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Las Anod ( so, Laascaanood; ar, لاسعانود) is the administrative capital of the Sool, Somaliland, Sool region of Somaliland.Regions of Somalia
/ref> The Dehjeneur quarter of Las Anod city was during the Shiikhyaale era of the early 1900s referred to by British officer Stanton as constituting of "Dervish karias" i.e. a Dervish village. During the closing decades of colonialism, Las Anod was the capital of the Nogal District, the precursor province of Sool, described by John Hunt as an "entirely Dolbahanta" province. During the years surrounding independence, Las Anod was the seat of Garad Ali's USP party representing Warsangeli, Gadabuursi and Dhulbahante clans. The 1969 assassination of Somalia's president Shermarke in the city was the catalyst for Somalia's subsequent military regime.


History


Shiikhyaale

During the colonial era, the clans native to Las Anod adopted the socio-political identity of ''Shiikhyaale''.Taariikhdii daraawiishta iyo Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan, PAGE 176, 2005 On the 3rd of June 1901, these Shiikhyaale engaged a British force led by Eric Swayne at Waylahed, in a southwestern neighbourhood of Las Anod, leading to 50 dead in the former. Later that same month, the Shiikhyaale engaged the forces of Eric Swayne at an area called Ana Hadigle. The engagement between Shiikhyaale and Eric Swayne became a running battle which ended at Kurgaraad to the south of Boocame, where it was reported "an important horseman of the Ali Gheri being killed amongst others.". The Shiikhyaale also had reconnoiters. The battles between Shiikhyaale reconnoiters and colonial reconnoiters usually were low-intensity and as such, produced minimal deaths. One example of such a confrontation was in August 1903 in the vicinity of Dehjeuner, immediately northeast of Las Anod city center which produced one death only. The budding Shiikhyaale bivouac at the Dehjeneur quarter of Las Anod was at the time referred to by British colonial officers as a Dervish village or Dervish karia:British war office, 1907, page 392, "As an example of their work, I may mention that a party of 40 mounted Illalos left Bohotle in August, 1903, brushed through a fairly strong party of Dervish Illalos in the vicinity of the Dehjeuner and reconnoitred to about 10 miles east of Beretabli, a distance of 140 miles, the first 80 of which were waterless. ... the illaloes managed to penetrate well within the circle of Dervish karias (or Nomad villages), and succeeded in securing two most useful prisoners, returning with the loss of one man only, having covered a distance of 300 miles in nine days"
"As an example of their work, I may mention that a party of 40 mounted Illalos left Bohotle in August, 1903, brushed through a fairly strong party of Dervish Illalos in the vicinity of the Dehjeuner and reconnoitred to about 10 miles east of Beretabli, a distance of 140 miles, the first 80 of which were waterless. ... the illaloes managed to penetrate well within the circle of Dervish karias (or Nomad villages), and succeeded in securing two most useful prisoners, returning with the loss of one man only, having covered a distance of 300 miles in nine days.
On the 31st July 1903, another battle occurred between 30 British scouts and 128 Darawiish scouts, a few miles west of Heli Madu near Las Anod:
"half way between Las Anod and Heli Madu ... they were the advanced scouts of a party of 128 of the Mullah's scouts, mostly spearmen ... the enemy emerged from thick bush. They fought for two hours, the enemy losing many men killed and wounded, the exact number not being known ; the enemy dragged their wounded and dead away.
The motive for this Shiikhyaale or Dervish development was said by Roman Loimeier as caused by how patricide victim sultan-garad Ali and his successor Diiriye Guure had not signed colonial protective treaties, combined with the fear, agitation and anxiety from contemporaneous yearly expedition-raids by marauding Menelik II armies and their pillaging.


Post-independence

The USP was formed with the intention of forming a non-Isaaq axis, due to tensions deriving from the instability in 1954 and 1955. The instability of 1954 was primarily due to camel-rustling between Dhulbahante and Habar Jeclo, whilst that of 1955 was due to roaming resulting from droughts that culminated into a war with Dhulbahante on one side battling the two Isaaq clans of Garhajis, Habr Yunis and Habar Jeclo on the other:
On the 27th of October the District Commissioner Las Anod, completed the hearing of an enquiry into previous unrest in the region... One of those killed was a man of the Habar Yuunis Sa'ad Yuunis who were fighting with the Habar Ja'lo against the Ḍulbahante, and the other a man of the MaḤammad Abokor.
From 1959 until 1961, Las Anod was the seat of Garad Ali's USP party. With Las Anod as its seat, Garad Ali's USP party formed a coalition consisting of the Warsangeli, Gadabuursi and Dhulbahante clans. In the previous six years, Ali's father Garad Farah, was in self-induced exile in Mogadishu:
Ali Gerad Jama , the university - educated son of the Gerad ( chief ) Jama Farah ( who went into voluntary exile in Mogadiscio from 1952 to 1958 as a result of his conflict with the British administration ) provided the main drive behind the party.
On October 15, 1969, whilst paying a visit to the city, Somali President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards. His assassination was quickly followed by a military coup d'état on October 21, 1969 (the day after his funeral), in which the Military of Somalia, Somali Military seized power without encountering armed opposition — essentially a bloodless takeover. The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Siad Barre, Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.Moshe Y. Sachs, ''Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations'', Volume 2, (Worldmark Press: 1988), p.290. Initially, there was cordiality between the SYL party (Somali Youth League) and the northern Harti-dominated USP party; for instance the parties held joint conferences across Somalia and together expressed support for Somalia's new constitution in 1960. However, post independence, Las Anod has had a history of suspicion of centralized politics, including against the unitary and Somali nationalist platform of the Somali Youth League (SYL). For example, in the 1960s, five SYL officials were killed within the city. Towards the end of the decade 16 people were once against killed when the SYL party supporters staged in the city. Throughout the 21st century, Las Anod has been described as the only city in the Horn of Africa wherein the population's dignitaries are regularly assassinated without a culprit, suspect or defendant being named, including the extolled influencer Cabdirisaaq Cardoofe, assassinated in 2021.


Politics

As of 2021, Las Anod constituents are represented by 12 members parliament representing Sool, Somaliland, Sool elected in the 2021 Somaliland parliamentary election, Somaliland parliamentary elections. Additionally, residents are represented by 13 local councillors elected in the 2021 Somaliland municipal elections, Somaliland municipal elections. Over 100,000 residents across the region with capital being Sool registered to vote in the 2021 elections. Abdirisak Khalif who hails from Las Anod was also elected as the speaker of Somaliland's House of Representatives (Somaliland), house of representatives in the same year.


Territorial dispute

The city is disputed by Puntland and Somaliland. The former bases its claim due to the kinship ties between the Dhulbahante clan and the dominant clan in Puntland, the Majeerteen. Whilst the later's claim is grounded on the border of the former British Somaliland Protectorate. The city was the proclaimed capital of Khatumo State throughout its existence until its dissolvement in 2017. Somaliland forces captured the city in the Battle of Las Anod in 2007, ousting Puntland forces, and has maintained full control of the city in all aspects since. Somaliland's governance of the city has "has reinforced its legitimacy from the local  population through improved security  provision and a number of tax exemptions". The residents of Las Anod have not fully accepted Somaliland's presence in their city. Ahmed Musa reports:
Somaliland still governs Lasanod with little legitimacy or popularity. This is one reason why Somaliland has to be flexible with respect to tax collection. It cannot impose the full tax code on the Dhulbahante territories because that would only reinforce local people’s existing grievances vis-à-vis Somaliland. Therefore, Somaliland’s reduced taxes (cashuur dhaaf) in the Lasanod areas are one way of garnering, or at least retaining, some level of public acceptance.


Geography

Las Anod is strategically positioned along the trade routes in Somaliland. The city is almost surrounded by hills and has considerable water resources, the latter of which makes it a prime destination for peoples from other parts of generally arid regions within Somaliland as well as from neighboring countries such as Somalia, Djibouti and Ethiopia .


Economy

Evictions carried out in 2021 were reportedly due to business rivalries between locals and residents from South West State of Somalia. As a Dhulbahante territory, Las Anod and the wider former Nugaal incurred an economic embargo in 1899 prior to anti-Shiikhyaale (and wider Dervish) expeditions:
"As matters stand, the gradual weaning of the tribes from the influence of the Mullah, coupled with the closing of our ports to those who shelter him or afford him assistance, are the measures I would rely on for the present in dealing with the Dolbahanta ... This done, and our hold established over the Ishak country, many of the Darod (Dolbahanta) sections may be expected to see that they have more to gain by peacefully trading with our ports than by following in the wake of this fanatical priest".


Demographics

According to the UNDP 2005 the Las Anod District had an estimated population of 75,436 inhabitants. The city is primarily inhabited by people from the Somali people, Somali ethnic group, in particular by the Dhulbahante sub-clan of the Harti Darod,Roble, Faisal (22 October 2007
"Somaliland: Is Invading Los Anod Part of Creating 'New Reality on the Ground'"?
''WardheerNews.Com''
with the ''gaashaanbuur'' subclan of ''Shiikhyaale'' especially well represented. The eastern segment of the city, which is encompassed in the metro area between Dehjuma, Daraymadoobe to Dehjeuner is primarily settled by the ''gaashaanbuur'' subclan of Indhabadan. The nearest settlement to the Indhabadan locality of the eastern Las Anod metro area is Kala-jeex.


Education

Las Anod has numerous primary schools which include both private and public. Currently there are 6 Primary Schools in the city of Las Anod; Gol Khatumo, Gateway, Abyan, Ilays, Imam Shafi and Sool primary schools. Secondary school education is provided by Ilays Educational Academy, Muse Yusuf and Nugaal High Schools. Founded in 2004, Nugaal University (NU) is the first post-secondary institution of higher learning to be established in the area. The first group of four-year Nugaal University students graduated in September 2009. Also there are Ilays National University and Gollis University both established in Las Anod in 2015. There are also a number of academic institutions in Las Anod which provide diverse education services such as Sool Institute of Heath Sciences (SIHS), Al-Furqan Islamic Institute, Sahal Software College, Future Technology Center etc.


Climate

Las Anod has a desert climate#Hot desert climates, hot arid climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''BWh'') with consistently very warm to hot temperatures and almost no rainfall except erratically in May and October.


Culture


Media

There are many media companies whom operated in Las Anod in the 2010s, including Somnews, SBS, Radio Las Anod, Universal TV.https://ipi.media/wave-of-media-intimidation-in-somaliland/ The District surrounding Las Anod was also one of the first in the Horn of Africa to incur press censorship during the 1900 - 1920 expeditions:
"it was necessary to establish a censorship over the communications of newsagents and Press correspondents who were permitted to enter the theatre of operations. It was not, however, until December, 1902, ... that the General Officer Commanding was obliged to establish a censor-ship over Press communications. ... Subsequently the officer in charge of the Intelligence Department was also appointed Press censor at the head-quarters of the Field Force, with one assistant upon the lines of communication and another at the base. During the third and fourth expeditions a limited number of news agencies and papers were permitted, with the concurrence of the General Officer Commanding, to be represented in the theatre of operations by correspondents. The condition upon which licences were issued were that correspondents pledged themselves to transmit all their communications through a Press censor. These conditions were, as a rule, observed by most of the correspondents who accompanied the troops or were permitted to reside in the country. A few cases, however, occurred of serious irregularities being committed by Press correspondents, which resulted in the licences of the offenders being cancelled or suspended.
The chief perception the chief governor James Hayes Sadler sought to cloud and allay was that the expeditions were an attack upon the Dhulbahante clan or of the impression of the Dervish wars as a British alliance with Ogo-inhabiting tribes, against Dhulbahante tribes:
The chief danger of a large coalition of the Dolbahanta against us will lie in the possibility of our expedition being looked upon as an Ishak invasion of the Dolbahanta country. You will doubtless take all possible measures to allay any suspicion of the kind ; steps in this direction have for some time past been taken here.


Notable residents

*Rooda Xassan, designer of Khatumo flag *Abdi Bile, world champion long distance athlete *Abdinasir Ali Hassan, entrepreneur and CEO of Hass Petroleum *Abdirisak Khalif, current Speaker of the House of Representatives (Somaliland), House of Representatives of Somaliland *Abdirahman Mohamed Abdi Hashi, Minister of Fisheries and Marine Resources of Somalia *Ali Khalif Galaydh, President of Khaatumo State and Former Prime Minister of Somalia *Bashe Mohamed Farah, Speaker of Somaliland House of Representatives *Eng Mohamed Isse Lacle, Colonel in the Somali Navy and Former Deputy Minister of Ministry of Ports in Somalia, Somaliland *''Garad'' Jama Garad Ali, Dhulbahante clan chief *Hodan Nalayeh, TV host and journalist Mass media, Media *Mohamed Abdi Hashi, former Chairman USP & Vice President of Puntland *Abdi Hassan Mohamed, Incumbent Police Commissioner of the Somali Police Force.


Notes


References

{{Authority control Las Anod, Populated places in Sool, Somaliland