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The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012[update], the movement has 120 members.[1] The purpose of the organization has been enumerated as to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics," by Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in the Havana
Havana
Declaration of 1979.[3] The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
also has a number of developed nations. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were actually quite closely aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War, even despite several conflicts between members which also threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world, especially those within the Global South.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins and the Cold War 1.2 Since the end of the Cold War

2 Organizational structure and membership 3 Policies and ideology 4 Current activities and positions 5 Summits 6 Secretary general 7 Members, observers and guests

7.1 Current members

7.1.1 Africa 7.1.2 Americas 7.1.3 Asia 7.1.4 Europe 7.1.5 Oceania

7.2 Former members 7.3 Observers

7.3.1 Countries 7.3.2 Organisations

7.4 Guests

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

11.1 Videos

History[edit] Origins and the Cold War[edit] The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
were Josip Broz Tito of Socialist Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
of India, Sukarno
Sukarno
of Indonesia, Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
of Egypt
Egypt
and Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1956, and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni
Brijuni
on July 19th, 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India
India
for most part of the Cold War
Cold War
years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers".[4] The Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon
V. K. Krishna Menon
in 1953, at the United Nations.[5][unreliable source?] But it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961. The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations
Sino-Indian relations
called Panchsheel (five restraints); these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:

Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty. Mutual non-aggression. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. Equality and mutual benefit. Peaceful co-existence.[citation needed]

A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Nkrumah and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, and Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Nehru's five principles, and a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War. Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade.[6] The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement.[7]

Belgrade
Belgrade
Conference, September 1961

At the Lusaka
Lusaka
Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries.[8] Some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India
India
and Pakistan, Iran
Iran
and Iraq). The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1979. Although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement (particularly predominantly Muslim states) condemned it. Since the end of the Cold War[edit] Because the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
was formed as an attempt to throw out the Cold War,[8] it has struggled to find relevance since the Cold War ended. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, a founding member, its membership was suspended[9] in 1992 at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations.[10][11] The successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
have expressed little interest in membership, though Serbia
Serbia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina have observer status. In 2004, Malta
Malta
and Cyprus
Cyprus
ceased to be members and joined the European Union. Belarus
Belarus
is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Fiji
Fiji
are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011. The applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica
Costa Rica
were rejected in 1995 and 1998, respectively.[11] Since the end of the Cold War, the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has been forced to redefine itself and reinvent its purpose in the current world system. A major question has been whether many of its foundational ideologies, principally national independence, territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism, can be applied to contemporary issues. The movement has emphasised its principles of multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South, and an instrument that can be utilised to promote the needs of member nations at the international level and strengthen their political leverage when negotiating with developed nations. In its efforts to advance Southern interests, the movement has stressed the importance of cooperation and unity amongst member states,[12] but as in the past, cohesion remains a problem since the size of the organisation and the divergence of agendas and allegiances present the ongoing potential for fragmentation. While agreement on basic principles has been smooth, taking definitive action vis-à-vis particular international issues has been rare, with the movement preferring to assert its criticism or support rather than pass hard-line resolutions.[13] The movement continues to see a role for itself, as in its view, the world's poorest nations remain exploited and marginalised, no longer by opposing superpowers, but rather in a uni-polar world,[14] and it is Western hegemony and neo-colonialism that the movement has really re-aligned itself against. It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has identified economic underdevelopment, poverty, and social injustices as growing threats to peace and security.[15] The 16th NAM summit took place in Tehran, Iran, from 26 to 31 August 2012. According to Mehr News Agency, representatives from over 150 countries were scheduled to attend.[16] Attendance at the highest level includes 27 presidents, 2 kings and emirs, 7 prime ministers, 9 vice presidents, 2 parliament spokesmen and 5 special envoys.[17] At the summit, Iran
Iran
took over from Egypt
Egypt
as Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement for the period 2012 to 2015.[18] Organizational structure and membership[edit] The movement stems from a desire not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structure.[2] Some organizational basics were defined at the 1996 Cartagena Document on Methodology[19] The Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned States is "the highest decision making authority". The chairmanship rotates between countries and changes at every summit of heads of state or government to the country organizing the summit.[19] Requirements for membership of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
coincide with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The current requirements are that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with the ten "Bandung principles" of 1955:[19]

Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. Recognition of the movements for national independence. Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small. Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country. Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country. Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation. Respect for justice and international obligations.

Policies and ideology[edit]

The South Africa
South Africa
Conference NAM logo.

Secretaries General of the NAM had included such diverse figures as Suharto,[20] militaristic[21] anti-communist, and Nelson Mandela, a democratic socialist and famous anti-apartheid activist. Consisting of many governments with vastly different ideologies, the Non-Aligned Movement is unified by its declared commitment to world peace and security. At the seventh summit held in New Delhi
New Delhi
in March 1983, the movement described itself as "history's biggest peace movement".[22] The movement places equal emphasis on disarmament. NAM's commitment to peace pre-dates its formal institutionalisation in 1961. The Brioni meeting between heads of governments of India, Egypt
Egypt
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1956 recognized that there exists a vital link between struggle for peace and endeavours for disarmament.[22] During the 1970s and early 1980s, the NAM also sponsored campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, namely the New International Economic Order (NIEO), and its cultural offspring, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO). The latter, on its own, sparked a Non-Aligned initiative on cooperation for communications, the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, created in 1975 and later converted into the NAM News Network
NAM News Network
in 2005. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved. Many of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement are also members of the United Nations. Both organisations have a stated policy of peaceful cooperation, yet the successes the NAM has had with multilateral agreements tend to be ignored by the larger, western and developed nation dominated UN.[23] African concerns about apartheid were linked with Arab-Asian concerns about Palestine[23] and multilateral cooperation in these areas has enjoyed moderate success. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has played a major role in various ideological conflicts throughout its existence, including extreme opposition to apartheid governments and support of guerrilla movements in various locations, including Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and South Africa.[24] Current activities and positions[edit]

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Criticism of US policy

In recent years the organization has criticized certain aspects of US foreign policy. The 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
and the War on Terrorism, its attempts to stifle Iran
Iran
and North Korea's nuclear plans, and its other actions have been denounced by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement as attempts to run roughshod over the sovereignty of smaller nations; at the most recent summit, Kim Yong-nam, the head of North Korea's parliament, stated that, "The United States
United States
is attempting to deprive other countries of even their legitimate right to peaceful nuclear activities."[25]

Self-determination of Puerto Rico

Since 1961, the organization has supported the discussion of the case of Puerto Rico's self-determination before the United Nations. A resolution on the matter was to be proposed on the XV Summit by the Hostosian National Independence Movement.[needs update][26]

Self-determination of Western Sahara

Since 1973, the group has supported the discussion of the case of Western Sahara's self-determination before the United Nations.[27] The movement reaffirmed in its last meeting (Sharm El Sheikh 2009) the support to the Self-determination of the Sahrawi people
Sahrawi people
by choosing between any valid option, welcomed the direct conversations between the parties, and remembered the responsibility of the United Nations on the Sahrawi issue.[28]

Sustainable development

The movement is publicly committed to the tenets of sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, but it believes that the international community has not created conditions conducive to development and has infringed upon the right to sovereign development by each member state. Issues such as globalization, the debt burden, unfair trade practices, the decline in foreign aid, donor conditionality, and the lack of democracy in international financial decision-making are cited as factors inhibiting development.[29]

Reforms of the UN

The movement has been outspoken in its criticism of current UN structures and power dynamics, stating that the organisation has been utilised by powerful states in ways that violate the movement's principles. It has made a number of recommendations that it says would strengthen the representation and power of "non-aligned" states. The proposed UN reforms are also aimed at improving the transparency and democracy of UN decision-making. The UN Security Council is the element it considers the most distorted, undemocratic, and in need of reshaping.[30]

South-South cooperation

The movement has collaborated with other organisations of the developing world – primarily the Group of 77 – forming a number of joint committees and releasing statements and documents representing the shared interests of both groups. This dialogue and cooperation can be taken as an effort to increase the global awareness about the organisation and bolster its political clout.[citation needed]

Cultural diversity and human rights

The movement accepts the universality of human rights and social justice, but fiercely resists cultural homogenisation.[citation needed] In line with its views on sovereignty, the organisation appeals for the protection of cultural diversity, and the tolerance of the religious, socio-cultural, and historical particularities that define human rights in a specific region.[31][not in citation given]

Working groups, task forces, committees[32]

Committee on Palestine High-Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations Joint Coordinating Committee (chaired by Chairman of G-77 and Chairman of NAM) Non-Aligned Security Caucus Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation Task Force on Somalia Working Group on Disarmament Working Group on Human Rights Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations

Summits[edit]

16th summit of the NAM, Tehran

The conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, often referred to as Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
Summit is the main meeting within the movement and are held every few years:[33]

Date Host country Host city

1st 1–6 September 1961  Yugoslavia Belgrade

2nd 5–10 October 1964  United Arab Republic Cairo

3rd 8–10 September 1970  Zambia Lusaka

4th 5–9 September 1973  Algeria Algiers

5th 16–19 August 1976  Sri Lanka Colombo

6th 3–9 September 1979  Cuba Havana

7th 7–12 March 1983  India New Delhi

8th 1–6 September 1986  Zimbabwe Harare

9th 4–7 September 1989  Yugoslavia Belgrade

10th 1–6 September 1992  Indonesia Jakarta

11th 18–20 October 1995  Colombia Cartagena

12th 2–3 September 1998  South Africa Durban

13th 20–25 February 2003  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur

14th 15–16 September 2006  Cuba Havana

15th 11–16 July 2009  Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh

16th 26–31 August 2012  Iran Tehran

17th 13–18 September 2016  Venezuela Porlamar

18th 2019  Azerbaijan TBA

A variety of ministerial meetings are held between the summit meetings. Some are specialist, such as the meeting on "Inter-Faith Dialogue and Co-operation for Peace", held in Manila, the Philippines, 16–18 March 2010. There is a general Conference of Foreign Ministers every three years. The most recent were in Bali, Indonesia, 23–27 May 2011 and Algiers, Algeria, 26–29 May 2014. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
celebrated its 50th anniversary in Belgrade on 5–6 September 2011.[34][35]

Secretary general[edit]

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Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
is run by the secretary general elected at the last summit meeting. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.

Image Secretary-General[36] Country (holding the Presidency) Party From To

Josip Broz Tito  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1961 1964

Gamal Abdel Nasser  United Arab Republic Arab Socialist Union 1964 1970

Kenneth Kaunda  Zambia United National Independence Party 1970 1973

Houari Boumediène  Algeria Revolutionary Council 1973 1976

William Gopallawa  Sri Lanka Independent 1976 1978

Junius Richard Jayewardene United National Party 1978 1979

Fidel Castro  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 1979 1983

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy  India Janata Party 1983

Zail Singh Indian National Congress 1983 1986

Robert Mugabe  Zimbabwe ZANU-PF 1986 1989

Janez Drnovšek  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1989 1990

Borisav Jović Socialist Party of Serbia 1990 1991

Stjepan Mesić Croatian Democratic Union 1991

Branko Kostić Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro 1991 1992

Dobrica Ćosić  FR Yugoslavia Independent 1992

Suharto  Indonesia Golkar 1992 1995

Ernesto Samper  Colombia Colombian Liberal Party 1995 1998

Andrés Pastrana Arango Colombian Conservative Party 1998

Nelson Mandela  South Africa African National Congress 1998 1999

Thabo Mbeki 1999 2003

Mahathir Mohamad  Malaysia United Malays National Organisation 2003

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi 2003 2006

Fidel Castro[37]  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 2006 2008

Raúl Castro 2008 2009

Hosni Mubarak  Egypt National Democratic Party 2009 2011

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Independent 2011 2012

Mohamed Morsi Freedom and Justice Party 2012

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad  Iran Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran 2012 2013

Hassan Rouhani Moderation and Development Party 2013 2016

Nicolás Maduro  Venezuela United Socialist Party 2016 present

Members, observers and guests[edit] Current members[edit] The following countries are members of the NAM, arranged by continent, showing their year of admission:[1][36] Africa[edit] Currently every African country (except the newly created South Sudan) is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

  Algeria
Algeria
(1961)   Angola
Angola
(1976)   Benin
Benin
(1964)   Botswana
Botswana
(1970)   Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(1973)   Burundi
Burundi
(1964)   Cameroon
Cameroon
(1964)   Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(1976)   Central African Republic
Central African Republic
(1964)   Chad
Chad
(1964)   Comoros
Comoros
(1976)   Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(1961)   Djibouti
Djibouti
(1983)   Egypt
Egypt
(1961)   Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
(1970)   Eritrea
Eritrea
(1995)   Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1961)   Gabon
Gabon
(1970)  Gambia (1973)   Ghana
Ghana
(1961)   Guinea
Guinea
(1961)   Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
(1976)  Côte d'Ivoire (1973)   Kenya
Kenya
(1964)   Lesotho
Lesotho
(1970)   Liberia
Liberia
(1964)   Libya
Libya
(1964)   Madagascar
Madagascar
(1973)   Malawi
Malawi
(1964)   Mali
Mali
(1961)   Mauritania
Mauritania
(1964)   Mauritius
Mauritius
(1973)   Morocco
Morocco
(1961)   Mozambique
Mozambique
(1976)   Namibia
Namibia
(1979)   Niger
Niger
(1973)   Nigeria
Nigeria
(1964)   Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(1964)   Rwanda
Rwanda
(1970)   São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
(1976)   Senegal
Senegal
(1964)   Seychelles
Seychelles
(1976)   Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(1964)   Somalia
Somalia
(1961)   South Africa
South Africa
(1994)   Sudan
Sudan
(1961)   Swaziland
Swaziland
(1970)   Tanzania
Tanzania
(1964)   Togo
Togo
(1964)   Tunisia
Tunisia
(1961)   Uganda
Uganda
(1964)   Zambia
Zambia
(1964)   Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(1979)

Americas[edit]

  Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
(2006)  Bahamas (1983)   Barbados
Barbados
(1983)   Belize
Belize
(1976)   Bolivia
Bolivia
(1979)   Chile
Chile
(1973)   Colombia
Colombia
(1983)   Cuba
Cuba
(1961)   Dominica
Dominica
(2006)   Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(2000)   Ecuador
Ecuador
(1983)   Grenada
Grenada
(1979)   Guatemala
Guatemala
(1993)   Guyana
Guyana
(1970)   Haiti
Haiti
(2006)   Honduras
Honduras
(1995)   Jamaica
Jamaica
(1970)   Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(1979)   Panama
Panama
(1976)   Peru
Peru
(1973)   Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(2006)   Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(1983)   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(2003)   Suriname
Suriname
(1983)   Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(1970)   Venezuela
Venezuela
(1989)

Asia[edit]

  Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1961)   Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(2011)   Bahrain
Bahrain
(1973)   Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(1973)   Bhutan
Bhutan
(1973)   Brunei
Brunei
(1993)   Cambodia
Cambodia
(1961)   India
India
(1961)   Indonesia
Indonesia
(1961)   Iran
Iran
(1979)   Iraq
Iraq
(1961)   Jordan
Jordan
(1964)   Kuwait
Kuwait
(1964)   Laos
Laos
(1964)   Lebanon
Lebanon
(1961)   Malaysia
Malaysia
(1970)   Maldives
Maldives
(1976)   Mongolia
Mongolia
(1993)   Myanmar
Myanmar
(1961)     Nepal
Nepal
(1961)   North Korea
North Korea
(1976)   Oman
Oman
(1973)   Pakistan
Pakistan
(1979)  Palestine (1976)   Philippines
Philippines
(1993)   Qatar
Qatar
(1973)   Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(1961)   Singapore
Singapore
(1970)   Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(1961)   Syria
Syria
(1964)   Thailand
Thailand
(1993)   East Timor
East Timor
(2003)   Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(1995)   United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(1970)   Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(1993)   Vietnam
Vietnam
(1976)   Yemen
Yemen
(1990) [39]

Europe[edit]

  Belarus
Belarus
(1998)

Oceania[edit]

  Fiji
Fiji
(2011)  Papua New Guinea
Guinea
(1993)   Vanuatu
Vanuatu
(1983)

Former members[edit]

  Cyprus
Cyprus
(1961–2004)[40][41]   Malta
Malta
(1973–2004)[41]   Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(1961–1992)[9][42][43]

Observers[edit] The following countries and organizations have observer status (2012):[1] Countries[edit]

 Argentina[44]  Armenia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Brazil  China  Costa Rica  El Salvador  Kazakhstan  Kyrgyzstan  Macedonia  Mexico  Montenegro  Paraguay  Serbia  South Sudan  Tajikistan  Uruguay

Organisations[edit]

African Union Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation Arab League Association of Southeast Asian Nations Commonwealth Secretariat Commonwealth of Nations Hostosian National Independence Movement Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front Organisation of Islamic Cooperation South Centre United Nations World Peace Council International Institute for Non-Aligned Studies

Guests[edit] There is no permanent guest status,[45] but often several non-member countries are represented as guests at conferences. In addition, a large number of organisations, both from within the UN system
UN system
and from outside, are always invited as guests. See also[edit]

Asian–African Conference Country neutrality Dual loyalty Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence G-77 New World Information and Communication Order North–South divide Policy of deliberate ambiguity India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement South-South Cooperation Third World

References[edit]

^ a b c d "NAM Members & Observers - 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement". Tehran. 26–31 August 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-02-08. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  ^ a b "The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information". Government of Zaire. 21 September 2001. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
speech to the UN in his position as chairman of the non-aligned countries movement 12 October 1979 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.; " Pakistan
Pakistan
& Non-Aligned Movement" Archived 2 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine.. Board of Investment – Government of Pakistan. 2003. ^ Laskar, Rejaul Karim (June 2004). "Respite from Disgraceful NDA Foreign Policy". Congress Sandesh. 6 (10): 8.  ^ Ma'aroof, Mohammad Khalid (1987). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in World Politics: (a Study of Afghan-U.S. Relations). Gyan Publishing House. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-81-212-0097-4.  ^ " Belgrade
Belgrade
declaration of non-aligned countries" (PDF). Egyptian presidency website. 6 September 1961. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ "Fifth conference of heads of state or Government of non-aligned nations" (PDF). Egyptian presidency website. 6 September 1961. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ a b Suvedi, Sūryaprasāda (1996). Land and Maritime Zones of Peace in International Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-0-198-26096-7.  ^ a b "The Non-Aligned Movement: Member States" Archived 9 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998. Retrieved 24 August 2012. ^ Lai Kwon Kin (2 September 1992). " Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
casts shadow over non-aligned summit". The Independent. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Iran
Iran
and several other Muslim nations want the rump state of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
kicked out, saying it no longer represents the country which helped to found the movement.  ^ a b Najam, Adil (2003). "Chapter 9: The Collective South in Multinational Environmental Politics". In Nagel, Stuard. Policymaking and prosperity: a multinational anthology. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 197–240 [233]. ISBN 0-7391-0460-8. Retrieved 10 November 2009. Turkmenistan, Belarus
Belarus
and Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
are the most recent entrants. The application of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998.  ^ Putting Differences Aside Archived 12 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Daria Acosta, 18 September 2006. ^ Staff (7 August 2009). "Profile: Non-Aligned Movement". BBC News. Retrieved 24 August 2012. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: Final Document, no. 10-11. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: NAM XII Summit: Basic Documents – Final Document: 1 Global Issues. Nam.gov.za. Retrieved 3 August 2013. ^ NAM summit will raise Iran’s profile in the international arena Archived 28 January 2013 at Archive.is ^ NAM summit kicks off in Tehran
Tehran
Archived 29 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Southern Africa: Media Briefing By Deputy Minister Ebrahim Ebrahim On International Developments". 15 August 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2016 – via AllAfrica.  ^ a b c "Meeting of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology of the Movement of the Non-Aligned Countries, Caratagena de Indias, May 14–16, 1996". Head of State and Government of the Non-Aligned Countries. Government of Zaire. 14–16 May 1996. Retrieved 24 April 2011.  ^ " Suharto
Suharto
tops corruption rankings". BBC News. 25 March 2004. Retrieved 4 February 2006.  ^ Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999". A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). Archived from the original on 22 February 2012.  ^ a b Ohlson, Thomas; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (1988). Arms Transfer Limitations and Third World
Third World
Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-198-29124-4.  ^ a b Morphet, Sally. "Multilateralism and the Non-Aligned Movement: What Is the Global South Doing and Where Is It Going?". Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations. 10 (2004), pp. 517–537. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Staff (16 September 2006). "Non-Aligned Nations Slam U.S." CBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2012. ^ [clarification needed] Transcript (14 July 2009). "No Alineados preparan apoyo a la libre determinación de Puerto Rico – El texto se presentaría al cierre de la cita del NOAL en Sharm el Sheij" (in Spanish). Radio Cooperativa. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ [dead link] "3162 (XXVIII) Question of Spanish Sahara. U.N. General assembly 28th session, 1973" Archived 13 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF format). United Nations. ^ XV Summit of heads of state and government of the Non Aligned Movement – Final Document. Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.16-04-2009. Archived 17 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. See points 237, 238 & 239. ^ Statement on the implementation of the Right to Development Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 7 January 2008. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: Final Document, no. 55. ^ Declaration on the occasion of celebrating Human Rights Day Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 2.4. Archived 9 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ XV Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Sharm El Sheikh, 11–16 July 2009: Previous Summits Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Serbia, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of. "Nesvrstani ponovo u Beogradu". Retrieved 18 September 2016.  ^ "Secretary-General's Message to Additional Commemorative Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
- United Nations
United Nations
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon". Retrieved 18 September 2016.  ^ a b Cahoon, Ben. " Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM)". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 4 September 2012.  ^ Fidel Castro, having recently undergone gastric surgery, was unable to attend the conference and was represented by his younger brother, Cuba's acting president Raúl Castro. See "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
Nations". People's Daily. 16 September 2006. ^ In a joint letter to the UN Secretary-General sent just prior to unification, the Ministers of Foreign affairs of North and South Yemen stated that "All treaties and agreements concluded between either the Yemen
Yemen
Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
Yemen
and other States and international organizations in accordance with international law which are in force on 22 May 1990 will remain in effect, and international relations existing on 22 May 1990 between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
Yemen
and the Yemen
Yemen
Arab Republic and other States will continue."Bühler, Konrad (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.  ^  North Yemen
Yemen
is one of the founders in 1961.  South Yemen joined in 1970. In 1990 both were unified into a single state which accepted responsibility for all treaties of its predecessors.[38] ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
and the Non – Aligned Movement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Cyprus. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ a b "XIV Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement". South Africa Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ "Final Document of the 7th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
-(New Delhi Declaration)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2016.  ^ Kin, Lai Kwok (2 September 1992). " Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Casts Shadow over Non-Aligned Summit". The Independent. Reuters. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  ^ Serrat, Oscar J. (20 September 1991). " Argentina
Argentina
Withdraws from Non-Aligned Movement". Associated Press. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 4.4. Archived 9 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading[edit]

Hans Köchler
Hans Köchler
(ed.), The Principles of Non-Alignment. The Non-aligned Countries in the Eighties—Results and Perspectives. London: Third World Centre, 1982. ISBN 0-86199-015-3 (Google Print)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Non-Aligned Movement.

Official Site: 17th Summit – Seventeenth Non-Aligned Movement Summit (Margarita, Venezuela
Venezuela
2016) Official Site: 16th Summit – Sixteenth Non Aligned Movement Summit ( Tehran
Tehran
26–31 August 2012) Official Site: 15th Summit – Fifteenth Non Aligned Movement Summit (Sharm el Sheikh 11–16 July 2009) Official Site: 14th Summit – Fourteenth Non Aligned Movement Summit (Havana, 11–16 September 2006) Non-Aligned Movement – South African government NAM site International Institute for Non-Aligned Studies – International Organization for Non-Aligned Movement The Cold War
Cold War
International History Project's Document Collection on the NAM

Videos[edit]

Non-Aligned Movement
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Summit in Tehran
Tehran
PressTV
PressTV
(2012) Iran’s NAM presidency – PressTV
PressTV
(2012)

Links to related articles

v t e

Non-Aligned Movement

Members

List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Non-Aligned Movement Egypt
Egypt
and the Non-Aligned Movement

Structure

Organizations

NAM News Network

Principles

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Summits

Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement

Founders

Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
(Yugoslavia) Sukarno
Sukarno
(Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
(Egypt)

People

Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro

v t e

South–South cooperation and Third Worldism

Global South

Development

Landlocked developing countries Least Developed Countries Heavily indebted poor countries

Markets

Emerging markets Newly industrialized country Transition economy

Worlds Theory

First World Second World Third World Fourth World

Geopolitics

Decolonization Cold War Neocolonialism Multipolarity World Conference against Racism

Durban
Durban
I Durban
Durban
II Durban
Durban
III

Globalization

BRICS

Brazil–Russia–India–China– South Africa
South Africa
(BRICS) BASIC ( BRICS
BRICS
less Russia) BRIC
BRIC
( BRICS
BRICS
less South Africa) India–Brazil– South Africa
South Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA)

Finance

Debt Asian Clearing Union Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Asian Development Bank Arab Monetary Fund BancoSur Caribbean Development Bank Common Fund for Commodities

Trade and development

Developmental state Flying geese paradigm Infrastructure-based development Sustainable development Global System of Trade Preferences Protocol on Trade Negotiations New International Economic Order New World Information and Communication Order United Nations
United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization

Public health

Generic drugs

biosimilar

Pharmaceutical patents

criticism

Test data exclusivity Doha Declaration World Health Organization

Organizations and groups

G-77 G-15 D-8 G20 developing nations
G20 developing nations
(G-20) G-24 G33 developing countries (G-33) G-11 G-90 Non-Aligned Movement African, Caribbean and Pacific Group African Union Afro–Asian Conference Association of Southeast Asian Nations Colombo
Colombo
Plan Community of Latin American and Caribbean States International Solar Alliance Like Minded Group Melanesian Spearhead Group Next Eleven North–South Summit Polynesian Leaders Group South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Small Island Developing States South Centre Third World
Third World
Network

North–South divide

Brandt Report Global financial system

International Monetary Fund World Bank World Trade Organization

Fair trade Financial regulation Global digital divide

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen
Yemen
Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen
Yemen
Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen
Yemen
Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty
Sovereignty
of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Power in international relations

Types

Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp

Status

Emerging Small Middle Regional Great Super Hyper

Geopolitics

American Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific

History

List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Theory

Balance of power

European

Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

Studies

Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power

Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

African Union Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–Asia

Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Americas

Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

Asia

Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Europe

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group

Eurasia

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council

North America–Europe

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arctic Council

Africa–Asia–Europe

Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–South America

South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

Oceania-Pacific

Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China– South Africa
South Africa
(BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil– South Africa
South Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria–Turkey (MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

v t e

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Member of Expediency Discernment Council
Expediency Discernment Council
(2013– ) Ex officio member at Presidency Era • 6th President of Iran
Iran
(2005–13) • 53th Mayor of Tehran
Tehran
(2003–05) • 1st Governor of Ardabil Province
Ardabil Province
(1993–97) •

28th Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(2012–13) • Chairperson of the ECO (2009–2010) • Chairperson of the Group of 15 (2006–10)

Life and politics

Electoral history 2000 legislative election 2005 presidential election 2009 presidential election Presidency

First Cabinet Second Cabinet

Mehr Housing plan Gasoline rationing plan

Riots

Subsidy reform plan Foreign policy Controversies Deviant current Israel 1979 hostage crisis Letter to George W. Bush International Conference to Review the Holocaust 10th ECO Summit International Conference on Non-Proliferation 14th G-15 summit 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement 2017 presidential election

Political parties

Office for Strengthening Unity
Office for Strengthening Unity
(1979–1980) Islamic Society of Engineers
Islamic Society of Engineers
(1988–present; inactive since 2005) Society of Devotees (1999–2011) Alliance of Builders (2003–2005)

Related articles

University of Iranians Council for Spreading Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's Thoughts Durban
Durban
Review Conference

Family

Azam Farahi
Azam Farahi
(wife) Davoud Ahmadinejad
Davoud Ahmadinejad
(brother) Parvin Ahmadinejad
Parvin Ahmadinejad
(sister) Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei
Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei
(co-fathers-in-law)

← Mohammad Khatami • Hassan Rouhani
Hassan Rouhani

Category • Commons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240308845 LCCN: n00020651 ISNI: 0000 0001 2299 2598 GND: 4007183-2 SELIBR: 271574 BIBSYS: 12069120 NLA: 41790387

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