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The Info List - Non-metropolitan County


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(i)

A NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTY, or colloquially, SHIRE COUNTY, is a county-level entity in England
England
that is not a metropolitan county . The counties typically have populations of 300,000 to 1.4 million. The term shire county is, however, an unofficial usage. Many of the non-metropolitan counties bear historic names and most end in the suffix "-shire " such as Wiltshire
Wiltshire
or Staffordshire
Staffordshire
. Of the remainder, some counties had the -shire ending and have lost it over time; such as Devon
Devon
and Somerset
Somerset
. " Shire
Shire
county" is, strictly, a dual-language tautology since the French -derived "county " means the same as the older Anglo-Saxon word "shire ".

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Changes

* 2.1 1995–1998 * 2.2 2009

* 3 List of non-metropolitan counties * 4 Wales * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

ORIGINS

Prior to 1974 local government had been divided between single-tier county boroughs (the largest towns and cities) and two-tier administrative counties which were subdivided into municipal boroughs and urban and rural districts . The Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, divided England
England
outside Greater London and the six largest conurbations into thirty-nine non-metropolitan counties. Each county was divided into anywhere between two and fourteen non-metropolitan districts . There was a uniform two-tier system of local government with county councils dealing with "wide-area" services such as education, fire services and the police, and district councils exercising more local powers over areas such as planning, housing and refuse collection.

SERVICE NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTY NON-METROPOLITAN DISTRICT UNITARY AUTHORITY

Education Y

Y

Housing

Y Y

Planning applications

Y Y

Strategic planning Y

Y

Transport planning Y

Y

Passenger transport Y

Y

Highways Y

Y

Fire Y

Y

Social services Y

Y

Libraries Y

Y

Leisure and recreation

Y Y

Waste collection

Y Y

Waste disposal Y

Y

Environmental health

Y Y

Revenue collection

Y Y

As originally constituted, the non-metropolitan counties were largely based on existing counties, although they did include a number of innovations. Some counties were based on areas surrounding large county boroughs or were formed by the mergers of smaller counties. Examples of the first category are Avon (based on Bath and Bristol) and Cleveland (based on Teesside ). Examples of the second category are Hereford and Worcester and Cumbria. The counties were adopted for all statutory purposes: a lord-lieutenant and high sheriff was appointed to each county, and they were also used for judicial administration, and definition of police force areas. The Royal Mail adopted the counties for postal purposes in most areas.

CHANGES

1995–1998

A Local Government Commission was appointed in 1992 to review the administrative structure of the non-metropolitan counties. It was anticipated that a system of unitary authorities would entirely replace the two-tier system. The Commission faced competing claims from former county boroughs wishing to regain unitary status and advocates for the restoration of such small counties as Herefordshire and Rutland. The review led to the introduction of unitary local government in some areas but not in others. In the majority of unitary authorities an existing district council took over powers from the county council. The 1972 Act required that all areas outside Greater London form part of a non-metropolitan county, and that all such counties should contain at least one district. Accordingly, the statutory instruments that effected the reorganisation separated the unitary districts from the county in which they were situated and constituted them as counties. The orders also provided that the provisions of the 1972 Act that every county should have a county council should not apply in the new counties, with the district council exercising the powers of the county council.

An exception was made in the case of Berkshire
Berkshire
, which was retained with its existing boundaries in spite of the abolition of its county council and the creation of six unitary authorities. This was done in order to preserve its status as a royal county.

With the creation of numerous new non-metropolitan counties, the areas used for lieutenancy and shrievalty began to diverge from local government areas. This led to the development of ceremonial counties for these purposes, a fact recognised by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 .

2009

A further wave of unitary authorities were created in 2009 under the terms of the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act 2007 . While a number of new county counties were created, several of the new authorities (such as Cornwall
Cornwall
or Northumberland) continued to have the boundaries set in 1974.

LIST OF NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES

The following list shows the original thirty-nine counties formed in 1974, subsequent changes in the 1990s, and further changes in 2009.

NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTY 1974 CHANGES 1995–1998 CHANGES 2009

Avon (6 districts)‡ 1996: North West Somerset
Somerset
(unitary)

2005: renamed North Somerset
Somerset
† None

1996: Bath and North East Somerset
Somerset
(unitary) None

1996: South Gloucestershire
South Gloucestershire
(unitary) None

1996: City
City
of Bristol
Bristol
(unitary) None

Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
(4 districts) 1997: Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
(3 districts) Bedford (unitary)

Central Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
(unitary)

1997: Luton
Luton
(unitary) None

Berkshire
Berkshire
(Royal County) (6 districts) 1998: The county council was abolished, with each of the six district councils in the county becoming unitary authorities.

The Royal County
County
of Berkshire
Berkshire
was not abolished. None

Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
(5 districts) 1997: Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
(4 districts) None

1997: Milton Keynes (unitary) None

Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(6 districts) 1998: Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(5 districts) None

1998: Peterborough (unitary) None

Cheshire
Cheshire
(8 districts) 1998: Cheshire
Cheshire
(6 districts) 2009: Cheshire
Cheshire
East (unitary)

2009: Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester (unitary)

1998: Halton (unitary) None

1998: Warrington
Warrington
(unitary) None

Cleveland (4 districts) 1996: Hartlepool (unitary) None

1996: Middlesbrough (unitary) None

1996: Redcar and Cleveland (unitary) None

1996: Stockton-on-Tees (unitary) None

Cornwall
Cornwall
(6 districts) None 2009: Became unitary

Cumbria
Cumbria
(6 districts) None None

Derbyshire
Derbyshire
(9 districts) 1997: Derby
Derby
(unitary) None

1997: Derbyshire
Derbyshire
(8 districts) None

Devon
Devon
(10 districts) 1998: Devon
Devon
(8 districts) None

1998: Torbay
Torbay
(unitary) None

1998: Plymouth
Plymouth
(unitary) None

Dorset
Dorset
(8 districts) 1997: Dorset
Dorset
(6 districts) None

1997: Bournemouth (unitary) None

1997: Poole
Poole
(unitary) None

Durham (8 districts) 1997: Darlington (unitary) None

1997: Durham (7 districts) 2009: County
County
Durham (unitary)

East Sussex
East Sussex
(7 districts) 1997: East Sussex
East Sussex
(5 districts) None

1997: Brighton and Hove (unitary) None

Essex
Essex
(14 districts) 1998: Essex
Essex
(12 districts) None

1998: Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
(unitary) None

1998: Thurrock (unitary) None

Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
(6 districts) None None

Hampshire
Hampshire
(13 districts) 1997: Hampshire
Hampshire
(11 districts) None

1997: Portsmouth
Portsmouth
(unitary) None

1997: Southampton
Southampton
(unitary) None

Hereford and Worcester (9 districts) 1998: Herefordshire
Herefordshire
(unitary) None

1998: Worcestershire
Worcestershire
(6 districts) None

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
(10 districts) None None

Humberside (9 districts) 1996: East Riding of Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
(unitary) None

1996: City
City
of Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
(unitary) None

1996: North Lincolnshire (unitary) None

1996: North East Lincolnshire
North East Lincolnshire
(unitary) None

Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
(2 districts) 1995: Became unitary None

Kent
Kent
(14 districts) 1998: Kent
Kent
(12 districts) None

1998: The Medway Towns (unitary)

1998: renamed Medway None

Lancashire
Lancashire
(14 districts) 1998: Lancashire
Lancashire
(12 districts) None

1998: Blackburn with Darwen (unitary) None

1998: Blackpool
Blackpool
(unitary) None

Leicestershire
Leicestershire
(9 districts) 1997: Leicestershire
Leicestershire
(7 districts) None

1997: Leicester
Leicester
(unitary) None

1997: Rutland
Rutland
(unitary) None

Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
(7 districts) None None

Norfolk
Norfolk
(7 districts) None None

North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
(8 districts) 1996: North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
(7 districts) None

1996: York
York
(unitary) None

Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
(7 districts) None None

Northumberland
Northumberland
(6 districts) None Became unitary

Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
(8 districts) 1998: Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
(7 districts) None

1998: Nottingham
Nottingham
(unitary) None

Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
(5 districts) None None

Salop (6 districts)

1980: renamed Shropshire
Shropshire
1998: Shropshire
Shropshire
(5 districts) Became unitary

1998: The Wrekin (unitary)

1998: Renamed Telford and Wrekin
Telford and Wrekin
None

Somerset
Somerset
(5 districts) None None

Staffordshire
Staffordshire
(9 districts) 1997: Staffordshire
Staffordshire
(8 districts) None

1997: Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
(unitary) None

Suffolk
Suffolk
(7 districts) None None

Surrey
Surrey
(11 districts) None None

Warwickshire
Warwickshire
(5 districts) None None

West Sussex
West Sussex
(7 districts) None None

Wiltshire
Wiltshire
(5 districts) 1997: Wiltshire
Wiltshire
(4 districts) Became unitary

1997: Thamesdown (unitary)

1997: renamed Swindon None

† The name of the non-metropolitan district and district council was changed to "North Somerset" by resolution of the council 11 July 1995. However this did not change the name of the county which had the same area. The Local Government Changes for England
England
(Miscellaneous Provision) Regulations 1995 gave district councils in a "county for which there is no county council and in which there is not more than one district" the additional power to change the name of the county. This was, however, not done until 2005.

‡ Avon, as a non-metropolitan county, was abolished in 1996, in accordance with Avon (Structural Change) Order 1995.

WALES

In Wales there was not a distinction between metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties, with all upper tier areas designated "counties". The Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 amended the 1972 Act, abolishing the Welsh counties and creating instead new Welsh principal areas , some of which are also designated "counties". For the purposes of lieutenancy the counties constituted in 1974 were preserved.

SEE ALSO

* ISO 3166-2:GB , subdivision codes for the United Kingdom * Political make-up of local councils in the United Kingdom#County councils

REFERENCES

* ^ Jones, B. et al., Politics UK, (2004) * ^ Davis, Howard (1997) 'Reviewing the review', Local Government Studies, 23:3, 5 - 17 * ^ Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
(c.70), S.1(1) * ^ Hansard, Written Answers, 31 March 1995, col.830 * ^ Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
(c.70), Schedule I, Part II * ^ A B C D "The Avon (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
( Borough of Luton) (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
(Structural Changes) Order 2008". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ Non-metropolitan county
Non-metropolitan county
of Berkshire
Berkshire
was granted royal status by letters patent in 1974 * ^ "The Berkshire
Berkshire
(Structural Change) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B The Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
( Borough of Milton Keynes) (Structural Changes) Order 1995 * ^ A B "The Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
( City
City
of Peterborough) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C "The Cheshire
Cheshire
(Boroughs of Halton and Warrington) (Structural Change) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Cheshire
Cheshire
(Structural Changes) Order 2008". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C D "The Cleveland Further (Provision Order) 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ "The Cornwall
Cornwall
(Structural Change) Order 2008". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Derbyshire
Derbyshire
( City
City
of Derby) (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-06. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C The Devon
Devon
( City
City
of Plymouth
Plymouth
and Borough of Torbay) (Structural Change) Order 1996 * ^ A B C "The Dorset
Dorset
(Boroughs of Poole
Poole
and Bournemouth) (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Durham ( Borough of Darlington) (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ "The County
County
Durham (Structural Change) Order 2008". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The East Sussex
East Sussex
(Boroughs of Brighton and Hove) (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C "The Essex
Essex
(Boroughs of Colchester, Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
and Thurrock and District
District
of Tendring) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C "The Hampshire
Hampshire
(Cities of Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and Southampton) (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Hereford and Worcester (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C D "The Humberside (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-05. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ "The Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
(Structural Change) Order 1994". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Kent
Kent
( Borough of Gillingham and City
City
of Rochester upon Medway) (Structural Change) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C "The Lancashire
Lancashire
(Boroughs of Blackburn and Blackpool) (Structural Change) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B C "The Leicestershire
Leicestershire
( City
City
of Leicester
Leicester
and District
District
of Rutland) (Structural Change) Order 1996 (legislation.gov.uk website), accessed 2012-09-13". * ^ A B "The North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
( District
District
of York) (Structural and Boundary Changes) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ "The Northumberland
Northumberland
(Structural Change) Order 2008". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
( City
City
of Nottingham) (Structural Change) Order 1996 (legislation.gov.uk website), accessed 2012-09-13". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Shropshire
Shropshire
( District
District
of The Wrekin) (Structural Change) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ "The Shropshire
Shropshire
(Structural Change) Order 2008". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Staffordshire
Staffordshire
( City
City
of Stoke-on-Trent) (Structural and Boundary Changes) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ A B "The Wiltshire
Wiltshire
( Borough of Thamesdown) (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ "The Wiltshire
Wiltshire
(Structural Change) Order 2008". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ "Agendas, Minutes and Reports". 1 August 2009. * ^ "Avon (Structural Change) Order 1995". Legislation.gov.uk. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ Arnold-Baker, C., Local Government Act 1972, (1973)

EXTERNAL