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The NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc . As of 2017 , the movement has 122 members.

The purpose of the organization has been enumerated as to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism , colonialism , neo-colonialism , racism , and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation , domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics," by Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in the Havana
Havana
Declaration of 1979. The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World .

Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were actually quite closely aligned with one or another of the superpowers , the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War, even despite several conflicts between members which also threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world, especially those within the Global South.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origins and the Cold War
Cold War

* 1.1.1 Cooperation with one another

* 1.2 Since the end of the Cold War
Cold War

* 2 Organizational structure and membership * 3 Policies and ideology * 4 Current activities and positions * 5 Summits * 6 Secretary general

* 7 Members, observers and guests

* 7.1 Current members

* 7.1.1 Africa * 7.1.2 Americas * 7.1.3 Asia * 7.1.4 Europe * 7.1.5 Oceania

* 7.2 Former members

* 7.3 Observers

* 7.3.1 Countries * 7.3.2 Organisations

* 7.4 Guests

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading

* 11 External links

* 11.1 Videos

HISTORY

ORIGINS AND THE COLD WAR

The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
were Josip Broz Tito of Socialist Yugoslavia , Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt
Egypt
and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'.

The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on July 19th, 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia\'s president, Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser . One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". The Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War
Cold War
. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations.

But it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961. The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:

* Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty . * Mutual non-aggression. * Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. * Equality and mutual benefit. * Peaceful co-existence.

Cooperation With One Another

A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference , a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno , who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu , Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Nkrumah and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh , Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
, and Norodom Sihanouk
Norodom Sihanouk
, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Nehru's five principles, and a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War
Cold War
. Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade
Belgrade
. The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement. Belgrade
Belgrade
Conference, September 1961

At the Lusaka
Lusaka
Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries.

Some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India
India
and Pakistan, Iran
Iran
and Iraq). The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1979. Although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement (particularly predominantly Muslim states ) condemned it.

SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR

Because the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
was formed as an attempt to thwart the Cold War, it has struggled to find relevance since the Cold War ended. After the breakup of Yugoslavia , a founding member, its membership was suspended in 1992 at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations
United Nations
. The successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
have expressed little interest in membership, though Serbia
Serbia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
have observer status. In 2004, Malta
Malta
and Cyprus
Cyprus
ceased to be members and joined the European Union
European Union
. Belarus
Belarus
is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Fiji
Fiji
are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011. The applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998, respectively.

Since the end of the Cold War
Cold War
, the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has been forced to redefine itself and reinvent its purpose in the current world system. A major question has been whether many of its foundational ideologies, principally national independence, territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism, can be applied to contemporary issues. The movement has emphasised its principles of multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South, and an instrument that can be utilised to promote the needs of member nations at the international level and strengthen their political leverage when negotiating with developed nations. In its efforts to advance Southern interests, the movement has stressed the importance of cooperation and unity amongst member states, but as in the past, cohesion remains a problem since the size of the organisation and the divergence of agendas and allegiances present the ongoing potential for fragmentation. While agreement on basic principles has been smooth, taking definitive action vis-à-vis particular international issues has been rare, with the movement preferring to assert its criticism or support rather than pass hard-line resolutions.

The movement continues to see a role for itself, as in its view, the world's poorest nations remain exploited and marginalised, no longer by opposing superpowers, but rather in a uni-polar world, and it is Western hegemony and neo-colonialism that the movement has really re-aligned itself against. It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has identified economic underdevelopment , poverty, and social injustices as growing threats to peace and security.

The 16th NAM summit took place in Tehran
Tehran
, Iran, from 26 to 31 August 2012. According to Mehr News Agency , representatives from over 150 countries were scheduled to attend. Attendance at the highest level includes 27 presidents, 2 kings and emirs, 7 prime ministers, 9 vice presidents, 2 parliament spokesmen and 5 special envoys. At the summit, Iran
Iran
took over from Egypt
Egypt
as Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement for the period 2012 to 2015.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND MEMBERSHIP

The movement stems from a desire not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structure. Some organizational basics were defined at the 1996 Cartagena Document on Methodology The Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned States is "the highest decision making authority". The chairmanship rotates between countries and changes at every summit of heads of state or government to the country organizing the summit.

Requirements for membership of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
coincide with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The current requirements are that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with the ten "Bandung principles" of 1955:

* Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations . * Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. * Recognition of the movements for national independence. * Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small. * Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country. * Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. * Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country. * Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. * Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation. * Respect for justice and international obligations.

POLICIES AND IDEOLOGY

The South Africa
South Africa
Conference NAM logo.

Secretaries General of the NAM had included such diverse figures as Suharto
Suharto
, militaristic anti-communist, and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
, a democratic socialist and famous anti-apartheid activist. Consisting of many governments with vastly different ideologies, the Non-Aligned Movement is unified by its declared commitment to world peace and security. At the seventh summit held in New Delhi
New Delhi
in March 1983, the movement described itself as "history's biggest peace movement". The movement places equal emphasis on disarmament . NAM's commitment to peace pre-dates its formal institutionalisation in 1961. The Brioni meeting between heads of governments of India, Egypt
Egypt
and Yugoslavia in 1956 recognized that there exists a vital link between struggle for peace and endeavours for disarmament.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the NAM also sponsored campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, namely the New International Economic Order (NIEO), and its cultural offspring, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO). The latter, on its own, sparked a Non-Aligned initiative on cooperation for communications, the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool , created in 1975 and later converted into the NAM News Network in 2005.

The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved. Many of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement are also members of the United Nations. Both organisations have a stated policy of peaceful cooperation, yet the successes the NAM has had with multilateral agreements tend to be ignored by the larger, western and developed nation dominated UN. African concerns about apartheid were linked with Arab-Asian concerns about Palestine and multilateral cooperation in these areas has enjoyed moderate success. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has played a major role in various ideological conflicts throughout its existence, including extreme opposition to apartheid governments and support of guerrilla movements in various locations, including Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and South Africa.

CURRENT ACTIVITIES AND POSITIONS

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Criticism of US policy

In recent years the organization has criticized certain aspects of US foreign policy. The 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
and the War on Terrorism , its attempts to stifle Iran
Iran
and North Korea
North Korea
's nuclear plans, and its other actions have been denounced by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement as attempts to run roughshod over the sovereignty of smaller nations; at the most recent summit, Kim Yong-nam , the head of North Korea's parliament, stated that, "The United States
United States
is attempting to deprive other countries of even their legitimate right to peaceful nuclear activities." Self-determination of Puerto Rico

Since 1961, the organization has supported the discussion of the case of Puerto Rico\'s self-determination before the United Nations. A resolution on the matter was to be proposed on the XV Summit by the Hostosian National Independence Movement . Self-determination of Western Sahara

Since 1973, the group has supported the discussion of the case of Western Sahara\'s self-determination before the United Nations. The movement reaffirmed in its last meeting (Sharm El Sheikh 2009) the support to the Self-determination of the Sahrawi people
Sahrawi people
by choosing between any valid option, welcomed the direct conversations between the parties, and remembered the responsibility of the United Nations on the Sahrawi issue. Sustainable development
Sustainable development

The movement is publicly committed to the tenets of sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
, but it believes that the international community has not created conditions conducive to development and has infringed upon the right to sovereign development by each member state. Issues such as globalization, the debt burden , unfair trade practices , the decline in foreign aid, donor conditionality , and the lack of democracy in international financial decision-making are cited as factors inhibiting development. Reforms of the UN

The movement has been outspoken in its criticism of current UN structures and power dynamics, stating that the organisation has been utilised by powerful states in ways that violate the movement's principles. It has made a number of recommendations that it says would strengthen the representation and power of "non-aligned" states. The proposed UN reforms are also aimed at improving the transparency and democracy of UN decision-making. The UN Security Council is the element it considers the most distorted, undemocratic, and in need of reshaping. South-South cooperation

The movement has collaborated with other organisations of the developing world – primarily the Group of 77 – forming a number of joint committees and releasing statements and documents representing the shared interests of both groups. This dialogue and cooperation can be taken as an effort to increase the global awareness about the organisation and bolster its political clout. Cultural diversity and human rights

The movement accepts the universality of human rights and social justice, but fiercely resists cultural homogenisation. In line with its views on sovereignty, the organisation appeals for the protection of cultural diversity, and the tolerance of the religious, socio-cultural, and historical particularities that define human rights in a specific region. Working groups, task forces, committees

* Committee on Palestine * High-Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations * Joint Coordinating Committee (chaired by Chairman of G-77 and Chairman of NAM) * Non-Aligned Security Caucus * Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation * Task Force on Somalia * Working Group on Disarmament * Working Group on Human Rights * Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations

SUMMITS

16th summit of the NAM, Tehran
Tehran

The conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, often referred to as Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
Summit is the main meeting within the movement and are held every few years:

DATE HOST COUNTRY HOST CITY

1st 1–6 September 1961 Yugoslavia Belgrade
Belgrade

2nd 5–10 October 1964 United Arab Republic Cairo
Cairo

3rd 8–10 September 1970 Zambia
Zambia
Lusaka
Lusaka

4th 5–9 September 1973 Algeria
Algeria
Algiers
Algiers

5th 16–19 August 1976 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Colombo
Colombo

6th 3–9 September 1979 Cuba
Cuba
Havana
Havana

7th 7–12 March 1983 India
India
New Delhi
New Delhi

8th 1–6 September 1986 Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Harare
Harare

9th 4–7 September 1989 Yugoslavia Belgrade
Belgrade

10th 1–6 September 1992 Indonesia
Indonesia
Jakarta
Jakarta

11th 18–20 October 1995 Colombia
Colombia
Cartagena

12th 2–3 September 1998 South Africa
South Africa
Durban
Durban

13th 20–25 February 2003 Malaysia
Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur

14th 15–16 September 2006 Cuba
Cuba
Havana
Havana

15th 11–16 July 2009 Egypt
Egypt
Sharm el-Sheikh

16th 26–31 August 2012 Iran
Iran
Tehran
Tehran

17th 13–18 September 2016 Venezuela
Venezuela
Porlamar

A variety of ministerial meetings are held between the summit meetings. Some are specialist, such as the meeting on "Inter-Faith Dialogue and Co-operation for Peace", held in Manila, the Philippines, 16–18 March 2010. There is a general Conference of Foreign Ministers every three years. The most recent were in Bali, Indonesia, 23–27 May 2011 and Algiers, Algeria, 26–29 May 2014.

The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
celebrated its 50th anniversary in Belgrade on 5–6 September 2011.

SECRETARY GENERAL

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Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
is run by the secretary general elected at the last summit meeting. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.

IMAGE SECRETARY-GENERAL COUNTRY (HOLDING THE PRESIDENCY) PARTY FROM TO

Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
1961 1964

Gamal Abdel Nasser United Arab Republic Arab Socialist Union 1964 1970

Kenneth Kaunda Zambia
Zambia
United National Independence Party 1970 1973

Houari Boumediène Algeria
Algeria
Revolutionary Council 1973 1976

William Gopallawa
William Gopallawa
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Independent 1976 1978

Junius Richard Jayewardene United National Party 1978 1979

Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
Cuba
Cuba
Communist Party of Cuba
Cuba
1979 1983

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy India
India
Janata Party
Janata Party
1983

Zail Singh
Zail Singh
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
1983 1986

Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
ZANU-PF 1986 1989

Janez Drnovšek Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
1989 1990

Borisav Jović
Borisav Jović
Socialist Party of Serbia
Serbia
1990 1991

Stjepan Mesić Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
1991

Branko Kostić Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro 1991 1992

Dobrica Ćosić
Dobrica Ćosić
FR Yugoslavia Independent 1992

Suharto
Suharto
Indonesia
Indonesia
Golkar
Golkar
1992 1995

Ernesto Samper Colombia
Colombia
Colombian Liberal Party
Colombian Liberal Party
1995 1998

Andrés Pastrana Arango Colombian Conservative Party
Colombian Conservative Party
1998

Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
South Africa
South Africa
African National Congress 1998 1999

Thabo Mbeki
Thabo Mbeki
1999 2003

Mahathir Mohamad
Mahathir Mohamad
Malaysia
Malaysia
United Malays National Organisation 2003

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2003 2006

Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
Cuba
Cuba
Communist Party of Cuba
Cuba
2006 2008

Raúl Castro
Raúl Castro
2008 2009

Hosni Mubarak Egypt
Egypt
National Democratic Party 2009 2011

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Independent 2011 2012

Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
Freedom and Justice Party 2012

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Iran
Iran
Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran
Iran
2012 2013

Hassan Rouhani
Hassan Rouhani
Moderation and Development Party 2013 2016

Nicolás Maduro
Nicolás Maduro
Venezuela
Venezuela
United Socialist Party 2016 present

MEMBERS, OBSERVERS AND GUESTS

CURRENT MEMBERS

The following countries are members of the NAM, arranged by continent, showing their year of admission:

Africa

Currently every African country (except the newly created South Sudan ) is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

* Algeria
Algeria
(1961) * Angola
Angola
(1976) * Benin
Benin
(1964) * Botswana
Botswana
(1970) * Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(1973) * Burundi
Burundi
(1964) * Cabo Verde (1976) * Cameroon
Cameroon
(1964) * Central African Republic
Central African Republic
(1964) * Chad
Chad
(1964) * Comoros (1976) * Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(1961) * Djibouti
Djibouti
(1983) * Egypt
Egypt
(1961) * Equatorial Guinea (1970) * Eritrea
Eritrea
(1995) * Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1961) * Gabon
Gabon
(1970) * Gambia (1973) * Ghana
Ghana
(1961) * Guinea
Guinea
(1961) * Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
(1976) * Côte d\'Ivoire (1973) * Kenya
Kenya
(1964) * Lesotho
Lesotho
(1970) * Liberia
Liberia
(1964) * Libya
Libya
(1964) * Madagascar
Madagascar
(1973) * Malawi
Malawi
(1964) * Mali
Mali
(1961) * Mauritania
Mauritania
(1964) * Mauritius
Mauritius
(1973) * Morocco
Morocco
(1961) * Mozambique
Mozambique
(1976) * Namibia
Namibia
(1994) * Niger
Niger
(1973) * Nigeria
Nigeria
(1964) * Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(1964) * Rwanda
Rwanda
(1970) * São Tomé and Príncipe (1976) * Senegal
Senegal
(1964) * Seychelles
Seychelles
(1976) * Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(1964) * Somalia
Somalia
(1961) * South Africa
South Africa
(1994) * Sudan
Sudan
(1961) * Swaziland
Swaziland
(1970) * Tanzania
Tanzania
(1964) * Togo
Togo
(1964) * Tunisia
Tunisia
(1961) * Uganda
Uganda
(1964) * Zambia
Zambia
(1964) * Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(1979)

Americas

* Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
(2006) * Bahamas (1983) * Barbados
Barbados
(1986) * Belize
Belize
(1986) * Bolivia
Bolivia
(1979) * Brazil
Brazil
(2017) * Chile
Chile
(1973) * Colombia
Colombia
(1983) * Cuba
Cuba
(1961) * Dominica
Dominica
(2006) * Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(2000) * Ecuador
Ecuador
(1983) * Grenada
Grenada
(1979) * Guatemala
Guatemala
(1986) * Guyana
Guyana
(1970) * Haiti
Haiti
(2006) * Honduras
Honduras
(1995) * Jamaica
Jamaica
(1970) * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(1979) * Panama
Panama
(1976) * Peru
Peru
(1973) * Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(2006) * Saint Lucia (1983) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(2003) * Suriname
Suriname
(1983) * Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(1970) * Venezuela
Venezuela
(1989)

Asia

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1961) * Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(2011) * Bahrain
Bahrain
(1973) * Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(1973) * Bhutan
Bhutan
(1973) * Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam (1986) * Cambodia
Cambodia
(1961) * Democratic People\'s Republic of Korea (1976) * India
India
(1961) * Indonesia
Indonesia
(1961) * Iran
Iran
(1979) * Iraq
Iraq
(1961) * Jordan
Jordan
(1964) * Kuwait
Kuwait
(1964) * Lao People\'s Democratic Republic (1964) * Lebanon
Lebanon
(1961) * Malaysia
Malaysia
(1970) * Maldives
Maldives
(1976) * Mongolia
Mongolia
(1992) * Myanmar
Myanmar
(1961) * Nepal
Nepal
(1961) * Oman
Oman
(1973) * Pakistan
Pakistan
(1979) * Palestine (1976) * Philippines
Philippines
(1986) * Qatar
Qatar
(1973) * Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(1961) * Singapore
Singapore
(1970) * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(1961) * Syria
Syria
(1964) * Thailand
Thailand
(1986) * Timor Leste (2003) * Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(1998) * United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(1970) * Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(1998) * Vietnam
Vietnam
(1976) * Yemen
Yemen
(1990)

Europe

* Belarus
Belarus
(1998)

Oceania

* Fiji
Fiji
(2011) * Papua New Guinea
Guinea
(1986) * Tonga
Tonga
(2017) * Vanuatu
Vanuatu
(1986)

FORMER MEMBERS

* Cyprus
Cyprus
(1961–2004) * Malta
Malta
(1973–2004) * Yugoslavia (1961–1992)

OBSERVERS

The following countries and organizations have observer status (2012):

Countries

* Argentina
Argentina
* Armenia
Armenia
* Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina

* China
China
* Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* El Salvador
El Salvador
* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
* Macedonia * Mexico
Mexico
* Montenegro
Montenegro
* Paraguay
Paraguay
* Serbia
Serbia
* South Sudan
South Sudan
* Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* Uruguay
Uruguay

Organisations

* African Union
African Union
* Afro-Asian People\'s Solidarity Organisation * Arab League
Arab League
* Commonwealth Secretariat * Hostosian National Independence Movement * Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front * Organisation of Islamic Cooperation * South Centre * United Nations
United Nations
* World Peace Council * International Institute for Non-Aligned Studies

GUESTS

There is no permanent guest status, but often several non-member countries are represented as guests at conferences. In addition, a large number of organisations, both from within the UN system and from outside, are always invited as guests.

SEE ALSO

* Asian–African Conference * Country neutrality * Dual loyalty * Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence * G-77 * New World Information and Communication Order * North–South divide * Policy of deliberate ambiguity * India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
* South-South Cooperation * Third World

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D "NAM Members & Observers - 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement". Tehran. 26–31 August 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-02-08. Retrieved 24 August 2012. * ^ A B "The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information". Government of Zaire. 21 September 2001. Retrieved 23 April 2011. * ^ Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
speech to the UN in his position as chairman of the non-aligned countries movement 12 October 1979 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.; " Pakistan
Pakistan
& Non-Aligned Movement" Archived 2 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. Board of Investment – Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
. 2003. * ^ A B Grant, Cedric. "Equity in Third World Relations: a third world perspective". International Affairs 71, 3 (1995), 567–587. * ^ Ma'aroof, Mohammad Khalid (1987). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in World Politics: (a Study of Afghan-U.S. Relations). Gyan Publishing House. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-81-212-0097-4 . * ^ " Belgrade
Belgrade
declaration of non-aligned countries" (PDF). Egyptian presidency website. 6 September 1961. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. * ^ "Fifth conference of heads of state or Government of non-aligned nations" (PDF). Egyptian presidency website. 6 September 1961. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. * ^ A B Suvedi, Sūryaprasāda (1996). Land and Maritime Zones of Peace in International Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Clarendon Press
; New York: Oxford University Press . pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-0-198-26096-7 . * ^ A B "The Non-Aligned Movement: Member States". XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998. Retrieved 24 August 2012. * ^ Lai Kwon Kin (2 September 1992). "Yugoslavia casts shadow over non-aligned summit". The Independent
The Independent
. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Iran
Iran
and several other Muslim nations want the rump state of Yugoslavia kicked out, saying it no longer represents the country which helped to found the movement. * ^ A B Najam, Adil (2003). "Chapter 9: The Collective South in Multinational Environmental Politics". In Nagel, Stuard. Policymaking and prosperity: a multinational anthology. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books . pp. 197–240 . ISBN 0-7391-0460-8 . Retrieved 10 November 2009. Turkmenistan, Belarus
Belarus
and Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
are the most recent entrants. The application of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Costa Rica
Costa Rica
were rejected in 1995 and 1998. * ^ Putting Differences Aside Archived 12 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine ., Daria Acosta, 18 September 2006. * ^ Staff (7 August 2009). "Profile: Non-Aligned Movement". BBC News . Retrieved 24 August 2012. * ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: Final Document, no. 10-11. * ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: NAM XII Summit: Basic Documents – Final Document: 1 Global Issues. Nam.gov.za. Retrieved 3 August 2013. * ^ NAM summit will raise Iran’s profile in the international arena Archived 28 January 2013 at Archive.is
Archive.is
* ^ NAM summit kicks off in Tehran
Tehran
Archived 29 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Southern Africa: Media Briefing By Deputy Minister Ebrahim Ebrahim On International Developments". 15 August 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2016 – via AllAfrica. * ^ A B C "Meeting of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology of the Movement of the Non-Aligned Countries, Caratagena de Indias, May 14–16, 1996". Head of State and Government of the Non-Aligned Countries. Government of Zaire. 14–16 May 1996. Retrieved 24 April 2011. * ^ " Suharto
Suharto
tops corruption rankings". BBC News. 25 March 2004. Retrieved 4 February 2006. * ^ Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999". A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. * ^ A B Ohlson, Thomas; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (1988). Arms Transfer Limitations and Third World Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-198-29124-4 . * ^ A B Morphet, Sally. "Multilateralism and the Non-Aligned Movement: What Is the Global South Doing and Where Is It Going?". Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations . 10 (2004), pp. 517–537. * ^ Staff (16 September 2006). "Non-Aligned Nations Slam U.S." CBC News . Retrieved 23 August 2012. * ^ Transcript (14 July 2009). "No Alineados preparan apoyo a la libre determinación de Puerto Rico – El texto se presentaría al cierre de la cita del NOAL en Sharm el Sheij" (in Spanish). Radio Cooperativa . Retrieved 23 August 2012. * ^ "3162 (XXVIII) Question of Spanish Sahara. U.N. General assembly 28th session, 1973" (PDF format ). United Nations. * ^ XV Summit of heads of state and government of the Non Aligned Movement – Final Document. Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.16-04-2009. See points 237, 238 & 239. * ^ Statement on the implementation of the Right to Development Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., 7 January 2008. * ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: Final Document, no. 55. * ^ Declaration on the occasion of celebrating Human Rights Day Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. * ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 2.4.. * ^ XV Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Sharm El Sheikh, 11–16 July 2009: Previous Summits Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Serbia, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of. "Nesvrstani ponovo u Beogradu". Retrieved 18 September 2016. * ^ "Secretary-General\'s Message to Additional Commemorative Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
- United Nations
United Nations
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon". Retrieved 18 September 2016. * ^ Fidel Castro, having recently undergone gastric surgery, was unable to attend the conference and was represented by his younger brother, Cuba\'s acting president Raúl Castro
Raúl Castro
. See "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
Nations". People\'s Daily . 16 September 2006. * ^ Cahoon, Ben. " Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM)". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 4 September 2012. * ^ In a joint letter to the UN Secretary-General
UN Secretary-General
sent just prior to unification, the Ministers of Foreign affairs of North and South Yemen
Yemen
stated that "All treaties and agreements concluded between either the Yemen
Yemen
Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
Yemen
and other States and international organizations in accordance with international law which are in force on 22 May 1990 will remain in effect, and international relations existing on 22 May 1990 between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
Yemen
and the Yemen
Yemen
Arab Republic and other States will continue."Bühler, Konrad (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Martinus Nijhoff Publisher. * ^ North Yemen
Yemen
is one of the founders in 1961. South Yemen joined in 1970. In 1990 both were unified into a single state which accepted responsibility for all treaties of its predecessors. * ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
and the Non – Aligned Movement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Cyprus. Retrieved 23 March 2014. * ^ A B "XIV Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement". South Africa
South Africa
Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 23 March 2014. * ^ "Final Document of the 7th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement -( New Delhi
New Delhi
Declaration)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2016. * ^ Kin, Lai Kwok (2 September 1992). "Yugoslavia Casts Shadow over Non-Aligned Summit". The Independent
The Independent
. Reuters
Reuters
. Retrieved 24 August 2012. * ^ Serrat, Oscar J. (20 September 1991). " Argentina
Argentina
Withdraws from Non-Aligned Movement". Associated Press. Retrieved 23 March 2014. * ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 4.4.

FURTHER READING

* Hans Köchler (ed.), The Principles of Non-Alignment. The Non-aligned Countries in the Eighties—Results and Perspectives. London: Third World Centre, 1982. ISBN 0-86199-015-3 (Google Print)

EXTERNAL LINKS

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