The Info List - Non-Aligned Movement

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The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012[update], the movement has 120 members.[1] The purpose of the organization has been enumerated as to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics," by Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in the Havana
Declaration of 1979.[3] The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
also has a number of developed nations. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were actually quite closely aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War, even despite several conflicts between members which also threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world, especially those within the Global South.


1 History

1.1 Origins and the Cold War 1.2 Since the end of the Cold War

2 Organizational structure and membership 3 Policies and ideology 4 Current activities and positions 5 Summits 6 Secretary general 7 Members, observers and guests

7.1 Current members

7.1.1 Africa 7.1.2 Americas 7.1.3 Asia 7.1.4 Europe 7.1.5 Oceania

7.2 Former members 7.3 Observers

7.3.1 Countries 7.3.2 Organisations

7.4 Guests

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

11.1 Videos

History[edit] Origins and the Cold War[edit] The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
were Josip Broz Tito of Socialist Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
of India, Sukarno
of Indonesia, Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
of Egypt
and Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia
in 1956, and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni
on July 19th, 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India
for most part of the Cold War
Cold War
years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers".[4] The Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon
V. K. Krishna Menon
in 1953, at the United Nations.[5][unreliable source?] But it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961. The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations
Sino-Indian relations
called Panchsheel (five restraints); these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:

Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty. Mutual non-aggression. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. Equality and mutual benefit. Peaceful co-existence.[citation needed]

A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Nkrumah and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, and Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Nehru's five principles, and a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War. Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade.[6] The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement.[7]

Conference, September 1961

At the Lusaka
Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries.[8] Some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India
and Pakistan, Iran
and Iraq). The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded Afghanistan
in 1979. Although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement (particularly predominantly Muslim states) condemned it. Since the end of the Cold War[edit] Because the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
was formed as an attempt to throw out the Cold War,[8] it has struggled to find relevance since the Cold War ended. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, a founding member, its membership was suspended[9] in 1992 at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations.[10][11] The successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
have expressed little interest in membership, though Serbia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina have observer status. In 2004, Malta
and Cyprus
ceased to be members and joined the European Union. Belarus
is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan
and Fiji
are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011. The applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica
Costa Rica
were rejected in 1995 and 1998, respectively.[11] Since the end of the Cold War, the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has been forced to redefine itself and reinvent its purpose in the current world system. A major question has been whether many of its foundational ideologies, principally national independence, territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism, can be applied to contemporary issues. The movement has emphasised its principles of multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South, and an instrument that can be utilised to promote the needs of member nations at the international level and strengthen their political leverage when negotiating with developed nations. In its efforts to advance Southern interests, the movement has stressed the importance of cooperation and unity amongst member states,[12] but as in the past, cohesion remains a problem since the size of the organisation and the divergence of agendas and allegiances present the ongoing potential for fragmentation. While agreement on basic principles has been smooth, taking definitive action vis-à-vis particular international issues has been rare, with the movement preferring to assert its criticism or support rather than pass hard-line resolutions.[13] The movement continues to see a role for itself, as in its view, the world's poorest nations remain exploited and marginalised, no longer by opposing superpowers, but rather in a uni-polar world,[14] and it is Western hegemony and neo-colonialism that the movement has really re-aligned itself against. It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has identified economic underdevelopment, poverty, and social injustices as growing threats to peace and security.[15] The 16th NAM summit took place in Tehran, Iran, from 26 to 31 August 2012. According to Mehr News Agency, representatives from over 150 countries were scheduled to attend.[16] Attendance at the highest level includes 27 presidents, 2 kings and emirs, 7 prime ministers, 9 vice presidents, 2 parliament spokesmen and 5 special envoys.[17] At the summit, Iran
took over from Egypt
as Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement for the period 2012 to 2015.[18] Organizational structure and membership[edit] The movement stems from a desire not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structure.[2] Some organizational basics were defined at the 1996 Cartagena Document on Methodology[19] The Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned States is "the highest decision making authority". The chairmanship rotates between countries and changes at every summit of heads of state or government to the country organizing the summit.[19] Requirements for membership of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
coincide with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The current requirements are that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with the ten "Bandung principles" of 1955:[19]

Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. Recognition of the movements for national independence. Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small. Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country. Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country. Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation. Respect for justice and international obligations.

Policies and ideology[edit]

The South Africa
South Africa
Conference NAM logo.

Secretaries General of the NAM had included such diverse figures as Suharto,[20] militaristic[21] anti-communist, and Nelson Mandela, a democratic socialist and famous anti-apartheid activist. Consisting of many governments with vastly different ideologies, the Non-Aligned Movement is unified by its declared commitment to world peace and security. At the seventh summit held in New Delhi
New Delhi
in March 1983, the movement described itself as "history's biggest peace movement".[22] The movement places equal emphasis on disarmament. NAM's commitment to peace pre-dates its formal institutionalisation in 1961. The Brioni meeting between heads of governments of India, Egypt
and Yugoslavia
in 1956 recognized that there exists a vital link between struggle for peace and endeavours for disarmament.[22] During the 1970s and early 1980s, the NAM also sponsored campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, namely the New International Economic Order (NIEO), and its cultural offspring, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO). The latter, on its own, sparked a Non-Aligned initiative on cooperation for communications, the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, created in 1975 and later converted into the NAM News Network
NAM News Network
in 2005. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved. Many of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement are also members of the United Nations. Both organisations have a stated policy of peaceful cooperation, yet the successes the NAM has had with multilateral agreements tend to be ignored by the larger, western and developed nation dominated UN.[23] African concerns about apartheid were linked with Arab-Asian concerns about Palestine[23] and multilateral cooperation in these areas has enjoyed moderate success. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
has played a major role in various ideological conflicts throughout its existence, including extreme opposition to apartheid governments and support of guerrilla movements in various locations, including Rhodesia
and South Africa.[24] Current activities and positions[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

Criticism of US policy

In recent years the organization has criticized certain aspects of US foreign policy. The 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
and the War on Terrorism, its attempts to stifle Iran
and North Korea's nuclear plans, and its other actions have been denounced by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement as attempts to run roughshod over the sovereignty of smaller nations; at the most recent summit, Kim Yong-nam, the head of North Korea's parliament, stated that, "The United States
United States
is attempting to deprive other countries of even their legitimate right to peaceful nuclear activities."[25]

Self-determination of Puerto Rico

Since 1961, the organization has supported the discussion of the case of Puerto Rico's self-determination before the United Nations. A resolution on the matter was to be proposed on the XV Summit by the Hostosian National Independence Movement.[needs update][26]

Self-determination of Western Sahara

Since 1973, the group has supported the discussion of the case of Western Sahara's self-determination before the United Nations.[27] The movement reaffirmed in its last meeting (Sharm El Sheikh 2009) the support to the Self-determination of the Sahrawi people
Sahrawi people
by choosing between any valid option, welcomed the direct conversations between the parties, and remembered the responsibility of the United Nations on the Sahrawi issue.[28]

Sustainable development

The movement is publicly committed to the tenets of sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, but it believes that the international community has not created conditions conducive to development and has infringed upon the right to sovereign development by each member state. Issues such as globalization, the debt burden, unfair trade practices, the decline in foreign aid, donor conditionality, and the lack of democracy in international financial decision-making are cited as factors inhibiting development.[29]

Reforms of the UN

The movement has been outspoken in its criticism of current UN structures and power dynamics, stating that the organisation has been utilised by powerful states in ways that violate the movement's principles. It has made a number of recommendations that it says would strengthen the representation and power of "non-aligned" states. The proposed UN reforms are also aimed at improving the transparency and democracy of UN decision-making. The UN Security Council is the element it considers the most distorted, undemocratic, and in need of reshaping.[30]

South-South cooperation

The movement has collaborated with other organisations of the developing world – primarily the Group of 77 – forming a number of joint committees and releasing statements and documents representing the shared interests of both groups. This dialogue and cooperation can be taken as an effort to increase the global awareness about the organisation and bolster its political clout.[citation needed]

Cultural diversity and human rights

The movement accepts the universality of human rights and social justice, but fiercely resists cultural homogenisation.[citation needed] In line with its views on sovereignty, the organisation appeals for the protection of cultural diversity, and the tolerance of the religious, socio-cultural, and historical particularities that define human rights in a specific region.[31][not in citation given]

Working groups, task forces, committees[32]

Committee on Palestine High-Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations Joint Coordinating Committee (chaired by Chairman of G-77 and Chairman of NAM) Non-Aligned Security Caucus Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation Task Force on Somalia Working Group on Disarmament Working Group on Human Rights Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations


16th summit of the NAM, Tehran

The conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, often referred to as Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
Summit is the main meeting within the movement and are held every few years:[33]

Date Host country Host city

1st 1–6 September 1961  Yugoslavia Belgrade

2nd 5–10 October 1964  United Arab Republic Cairo

3rd 8–10 September 1970  Zambia Lusaka

4th 5–9 September 1973  Algeria Algiers

5th 16–19 August 1976  Sri Lanka Colombo

6th 3–9 September 1979  Cuba Havana

7th 7–12 March 1983  India New Delhi

8th 1–6 September 1986  Zimbabwe Harare

9th 4–7 September 1989  Yugoslavia Belgrade

10th 1–6 September 1992  Indonesia Jakarta

11th 18–20 October 1995  Colombia Cartagena

12th 2–3 September 1998  South Africa Durban

13th 20–25 February 2003  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur

14th 15–16 September 2006  Cuba Havana

15th 11–16 July 2009  Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh

16th 26–31 August 2012  Iran Tehran

17th 13–18 September 2016  Venezuela Porlamar

18th 2019  Azerbaijan TBA

A variety of ministerial meetings are held between the summit meetings. Some are specialist, such as the meeting on "Inter-Faith Dialogue and Co-operation for Peace", held in Manila, the Philippines, 16–18 March 2010. There is a general Conference of Foreign Ministers every three years. The most recent were in Bali, Indonesia, 23–27 May 2011 and Algiers, Algeria, 26–29 May 2014. The Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
celebrated its 50th anniversary in Belgrade on 5–6 September 2011.[34][35]

Secretary general[edit]

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Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
is run by the secretary general elected at the last summit meeting. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.

Image Secretary-General[36] Country (holding the Presidency) Party From To

Josip Broz Tito  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1961 1964

Gamal Abdel Nasser  United Arab Republic Arab Socialist Union 1964 1970

Kenneth Kaunda  Zambia United National Independence Party 1970 1973

Houari Boumediène  Algeria Revolutionary Council 1973 1976

William Gopallawa  Sri Lanka Independent 1976 1978

Junius Richard Jayewardene United National Party 1978 1979

Fidel Castro  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 1979 1983

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy  India Janata Party 1983

Zail Singh Indian National Congress 1983 1986

Robert Mugabe  Zimbabwe ZANU-PF 1986 1989

Janez Drnovšek  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1989 1990

Borisav Jović Socialist Party of Serbia 1990 1991

Stjepan Mesić Croatian Democratic Union 1991

Branko Kostić Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro 1991 1992

Dobrica Ćosić  FR Yugoslavia Independent 1992

Suharto  Indonesia Golkar 1992 1995

Ernesto Samper  Colombia Colombian Liberal Party 1995 1998

Andrés Pastrana Arango Colombian Conservative Party 1998

Nelson Mandela  South Africa African National Congress 1998 1999

Thabo Mbeki 1999 2003

Mahathir Mohamad  Malaysia United Malays National Organisation 2003

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi 2003 2006

Fidel Castro[37]  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 2006 2008

Raúl Castro 2008 2009

Hosni Mubarak  Egypt National Democratic Party 2009 2011

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Independent 2011 2012

Mohamed Morsi Freedom and Justice Party 2012

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad  Iran Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran 2012 2013

Hassan Rouhani Moderation and Development Party 2013 2016

Nicolás Maduro  Venezuela United Socialist Party 2016 present

Members, observers and guests[edit] Current members[edit] The following countries are members of the NAM, arranged by continent, showing their year of admission:[1][36] Africa[edit] Currently every African country (except the newly created South Sudan) is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

(1961)   Angola
(1976)   Benin
(1964)   Botswana
(1970)   Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(1973)   Burundi
(1964)   Cameroon
(1964)   Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(1976)   Central African Republic
Central African Republic
(1964)   Chad
(1964)   Comoros
(1976)   Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(1961)   Djibouti
(1983)   Egypt
(1961)   Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
(1970)   Eritrea
(1995)   Ethiopia
(1961)   Gabon
(1970)  Gambia (1973)   Ghana
(1961)   Guinea
(1961)   Guinea-Bissau
(1976)  Côte d'Ivoire (1973)   Kenya
(1964)   Lesotho
(1970)   Liberia
(1964)   Libya
(1964)   Madagascar
(1973)   Malawi
(1964)   Mali
(1961)   Mauritania
(1964)   Mauritius
(1973)   Morocco
(1961)   Mozambique
(1976)   Namibia
(1979)   Niger
(1973)   Nigeria
(1964)   Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(1964)   Rwanda
(1970)   São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
(1976)   Senegal
(1964)   Seychelles
(1976)   Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(1964)   Somalia
(1961)   South Africa
South Africa
(1994)   Sudan
(1961)   Swaziland
(1970)   Tanzania
(1964)   Togo
(1964)   Tunisia
(1961)   Uganda
(1964)   Zambia
(1964)   Zimbabwe


  Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
(2006)  Bahamas (1983)   Barbados
(1983)   Belize
(1976)   Bolivia
(1979)   Chile
(1973)   Colombia
(1983)   Cuba
(1961)   Dominica
(2006)   Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(2000)   Ecuador
(1983)   Grenada
(1979)   Guatemala
(1993)   Guyana
(1970)   Haiti
(2006)   Honduras
(1995)   Jamaica
(1970)   Nicaragua
(1979)   Panama
(1976)   Peru
(1973)   Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(2006)   Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(1983)   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(2003)   Suriname
(1983)   Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(1970)   Venezuela


(1961)   Azerbaijan
(2011)   Bahrain
(1973)   Bangladesh
(1973)   Bhutan
(1973)   Brunei
(1993)   Cambodia
(1961)   India
(1961)   Indonesia
(1961)   Iran
(1979)   Iraq
(1961)   Jordan
(1964)   Kuwait
(1964)   Laos
(1964)   Lebanon
(1961)   Malaysia
(1970)   Maldives
(1976)   Mongolia
(1993)   Myanmar
(1961)     Nepal
(1961)   North Korea
North Korea
(1976)   Oman
(1973)   Pakistan
(1979)  Palestine (1976)   Philippines
(1993)   Qatar
(1973)   Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(1961)   Singapore
(1970)   Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(1961)   Syria
(1964)   Thailand
(1993)   East Timor
East Timor
(2003)   Turkmenistan
(1995)   United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(1970)   Uzbekistan
(1993)   Vietnam
(1976)   Yemen
(1990) [39]




(2011)  Papua New Guinea
(1993)   Vanuatu

Former members[edit]

(1961–2004)[40][41]   Malta
(1973–2004)[41]   Yugoslavia

Observers[edit] The following countries and organizations have observer status (2012):[1] Countries[edit]

 Argentina[44]  Armenia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Brazil  China  Costa Rica  El Salvador  Kazakhstan  Kyrgyzstan  Macedonia  Mexico  Montenegro  Paraguay  Serbia  South Sudan  Tajikistan  Uruguay


African Union Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation Arab League Association of Southeast Asian Nations Commonwealth Secretariat Commonwealth of Nations Hostosian National Independence Movement Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front Organisation of Islamic Cooperation South Centre United Nations World Peace Council International Institute for Non-Aligned Studies

Guests[edit] There is no permanent guest status,[45] but often several non-member countries are represented as guests at conferences. In addition, a large number of organisations, both from within the UN system
UN system
and from outside, are always invited as guests. See also[edit]

Asian–African Conference Country neutrality Dual loyalty Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence G-77 New World Information and Communication Order North–South divide Policy of deliberate ambiguity India
and the Non-Aligned Movement South-South Cooperation Third World


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(NAM)". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 4 September 2012.  ^ Fidel Castro, having recently undergone gastric surgery, was unable to attend the conference and was represented by his younger brother, Cuba's acting president Raúl Castro. See "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
Nations". People's Daily. 16 September 2006. ^ In a joint letter to the UN Secretary-General sent just prior to unification, the Ministers of Foreign affairs of North and South Yemen stated that "All treaties and agreements concluded between either the Yemen
Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
and other States and international organizations in accordance with international law which are in force on 22 May 1990 will remain in effect, and international relations existing on 22 May 1990 between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
and the Yemen
Arab Republic and other States will continue."Bühler, Konrad (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.  ^  North Yemen
is one of the founders in 1961.  South Yemen joined in 1970. In 1990 both were unified into a single state which accepted responsibility for all treaties of its predecessors.[38] ^ " Cyprus
and the Non – Aligned Movement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Cyprus. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ a b "XIV Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement". South Africa Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ "Final Document of the 7th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
-(New Delhi Declaration)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2016.  ^ Kin, Lai Kwok (2 September 1992). " Yugoslavia
Casts Shadow over Non-Aligned Summit". The Independent. Reuters. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  ^ Serrat, Oscar J. (20 September 1991). " Argentina
Withdraws from Non-Aligned Movement". Associated Press. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 4.4. Archived 9 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading[edit]

Hans Köchler
Hans Köchler
(ed.), The Principles of Non-Alignment. The Non-aligned Countries in the Eighties—Results and Perspectives. London: Third World Centre, 1982. ISBN 0-86199-015-3 (Google Print)

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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

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