Origins and the Cold WarDrawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956 and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by 's president, , India's first prime minister and Egypt's second president, . One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Indian National Congress, Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers ". The Movement advocates a middle course for states in the Developing country, developing world between the Western Bloc, Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations. But it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the ''Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries'' first held in 1961. The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Zhou Enlai and Nehru described the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called ''Panchsheel'' (five restraints); these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were: * Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty. * Mutual non-aggression. * Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. * Equality and mutual benefit. * Peaceful co-existence. A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president , who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nasser, Nehru, Josip Broz Tito, Tito, Kwame Nkrumah, Nkrumah and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, and Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Zhou Enlai and Nehru's five principles, and a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War. Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president led to the first ''Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries'', which was held in September 1961 in . The term ''non-aligned movement'' appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as ''members of the movement''. At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries. Some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India and Pakistan, Iran and Iraq).
Cuba's RoleIn the 1970s, Cuba made a major effort to assume a leadership role in the world's nonalignment movement, which represented over 90 nations. Cuban combat troops in Angola greatly impressed fellow non-aligned nations. Cuba also established military advisory missions and economic and social reform programs. The 1976 world conference of the Non-Aligned Movement applauded Cuban internationalism, "which assisted the people of Angola in frustrating the expansionist and colonialist strategy of South Africa's racist regime and its allies." The next nonaligned conference was scheduled for Havana in 1979, to be chaired by , with his becoming the de facto spokesman for the Movement. The conference in September 1979 marked the zenith of Cuban prestige. Most, but not all, attendees believed that Cuba was not aligned with the Soviet camp in the Cold War. However, in December 1979, the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan's civil war. At the time, Afghanistan was also an active member of the Nonaligned Movement. At the United Nations, Nonaligned members voted 56 to 9, with 26 abstaining, to condemn the Soviet Union. Cuba in fact was deeply in debt financially and politically to Moscow and voted against the resolution. It lost its reputation as nonaligned in the Cold War. Castro, instead of becoming a high-profile spokesman for the Movement, remained quiet and inactive, and in 1983 leadership passed to India, which had abstained on the UN vote, though India maintained close ties with the Soviet Union and with the Soviet puppet regime in Kabul. Cuba lost its bid to become a member of the United Nations Security Council and its ambitions for a role in global leadership had totally collapsed. More broadly the Movement was deeply split over the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. Although Moscow's allies supported the Soviet intervention, other members of the movement (particularly Muslim world, predominantly Muslim states) condemned it.
Post-Cold WarBecause the Non-Aligned Movement was formed as an attempt to thaw out the Cold War, it has struggled to find relevance since the Cold War ended. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, a founding member, its membership was Suspension (punishment), suspended"The Non-Aligned Movement: Member States"
Organizational structure and membershipThe movement stems from a desire not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structure. Some organizational basics were defined at the 1996 ''Cartagena Document on Methodology'' The Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned States is "the highest decision making authority". The chairmanship rotates between countries and changes at every summit of heads of state or government to the country organizing the summit. Requirements for membership of the Non-Aligned Movement coincide with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The current requirements are that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with the ten "Bandung principles" of 1955: *Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. *Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. *Recognition of the movements for national independence. *Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small. *Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country. *Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. *Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country. *Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. *Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation. *Respect for justice and international obligations.
Policies and ideologyChairpersons of the NAM had included such diverse figures as Suharto, militaristic anti-communist, and Nelson Mandela, a democratic socialist and famous Internal resistance to South African apartheid, anti-apartheid activist. Consisting of many governments with vastly different ideologies, the Non-Aligned Movement is unified by its declared commitment to world peace and security. At the seventh summit held in New Delhi in March 1983, the movement described itself as "history's biggest peace movement". The movement places equal emphasis on disarmament. NAM's commitment to peace pre-dates its formal institutionalisation in 1961. The Brioni meeting between heads of governments of India, Egypt and Yugoslavia in 1956 recognized that there exists a vital link between struggle for peace and endeavours for disarmament. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the NAM also sponsored campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, namely the New International Economic Order (NIEO), and its cultural offspring, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO). The latter, on its own, sparked a Non-Aligned initiative on cooperation for communications, the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, created in 1975 and later converted into the NAM News Network in 2005. The Non-Aligned Movement espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved. Many of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement are also members of the United Nations. Both organisations have a stated policy of peaceful cooperation, yet the successes the NAM has had with multilateral agreements tend to be ignored by the larger, western and developed nation dominated UN.Morphet, Sally. "Multilateralism and the Non-Aligned Movement: What Is the Global South Doing and Where Is It Going?". ''Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations''. 10 (2004), pp. 517–537. African concerns about apartheid were linked with Arab-Asian concerns about Palestine and multilateral cooperation in these areas has enjoyed moderate success. The Non-Aligned Movement has played a major role in various ideological conflicts throughout its existence, including extreme opposition to apartheid governments and support of guerrilla movements in various locations, including Rhodesia and South Africa.Grant, Cedric. "Equity in Third World Relations: a third world perspective". ''International Affairs (journal), International Affairs'' 71, 3 (1995), 567–587.
Current activities and positions
Criticism of US policyIn recent years the organization has criticized certain aspects of US foreign policy. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and the War on Terrorism, its attempts to stifle Iran and North Korea's nuclear plans, and its other actions have been denounced by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement as attempts to run roughshod over the sovereignty of smaller nations; at the most recent summit, Kim Yong-nam, the head of North Korea's parliament, stated, "The United States is attempting to deprive other countries of even their legitimate right to peaceful nuclear activities."
Self-determination of Puerto RicoSince 1961, the organization has supported the discussion of the case of Political status of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico's self-determination before the United Nations. A resolution on the matter was to be proposed on the XV Summit by the Hostosian National Independence Movement.
Self-determination of Western SaharaSince 1973, the group has supported the discussion of the case of Western Sahara conflict, Western Sahara's self-determination before the United Nations. The movement reaffirmed in its meeting (Sharm El Sheikh 2009) the support to the Self-determination of the Sahrawi people by choosing between any valid option, welcomed the direct conversations between the parties, and remembered the responsibility of the United Nations on the Sahrawi issue.
Sustainable developmentThe movement is publicly committed to the tenets of sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, but it believes that the international community has not created conditions conducive to development and has infringed upon the right to sovereign development by each member state. Issues such as globalization, the Developing countries' debt, debt burden, Trade justice, unfair trade practices, the decline in foreign aid, Conditionality, donor conditionality, and the lack of democracy in international financial decision-making are cited as factors inhibiting development.
Reforms of the UNThe movement has been outspoken in its criticism of current UN structures and power dynamics, stating that the organisation has been used by powerful states in ways that violate the movement's principles. It has made a number of recommendations that it says would strengthen the representation and power of "non-aligned" states. The proposed Reform of the United Nations, UN reforms are also aimed at improving the transparency and democracy of UN decision-making. The United Nations Security Council, UN Security Council is the element it considers the most distorted, undemocratic, and in need of reshaping.
South–South cooperationThe movement has collaborated with other organisations of the developing world primarily the Group of 77 forming a number of joint committees and releasing statements and documents representing the shared interests of both groups. This dialogue and cooperation can be taken as an effort to increase the global awareness about the organisation and bolster its political clout.
Cultural diversity and human rightsThe movement accepts the universality of human rights and social justice, but fiercely resists cultural homogenisation. In line with its views on sovereignty, the organisation appeals for the protection of cultural diversity, and the tolerance of the religious, socio-cultural, and historical particularities that define human rights in a specific region. Working groups, task forces, committees * Committee on Palestine * High-Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations * Joint Coordinating Committee (chaired by Chairman of G-77 and Chairman of NAM) * Non-Aligned Security Caucus * Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation * Task Force on Somalia * Working Group on Disarmament * Working Group on Human Rights * Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations
SummitsThe conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, often referred to as Non-Aligned Movement Summit is the main meeting within the movement and are held every few years: A variety of ministerial meetings are held between the summit meetings. Some are specialist, such as the meeting on "Inter-Faith Dialogue and Co-operation for Peace", held in Manila, the Philippines, 16–18 March 2010. There is a general Conference of Foreign Ministers every three years. The most recent were in Bali, Indonesia, 23–27 May 2011 and Algiers, Algeria, 26–29 May 2014. The Non-Aligned Movement celebrated its 50th anniversary in Belgrade on 5–6 September 2011. An online summit titled "United Against Covid-19" conducted on May 4, 2020 on the initiative of the chairman of the NAM for the 2019–2022 period, addressed mainly the global struggle to fight the Coronavirus disease 2019, Covid-19 pandemics and supporting NAM to increase its role in dealing with and mitigating the outcomes caused by this disease in NAM, as well as other countries.
ChairpersonA chairperson is elected at each summit meeting. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.
Members, observers and guests
Current membersThe following countries are members of the NAM, arranged by continent, showing their year of admission:
AfricaCurrently every African country (except South Sudan and Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara) is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. # (1961) # (1976) # (1964) # (1970) # (1973) # (1964) # (1964) # (1976) # (1964) # (1964) # (1976) # (1961) # (1983) # (1961) # (1970) # (1995) # (1970) # (1961) # (1970) # (1973) # (1961) # (1961) # (1976) # (1973) # (1964) # (1970) # (1964) # (1964) # (1973) # (1964) # (1961) # (1964) # (1973) # (1961) # (1976) # (1979) # (1973) # (1964) # (1964) # (1970) # (1976) # (1964) # (1976) # (1964) # (1961) # (1994) # (1961) # (1964) # (1964) # (1961) # (1964) # (1964) # (1979)
Americas# (2006) # (1983) # (1983) # (1981) # (1979) # (1973) # (1983) # (1961) # (2006) # (2000) # (1983) # (1979) # (1993) # (1970) # (2006) # (1995) # (1970) # (1979) # (1976) # (1973) # (2006) # (1983) # (2003) # (1983) # (1970) # (1989)
Asia# (1961) # (1973) # (1973) # (1973) # (1993) # (1961) # (1961) # (1961) # (1961) # (1964) # (1964) # (1964) # (1961) # (1970) # (1976) # (1993) # (1961) # (1961) # (1975) # (1973) # (1979) # (1976) # (1993) # (1973) # (1961) # (1970) # (1961) # (1964) # (1993) # (2003) # (1970) # (1993) # (1976) # (1990)
Europe# (2011) # (1998)
Oceania# (2011) # (1993) # (1983)
Former members# (1979-2013) # (1995-2003) # (1961–1990) # (1961–2004) # (1961–1992) # (1970–1990) # (1973–2004)
ObserversThe following countries and organizations have observer status:
Countries# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #
Organisations#Association of Southeast Asian Nations #African Union #Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation #Arab League #Commonwealth Secretariat #Hostosian National Independence Movement #Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front #Organisation of Islamic Cooperation #South Centre (organization), South Centre # #World Peace Council
GuestsThere is no permanent guest status,XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998
See also* Asian–African Conference *Country neutrality (international relations), Country neutrality *Dual loyalty * Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence * Group of 77, G-77 * Neutral powers during World War II * New World Information and Communication Order * North–South divide in the World, North–South divide *Policy of deliberate ambiguity * India and the Non-Aligned Movement * Yugoslavia and the Non-Aligned Movement * South-South Cooperation * Third World
Further reading* Jürgen Dinkel, The Non-Aligned Movement. Genesis, Organization and Politics (1927–1992), New Perspectives on the Cold War 5, Brill: Leiden/Boston 2019. . *Hans Köchler (ed.),