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Nonviolence
Nonviolence
is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition. It comes from the belief that hurting people, animals or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and refers to a general philosophy of abstention from violence. This may be based on moral, religious or spiritual principles, or it may be for purely strategic or pragmatic reasons.[1] Nonviolence
Nonviolence
also has 'active' or 'activist' elements, in that believers accept the need for nonviolence as a means to achieve political and social change. Thus, for example, the Tolstoy and Gandhian non violence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of violence, but at the same time sees nonviolent action (also called civil resistance) as an alternative to passive acceptance of oppression or armed struggle against it. In general, advocates of an activist philosophy of nonviolence use diverse methods in their campaigns for social change, including critical forms of education and persuasion, mass noncooperation, civil disobedience, nonviolent direct action, and social, political, cultural and economic forms of intervention.

Petra Kelly
Petra Kelly
founded the German Green Party on nonviolence

In modern times, nonviolent methods of action have been a powerful tool for social protest and revolutionary social and political change.[2][3][4] There are many examples of their use. Fuller surveys may be found in the entries on civil resistance, nonviolent resistance and nonviolent revolution. Here certain movements particularly influenced by a philosophy of nonviolence should be mentioned, including Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
leading a successful decades-long nonviolent struggle against British rule in India, Martin Luther King's and James Bevel's adoption of Gandhi's nonviolent methods in their campaigns to win civil rights for African Americans,[5][6] and César Chávez's campaigns of nonviolence in the 1960s to protest the treatment of farm workers in California.[7] The 1989 "Velvet Revolution" in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
that saw the overthrow of the Communist
Communist
government[8] is considered one of the most important of the largely nonviolent Revolutions of 1989.[9] Most recently the nonviolent campaigns of Leymah Gbowee
Leymah Gbowee
and the women of Liberia
Liberia
were able to achieve peace after a 14-year civil war.[10] This story is captured in a 2008 documentary film Pray the Devil Back to Hell. In an essay, "To Abolish War," evolutionary biologist Judith Hand advocated the use of nonviolent direct action to dismantle the global war machine.[11] The term "nonviolence" is often linked with or used as a synonym for peace, and despite being frequently equated with passivity and pacifism, this is rejected by nonviolent advocates and activists.[12] Nonviolence
Nonviolence
refers specifically to the absence of violence and is always the choice to do no harm or the least harm, and passivity is the choice to do nothing. Sometimes nonviolence is passive, and other times it isn't. For example, if a house is burning down with mice or insects in it, the most harmless appropriate action is to put the fire out, not to sit by and passively let the fire burn. There is at times confusion and contradiction written about nonviolence, harmlessness and passivity. A confused person may advocate nonviolence in a specific context while advocating violence in other contexts. For example, someone who passionately opposes abortion or meat eating may concurrently advocate violence to kill an abortionist or attack a slaughterhouse, which makes that person a violent person.[13]

" Nonviolence
Nonviolence
is a powerful and just weapon. Indeed, it is a weapon unique in history, which cuts without wounding and ennobles the man who wields it." — Martin Luther King, Jr., The Quest for Peace
Peace
and Justice (1964) Martin Luther King's Nobel Lecture, delivered in the Auditorium of the University of Oslo at December 11, 1964

Contents

1 Origins 2 Forms

2.1 Pragmatic 2.2 Ethical 2.3 Religious

2.3.1 Hinduism

2.3.1.1 Ancient Vedic texts 2.3.1.2 The Epics 2.3.1.3 Self-defence, criminal law, and war 2.3.1.4 Non-human life

2.3.2 Jainism 2.3.3 Buddhism

2.3.3.1 War 2.3.3.2 Laws

3 Methods

3.1 Acts of protest 3.2 Noncooperation 3.3 Nonviolent intervention

4 Revolution 5 Criticism 6 Research 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Sources

9 Further reading 10 External links

Origins[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2017)

Nonviolence
Nonviolence
or Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is one of the cardinal virtues[14] and an important tenet of Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. It is a multidimensional concept,[15] inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy; therefore, to hurt another being is to hurt oneself. It has also been related to the notion that any violence has karmic consequences. While ancient scholars of Hinduism
Hinduism
pioneered and over time perfected the principles of Ahimsa, the concept reached an extraordinary status in the ethical philosophy of Jainism.[14][16] Parsvanatha, the twenty-third tirthankara of Jainism, revived, advocated for and preached the concept of nonviolence in around eighth-century BC.[17] Mahavira, the twenty-fourth and the last tirthankara further strengthened the idea in sixth-century BC; which was believed to be founded by the first tirthankara Rushabhdev over a million years ago.[18][19] Forms[edit] Advocates of nonviolent action believe cooperation and consent are the roots of civil or political power: all regimes, including bureaucratic institutions, financial institutions, and the armed segments of society (such as the military and police); depend on compliance from citizens.[20] On a national level, the strategy of nonviolent action seeks to undermine the power of rulers by encouraging people to withdraw their consent and cooperation. The forms of nonviolence draw inspiration from both religious or ethical beliefs and political analysis. Religious or ethically based nonviolence is sometimes referred to as principled, philosophical, or ethical nonviolence, while nonviolence based on political analysis is often referred to as tactical, strategic, or pragmatic nonviolent action. Commonly, both of these dimensions may be present within the thinking of particular movements or individuals.[21] Pragmatic[edit] The fundamental concept of pragmatic (or tactical or strategic) nonviolent action is to create a social dynamic or political movement that can create a national or international dialogue which effects social change without necessarily winning over those who wish to maintain the status quo.[22] Nicolas Walter noted the idea that nonviolence might work "runs under the surface of Western political thought without ever quite disappearing".[23] Walter noted Étienne de La Boétie's Discourse on Voluntary Servitude (sixteenth century) and P.B. Shelley's The Masque of Anarchy (1819) contain arguments for resisting tyranny without using violence.[23] In 1838, William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison
helped found the New England Non-Resistance Society, a society devoted to achieving racial and gender equality through the rejection of all violent actions.[23] In modern industrial democracies, nonviolent action has been used extensively by political sectors without mainstream political power such as labor, peace, environment and women's movements. Lesser known is the role that nonviolent action has played and continues to play in undermining the power of repressive political regimes in the developing world and the former eastern bloc. Susan Ives emphasizes this point by quoting Walter Wink:

"In 1989, thirteen nations comprising 1,695,000,000 people experienced nonviolent revolutions that succeeded beyond anyone's wildest expectations ... If we add all the countries touched by major nonviolent actions in our century (the Philippines, South Africa ... the independence movement in India ...), the figure reaches 3,337,400,000, a staggering 65% of humanity! All this in the teeth of the assertion, endlessly repeated, that nonviolence doesn't work in the 'real' world." — Walter Wink, Christian theologian[9]

As a technique for social struggle, nonviolent action has been described as "the politics of ordinary people", reflecting its historically mass-based use by populations throughout the world and history. Movements most often associated with nonviolence are the non-cooperation campaign for Indian independence led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
in the United States, and the People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
in the Philippines. Also of primary significance is the notion that just means are the most likely to lead to just ends. When Gandhi said that "the means may be likened to the seed, the end to a tree," he expressed the philosophical kernel of what some refer to as prefigurative politics. Martin Luther King, a student of Gandhian nonviolent resistance, concurred with this tenet, concluding that "nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek." Proponents of nonviolence reason that the actions taken in the present inevitably re-shape the social order in like form. They would argue, for instance, that it is fundamentally irrational to use violence to achieve a peaceful society. People have come to use nonviolent methods of struggle from a wide range of perspectives and traditions. A landless peasant in Brazil may nonviolently occupy a parcel of land for purely practical motivations. If they do not, the family will starve. A Buddhist monk in Thailand may "ordain" trees in a threatened forest, drawing on the teachings of Buddha to resist its destruction. A waterside worker in England may go on strike in socialist and union political traditions. All the above are using nonviolent methods but from different standpoints. Likewise, secular political movements have utilized nonviolent methods, either as a tactical tool or as a strategic program on purely pragmatic and strategic levels, relying on their political effectiveness rather than a claim to any religious, moral or ethical worthiness.

Gandhi used the weapon of nonviolence against British Raj

Respect or love for opponents also has a pragmatic justification, in that the technique of separating the deeds from the doers allows for the possibility of the doers changing their behaviour, and perhaps their beliefs. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
wrote, "Nonviolent resistance... avoids not only external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. The nonviolent resister not only refuses to shoot his opponent, but he also refuses to hate him."[24] Finally, the notion of Satya, or Truth, is central to the Gandhian conception of nonviolence. Gandhi saw Truth as something that is multifaceted and unable to be grasped in its entirety by any one individual. All carry pieces of the Truth, he believed, but all need the pieces of others’ truths in order to pursue the greater Truth. This led him to believe in the inherent worth of dialogue with opponents, in order to understand motivations. On a practical level, the willingness to listen to another's point of view is largely dependent on reciprocity. In order to be heard by one's opponents, one must also be prepared to listen.[citation needed] Nonviolence
Nonviolence
has obtained a level of institutional recognition and endorsement at the global level. On November 10, 1998, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the first decade of the 21st century and the third millennium, the years 2001 to 2010, as the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace
Peace
and Non- Violence
Violence
for the Children of the World. Ethical[edit] For many, practicing nonviolence goes deeper than abstaining from violent behavior or words. It means overriding the impulse to be hateful and holding love for everyone, even those with whom one strongly disagrees. In this view, because violence is learned, it is necessary to unlearn violence by practicing love and compassion at every possible opportunity. For some, the commitment to non-violence entails a belief in restorative or transformative justice, an abolition of the death penalty and other harsh punishments. This may involve the necessity of caring for those who are violent. Nonviolence, for many, involves a respect and reverence for all sentient, and perhaps even non-sentient, beings. This might include abolitionism against animals as property, the practice of not eating animal products or by-products (vegetarianism or veganism), spiritual practices of non-harm to all beings, and caring for the rights of all beings. Mohandas Gandhi, James Bevel, and other nonviolent proponents advocated vegetarianism as part of their nonviolent philosophy. Buddhists extend this respect for life to animals, plants, and even minerals, while Jainism
Jainism
extend this respect for life to animals, plants and even small organisms such as insects.[25][26] The classical Indian text of Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
deals with the ethics of non-violence or non-harming through verses 311-320 in Chapter 32 of Book 1,[27] further discussing compassion in Chapter 25 (verses 241-250), vegetarianism or veganism in Chapter 26 (verses 251-260), and non-killing in Chapter 33 (verses 321-330).[28] Religious[edit] Hinduism[edit] Ancient Vedic texts[edit] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as an ethical concept evolved in Vedic texts.[16][29] The oldest scripts, along with discussing ritual animal sacrifices, indirectly mention Ahimsa, but do not emphasise it. Over time, the Hindu scripts revise ritual practices and the concept of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is increasingly refined and emphasised, ultimately Ahimsa
Ahimsa
becomes the highest virtue by the late Vedic era (about 500 BC). For example, hymn 10.22.25 in the Rig Veda
Veda
uses the words Satya
Satya
(truthfulness) and Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in a prayer to deity Indra;[30] later, the Yajur Veda
Veda
dated to be between 1000 BC and 600 BC, states, "may all beings look at me with a friendly eye, may I do likewise, and may we look at each other with the eyes of a friend".[16][31] The term Ahimsa
Ahimsa
appears in the text Taittiriya Shakha
Taittiriya Shakha
of the Yajurveda (TS 5.2.8.7), where it refers to non-injury to the sacrificer himself.[32] It occurs several times in the Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
in the sense of "non-injury".[33] The Ahimsa
Ahimsa
doctrine is a late Vedic era development in Brahmanical culture.[34] The earliest reference to the idea of non-violence to animals ("pashu-Ahimsa"), apparently in a moral sense, is in the Kapisthala Katha Samhita of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
(KapS 31.11), which may have been written in about the 8th century BCE.[35] Bowker states the word appears but is uncommon in the principal Upanishads.[36] Kaneda gives examples of the word Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in these Upanishads.[37] Other scholars[15][38] suggest Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as an ethical concept that started evolving in the Vedas, becoming an increasingly central concept in Upanishads. The Chāndogya Upaniṣad, dated to the 8th or 7th century BCE, one of the oldest Upanishads, has the earliest evidence for the Vedic era use of the word Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in the sense familiar in Hinduism
Hinduism
(a code of conduct). It bars violence against "all creatures" (sarvabhuta) and the practitioner of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is said to escape from the cycle of rebirths (CU 8.15.1).[39] Some scholars state that this 8th or 7th-century BCE mention may have been an influence of Jainism
Jainism
on Vedic Hinduism.[40] Others scholar state that this relationship is speculative, and though Jainism
Jainism
is an ancient tradition the oldest traceable texts of Jainism
Jainism
tradition are from many centuries after the Vedic era ended.[41][42] Chāndogya Upaniṣad
Chāndogya Upaniṣad
also names Ahimsa, along with Satyavacanam (truthfulness), Arjavam (sincerity), Danam (charity), Tapo (penance/meditation), as one of five essential virtues (CU 3.17.4).[15][43] The Sandilya Upanishad
Upanishad
lists ten forbearances: Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Daya, Arjava, Kshama, Dhriti, Mitahara and Saucha.[44][45] According to Kaneda,[37] the term Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is an important spiritual doctrine shared by Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism. It literally means 'non-injury' and 'non-killing'. It implies the total avoidance of harming of any kind of living creatures not only by deeds, but also by words and in thoughts. The Epics[edit] The Mahabharata, one of the epics of Hinduism, has multiple mentions of the phrase Ahimsa
Ahimsa
Paramo Dharma (अहिंसा परमॊ धर्मः), which literally means: non-violence is the highest moral virtue. For example, Mahaprasthanika Parva
Mahaprasthanika Parva
has the verse:[46]

अहिंसा परमॊ धर्मस तथाहिंसा परॊ दमः। अहिंसा परमं दानम अहिंसा परमस तपः। अहिंसा परमॊ यज्ञस तथाहिस्मा परं बलम। अहिंसा परमं मित्रम अहिंसा परमं सुखम। अहिंसा परमं सत्यम अहिंसा परमं शरुतम॥

The above passage from Mahabharata
Mahabharata
emphasises the cardinal importance of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Hinduism, and literally means: Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest virtue, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest self-control, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the greatest gift, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the best suffering, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest sacrifice, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the finest strength, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the greatest friend, Ahimsa is the greatest happiness, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest truth, and Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the greatest teaching.[47][48] Some other examples where the phrase Ahimsa
Ahimsa
Paramo Dharma are discussed include Adi Parva, Vana Parva
Vana Parva
and Anushasana Parva. The Bhagavad Gita, among other things, discusses the doubts and questions about appropriate response when one faces systematic violence or war. These verses develop the concepts of lawful violence in self-defence and the theories of just war. However, there is no consensus on this interpretation. Gandhi, for example, considers this debate about non-violence and lawful violence as a mere metaphor for the internal war within each human being, when he or she faces moral questions.[49] Self-defence, criminal law, and war[edit] The classical texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
devote numerous chapters discussing what people who practice the virtue of Ahimsa, can and must do when they are faced with war, violent threat or need to sentence someone convicted of a crime. These discussions have led to theories of just war, theories of reasonable self-defence and theories of proportionate punishment.[50][51] Arthashastra
Arthashastra
discusses, among other things, why and what constitutes proportionate response and punishment.[52][53]

War

The precepts of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
under Hinduism
Hinduism
require that war must be avoided, with sincere and truthful dialogue. Force must be the last resort. If war becomes necessary, its cause must be just, its purpose virtuous, its objective to restrain the wicked, its aim peace, its method lawful.[50][52] War
War
can only be started and stopped by a legitimate authority. Weapons used must be proportionate to the opponent and the aim of war, not indiscriminate tools of destruction.[54] All strategies and weapons used in the war must be to defeat the opponent, not designed to cause misery to the opponent; for example, use of arrows is allowed, but use of arrows smeared with painful poison is not allowed. Warriors must use judgment in the battlefield. Cruelty to the opponent during war is forbidden. Wounded, unarmed opponent warriors must not be attacked or killed, they must be brought to your realm and given medical treatment.[52] Children, women and civilians must not be injured. While the war is in progress, sincere dialogue for peace must continue.[50][51]

Self-defence

In matters of self-defence, different interpretations of ancient Hindu texts have been offered. For example, Tähtinen suggests self-defence is appropriate, criminals are not protected by the rule of Ahimsa, and Hindu scriptures support the use of violence against an armed attacker.[55][56] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is not meant to imply pacifism.[57] Alternate theories of self-defence, inspired by Ahimsa, build principles similar to theories of just war. Aikido, pioneered in Japan, illustrates one such principles of self-defence. Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, described his inspiration as Ahimsa.[58] According to this interpretation of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in self-defence, one must not assume that the world is free of aggression. One must presume that some people will, out of ignorance, error or fear, attack other persons or intrude into their space, physically or verbally. The aim of self-defence, suggested Ueshiba, must be to neutralise the aggression of the attacker, and avoid the conflict. The best defence is one where the victim is protected, as well as the attacker is respected and not injured if possible. Under Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Aikido, there are no enemies, and appropriate self-defence focuses on neutralising the immaturity, assumptions and aggressive strivings of the attacker.[59][60]

Criminal law

Tähtinen concludes that Hindus have no misgivings about death penalty; their position is that evil-doers who deserve death should be killed, and that a king in particular is obliged to punish criminals and should not hesitate to kill them, even if they happen to be his own brothers and sons.[61] Other scholars[51][52] conclude that the scriptures of Hinduism suggest sentences for any crime must be fair, proportional and not cruel.

Pacifism

There is no consensus on pacifism among modern Hindu scholars. The conflict between pacifistic interpretations of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and the theories of just war prescribed by the Gita has been resolved by some scholars such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, as being an allegory,[62] wherein the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, the war is within each human being, where man's higher impulses struggle against his own evil impulses.[49] Non-human life[edit] The Hindu precept of 'cause no injury' applies to animals and all life forms. This precept isn't found in the oldest verses of Vedas, but increasingly becomes one of the central ideas between 500 BC and 400 AD.[63][64] In the oldest texts, numerous ritual sacrifices of animals, including cows and horses, are highlighted and hardly any mention is made of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
to non-human life.[65][66] Hindu scriptures, dated to between 5th century and 1st century BC, while discussing human diet, initially suggest kosher meat may be eaten, evolving it with the suggestion that only meat obtained through ritual sacrifice can be eaten, then that one should eat no meat because it hurts animals, with verses describing the noble life as one that lives on flowers, roots and fruits alone.[63][67] Later texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
declare Ahimsa
Ahimsa
one of the primary virtues, declare any killing or harming any life as against dharma (moral life). Finally, the discussion in Upanishads
Upanishads
and Hindu Epics[68] shifts to whether a human being can ever live his or her life without harming animal and plant life in some way; which and when plants or animal meat may be eaten, whether violence against animals causes human beings to become less compassionate, and if and how one may exert least harm to non-human life consistent with ahimsa precept, given the constraints of life and human needs.[69][70] The Mahabharata permits hunting by warriors, but opposes it in the case of hermits who must be strictly non-violent. Sushruta Samhita, a Hindu text written in the 3rd or 4th century, in Chapter XLVI suggests proper diet as a means of treating certain illnesses, and recommends various fishes and meats for different ailments and for pregnant women,[71][72] and the Charaka Samhita
Charaka Samhita
describes meat as superior to all other kinds of food for convalescents.[73] Across the texts of Hinduism, there is a profusion of ideas about the virtue of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
when applied to non-human life, but without a universal consensus.[74] Alsdorf claims the debate and disagreements between supporters of vegetarian lifestyle and meat eaters was significant. Even suggested exceptions – ritual slaughter and hunting – were challenged by advocates of Ahimsa.[75][76][77] In the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
both sides present various arguments to substantiate their viewpoints. Moreover, a hunter defends his profession in a long discourse.[78] Many of the arguments proposed in favor of non-violence to animals refer to the bliss one feels, the rewards it entails before or after death, the danger and harm it prevents, as well as to the karmic consequences of violence.[79][80] The ancient Hindu texts discuss Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and non-animal life. They discourage wanton destruction of nature including of wild and cultivated plants. Hermits (sannyasins) were urged to live on a fruitarian diet so as to avoid the destruction of plants.[81][82] Scholars[83][84] claim the principles of ecological non-violence is innate in the Hindu tradition, and its conceptual fountain has been Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as their cardinal virtue. The classical literature of Hinduism
Hinduism
exists in many Indian languages. For example, Tirukkuṛaḷ, written between 200 BC and 400 AD, and sometimes called the Tamil Veda, is one of the most cherished classics on Hinduism
Hinduism
written in a South Indian language. Tirukkuṛaḷ dedicates Chapters 26, 32 and 33 of Book 1 to the virtue of Ahimsa, namely, vegetarianism, non-harming, and non-killing, respectively. Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
says that Ahimsa
Ahimsa
applies to all life forms.[85][86][87] Jainism[edit] Main article: Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Jainism See also: Jain vegetarianism

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. The word in the middle is "Ahimsa". The wheel represents the dharmacakra which stands for the resolve to halt the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth and non-violence.

In Jainism, the understanding and implementation of Ahimsā is more radical, scrupulous, and comprehensive than in any other religion.[88] Killing any living being out of passions is considered hiṃsā (to injure) and abstaining from such an act is ahimsā (noninjury).[89] The vow of ahimsā is considered the foremost among the 'five vows of Jainism'. Other vows like truth (Satya) are meant for safeguarding the vow of ahimsā.[90] In the practice of Ahimsa, the requirements are less strict for the lay persons (sravakas) who have undertaken anuvrata (Smaller Vows) than for the Jain monastics who are bound by the Mahavrata
Mahavrata
"Great Vows".[91] The statement ahimsā paramo dharmaḥ is often found inscribed on the walls of the Jain temples.[92] Like in Hinduism, the aim is to prevent the accumulation of harmful karma.[93] When Mahavira
Mahavira
revived and reorganized the Jain faith in the 6th or 5th century BCE,[94] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
was already an established, strictly observed rule.[95] Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(Ādinātha), the first Jain Tirthankara, whom modern Western historians consider to be a historical figure, followed by Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(Pārśvanātha)[96] the twenty-third Tirthankara lived in about the 8th century BCE.[97] He founded the community to which Mahavira's parents belonged.[98] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
was already part of the "Fourfold Restraint" (Caujjama), the vows taken by Parshva's followers.[99] In the times of Mahavira
Mahavira
and in the following centuries, Jains were at odds with both Buddhists and followers of the Vedic religion or Hindus, whom they accused of negligence and inconsistency in the implementation of Ahimsa.[100] According to the Jain tradition either lacto vegetarianism or veganism is mandatory.[101] The Jain concept of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is characterised by several aspects. It does not make any exception for ritual sacrificers and professional warrior-hunters. Killing of animals for food is absolutely ruled out.[102] Jains also make considerable efforts not to injure plants in everyday life as far as possible. Though they admit that plants must be destroyed for the sake of food, they accept such violence only inasmuch as it is indispensable for human survival, and there are special instructions for preventing unnecessary violence against plants.[103] Jains go out of their way so as not to hurt even small insects and other minuscule animals.[104] For example, Jains often do not go out at night, when they are more likely to step upon an insect. In their view, injury caused by carelessness is like injury caused by deliberate action.[105] Eating honey is strictly outlawed, as it would amount to violence against the bees.[106] Some Jains abstain from farming because it inevitably entails unintentional killing or injuring of many small animals, such as worms and insects,[107] but agriculture is not forbidden in general and there are Jain farmers.[108] Theoretically, all life forms are said to deserve full protection from all kinds of injury, but Jains recognise a hierarchy of life. Mobile beings are given higher protection than immobile ones. For the mobile beings, they distinguish between one-sensed, two-sensed, three-sensed, four-sensed and five-sensed ones; a one-sensed animal has touch as its only sensory modality. The more senses a being has, the more they care about non-injuring it. Among the five-sensed beings, the precept of non-injury and non-violence to the rational ones (humans) is strongest in Jain Ahimsa.[109] Jains agree with Hindus that violence in self-defence can be justified,[110] and they agree that a soldier who kills enemies in combat is performing a legitimate duty.[111] Jain communities accepted the use of military power for their defence, there were Jain monarchs, military commanders, and soldiers.[112] Buddhism[edit] Further information: Noble Eightfold Path; Buddhist ethics § Killing, causing others to kill; Buddhism
Buddhism
and violence; and Engaged Buddhism In Buddhist texts Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(or its Pāli
Pāli
cognate avihiṃsā) is part of the Five Precepts (Pañcasīla), the first of which has been to abstain from killing. This precept of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is applicable to both the Buddhist layperson and the monk community.[113][114][115] The Ahimsa
Ahimsa
precept is not a commandment and transgressions did not invite religious sanctions for layperson, but their power has been in the Buddhist belief in karmic consequences and their impact in afterlife during rebirth.[116] Killing, in Buddhist belief, could lead to rebirth in the hellish realm, and for a longer time in more severe conditions if the murder victim was a monk.[116] Saving animals from slaughter for meat, is believed to be a way to acquire merit for better rebirth. These moral precepts have been voluntarily self-enforced in lay Buddhist culture through the associated belief in karma and rebirth.[117] The Buddhist texts not only recommended Ahimsa, but suggest avoiding trading goods that contribute to or are a result of violence:

These five trades, O monks, should not be taken up by a lay follower: trading with weapons, trading in living beings, trading in meat, trading in intoxicants, trading in poison. — Anguttara Nikaya V.177, Translated by Martine Batchelor[118]

Unlike lay Buddhists, transgressions by monks do invite sanctions.[119] Full expulsion of a monk from sangha follows instances of killing, just like any other serious offense against the monastic nikaya code of conduct.[119] War[edit] Violent ways of punishing criminals and prisoners of war was not explicitly condemned in Buddhism,[120] but peaceful ways of conflict resolution and punishment with the least amount of injury were encouraged.[121][122] The early texts condemn the mental states that lead to violent behavior.[123] Nonviolence
Nonviolence
is an overriding theme within the Pali Canon.[124] While the early texts condemn killing in the strongest terms, and portray the ideal king as a pacifist, such a king is nonetheless flanked by an army.[125] It seems that the Buddha's teaching on nonviolence was not interpreted or put into practice in an uncompromisingly pacifist or anti-military-service way by early Buddhists.[125] The early texts assume war to be a fact of life, and well-skilled warriors are viewed as necessary for defensive warfare.[126] In Pali texts, injunctions to abstain from violence and involvement with military affairs are directed at members of the sangha; later Mahayana texts, which often generalise monastic norms to laity, require this of lay people as well.[127] The early texts do not contain just-war ideology as such.[128] Some argue that a sutta in the Gamani Samyuttam rules out all military service. In this passage, a soldier asks the Buddha if it is true that, as he has been told, soldiers slain in battle are reborn in a heavenly realm. The Buddha reluctantly replies that if he is killed in battle while his mind is seized with the intention to kill, he will undergo an unpleasant rebirth.[129] In the early texts, a person's mental state at the time of death is generally viewed as having a great impact on the next birth.[130] Some Buddhists point to other early texts as justifying defensive war.[131] One example is the Kosala Samyutta, in which King
King
Pasenadi, a righteous king favored by the Buddha, learns of an impending attack on his kingdom. He arms himself in defence, and leads his army into battle to protect his kingdom from attack. He lost this battle but won the war. King
King
Pasenadi
Pasenadi
eventually defeated King
King
Ajatasattu
Ajatasattu
and captured him alive. He thought that, although this King
King
of Magadha
Magadha
has transgressed against his kingdom, he had not transgressed against him personally, and Ajatasattu
Ajatasattu
was still his nephew. He released Ajatasattu
Ajatasattu
and did not harm him.[132] Upon his return, the Buddha said (among other things) that Pasenadi
Pasenadi
"is a friend of virtue, acquainted with virtue, intimate with virtue", while the opposite is said of the aggressor, King
King
Ajatasattu.[133] According to Theravada commentaries, there are five requisite factors that must all be fulfilled for an act to be both an act of killing and to be karmically negative. These are: (1) the presence of a living being, human or animal; (2) the knowledge that the being is a living being; (3) the intent to kill; (4) the act of killing by some means; and (5) the resulting death.[134] Some Buddhists have argued on this basis that the act of killing is complicated, and its ethicization is predicated upon intent.[135] Some have argued that in defensive postures, for example, the primary intention of a soldier is not to kill, but to defend against aggression, and the act of killing in that situation would have minimal negative karmic repercussions.[136] According to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, there is circumstantial evidence encouraging Ahimsa, from the Buddha's doctrine, "Love all, so that you may not wish to kill any." Gautama Buddha distinguished between a principle and a rule. He did not make Ahimsa
Ahimsa
a matter of rule, but suggested it as a matter of principle. This gives Buddhists freedom to act.[137] Laws[edit] The emperors of Sui dynasty, Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
and early Song dynasty banned killing in Lunar calendar 1st, 5th, and 9th month.[138][139] Empress Wu Tse-Tien banned killing for more than half a year in 692.[140] Some also banned fishing for some time each year.[141] There were bans after death of emperors,[142] Buddhist and Taoist prayers,[143] and natural disasters such as after a drought in 1926 summer Shanghai and an 8 days ban from August 12, 1959, after the August 7 flood (八七水災), the last big flood before the 88 Taiwan Flood.[144] People avoid killing during some festivals, like the Taoist Ghost Festival,[145] the Nine Emperor Gods Festival, the Vegetarian Festival and many others.[146][147]

Methods[edit]

Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
speaking at the 1963 "March on Washington".

Nonviolent action
Nonviolent action
generally comprises three categories: Acts of Protest and Persuasion, Noncooperation, and Nonviolent Intervention.[148] Acts of protest[edit] Nonviolent acts of protest and persuasion are symbolic actions performed by a group of people to show their support or disapproval of something. The goal of this kind of action is to bring public awareness to an issue, persuade or influence a particular group of people, or to facilitate future nonviolent action. The message can be directed toward the public, opponents, or people affected by the issue. Methods of protest and persuasion include speeches, public communications, petitions, symbolic acts, art, processions (marches), and other public assemblies.[149] Noncooperation[edit] Noncooperation involves the purposeful withholding of cooperation or the unwillingness to initiate in cooperation with an opponent. The goal of noncooperation is to halt or hinder an industry, political system, or economic process. Methods of noncooperation include labour strikes, economic boycotts, civil disobedience, sex strike, tax refusal, and general disobedience.[149] Nonviolent intervention[edit] Compared with protest and noncooperation, nonviolent intervention is a more direct method of nonviolent action. Nonviolent intervention can be used defensively—for example to maintain an institution or independent initiative—or offensively- for example, to drastically forward a nonviolent struggle into the opponent's territory. Intervention is often more immediate and effective than the other two methods, but is also harder to maintain and more taxing to the participants involved. Gene Sharp, a political scientist who seeks to advance the worldwide study and use of strategic nonviolent action in conflict, has written extensively about the methods of nonviolent action. In his book Waging Nonviolent Struggle he describes 198 methods of nonviolent action.[150] In early Greece, Aristophanes' Lysistrata
Lysistrata
gives the fictional example of women withholding sexual favors from their husbands until war was abandoned. A modern work of fiction inspired by Gene Sharp and by Aristophanes
Aristophanes
is A Door into Ocean by Joan Slonczewski, depicting an ocean world inhabited by women who use nonviolent means to repel armed space invaders. Other methods of nonviolent intervention include occupations (sit-ins), blockades, fasting (hunger strikes), truck cavalcades, and dual sovereignty/parallel government.[149] Tactics must be carefully chosen, taking into account political and cultural circumstances, and form part of a larger plan or strategy. Successful nonviolent cross-border intervention projects include the Guatemala Accompaniment Project,[151] Peace Brigades International and Christian Peacemaker Teams. Developed in the early 1980s, and originally inspired by the Gandhian Shanti Sena, the primary tools of these organisations have been nonviolent protective accompaniment, backed up by a global support network which can respond to threats, local and regional grassroots diplomatic and peacebuilding efforts, human rights observation and witnessing, and reporting.[152][153] In extreme cases, most of these groups are also prepared to do interpositioning: placing themselves between parties who are engaged or threatening to engage in outright attacks in one or both directions. Individual and large group cases of interpositioning, when called for, have been remarkably effective in dampening conflict and saving lives. Another powerful tactic of nonviolent intervention invokes public scrutiny of the oppressors as a result of the resisters remaining nonviolent in the face of violent repression. If the military or police attempt to repress nonviolent resisters violently, the power to act shifts from the hands of the oppressors to those of the resisters. If the resisters are persistent, the military or police will be forced to accept the fact that they no longer have any power over the resisters. Often, the willingness of the resisters to suffer has a profound effect on the mind and emotions of the oppressor, leaving them unable to commit such a violent act again.[154][155] Revolution[edit] Certain individuals (Barbara Deming, Danilo Dolci, Devere Allen
Devere Allen
etc.) and party groups (e.g. Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, Pacifist Socialist Party
Pacifist Socialist Party
or War
War
Resisters League) have advocated nonviolent revolution as an alternative to violence as well as elitist reformism. This perspective is usually connected to militant anti-capitalism.[citation needed] Many leftist and socialist movements have hoped to mount a "peaceful revolution" by organising enough strikers to completely paralyse the state and corporate apparatus, allowing workers to re-organise society along radically different lines.[citation needed] Some have argued that a relatively nonviolent revolution would require fraternisation with military forces.[156] Criticism[edit] Ernesto Che Guevara, Leon Trotsky, Frantz Fanon
Frantz Fanon
and Subhas Chandra Bose were fervent critics of nonviolence, arguing variously that nonviolence and pacifism are an attempt to impose the morals of the bourgeoisie upon the proletariat, that violence is a necessary accompaniment to revolutionary change or that the right to self-defense is fundamental. Note, for example, the complaint of Malcolm X
Malcolm X
that "I believe it's a crime for anyone being brutalized to continue to accept that brutality without doing something to defend himself."[157] George Orwell
George Orwell
argued that the nonviolent resistance strategy of Gandhi could be effective in countries with "a free press and the right of assembly", which could make it possible "not merely to appeal to outside opinion, but to bring a mass movement into being, or even to make your intentions known to your adversary"; but he was skeptical of Gandhi's approach being effective in the opposite sort of circumstances.[158] Reinhold Niebuhr
Reinhold Niebuhr
similarly affirmed Gandhi's approach while criticising aspects of it. He argued, "The advantage of non-violence as a method of expressing moral goodwill lies in the fact that it protects the agent against the resentments which violent conflict always creates in both parties to a conflict, and it proves this freedom of resentment and ill-will to the contending party in the dispute by enduring more suffering than it causes." However, Niebuhr also held, "The differences between violent and non-violent methods of coercion and resistance are not so absolute that it would be possible to regard violence as a morally impossible instrument of social change."[159] In the midst of repression of radical African American
African American
groups in the United States
United States
during the 1960s, Black Panther member George Jackson said of the nonviolent tactics of Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr.:

"The concept of nonviolence is a false ideal. It presupposes the existence of compassion and a sense of justice on the part of one's adversary. When this adversary has everything to lose and nothing to gain by exercising justice and compassion, his reaction can only be negative."[160][161]

Malcolm X
Malcolm X
also clashed with civil rights leaders over the issue of nonviolence, arguing that violence should not be ruled out if no option remained. In his book How Nonviolence
Nonviolence
Protects the State, anarchist Peter Gelderloos criticises nonviolence as being ineffective, racist, statist, patriarchal, tactically and strategically inferior to militant activism, and deluded.[162] Gelderloos claims that traditional histories whitewash the impact of nonviolence, ignoring the involvement of militants in such movements as the Indian independence movement and the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
and falsely showing Gandhi and King
King
as being their respective movement's most successful activists.[162]:7–12 He further argues that nonviolence is generally advocated by privileged white people who expect "oppressed people, many of whom are people of color, to suffer patiently under an inconceivably greater violence, until such time as the Great White Father is swayed by the movement's demands or the pacifists achieve that legendary 'critical mass.'"[162]:23 On the other hand, anarchism also includes a section committed to nonviolence called anarcho-pacifism.[163][164] The main early influences were the thought of Henry David Thoreau[164] and Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
while later the ideas of Mohandas Gandhi
Mohandas Gandhi
gained importance.[163][164] It developed "mostly in Holland, Britain, and the United States, before and during the Second World War".[165] The efficacy of nonviolence was also challenged by some anti-capitalist protesters advocating a "diversity of tactics" during street demonstrations across Europe and the US following the anti-World Trade Organization protests in Seattle, Washington in 1999. American feminist writer D. A. Clarke, in her essay "A Woman With A Sword," suggests that for nonviolence to be effective, it must be "practiced by those who could easily resort to force if they chose." Nonviolence
Nonviolence
advocates see some truth in this argument: Gandhi himself said often that he could teach nonviolence to a violent person but not to a coward and that true nonviolence came from renouncing violence, not by not having any to renounce.[citation needed] Advocates responding to criticisms of the efficacy of nonviolence point to the success of non-violent struggles even against the Nazi regimes in Denmark and even in Berlin.[166] A study by Erica Chenoweth and Maria Stephan found that nonviolent revolutions are twice as effective as violent ones and lead to much greater degrees of democratic freedom.[167] Research[edit] A 2016 study finds that "increasing levels of globalization are positively associated with the emergence of nonviolent campaigns, while negatively influencing the probability of violent campaigns. Integration into the world increases the popularity of peaceful alternatives to achieve political goals."[168] See also[edit]

Nonviolence
Nonviolence
organizations Anti-war Christian anarchism Christian pacifism Conflict resolution Consistent life ethic Department of Peace Draft resistance List of peace activists Non-aggression principle Nonkilling Nonresistance Nonviolence
Nonviolence
International Nonviolent Communication Pacifism Padayatra Passive resistance Satyagraha Season for Nonviolence Social defence Third Party Non-violent Intervention Turning the other cheek Violence
Violence
begets violence War
War
resister

Ahimsa

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ A clarification of this and related terms appears in Gene Sharp, Sharp's Dictionary of Power and Struggle: Language of Civil Resistance in Conflicts, Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. ^ Ronald Brian Adler, Neil Towne, Looking Out/Looking In: Interpersonal Communication, 9th ed. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, p. 416, 1999. "In the twentieth century, nonviolence proved to be a powerful tool for political change." ^ Lester R. Kurtz, Jennifer E. Turpin, Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict, p.557, 1999. "In the West, nonviolence is well recognized for its tactical, strategic, or political aspects. It is seen as a powerful tool for redressing social inequality." ^ Mark Kurlansky, Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea, Foreword by Dalai Lama, p. 5-6, Modern Library (April 8, 2008), ISBN 0-8129-7447-6 "Advocates of nonviolence — dangerous people — have been there throughout history, questioning the greatness of Caesar and Napoleon and the Founding Fathers and Roosevelt and Churchill." ^ "James L. Bevel The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement" by Randy Kryn, a paper in David Garrow's 1989 book We Shall Overcome Volume II, Carlson Publishing Company ^ "Movement Revision Research Summary Regarding James Bevel" by Randy Kryn, October 2005, published by Middlebury College ^ Stanley M. Burstein and Richard Shek: "World History Ancient Civilizations ", page 154. Holt, Rinhart and Winston, 2005. As Chavez once explained, " Nonviolence
Nonviolence
is not inaction. It is not for the timid or the weak. It is hard work, it is the patience to win." ^ RP's History Online - Velvet Revolution ^ a b Ives, Susan (19 October 2001). "No Fear". Palo Alto College. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-17.  ^ Chris Graham, Peacebuilding
Peacebuilding
alum talks practical app of nonviolence Archived 2009-10-28 at the Wayback Machine., Augusta Free Press, October 26, 2009. ^ Hand, Judith (30 September 2010). "To abolish war". Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace
Peace
Research. 2 (4): 44–56. doi:10.5042/jacpr.2010.0536.  ^ Ackerman, Peter and Jack DuVall (2001) "A Force More Powerful: A Century of Non-Violent Conflict"(Palgrave Macmillan) ^ Adam Roberts, Introduction, in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009 pp. 3 and 13-20. ^ a b Stephen H. Phillips & other authors (2008), in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Second Edition), ISBN 978-0-12-373985-8, Elsevier Science, Pages 1347–1356, 701–849, 1867 ^ a b c John Arapura in K. R. Sundararajan and Bithika Mukerji Ed. (1997), Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern, ISBN 978-81-208-1937-5; see Chapter 20, pages 392–417 ^ a b c Chapple, C. (1990). Nonviolence
Nonviolence
to animals, earth and self in Asian Traditions (see Chapter 1). State University of New York Press (1993) ^ "Parshvanatha", britannica.com  ^ "Mahavira", britannica.com  ^ https://books.google.co.in/books?id=SXgEfiNY46sC&pg=PA271&dq=Rushabhdev+million&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwin-beChPTZAhVELI8KHaB5AD0Q6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=Rushabhdev%20million&f=false ^ Sharp, Gene (1973). The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Porter Sargent. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-87558-068-5.  ^ Two Kinds of Nonviolent Resistance ~ Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
Veterans ^ Nonviolent Resistance & Political Power ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans (U.S.) ^ a b c Nicolas Walter, "Non-Violent Resistance:Men Against War". Reprinted in Nicolas Walter, Damned Fools in Utopia edited by David Goodway. PM Press 2010. ISBN 160486222X (pp. 37-78). ^ Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
(2010-01-01). Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. Beacon Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8070-0070-0.  ^ http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/features/animal-vegetable-mineral-the-making-of-buddhist-texts ^ http://people.uwec.edu/ivogeler/w111/articles/jainism.htm ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
Archived 2014-12-16 at the Wayback Machine. verses 311-320 ^ Pope, GU (1886). Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary (PDF). W.H. Allen, & Co. p. 160.  ^ Walli, Koshelya: The Conception of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Indian Thought, Varanasi 1974, p. 113–145. ^ Sanskrit: अस्मे ता त इन्द्र सन्तु सत्याहिंसन्तीरुपस्पृशः । विद्याम यासां भुजो धेनूनां न वज्रिवः ॥१३॥ Rigveda 10.22 Wikisource; English: Unto Tähtinen (1964), Non-violence
Non-violence
as an Ethical Principle, Turun Yliopisto, Finland, PhD Thesis, pages 23–25; OCLC 4288274; For other occurrence of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Rigveda, see Rigveda 5.64.3, Rigveda 1.141.5; ^ To do no harm Archived 2013-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. Project Gutenberg, see translation for Yajurveda
Yajurveda
36.18 VE; For other occurrences of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Vedic literature, see A Vedic Concordance Maurice Bloomfield, Harvard University Press, page 151 ^ Tähtinen p. 2. ^ Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
2.3.4.30; 2.5.1.14; 6.3.1.26; 6.3.1.39. ^ Henk M. Bodewitz in Jan E. M. Houben, K. R. van Kooij, ed., Violence denied: violence, non-violence and the rationalisation of violence in "South Asian" cultural history. BRILL, 1999 page 30. ^ Tähtinen pp. 2–3. ^ John Bowker, Problems of suffering in religions of the world. Cambridge University Press, 1975, page 233. ^ a b Kaneda, T. (2008). Shanti, peacefulness of mind. C. Eppert & H. Wang (Eds.), Cross cultural studies in curriculum: Eastern thought, educational insights, pages 171–192, ISBN 978-0-8058-5673-6, Taylor & Francis ^ Izawa, A. (2008). Empathy for Pain in Vedic Ritual. Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies, 12, 78 ^ Tähtinen pp. 2–5; English translation: Schmidt p. 631. ^ M.K Sridhar and Puruṣottama Bilimoria (2007), Indian Ethics: Classical traditions and contemporary challenges, Editors: Puruṣottama Bilimoria, Joseph Prabhu, Renuka M. Sharma, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-3301-3, page 315 ^ Jeffery D. Long (2009). Jainism: An Introduction. I. B. Tauris. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-84511-625-5.  ^ Paul Dundas (2002). The Jains. Routledge. pp. 22–24, 73–83. ISBN 978-0415266055.  ^ Ravindra Kumar (2008), Non-violence
Non-violence
and Its Philosophy, ISBN 978-81-7933-159-0, see page 11–14 ^ Swami, P. (2000). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Upaniṣads: SZ (Vol. 3). Sarup & Sons; see pages 630–631 ^ Ballantyne, J. R., & Yogīndra, S. (1850). A Lecture on the Vedánta: Embracing the Text of the Vedánta-sára. Presbyterian mission press. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
13.117.37–38 ^ Chapple, C. (1990). Ecological Nonviolence
Nonviolence
and the Hindu Tradition. In Perspectives on Nonviolence
Nonviolence
(pp. 168–177). Springer New York. ^ Ahimsa: To do no harm Subramuniyaswami, What is Hinduism?, Chapter 45, Pages 359–361 ^ a b Fischer, Louis: Gandhi: His Life
Life
and Message to the World Mentor, New York 1954, pp. 15–16 ^ a b c Balkaran, R., & Dorn, A. W. (2012). Violence
Violence
in the Vālmı̄ki Rāmāyaṇa: Just War
War
Criteria in an Ancient Indian Epic, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 80(3), 659–690. ^ a b c Klaus K. Klostermaier (1996), in Harvey Leonard Dyck and Peter Brock (Ed), The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective, see Chapter on Himsa and Ahimsa
Ahimsa
Traditions in Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-8020-0777-3, University of Toronto Press, pages 230–234 ^ a b c d Paul F. Robinson (2003), Just War
War
in Comparative Perspective, ISBN 0-7546-3587-2, Ashgate Publishing, see pages 114–125 ^ Coates, B. E. (2008). Modern India's Strategic Advantage to the United States: Her Twin Strengths in Himsa and Ahimsa. Comparative Strategy, 27(2), pages 133–147 ^ Subedi, S. P. (2003). The Concept in Hinduism
Hinduism
of 'Just War'. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 8(2), pages 339–361 ^ Tähtinen pp. 96, 98–101. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
12.15.55; Manu Smriti 8.349–350; Matsya Purana 226.116. ^ Tähtinen pp. 91–93. ^ The Role of Teachers in Martial Arts Nebojša Vasic, University of Zenica (2011); Sport SPA Vol. 8, Issue 2: 47–51; see page 46, 2nd column ^ SOCIAL CONFLICT, AGGRESSION, AND THE BODY IN EURO-AMERICAN AND ASIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT Donald Levine, University of Chicago (2004) ^ Ueshiba, Kisshōmaru (2004), The Art of Aikido: Principles and Essential Techniques, Kodansha International, ISBN 4-7700-2945-4 ^ Tähtinen pp. 96, 98–99. ^ Gandhi, Mohandas K., The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
According to Gandhi Berkeley Hills Books, Berkeley 2000 ^ a b Christopher Chapple (1993), Nonviolence
Nonviolence
to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1498-1, pages 16–17 ^ W Norman Brown (February 1964), The sanctity of the cow in Hinduism, The Economic Weekly, pages 245–255 ^ D.N. Jha (2002), The Myth of the Holy Cow, ISBN 1-85984-676-9, Verso ^ Steven Rosen (2004), Holy Cow: The Hare Krishna Contribution to Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
and Animal Rights, ISBN 1-59056-066-3, pages 19–39 ^ Baudhayana
Baudhayana
Dharmasutra 2.4.7; 2.6.2; 2.11.15; 2.12.8; 3.1.13; 3.3.6; Apastamba
Apastamba
Dharmasutra 1.17.15; 1.17.19; 2.17.26–2.18.3; Vasistha Dharmasutra 14.12. ^ Manu Smriti 5.30, 5.32, 5.39 and 5.44; Mahabharata
Mahabharata
3.199 (3.207), 3.199.5 (3.207.5), 3.199.19–29 (3.207.19), 3.199.23–24 (3.207.23–24), 13.116.15–18, 14.28; Ramayana 1-2-8:19 ^ Alsdorf pp. 592–593. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
13.115.59–60; 13.116.15–18. ^ Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna (1907), An English Translation of the Sushruta Samhita, Volume I, Part 2; see Chapter starting on page 469; for discussion on meats and fishes, see page 480 and onwards ^ Sutrasthana 46.89; Sharirasthana 3.25. ^ Sutrasthana 27.87. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
3.199.11–12 (3.199 is 3.207 elsewhere); 13.115; 13.116.26; 13.148.17; Bhagavata Purana (11.5.13–14), and the Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
(8.15.1). ^ Alsdorf pp. 572–577 (for the Manusmṛti) and pp. 585–597 (for the Mahabharata); Tähtinen pp. 34–36. ^ The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Manusmṛti (5.27–55) contain lengthy discussions about the legitimacy of ritual slaughter. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
12.260 (12.260 is 12.268 according to another count); 13.115–116; 14.28. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
3.199 (3.199 is 3.207 according to another count). ^ Tähtinen pp. 39–43. ^ Alsdorf p. 589–590; Schmidt pp. 634–635, 640–643; Tähtinen pp. 41–42. ^ Schmidt pp. 637–639; Manusmriti 10.63, 11.145 ^ Rod Preece, Animals
Animals
and Nature: Cultural Myths, Cultural Realities, ISBN 978-0-7748-0725-8, University of British Columbia Press, pages 212–217 ^ Chapple, C. (1990). Ecological Nonviolence
Nonviolence
and the Hindu Tradition. In Perspectives on Nonviolence
Nonviolence
(pages 168–177). Springer New York ^ Van Horn, G. (2006). Hindu Traditions and Nature: Survey Article. Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology, 10(1), 5–39 ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
Translated by Rev G.U. Pope, Rev W.H. Drew, Rev John Lazarus, and Mr F W Ellis (1886), WH Allen & Company; see pages 40–41, verses 311–330 ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
Archived 16 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. see Chapter 32 and 33, Book 1 ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
Translated by V.V.R. Aiyar, Tirupparaithurai : Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam (1998) ^ Laidlaw, pp. 154–160; Jindal, pp. 74–90; Tähtinen p. 110. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 34. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 33. ^ Dundas pp. 158–159, 189–192; Laidlaw pp. 173–175, 179; Religious Vegetarianism, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 43–46 (translation of the First Great Vow). ^ Dundas, Paul: The Jains, second edition, London 2002, p. 160; Wiley, Kristi L.: Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Compassion
Compassion
in Jainism, in: Studies in Jaina History and Culture, ed. Peter Flügel, London 2006, p. 438; Laidlaw pp. 153–154. ^ Laidlaw pp. 26–30, 191–195. ^ Dundas p. 24 suggests the 5th century; the traditional dating of Mahavira's death is 527 BCE. ^ Goyal, S.R.: A History of Indian Buddhism, Meerut 1987, p. 83–85. ^ Dundas pp. 19, 30; Tähtinen p. 132. ^ Dundas p. 30 suggests the 8th or 7th century; the traditional chronology places him in the late 9th or early 8th century. ^ Acaranga Sutra
Acaranga Sutra
2.15. ^ Sthananga Sutra
Sthananga Sutra
266; Tähtinen p. 132; Goyal p. 83–84, 103. ^ Dundas pp. 160, 234, 241; Wiley p. 448; Granoff, Phyllis: The Violence
Violence
of Non-Violence: A Study of Some Jain Responses to Non-Jain Religious Practices, in: Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 15 (1992) pp. 1–43; Tähtinen pp. 8–9. ^ Laidlaw p. 169. ^ Laidlaw pp. 166–167; Tähtinen p. 37. ^ Lodha, R.M.: Conservation of Vegetation and Jain Philosophy, in: Medieval Jainism: Culture and Environment, New Delhi 1990, p. 137–141; Tähtinen p. 105. ^ Jindal p. 89; Laidlaw pp. 54, 154–155, 180. ^ Sutrakrtangasutram 1.8.3; Uttaradhyayanasutra 10; Tattvarthasutra 7.8; Dundas pp. 161–162. ^ Hemacandra: Yogashastra 3.37; Laidlaw pp. 166–167. ^ Laidlaw p. 180. ^ Sangave, Vilas Adinath: Jaina Community. A Social Survey, second edition, Bombay 1980, p. 259; Dundas p. 191. ^ Jindal pp. 89, 125–133 (detailed exposition of the classification system); Tähtinen pp. 17, 113. ^ Nisithabhasya (in Nisithasutra) 289; Jinadatta Suri: Upadesharasayana 26; Dundas pp. 162–163; Tähtinen p. 31. ^ Jindal pp. 89–90; Laidlaw pp. 154–155; Jaini, Padmanabh S.: Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and "Just War" in Jainism, in: Ahimsa, Anekanta and Jainism, ed. Tara Sethia, New Delhi 2004, p. 52–60; Tähtinen p. 31. ^ Harisena, Brhatkathakosa 124 (10th century); Jindal pp. 90–91; Sangave p. 259. ^ Paul Williams (2005). Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Routledge. p. 398. ISBN 978-0-415-33226-2.  ^ Bodhi Bhikkhu (1997). Great Disciples of the Buddha: Their Lives, Their Works, Their Legacy. Wisdom Publications. pp. 387 with footnote 12. ISBN 978-0-86171-128-4. ; Sarao, p. 49; Goyal p. 143; Tähtinen p. 37. ^ Lamotte, pp. 54–55. ^ a b McFarlane 2001, p. 187. ^ McFarlane 2001, pp. 187–191. ^ Martine Batchelor (2014). The Spirit of the Buddha. Yale University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-300-17500-4.  ^ a b McFarlane 2001, p. 192. ^ Sarao p. 53; Tähtinen pp. 95, 102. ^ Tähtinen pp. 95, 102–103. ^ Kurt A. Raaflaub, War
War
and Peace
Peace
in the Ancient World. Blackwell Publishing, 2007, p. 61. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 52. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 111. ^ a b Bartholomeusz, p. 41. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 50. ^ Stewart McFarlane in Peter Harvey, ed., Buddhism. Continuum, 2001, pages 195–196. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 40. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 125–126. Full texts of the sutta:[1]. ^ Rune E.A. Johansson, The Dynamic Psychology of Early Buddhism. Curzon Press 1979, page 33. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 40–53. Some examples are the Cakkavati Sihanada Sutta, the Kosala Samyutta, the Ratthapala Sutta, and the Sinha Sutta. See also page 125. See also Trevor Ling, Buddhism, Imperialism, and War. George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1979, pages 136–137. ^ Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 49, 52–53. ^ Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Buddhist Ethics. Wisdom Publications, 1997, pages 60, 159, see also Bartholomeusz page 121. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 121. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 44, 121–122, 124. ^ The Buddha and His Dhamma. Columbia.edu. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 卷糺 佛教的慈悲觀. Bya.org.hk. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 試探《護生畫集》的護生觀 高明芳 ^ 「護生」精神的實踐舉隅. Ccbs.ntu.edu.tw. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 答妙贞十问. Cclw.net. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 第一二八期 佛法自由談. Bya.org.hk. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 虛雲和尚法彙—書問. Bfnn.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 道安長老年譜. Plela.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 农历中元节. Sx.chinanews.com.cn. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 明溪县“禁屠日”习俗的由来[permanent dead link] ^ 建构的节日:政策过程视角下的唐玄宗诞节. Chinesefolklore.org.cn (2008-02-16). Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ United Nations
United Nations
International Day of Non-Violence, United Nations, 2008. see International Day of Non-Violence. ^ a b c Sharp, Gene (2005). Waging Nonviolent Struggle. Extending Horizon Books. pp. 50–65. ISBN 0-87558-162-5.  ^ Sharp, Gene (1973). "The Methods of Nonviolent Action". Peace magazine. Retrieved 2008-11-07.  ^ Network in Solidarity with the People of Guatemala ^ "PBI's principles". Peace
Peace
Brigades International. PBI General Assembly. 2001 [1992]. Archived from the original on 2010-06-02. Retrieved 2009-05-17.  ^ "Christian Peace
Peace
Maker Teams Mission Statement". Christian Peacemaker Team. CPT founding conference. 1986. Retrieved 2009-05-17.  ^ Sharp, Gene (1973). The Politics of Nonviolent Action. P. Sargent Publisher. p. 657. ISBN 978-0-87558-068-5.  ^ Sharp, Gene (2005). Waging Nonviolent Struggle. Extending Horizon Books. p. 381. ISBN 0-87558-162-5.  ^ Daniel Jakopovich: Revolution and the Party in Gramsci's Thought: A Modern Application. ^ X, Malcolm and Alex Haley:"The Autobiography of Malcolm X", page 366. Grove Press, 1964 ^ Orwell, George. Reflections on Gandhi, Partisan Review, January 1949. Found at http://www.orwell.ru/library/reviews/gandhi/english/e_gandhi on 21 August 2012. ^ Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral Man and Immoral Society, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1932. Chapter 9. Found at http://www.colorado.edu/ReligiousStudies/chernus/4800/MoralManAndImmoralSociety/Section6.htm on 21 August 2012. ^ Jackson, George. Soledad Brother: The Prison Letters of George Jackson. Lawrence Hill Books, 1994. ISBN 1-55652-230-4 ^ Walters, Wendy W. At Home in Diaspora. U of Minnesota Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8166-4491-8 ^ a b c Gelderloos, Peter. How Nonviolence
Nonviolence
Protects the State. Boston: South End Press, 2007. ^ a b George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962) ^ a b c "Resisting the Nation State, the pacifist and anarchist tradition" by Geoffrey Ostergaard ^ Woodstock, George (1962). Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Finally, somewhat aside from the curve that runs from anarchist individualism to anarcho-syndicalism, we come to Tolstoyanism and to pacifist anarchism that appeared, mostly in the Netherlands, Britain, and the United states, before and after the Second World War
War
and which has continued since then in the deep in the anarchist involvement in the protests against nuclear armament.  ^ Nathan Stoltzfus, Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany, Rutgers University Press
Rutgers University Press
(March 2001) ISBN 0-8135-2909-3 (paperback: 386 pages) ^ "Why Civil Resistance Works, The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict", New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. ^ Karakaya, Süveyda (2016-01-22). "Globalization and contentious politics: A comparative analysis of nonviolent and violent campaigns". Conflict Management and Peace
Peace
Science: 0738894215623073. doi:10.1177/0738894215623073. ISSN 0738-8942. 

Sources[edit]

Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  True, Michael (1995), An Energy Field More Intense Than War, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 0-8156-2679-7 

Further reading[edit]

ISBN 978-1577663492 Nonviolence
Nonviolence
in Theory and Practice, edited by Robert L. Holmes and Barry L. Gan OCLC
OCLC
03859761 The Kingdom of God Is Within You, by Leo Tolstoy ISBN 978-0-85066-336-5 Making Europe Unconquerable: the Potential of Civilian-Based Deterrence and Defense (see article), by Gene Sharp ISBN 0-87558-162-5 Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice And 21st Century Potential, by Gene Sharp with collaboration of Joshua Paulson and the assistance of Christopher A. Miller and Hardy Merriman ISBN 978-1442217607 Violence
Violence
and Nonviolence: An Introduction, by Barry L. Gan ISBN 0-8166-4193-5 Unarmed Insurrections: People Power Movements in Non-Democracies, by Kurt Schock ISBN 1-930722-35-4 Is There No Other Way? The Search for a Nonviolent Future, by Michael Nagler ISBN 0-85283-262-1 People Power and Protest since 1945: A Bibliography of Nonviolent Action, compiled by April Carter, Howard Clark, and [Michael Randle] ISBN 978-0-903517-21-8 Handbook for Nonviolent Campaigns, War Resisters' International ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6 Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, ed. Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash, Oxford University Press, 2009. (hardback). How to Start a Revolution, documentary directed by Ruaridh Arrow A Force More Powerful, documentary directed by Steve York

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nonviolence

v t e

Peace
Peace
movement/ Anti-war
Anti-war
movement

Peace
Peace
advocates

Anti-nuclear organizations Anti-war
Anti-war
movement Anti-war
Anti-war
organizations Bed-In Central Park be-ins Conscientious objectors Counterculture Draft evasion Human Be-In List of peace activists Peace
Peace
and conflict studies Peace
Peace
camp Peace
Peace
churches Peace
Peace
commission Peace
Peace
education Peace
Peace
movement Peace
Peace
walk Teach-in War
War
resisters War
War
tax resisters

Ideologies

Ahimsa Anarcho-pacifism Anarcho-punks Anti-imperialism Anti-nuclear movement Antimilitarism Appeasement Christian anarchism Direct action Finvenkismo Hippie Isolationism Non-interventionism Nonkilling Nonviolence Pacificism Pacifism Peace Satyagraha Simple living Socialism Soviet influence on the peace movement

Media and cultural

Art Books Films International Day of Non-Violence International Day of Peace Dialogue Among Civilizations List of places named Peace "Make love, not war" Monuments and memorials Museums Peace
Peace
journalism

Peace
Peace
News

Plays Promoting Enduring Peace Songs Symbols World Game

Opposition to or aspects of war

Afghan War American Civil War Iraq War Landmines Military action in Iran Military intervention in Libya Military taxation Nuclear armament Second Boer War Sri Lankan Civil War Vietnam War War
War
of 1812 War
War
on Terror World War
War
I World War
War
II

Countries

Canada Germany Israel Netherlands Spain United Kingdom United States

v t e

Simple living

Practices

Barter Cord-cutting DIY ethic Downshifting Dry toilet Forest gardening Freeganism Frugality Gift economy Intentional community Local currency Low-impact development Minimalism No frills Off-the-grid Permaculture Self-sufficiency Subsistence agriculture Sustainable living Sustainable sanitation Veganism Vegetarianism War
War
tax resistance WWOOF

Religious and spiritual

Asceticism Aparigraha Cynicism Detachment Distributism Jesus movement Mendicant Mindfulness Monasticism New Monasticism Plain dress Plain people Quakers Rastafari Temperance Testimony of simplicity Tolstoyan movement

Secular movements

Back-to-the-land Car-free Compassionate living Environmental Hippie Slow Small house Transition town Open Source Ecology

Notable writers

Wendell Berry Ernest Callenbach G. K. Chesterton Duane Elgin Mahatma Gandhi Richard Gregg Tom Hodgkinson Harlan Hubbard Satish Kumar Helen Nearing Scott Nearing Peace
Peace
Pilgrim Nick Rosen Dugald Semple E. F. Schumacher Henry David Thoreau Leo Tolstoy

Modern-day adherents

Mark Boyle Jim Merkel Suelo Thomas

Media

"Anekdote zur Senkung der Arbeitsmoral" Escape from Affluenza The Good Life The Moon and the Sledgehammer Mother Earth News The Power of Half Small Is Beautiful Walden

Related topics

Affluenza Agrarianism Anarcho-primitivism Anti-consumerism Appropriate technology Bohemianism Consumerism Deep ecology Degrowth Ecological footprint Food miles Green anarchism The good life Global warming Hedonophobia Intentional living Itinerant Low-technology Nonviolence Peak oil Sustainability Work–life balance

v t e

Civil rights
Civil rights
movement

Notable events (timeline)

Prior to 1954

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore

1954–1959

Brown v. Board of Education

Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v. Belton

White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott

Browder v. Gayle

Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

"Give Us the Ballot"

Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine

National Guard blockade

Civil Rights Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins

1960–1963

Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in
Sit-in
movement Civil Rights Act of 1960 Gomillion v. Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides

attacks

Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever"

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

1963 Birmingham campaign

Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

John F. Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington

"I Have a Dream"

St. Augustine movement

1964–1968

Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer

workers' murders

Civil Rights Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches

"How Long, Not Long"

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House Conference on Civil Rights Chicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King
King
assassination

funeral riots

Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights Act of 1968 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Activist groups

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Atlanta Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights Leadership Dallas County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP

Youth Council

Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council

Activists

Ralph Abernathy Victoria Gray Adams Zev Aelony Mathew Ahmann William G. Anderson Gwendolyn Armstrong Arnold Aronson Ella Baker Marion Barry Daisy Bates Harry Belafonte James Bevel Claude Black Gloria Blackwell Randolph Blackwell Unita Blackwell Ezell Blair Jr. Joanne Bland Julian Bond Joseph E. Boone William Holmes Borders Amelia Boynton Raylawni Branch Ruby Bridges Aurelia Browder H. Rap Brown Guy Carawan Stokely Carmichael Johnnie Carr James Chaney J. L. Chestnut Colia Lafayette Clark Ramsey Clark Septima Clark Xernona Clayton Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Cleaver Charles E. Cobb Jr. Annie Lee Cooper Dorothy Cotton Claudette Colvin Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Joseph DeLaine Dave Dennis Annie Devine Patricia Stephens Due Joseph Ellwanger Charles Evers Medgar Evers Myrlie Evers-Williams Chuck Fager James Farmer Walter E. Fauntroy James Forman Marie Foster Golden Frinks Andrew Goodman Fred Gray Jack Greenberg Dick Gregory Lawrence Guyot Prathia Hall Fannie Lou Hamer William E. Harbour Vincent Harding Dorothy Height Lola Hendricks Aaron Henry Oliver Hill Donald L. Hollowell James Hood Myles Horton Zilphia Horton T. R. M. Howard Ruby Hurley Jesse Jackson Jimmie Lee Jackson Richie Jean Jackson T. J. Jemison Esau Jenkins Barbara Rose Johns Vernon Johns Frank Minis Johnson Clarence Jones J. Charles Jones Matthew Jones Vernon Jordan Tom Kahn Clyde Kennard A. D. King C.B. King Coretta Scott King Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Sr. Bernard Lafayette James Lawson Bernard Lee Sanford R. Leigh Jim Letherer Stanley Levison John Lewis Viola Liuzzo Z. Alexander Looby Joseph Lowery Clara Luper Malcolm X Mae Mallory Vivian Malone Thurgood Marshall Benjamin Mays Franklin McCain Charles McDew Ralph McGill Floyd McKissick Joseph McNeil James Meredith William Ming Jack Minnis Amzie Moore Douglas E. Moore Harriette Moore Harry T. Moore William Lewis Moore Irene Morgan Bob Moses William Moyer Elijah Muhammad Diane Nash Charles Neblett Edgar Nixon Jack O'Dell James Orange Rosa Parks James Peck Charles Person Homer Plessy Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Fay Bellamy Powell Al Raby Lincoln Ragsdale A. Philip Randolph George Raymond Jr. Bernice Johnson Reagon Cordell Reagon James Reeb Frederick D. Reese Gloria Richardson David Richmond Bernice Robinson Jo Ann Robinson Bayard Rustin Bernie Sanders Michael Schwerner Cleveland Sellers Charles Sherrod Alexander D. Shimkin Fred Shuttlesworth Modjeska Monteith Simkins Glenn E. Smiley A. Maceo Smith Kelly Miller Smith Mary Louise Smith Maxine Smith Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson Charles Kenzie Steele Hank Thomas Dorothy Tillman A. P. Tureaud Hartman Turnbow Albert Turner C. T. Vivian Wyatt Tee Walker Hollis Watkins Walter Francis White Roy Wilkins Hosea Williams Kale Williams Robert F. Williams Andrew Young Whitney Young Sammy Younge Jr. James Zwerg

Influences

Nonviolence

Padayatra

Sermon on the Mount Mahatma Gandhi

Ahimsa Satyagraha

The Kingdom of God Is Within You Frederick Douglass W. E. B. Du Bois Mary McLeod Bethune

Related

Jim Crow laws Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but equal

Buchanan v. Warley Hocutt v. Wilson Sweatt v. Painter Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States Katzenbach v. McClung Loving v. Virginia Fifth Circuit Four Brown Chapel Holt Street Baptist Church Edmund Pettus Bridge March on Washington
March on Washington
Movement African-American churches attacked Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Songs

"Kumbaya" "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" "Oh, Freedom" "This Little Light of Mine" "We Shall Not Be Moved" "We Shall Overcome"

Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War
War
in Vietnam

"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence"

Watts riots Voter Education Project 1960s counterculture In popular culture

King
King
Memorial Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders
Freedom Riders
National Monument Civil Rights Memorial

Noted historians

Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F. Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers

v t e

Mahatma Gandhi

Life
Life
events and movements

Indian Ambulance Corps Bardoli Satyagraha Champaran Satyagraha Kheda Satyagraha Indian independence movement Non-cooperation Movement Chauri Chaura incident Purna Swaraj

flag

Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vaikom Satyagraha Aundh Experiment Gandhi–Irwin Pact

Second Round Table Conference

Padayatra Poona Pact Natal Indian Congress Quit India

speech

Gujarat Vidyapith
Gujarat Vidyapith
University Harijan
Harijan
Sevak Sangh Ashrams (Kochrab Tolstoy Farm Sabarmati Sevagram) List of fasts Assassination

Philosophy

Gandhism Economics

trusteeship

Education Sarvodaya Satyagraha Swadeshi Swaraj Gandhi cap

Publications

Harijan Hind Swaraj
Swaraj
(Indian Home Rule) Indian Opinion The Story of My Experiments with Truth Young India Seven Social Sins (Gandhi Heritage Portal)

Influences

A Letter to a Hindu Ahimsa

nonviolence

Bhagavad Gita Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience (essay) Civil disobedience Fasting Harishchandra Hinduism Khadi John Ruskin Parsee Rustomjee Leo Tolstoy The Kingdom of God Is Within You The Masque of Anarchy Muhammad Narmad Pacifism Sermon on the Mount Shravan Shrimad Rajchandra Henry Stephens Salt Tirukkuṛaḷ Unto This Last

Gandhi's translation

"Raghupati Raghav Raja Ram" "Ekla Chalo Re" "Hari Tuma Haro" "Vaishnava Jana To" Vegetarianism

Associates

Swami Anand C. F. Andrews Jamnalal Bajaj Shankarlal Banker Sarla Behn Vinoba Bhave Brij Krishna Chandiwala Sudhakar Chaturvedi Jugatram Dave Mahadev Desai Dada Dharmadhikari Kanu Gandhi Shiv Prasad Gupta Umar Hajee Ahmed Jhaveri J. C. Kumarappa Hermann Kallenbach Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Acharya Kripalani Mirabehn Mohanlal Pandya Vallabhbhai Patel Narhari Parikh Mithuben Petit Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Bibi Amtus Salam Sonja Schlesin Anugrah Narayan Sinha Shri Krishna Singh Rettamalai Srinivasan V. A. Sundaram Abbas Tyabji Ravishankar Vyas

Legacy

Artistic depictions Gandhigiri Gandhi Peace
Peace
Award Gandhi Peace
Peace
Prize Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Kashi Vidyapith Indian currency

Family

Karamchand Gandhi (father) Kasturba (wife) Harilal (son) Manilal (son) Ramdas (son) Devdas (son) Maganlal (cousin) Samaldas (nephew) Arun (grandson) Ela (granddaughter) Rajmohan (grandson) Gopalkrishna (grandson) Ramchandra (grandson) Kanu (grandson) Kanu (grandnephew) Tushar (great-grandson) Leela (great-granddaughter)

Influenced

James Bevel Steve Biko 14th Dalai Lama Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Morarji Desai Eknath Easwaran Maria Lacerda de Moura James Lawson Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Nelson Mandela Brajkishore Prasad Rajendra Prasad Ramjee Singh Aung San Suu Kyi Lanza del Vasto Abhay Bang Sane Guruji

Memorials

Statues

Houston Johannesburg London (Parliament Square) New York Patna Pietermaritzburg Washington

Observances

Gandhi Jayanti International Day of Non-Violence Martyrs' Day Season for Nonviolence

Other

Aga Khan Palace Gandhi Bhawan Gandhi Mandapam Gandhi Market Bookstores Gandhi Promenade Gandhi Smriti Gandhi Memorial Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai Kaba Gandhi No Delo Kirti Mandir Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
College Mohandas Gandhi
Mohandas Gandhi
High School National Gandhi Museum Raj Ghat Sabarmati Ashram Satyagraha
Satyagraha
House Gandhi Teerth Roads named after Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Memorial Centre, Matale

v t e

Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr.

Speeches, movements, and protests

Speeches

"Give Us the Ballot" (1957) "I Have a Dream" (1963) "How Long, Not Long" (1965) "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" (1967) "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (1968)

Writings

Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958) The Measure of a Man (1959)

"What Is Man?"

"Second Emancipation Proclamation" Strength to Love (1963) Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963) Why We Can't Wait (1964) Conscience for Change (1967) Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967)

Movements and protests

Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956) Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom (1957) Albany Movement (1961–1962) Birmingham campaign (1963) March on Washington
March on Washington
for Jobs and Freedom (1963) St. Augustine movement (1963–1964) Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) Chicago Freedom Movement (1966) Mississippi March Against Fear (1966) Anti-Vietnam War
War
movement (1967) Memphis sanitation strike (1968) Poor People's Campaign (1968)

People

Family

Coretta Scott King (wife) Yolanda King (daughter) Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
III (son) Dexter Scott King (son) Bernice King (daughter) Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Sr. (father) Alberta Williams King (mother) Christine King
King
Farris (sister) A. D. King (brother) Alveda King (niece)

Other leaders

Ralph Abernathy (mentor and friend) Ella Baker (colleague) James Bevel (strategist / colleague) Dorothy Cotton (colleague) Jesse Jackson (protégé) Bernard Lafayette (colleague) James Lawson (colleague) John Lewis (colleague) Joseph Lowery (colleague) Benjamin Mays (mentor) Diane Nash (colleague) James Orange (colleague) Bayard Rustin (advisor) Fred Shuttlesworth (colleague) C. T. Vivian (colleague) Wyatt Walker (colleague) Hosea Williams (colleague) Andrew Young (colleague)

Assassination

James Earl Ray Lorraine Motel (now National Civil Rights Museum) Funeral MLK Records Act Riots Loyd Jowers
Loyd Jowers
trial United States
United States
House Select Committee on Assassinations

Media

Film

King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis (1970 documentary) Our Friend, Martin (1999 animated) Boycott (2001 film) The Witness: From the Balcony of Room 306 (2008 documentary) Alpha Man: The Brotherhood of MLK (2011 documentary) Selma (2014 film) All the Way (2016 film)

Television

King (1978 miniseries) "The First Store" ( The Jeffersons
The Jeffersons
episode, 1980) "Great X-Pectations" ( A Different World
A Different World
episode, 1993) "The Promised Land" ( New York Undercover
New York Undercover
episode, 1997) "Return of the King" (The Boondocks episode, 2006)

Plays

The Meeting (1987) The Mountaintop (2009) I Dream (2010) All the Way (2012)

Illustrated

Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
and the Montgomery Story (1957 comic book)

Music

"Abraham, Martin and John" (Dion) "March! For Martin Luther King" (John Fahey) "Martin Luther King's Dream" (Strawbs) "Happy Birthday" (Stevie Wonder) "Pride (In the Name of Love)" (U2) "MLK" (U2) " King
King
Holiday" ( King
King
Dream Chorus and Holiday Crew) "By The Time I Get To Arizona" (Public Enemy) "Shed a Little Light" (James Taylor) "Up to the Mountain" (Patti Griffin) "Never Alone Martin" (Jason Upton) "Symphony Of Brotherhood" (Miri Ben-Ari) Joseph Schwantner: New Morning for the World; Nicolas Flagello: The Passion of Martin Luther King (1995 album) "A Dream" (Common featuring Will.i.am) "Glory" (Common and John Legend)

Related topics

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Day Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Memorial National Historical Park King
King
Center for Nonviolent Social Change Dexter Avenue Baptist Church National Civil Rights Museum Authorship issues Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha
fraternity Season for Nonviolence U.S. Capitol Rotunda sculpture Oval Office bust Homage to King
King
sculpture, Atlanta Dr. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. sculpture, Houston Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Memorial, San Francisco Landmark for Peace
Peace
Memorial, Indianapolis Dr. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. statue, Milwaukee The Dream sculpture, Portland, Oregon Dr. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Library Memorials to Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. Eponymous streets America in the King
King
Years Civil rights
Civil rights
movement in popular culture Lee–Jackson– King
King
Day Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
High School (other) Lycée Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
(other)

v t e

Veganism
Veganism
and vegetarianism

Perspectives

Veganism

Animal-free agriculture Fruitarianism History Juice fasting Low-carbon diet Raw veganism Nutrition Vegan organic gardening

Vegetarianism

Economic vegetarianism Environmental vegetarianism History Lacto vegetarianism Ovo vegetarianism Ovo-lacto vegetarianism Cuisine Vegetarian Diet Pyramid Ecofeminism Nutrition By country

Lists

Vegans Vegetarians Vegetarian festivals Vegetarian organizations Vegetarian restaurants

Ethics

Secular

Animal rights Animal welfare Carnism Deep ecology Environmental vegetarianism Ethics of eating meat Meat paradox Nonviolence Speciesism Tirukkural

Religious

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism

Sattvic Ahimsa

Jainism Judaism Pythagoreanism Rastafari Sikhism

Food, drink

Agar Agave nectar Meat analogue

List of meat substitutes

Miso Mochi Mock duck Nutritional yeast Plant cream Plant milk Quinoa Quorn Seitan Soy yogurt Tempeh Tofu Tofurkey Cheese Hot dog Vegetarian mark Sausage Beer Wine Veggie burger

Groups, events, companies

Vegan

American Vegan Society Beauty Without Cruelty Food Empowerment Project Go Vegan Movement for Compassionate Living Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Plamil Foods Vegan Awareness Foundation Vegan flag Vegan Ireland Vegan Outreach Vegan Prisoners Support Group The Vegan Society Veganz World Vegan Day

Vegetarian

American Vegetarian Party Boston Vegetarian Society Christian Vegetarian Association European Vegetarian Union Hare Krishna Food for Life International Vegetarian Union Jewish Veg Linda McCartney Foods Meat-free days

Meatless Monday

Swissveg Toronto Vegetarian Association Vegetarian Society Vegetarian Society
Vegetarian Society
(Singapore) Veggie Pride Viva! Health World Esperantist Vegetarian Association World Vegetarian Day

Books, reports

Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian
Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian
(1903) The Benefits of Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
(1927) Diet for a Small Planet
Diet for a Small Planet
(1971) Moosewood Cookbook
Moosewood Cookbook
(1977) Fit for Life
Life
(1985) Diet for a New America (1987) The China Study
The China Study
(2004) Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People
Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People
(2005) Skinny Bitch
Skinny Bitch
(2005) Livestock's Long Shadow
Livestock's Long Shadow
(2006) Eating Animals
Animals
(2009) The Kind Diet
The Kind Diet
(2009) Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows
Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows
(2009) Eat & Run (2012) Meat Atlas
Meat Atlas
(annual)

Films

Meet Your Meat
Meet Your Meat
(2002) Peaceable Kingdom (2004) Earthlings (2005) A Sacred Duty
A Sacred Duty
(2007) Fat, Sick and Nearly Dead (2010) Planeat (2010) Forks Over Knives
Forks Over Knives
(2011) Vegucated (2011) Live and Let Live (2013) Cowspiracy
Cowspiracy
(2014) What the Health
What the Health
(2017) Carnage (2017)

Magazines

Naked Food Vegetarian Times VegNews

Physicians, academics

Neal D. Barnard Rynn Berry T. Colin Campbell Caldwell Esselstyn Gary L. Francione Joel Fuhrman Michael Greger Melanie Joy Michael Klaper John A. McDougall Reed Mangels Jack Norris Dean Ornish Richard H. Schwartz

Related

Semi-vegetarianism

Macrobiotic diet Pescetarianism

v t e

Animal rights

Topics

Overview

Abolitionism Animal protectionism Animal welfare Speciesism Vegaphobia Veganism more...

Issues

Ahimsa Anarchism Animal cognition Animal consciousness Animal law Animal model Animal rights
Animal rights
and the Holocaust Animal product Animal rights
Animal rights
movement Animal testing Animal testing
Animal testing
on non-human primates Animals
Animals
in sport Anthrozoology Anti-hunting Bile bear Bioethics Blood sport Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness Carnism Cosmetics testing Chick culling Christianity and animal rights Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Cormorant culling Covance Cruelty to animals Deep ecology Ethics of eating meat Fox hunting Fur trade Great ape research ban Green Scare Huntingdon Life
Life
Sciences Intensive animal farming Ivory trade Livestock Meat paradox Nafovanny Nonviolence Open rescue Operation Backfire Pain in animals Pain and suffering in laboratory animals Qurbani Primate trade Seal hunting Slaughterhouse Stock-free agriculture Toxicology testing Veganism Vegetarianism Western Australian shark cull more...

Cases

Brown Dog affair Cambridge University primates McLibel case Pit of despair Silver Spring monkeys University of California Riverside 1985 laboratory raid Unnecessary Fuss

Advocates

Academics and writers

Carol Adams James Aspey Tom Beauchamp Marc Bekoff Paola Cavalieri Stephen R. L. Clark Alasdair Cochrane J. M. Coetzee Priscilla Cohn Alice Crary David DeGrazia Sue Donaldson Josephine Donovan Lawrence Finsen Gary Francione Robert Garner Antoine Goetschel John Hadley Will Kymlicka Andrew Linzey Dan Lyons Mary Midgley Martha Nussbaum Siobhan O'Sullivan Clare Palmer Tom Regan Bernard Rollin Mark Rowlands Richard D. Ryder Peter Singer Henry Stephens Salt Steve Sapontzis Gary Steiner Cass Sunstein more...

Activists

Cleveland Amory Greg Avery Matt Ball Martin Balluch Barbi twins Brigitte Bardot Bob Barker Gene Baur Frances Power Cobbe Rod Coronado Karen Davis Chris DeRose Robert Enke John Feldmann Bruce Friedrich Juliet Gellatley Jordan Halliday Barry Horne Ronnie Lee Lizzy Lind af Hageby Jo-Anne McArthur Bill Maher Keith Mann Dan Mathews Luísa Mell Ingrid Newkirk Heather Nicholson Jack Norris Alex Pacheco Jill Phipps Craig Rosebraugh Nathan Runkle Henry Spira Kim Stallwood Marianne Thieme Darren Thurston Andrew Tyler Gary Yourofsky more...

Movement

Groups

Animal Aid Animal Legal Defense Fund Animal Liberation Front British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection Centre for Animals
Animals
and Social Justice Chinese Animal Protection Network Direct Action Everywhere Farm Animal Rights Movement Great Ape Project Hunt Saboteurs Association In Defense of Animals Korea Animal Rights Advocates Last Chance for Animals Mercy for Animals New England Anti-Vivisection Society Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics Oxford Group People for Animals People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals United Poultry Concerns more...

Parties

AAEVP (Canada) Animal Justice Party
Animal Justice Party
(Australia) Animal Welfare Party
Animal Welfare Party
(UK) PACMA (Spain) Party for the Animals
Animals
(Netherlands) Partito Animalista Italiano (Italy) Tierschutzpartei
Tierschutzpartei
(Germany) V-Partei³
V-Partei³
(Germany) People–Animals–Nature
People–Animals–Nature
(Portugal) more...

Media

Books

Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress (1894) Animals, Men and Morals
Animals, Men and Morals
(1971) Animal Liberation (1975) The Case for Animal Rights (1983) The Lives of Animals
Animals
(1999) Striking at the Roots (2008) An American Trilogy (2009) more...

Films

The Animals
Animals
Film (1981) A Cow at My Table
A Cow at My Table
(1998) Meet Your Meat
Meet Your Meat
(2002) Peaceable Kingdom (2004) Earthlings (2005) Behind the Mask (2006) The Cove (2009) Forks Over Knives
Forks Over Knives
(2011) Vegucated (2011) Speciesism: The Movie (2013) The Ghosts in Our Machine
The Ghosts in Our Machine
(2013) more...

Categories

Animal advocacy parties Animal law Animal Liberation Front Animal rights Animal rights
Animal rights
activists Animal right media Animal rights
Animal rights
movement Animal rights
Animal rights
scholars Animal testing Blood sports Livestock Meat industry Poultry Veganism Vegetarianism

Animal rights
Animal rights
portal

Authority control

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