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Acontiinae Acronictinae Aediinae Agaristinae Amphipyrinae Bagisarinae Balsinae Bryophilinae Condicinae Cuculliinae Dilobinae Dyopsinae Eucocytiinae Eustrotiinae Heliothinae Metoponiinae Noctuinae Pantheinae Plusiinae Raphiinae

Diversity

About 11,772

The Noctuidae, commonly known as owlet moths, cutworms or armyworms, is the most controversial family in the superfamily Noctuoidea
Noctuoidea
because many of its clades are constantly changing, along with the other families of Noctuoidea.[1][2][3] It was considered the largest family in Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
for a long time, but after regrouping Lymantriinae, Catocalinae
Catocalinae
and Calpinae
Calpinae
within the family Erebidae, the latter holds this title now.[4] Currently, Noctuidae
Noctuidae
is the second largest family in Noctuoidea, with about 1,089 genera and 11,772 species.[5] However, this classification is still contingent, as more changes continue to appear between Noctuidae
Noctuidae
and Erebidae.

Contents

1 Description 2 Etymology 3 Ecology

3.1 Distribution and diversity 3.2 Mutualism 3.3 Food guilds 3.4 Reproduction 3.5 Defense

4 Human importance

4.1 Agriculture

5 Systematics 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit]

Noctuidae
Noctuidae
wings venation

Adult: Most noctuid adults have drab wings, but some subfamilies such as Acronictinae
Acronictinae
and Agaristinae
Agaristinae
are very colorful, especially those form tropical regions (e.g. Baorisa hieroglyphica). They are characterized by a structure in the metathorax called the nodular sclerite or epaulette, which separates the tympanum and the conjunctiva in the tympanal organ. It functions to keep parasites (Acari) out of the tympanal cavity. Another characteristic in this group is trifine hindwing venation, by reduction or absence of the second medial vein (M2).[6] Larva: Commonly green or brown; however, some species present bright colors, such as the Camphorweed cucullia moth (Cucullia alfarata). Most are pudgy and smooth with rounded short heads and few setae, but there are some exceptions in some subfamilies (e.g. Acronictinae
Acronictinae
and Pantheinae).[7] Pupa: The pupae most often range from shiny brown to dark brown. When they newly pupate they are bright brownish orange, but after a few days start to get darker. Eggs: Vary in colors, but all have a spherical shape. Etymology[edit] The word Noctuidae
Noctuidae
is derived from the name of the type genus Noctua which is from the Latin word Noctudæ for “Owl,” and the patronymic suffix -idae used typically to form taxonomic family names in animals.[8] The common word “owlet” to refers a small or young owl. Otherwise, the terms “armyworms” and “cutworms” are based on the behavior of the larvae of this group, which can occur in destructive swarms and cut the stems of plants.[9] Ecology[edit] Distribution and diversity[edit]

Setaceous hebrew character

This family is cosmopolitan and can be found worldwide except in the Antarctic region. However, some species such as the Setaceous hebrew character (Xestia c-nigrum) can be found in the Arctic Circle, specifically in the Yukon
Yukon
territory of western Canada, with an elevation 1,702 m above sea level, where the temperature fluctuates between 23/-25 °C (73/-13 °F).[10] Many species of dart moths have been recorded in elevations as high as 4,000 m above sea level (e.g. Xestia elisabetha).[11] Among the places where the number of species has been counted are North America
North America
and Northern Mexico, with about 2,522 species. 1,576 species are found in Europe, while the other species are distributed worldwide.[12][13][14][15][3] Mutualism[edit]

The Lychnis moth caterpillar feeding on the seeds of red campion (Silene dioica).

Members of Noctuidae, like other butterflies and moths, perform an important role in plant pollination. However, some species have developed a stronger connection with their host plants. For example, the Lychnis moth (Hadena bicruris) has a strange mutualistic relationship with pink plants or carnation plants (Caryophyllaceae), in that larvae feed on the plant, but at the same the adults pollinate the flowers.[16]

The Eight spotted forester moth (Alypia octomaculata) pudding on water from a leaf of Firebush (Croton lucidus)

Food guilds[edit] Herbivory: It well-known that caterpillars feed on plants, flowers and fruits. However, many noctuids have a particular interest for toxic plants because they are able to withstand the chemical defenses of plants, as in the case of the Splendid brocade (Lacanobia splendens) which is capable of feeding on Cowbane (Cicuta virosa), one of the most poisonous plant on the world.[17] Predation
Predation
and Cannibalism: During the larval stage, some cutworms prefer to feed on other insects. One of them is the Shivering Pinion (Lithophane querquera), which commonly feed on other Lepidoptera larvae.[18] Moreover, it is well-known that larvae of the Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) like to eat their siblings.[19] Nectarivory and Puddling: Like many Lepidoptera, Noctuids feed on the nectar of flowers. They also have other food resources such as dung, urea and mud, among others.[20] Like the other members of the order Lepidoptera, courtship consists of a set of movements, where the female evaluates the male's skills.[20] Most noctuid moths have organs known as hairy pedicels and pheromone glands, which are important for releasing pheromones or chemical compounds to attract males or females. It is well known that pheromones in the female are to call males, but the compounds in males are still under study.[21][22][20] Reproduction[edit]

Lesser yellow underwing

Noctuid moths commonly begin the reproductive season from spring to fall, and mostly are multivoltine, such as the Eastern Panthea moth (Panthea furcilla), which reproduces over the year.[23] Nevertheless, some species have just one brood of offspring (univoltine); among the best known is the Lesser yellow underwing
Lesser yellow underwing
(Noctua comes).[23] Defense[edit]

The Spanish moth feeding on Amaryllis
Amaryllis
sp.

This group has a wide range of both chemical and physical defenses. Among the chemical defenses three types stand out. First, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration usually present in Arctiinae is also found in a few species of noctuids, including the Spanish moth (Xanthopastis timais).[24] Another chemical defense is formic acid production, which was thought to be present only in Notodontidae, but later was found in caterpillars of Trachosea champa.[25] Finally, the last type of chemical defense is regurgitation of plant compounds, often used by many insects, but the Cabbage Palm Caterpillar (Litoprosopus futilis) produces a toxin called toluquinone that deters predators.[26] On the other hand, the main physical defense in caterpillars and adults alike is mimicry. Most owlet moths have drab colors with a variety of patterns suitable to camouflage their bodies.[23] The second physical defense consists in thousands of secondary setae that surround the body. The subfamilies that present this mechanism are Pantheinae
Pantheinae
and Acronictinae. The third is aposematism, represented by species of Cucullinae.[23] Finally, all adults have another mechanism for defense: a tympanal organ available to hear the echolocation spread out by bats, so the moths can avoid them.[27] Human importance[edit]

The old world bollworm caterpillar feeding on a strawberry

Agriculture[edit] Many species of owlet moths are considered an agricultural problem around the world. Their larvae are typically known as "cutworms" or "armyworms" due to enormous swarms that destroy crops, orchards and gardens every year. The old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) produces losses in agriculture every year that exceed US $2 billion.[28] Additionally, the variegated cutworm (Peridroma saucia) is described by many as one of the most damaging pests to vegetables.[29] Systematics[edit] Since molecular analysis began to play a larger role in systematics, the structure of many Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
groups has been changing and Noctuidae
Noctuidae
is not an exception. Most recent studies have shown that Noctuidae
Noctuidae
sensu stricto is a monophyletic group, mainly based on trifine venation. However there are some clades within Noctuidae
Noctuidae
sensu lato that have to be studied. This taxonomic division represent the subfamilies, tribes and subtribes considered so far.[1][12]

Family Noctuidae
Noctuidae
Latreille, 1809

Subfamily Plusiinae
Plusiinae
Boisduval, [1828]

Tribe Abrostolini Eichlin & Cunningham, 1978 Tribe Argyrogrammatini Eichlin & Cunningham, 1978 Tribe Plusiini
Plusiini
Boisduval, [1828]

Subtribe Autoplusiina Kitching, 1987 Subtribe Euchalciina Chou & Lu, 1979 Subtribe Plusiina Boisduval, [1828]

Subfamily Bagisarinae Crumb, 1956

Tribe Cydosiini Kitching & Rawlins, [1998]

Subfamily Eustrotiinae Grote, 1882 Subfamily Acontiinae
Acontiinae
Guenée, 1841

Tribe Acontiini Guenée, 1841

Subfamily Pantheinae
Pantheinae
Smith, 1898 Subfamily Dilobinae Aurivillius, 1889 Subfamily Balsinae Grote, 1896 Subfamily Acronictinae
Acronictinae
Heinemann, 1859 Subfamily Metoponiinae Herrich-Schäff er, [1851] Subfamily Cuculliinae Herrich-Schäff er, [1850] Subfamily Amphipyrinae
Amphipyrinae
Guenée, 1837

Tribe Amphipyrini Guenée, 1837 Tribe Psaphidini
Psaphidini
Grote, 1896

Subtribe Psaphidina Grote, 1896 Subtribe Feraliina Poole, 1995 Subtribe Nocloina Poole, 1995 Subtribe Triocnemidina
Triocnemidina
Poole, 1995

Tribe Stiriini Grote, 1882 293

Subtribe Stiriina Grote, 1882 Subtribe Grotellina Poole, 1995 Subtribe Azeniina Poole, 1995 Subtribe Annaphilina Mustelin, 2006

Subfamily Oncocnemidinae
Oncocnemidinae
Forbes & Franclemont, 1954 Subfamily Agaristinae
Agaristinae
Herrich-Schäff er, [1858] Subfamily Condicinae
Condicinae
Poole, 1995

Tribe Condicini Poole, 1995 Tribe Leuconyctini Poole, 1995

Subfamily Heliothinae
Heliothinae
Boisduval, [1828] Subfamily Eriopinae Herrich-Schäff er, [1851] Subfamily Bryophilinae Guenée, 1852 Subfamily Noctuinae
Noctuinae
Latreille, 1809

Tribe Pseudeustrotiini Beck, 1996 Tribe Phosphilini Poole, 1995 Tribe Prodeniini Forbes, 1954 Tribe Elaphriini Beck, 1996 Tribe Caradrinini Boisduval, 1840

Subtribe Caradrinina Boisduval, 1840 Subtribe Athetiina Fibiger & Lafontaine, 2005

Tribe Dypterygiini Forbes, 1954 Tribe Actinotiini Beck, 1996 Tribe Phlogophorini Hampson, 1918 Tribe Apameini
Apameini
Guenée, 1841 Tribe Arzamini Grote, 1883 Tribe Xylenini Guenée, 1837

Subtribe Xylenina Guenée, 1837 Subtribe Cosmiina Guenée, 1852 Subtribe Antitypina Forbes & Franclemont, 1954 Subtribe Ufeina Crumb, 1956

Tribe Orthosiini
Orthosiini
Guenée, 1837 Tribe Tholerini Beck, 1996 Tribe Hadenini
Hadenini
Guenée, 1837 Tribe Leucaniini Guenée, 1837 Tribe Eriopygini Fibiger & Lafontaine, 2005 Tribe Glottulini Guenée, 1852 Tribe Noctuini Latreille, 1809

Subtribe Agrotina Rambur, 1848 Subtribe Noctuina Latreille, 1809

Subfamily Raphiinae Beck, 1996 Subfamily Eucocytiinae Hampson, 1918.

Genera with intervening taxonomy not available include:

Alastria Epilitha Fabula Lanatopyga Lenisa Neoligia Orohadena Orthomoia Protapamea Proxenus Pseudluperina

References[edit]

^ a b Regier, Jerome C.; Mitter, Charles; Mitter, Kim; Cummings, Michael P.; Bazinet, Adam L.; Hallwachs, Winifred; Janzen, Daniel H.; Zwick, Andreas (2017-01-01). "Further progress on the phylogeny of Noctuoidea
Noctuoidea
(Insecta: Lepidoptera) using an expanded gene sample". Systematic Entomology. 42 (1): 82–93. doi:10.1111/syen.12199. ISSN 1365-3113.  ^ Lafontaine, J. Donald; Fibiger, Michael (2006-10-01). "Revised higher classification of the Noctuoidea
Noctuoidea
(Lepidoptera)". The Canadian Entomologist. 138 (5): 610–635. doi:10.4039/n06-012. ISSN 1918-3240.  ^ a b Michael, Fibiger,; Donald, Lafontaine, J.; H., Hacker, Hermann (2005-01-01). A review of the higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the Holarctic fauna. Beilage zu Band 11 : (Notodontidae, Nolidae, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Erebidae, Micronoctuidae, and Noctuidae) : Gesamtinhaltsverzeichnis Bände 1-10 : Indices Bände 1-10. Delta-Druck und Verlag Peks. ISBN 3938249013. OCLC 928877801.  ^ Zahiri, Reza; Holloway, Jeremy D.; Kitching, Ian J.; Lafontaine, J. Donald; Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas (2012-01-01). "Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae
Erebidae
(Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea)". Systematic Entomology. 37 (1): 102–124. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00607.x. ISSN 1365-3113.  ^ Animal
Animal
biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Magnolia Press. 2011-01-01. ISBN 9781869778491.  ^ Fibiger, Michael (2007-01-01). The Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
of Israel. Coronet Books Incorporated. ISBN 9789546422880.  ^ Wagner, David L. (2010-04-25). Caterpillars of Eastern North America: A Guide to Identification and Natural History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400834147.  ^ Speidel, W.; Naumann, C. M. (2004-11-01). "A survey of family‐group names in noctuoid moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera)". Systematics
Systematics
and Biodiversity. 2 (2): 191–221. doi:10.1017/S1477200004001409. ISSN 1477-2000.  ^ E., Rice, Marlin (2004-01-01). "Armyworm defoliating young corn".  ^ Lafontaine, J. D; Wood, D. M. "Butterflies and moths of the Yukon" (PDF). http://hocking.biology.ualberta.ca.  External link in website= (help)CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Gyulai, P.; Ronkay, L.; Saldaitis, A. (2013-11-04). "Two new Xestia Hübner, 1818 species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)". Zootaxa. 3734 (1): 96–100. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3734.1.12. ISSN 1175-5334.  ^ a b Schmidt, B. Christian; Lafontaine, J. Donald (2010-03-19). Annotated Check List of the Noctuoidea
Noctuoidea
(Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America North of Mexico. PenSoft Publishers LTD. ISBN 9789546425355.  ^ Schmidt, Bjorn Christian; Lafontaine, J. Donald (2011-11-24). Contributions to the Systematics
Systematics
of New World Macro-moths III. PenSoft Publishers LTD. ISBN 9789546426185.  ^ Lafontaine, Donald; Schmidt, Christian (2013-06-02). "Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea
Noctuoidea
(Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America
North America
north of Mexico". ZooKeys. 264: 227–236. doi:10.3897/zookeys.264.4443. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 3668382 . PMID 23730184.  ^ Lafontaine, J. Donald; Schmidt, B. Christian (2015-10-15). "Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America
North America
north of Mexico
Mexico
III". ZooKeys. 527: 127–147. doi:10.3897/zookeys.527.6151. ISSN 1313-2989. PMC 4668890 . PMID 26692790.  ^ Bopp, Sigrun; Gottsberger, Gerhard (2004-01-01). "Importance of Silene latifolia ssp. alba and S. dioica (Caryophyllaceae) as Host Plants of the Parasitic Pollinator Hadena bicruris (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)". Oikos. 105 (2): 221–228. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12625.x. JSTOR 3548083.  ^ Jacobs, Maarten (2005). "Lacanobia splendens, a new species for the Belgian fauna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)" (PDF). Phegea. 33 (3): 83–85.  ^ D.F., Schweitzer, (1979-01-01). "Predatory behavior in Lithophane querquera and other spring caterpillars". Journal. ISSN 0024-0966.  ^ Chapman, Jason W.; Williams, Trevor; Martínez, Ana M.; Cisneros, Juan; Caballero, Primitivo; Cave, Ronald D.; Goulson, Dave (2000-01-01). "Does Cannibalism
Cannibalism
in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reduce the Risk of Predation?". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 48 (4): 321–327. doi:10.1007/s002650000237. JSTOR 4601817.  ^ a b c Birch, Martin (1970-05-01). "Pre-courtship use of abdominal brushes by the nocturnal moth, Phlogophora meticulosa (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)". Animal
Animal
Behaviour. 18, Part 2: 310–316. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(70)80043-4.  ^ Heath, R. R.; Mclaughlin, J. R.; Proshold, F.; Teal, P. E. A. (1991-03-01). "Periodicity of Female Sex Pheromone Titer and Release in Heliothis subflexa and H. virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 84 (2): 182–189. doi:10.1093/aesa/84.2.182. ISSN 0013-8746.  ^ Ronkay, L. (2005). "Revision of the genus Lophoterges Hampson, 1906 (s. l.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Cuculliinae). Part II. The genus Lophoterges s. str." Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 51: 1–57.  ^ a b c d Wagner, David L. (2011-01-01). Owlet Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691150427.  ^ Vilanova, Cristina; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel (2016-01-01). "The Generalist Inside the Specialist: Gut Bacterial Communities of Two Insect
Insect
Species Feeding on Toxic Plants Are Dominated by Enterococcus sp". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.01005. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 4923067 . PMID 27446044.  ^ Nakamura, M. (1998). "The eversible cervical gland and the chemical component of its secretion in noctuid larvae" (PDF). Transactions of the Lepidopterological Society of Japan. 49: 85–92.  ^ Smedley, Scott R.; Ehrhardt, Elizabeth; Eisner, Thomas (1993). "Defensive Regurgitation by a Noctuid Moth Larva
Larva
(Litoprosopus Futilis)". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 100 (3–4): 209–221. doi:10.1155/1993/67950. ISSN 0033-2615.  ^ Kristensen, Niels (2003-01-01). Vol 2: Morphology, Physiology, and Development. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110893724.  ^ Narayanamma, V. Lakshmi; Sharma, H. C.; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sriramulu, M. (2007-12-01). "Incorporation of lyophilized leaves and pods into artificial diets to assess the antibiosis component of resistance to pod borer Helicoverpa armigera
Helicoverpa armigera
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in chickpea". International Journal of Tropical Insect
Insect
Science. 27 (3–4): 191–198. doi:10.1017/S1742758407878374. ISSN 1742-7592.  ^ Capinera, John L. (2008). Capinera, John L., ed. Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer Netherlands. pp. 4038–4041. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_3936. ISBN 9781402062421. 

External links[edit] On the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site:

Agrotis ipsilon, black cutworm Diphthera festiva, hieroglyphic moth Litoprosopus futilis , cabbage palm caterpillar Pseudaletia unipuncta, true armyworm Spodoptera eridania, southern armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, fall armyworm Spodoptera ornithogalli, Yellowstriped Armyworm Xanthopastis timais, Spanish moth or convict caterpillar Family Noctuidae
Noctuidae
at Insecta.pro Images of Noctuidae
Noctuidae
species in New Zealand Moth Photographers Group-Mississippi State University

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
(Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q459180 BAMONA: Noctuidae BugGuide: 173 EoL: 873 EPPO: 1NOCTF Fauna Europaea: 8769 Fossilworks: 245049 GBIF: 7015 ITIS: 117318 NCBI:

.