at the Research. Media
Violence and the Concept of Risk.
SAGE Publications . 2006. p. 276. ISBN 0-7619-2976-2 .
* ^ Meyers, Kelly Stephen. Television and Video Game Violence: Age
Differences and the Combined Effects of Passive and Interactive
Violent Media. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and
Mechanical College - Department of Psychology. December 2002.
* ^ Greenfield, Patricia Marks and Cocking, Rodney R. Interacting
with video: Volume 11 of Advances in applied developmental psychology.
Greenwood Publishing Group. 1996. ISBN 1-56750-152-4
* ^ A B Cooper, J., & Mackie, D. (1986). Video games and aggression
in children. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16(8), 726-744.
* ^ Tamborini, R., Eastin, M. S., Skalski, P., Lachlan, K., Fediuk,
T. A., & Brady, R. (2004). Violent virtual video games and hostile
thoughts. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(3), 335-357.
* ^ A B Polman, H., de Castro, B. O., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2008).
Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus
watching violent video games on children’s aggressive behavior.
Aggressive Behavior, 34(3), 256-264.
* ^ Arriaga, P., Esteves, F., Caneiro, P., & Monteiro, M. B.
(2008). Are the effects of unreal violent video games pronounced when
playing with a virtual reality system? Aggressive Behavior, 34(5),
* ^ Anderson, Craig & Dill, Karen. Video Games and Aggressive
Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, April 2000 Vol. 78, No.
* ^ Silvern, S. B., & Williamson, P. A. (1987). The effects of
video game play on young children’s aggression, fantasy, and
prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 8(4),
* ^ Dobson, Jason. ACE, Christian Developers Conference Focuses On
Responsible Game Development.
Gamasutra . 3 May 2006.
* ^ Viewizard announces the release of Memonix 1.4.
GameZone . 28
* ^ A B Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr. and Jack Thompson. A political odd
couple\'s advice on finding common ground. Christian Science Monitor.
19 October 2004.
* ^ Federal appeals panel upholds dismissal of lawsuit against
movie, video game makers.
Associated Press . 2002.
* ^ High court won\'t revive suit blaming Hollywood for school
Associated Press . 2003.
* ^ Krug, Judith F. & Caldwell-Stone, Deborah. Controversial Ruling
Finds Video Games Not Protected Speech. 2002.
* ^ American Amusement Machine Association v. Kendrick, 244 F.3d
572 (7th Cir. 2001)
* ^ Interactive Digital Software Association v. St. Louis County,
200 F. Supp. 2d 1126 (E.D. Mo. 2002).
* ^ Federal suit blames video-game makers for Columbine shooting.
Associated Press . 24 April 2001.
* ^ \'Doom\' distributors seek dismissal of lawsuit. Associated
Press . 3 September 2001.
* ^ Violent video games are protected speech, companies say.
Associated Press . 19 July 2001.
* ^ A B Columbine lawsuit against makers of video games, movies
Associated Press . 5 March 2002.
* ^ Morris, Chris. Wash. bans \'violent\' game sales. CNN/Money. 21
* ^ Kramer, Irwin. Case-in-Point. Legal Television Network. 2008.
* ^ DeWitt, Robert. Attorney in Fayette case bows out. Tuscaloosa
News. 8 November 2005.
* ^ Sinclair, Brendan. Alabama judge tosses Thompson.
GameSpot . 18
* ^ Steel, Wade. Jack Thompson\'s Alabama License Revoked.
IGN . 21
* ^ Reeves, Jay. Court rejects appeal in Alabama suit blaming game
for slayings. Associated Press. 29 March 2006.
* ^ Byrd, Patrick R. It’s All Fun And Games Until Someone Gets
Hurt: The Effectiveness Of Proposed Video-Game Legislation On Reducing
Violence In Children. Houston Law Review
* ^ Clinton wades into GTA sex storm. BBC News. 14 July 2005.
Retrieved 29 August 2006.
* ^ Senators Clinton, Lieberman Announce Federal Legislation to
Protect Children from Inappropriate Video Games. Retrieved 18 December
* ^ Parents Action for Children. Parents’ Action Endorses New
Clinton-Lieberman-Bayh Bill Banning the Sale of Violent Video Games to
Minors.. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
* ^ Lieberman denounces \'Grand Theft Auto\' video game.
* ^ A B Rollings, Andrew & Adams, Ernest. Andrew Rollings and
Ernest Adams on Game Design. 2003.
* ^ A B Gunter, Barrie. The Effects of Video Games on Children.
Continuum Int'l Pub. Grp. 1998.
* ^ A B Nash, Nora M. OSF. VVG\'s - Violent Video Games - Are Your
Students Tuned In To A VVG World?. 2004.
* ^ Olson CK, Kutner LA, Warner DE, Almerigi JB, Baer L, Nicholi AM
Jr, & Beresin EV: Factors correlated with violent video game use by
adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2007, 41:
* ^ Kutner, Lawrence, Ph.D. and Olson, Cheryl K., Sc.D. Grand Theft
Childhood: The Surprising Truth About Violent Video Games and What
Parents Can Do .
Simon & Schuster
* v * t * e
* Beat \'em up
* Pac-Man clone
* First-person * Third-person * Side-scrolling * Top-down * Isometric * Light gun * Rail * Shoot \'em up * Tactical * Battle royale
* MMOFPS * MMORPG * MMOSG * MMORTS
* Construction and management
* Business * City * Government
* Life simulation
* 4X * MOBA
* Amateur * Combat * Space
* Kart racing
* Breakout clone * Exergame * Incremental
* Sokoban * Tile-matching
* Nonviolent video game
Links: ------ /wiki/Video_game