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The Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prizes
(Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly.[2]

Contents

1 Prize 2 Laureates 3 List of laureates 4 Notes 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Prize Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee
Norwegian Nobel Committee
awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prizes
were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in Stockholm
Stockholm
in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5] In years in which the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize.[6] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II.[7] Laureates Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prizes
and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations.[8] Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn
Richard Kuhn
(Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk
Gerhard Domagk
(Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak
Boris Pasternak
(Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time. Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other.[9] UNHCR
UNHCR
has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
twice. Also the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen
John Bardeen
twice, and the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie
Marie Curie
(Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics in 1903.[10] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry, given in 1911.[9] List of laureates

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology or Medicine Literature Peace Economics

1901 Röntgen, WilhelmWilhelm Röntgen Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van 'tJacobus Henricus van 't Hoff von Behring, Emil AdolfEmil Adolf von Behring Prudhomme, SullySully Prudhomme Dunant, HenryHenry Dunant; Passy, FrédéricFrédéric Passy —

1902 Lorentz, HendrikHendrik Lorentz; Zeeman, PieterPieter Zeeman Fischer, Hermann EmilHermann Emil Fischer Ross, RonaldRonald Ross Mommsen, TheodorTheodor Mommsen Ducommun, ÉlieÉlie Ducommun; Gobat, Charles AlbertCharles Albert Gobat —

1903 Becquerel, HenriHenri Becquerel; Curie, PierrePierre Curie; Curie, MarieMarie Curie Arrhenius, SvanteSvante Arrhenius Finsen, Niels RybergNiels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnson, BjørnstjerneBjørnstjerne Bjørnson Cremer, RandalRandal Cremer —

1904 Rayleigh, LordLord Rayleigh Ramsay, WilliamWilliam Ramsay Pavlov, IvanIvan Pavlov Mistral, FrédéricFrédéric Mistral; Echegaray, JoséJosé Echegaray Institut de Droit International —

1905 Lenard, PhilippPhilipp Lenard Baeyer, Adolf vonAdolf von Baeyer Koch, RobertRobert Koch Sienkiewicz, HenrykHenryk Sienkiewicz Suttner, Bertha vonBertha von Suttner —

1906 Thomson, J. J.J. J. Thomson Moissan, HenriHenri Moissan Golgi, CamilloCamillo Golgi; Ramón y Cajal, SantiagoSantiago Ramón y Cajal Carducci, GiosuèGiosuè Carducci Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt —

1907 Michelson, Albert AbrahamAlbert Abraham Michelson Buchner, EduardEduard Buchner Laveran, Charles Louis AlphonseCharles Louis Alphonse Laveran Kipling, RudyardRudyard Kipling Moneta, Ernesto TeodoroErnesto Teodoro Moneta; Renault, LouisLouis Renault —

1908 Lippmann, GabrielGabriel Lippmann Rutherford, ErnestErnest Rutherford Metchnikoff, ÉlieÉlie Metchnikoff; Ehrlich, PaulPaul Ehrlich Eucken, Rudolf ChristophRudolf Christoph Eucken Arnoldson, Klas PontusKlas Pontus Arnoldson; Bajer, FredrikFredrik Bajer —

1909 Braun, Karl FerdinandKarl Ferdinand Braun; Marconi, GuglielmoGuglielmo Marconi Ostwald, WilhelmWilhelm Ostwald Kocher, Emil TheodorEmil Theodor Kocher Lagerlöf, SelmaSelma Lagerlöf Beernaert, Auguste Marie FrançoisAuguste Marie François Beernaert; d'Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-BenjaminPaul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant —

1910 Waals, Johannes Diderik van derJohannes Diderik van der Waals Wallach, OttoOtto Wallach Kossel, AlbrechtAlbrecht Kossel Heyse, PaulPaul Heyse International Peace Bureau —

1911 Wien, WilhelmWilhelm Wien Skłodowska-Curie, MarieMarie Skłodowska-Curie Gullstrand, AllvarAllvar Gullstrand Maeterlinck, MauriceMaurice Maeterlinck Asser, TobiasTobias Asser; Fried, Alfred HermannAlfred Hermann Fried —

1912 Dalén, GustafGustaf Dalén Grignard, VictorVictor Grignard; Sabatier, PaulPaul Sabatier Carrel, AlexisAlexis Carrel Hauptmann, GerhartGerhart Hauptmann Root, ElihuElihu Root —

1913 Kamerlingh Onnes, HeikeHeike Kamerlingh Onnes Werner, AlfredAlfred Werner Richet, CharlesCharles Richet Tagore, RabindranathRabindranath Tagore La Fontaine, HenriHenri La Fontaine —

1914 von Laue, MaxMax von Laue Richards, Theodore WilliamTheodore William Richards Bárány, RobertRobert Bárány None None —

1915 Bragg, William HenryWilliam Henry Bragg; Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg Willstätter, RichardRichard Willstätter None Rolland, RomainRomain Rolland None —

1916 None None None Heidenstam, Verner vonVerner von Heidenstam None —

1917 Barkla, Charles GloverCharles Glover Barkla None None Gjellerup, Karl AdolphKarl Adolph Gjellerup; Pontoppidan, HenrikHenrik Pontoppidan International Committee of the Red Cross —

1918 Planck, MaxMax Planck Haber, FritzFritz Haber None None None —

1919 Stark, JohannesJohannes Stark None Bordet, JulesJules Bordet Spitteler, CarlCarl Spitteler Wilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson —

1920 Guillaume, Charles ÉdouardCharles Édouard Guillaume Nernst, WaltherWalther Nernst Krogh, AugustAugust Krogh Hamsun, KnutKnut Hamsun Bourgeois, LéonLéon Bourgeois —

1921 Einstein, AlbertAlbert Einstein Soddy, FrederickFrederick Soddy None France, AnatoleAnatole France Branting, HjalmarHjalmar Branting; Lange, Christian LousChristian Lous Lange —

1922 Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr Aston, Francis WilliamFrancis William Aston Hill, ArchibaldArchibald Hill; Meyerhof, Otto FritzOtto Fritz Meyerhof Benavente, JacintoJacinto Benavente Nansen, FridtjofFridtjof Nansen —

1923 Millikan, Robert AndrewsRobert Andrews Millikan Pregl, FritzFritz Pregl Banting, FrederickFrederick Banting; Macleod, John James RickardJohn James Rickard Macleod Yeats, W. B.W. B. Yeats None —

1924 Siegbahn, ManneManne Siegbahn None Einthoven, WillemWillem Einthoven Reymont, WładysławWładysław Reymont None —

1925 Franck, JamesJames Franck; Hertz, Gustav LudwigGustav Ludwig Hertz Zsigmondy, Richard AdolfRichard Adolf Zsigmondy None Shaw, George BernardGeorge Bernard Shaw Chamberlain, AustenAusten Chamberlain; Dawes, Charles G.Charles G. Dawes —

1926 Perrin, Jean BaptisteJean Baptiste Perrin Svedberg, TheodorTheodor Svedberg Fibiger, JohannesJohannes Fibiger Deledda, GraziaGrazia Deledda Briand, AristideAristide Briand; Stresemann, GustavGustav Stresemann —

1927 Compton, ArthurArthur Compton; Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson Wieland, Heinrich OttoHeinrich Otto Wieland Wagner-Jauregg, JuliusJulius Wagner-Jauregg Bergson, HenriHenri Bergson Buisson, FerdinandFerdinand Buisson; Quidde, LudwigLudwig Quidde —

1928 Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans Richardson Windaus, Adolf Otto ReinholdAdolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Nicolle, CharlesCharles Nicolle Undset, SigridSigrid Undset None —

1929 Broglie, Louis deLouis de Broglie Harden, ArthurArthur Harden; von Euler-Chelpin, HansHans von Euler-Chelpin Eijkman, ChristiaanChristiaan Eijkman; Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins Mann, ThomasThomas Mann Kellogg, Frank B.Frank B. Kellogg —

1930 Raman, C. V.C. V. Raman Fischer, HansHans Fischer Landsteiner, KarlKarl Landsteiner Lewis, SinclairSinclair Lewis Söderblom, NathanNathan Söderblom —

1931 None Bosch, CarlCarl Bosch; Bergius, FriedrichFriedrich Bergius Warburg, Otto HeinrichOtto Heinrich Warburg Karlfeldt, Erik AxelErik Axel Karlfeldt Addams, JaneJane Addams; Butler, Nicholas MurrayNicholas Murray Butler —

1932 Heisenberg, WernerWerner Heisenberg Langmuir, IrvingIrving Langmuir Sherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington; Adrian, EdgarEdgar Adrian Galsworthy, JohnJohn Galsworthy None —

1933 Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger; Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac None Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, IvanIvan Bunin Angell, NormanNorman Angell —

1934 None Urey, HaroldHarold Urey Whipple, GeorgeGeorge Whipple; Minot, GeorgeGeorge Minot; Murphy, William P.William P. Murphy Pirandello, LuigiLuigi Pirandello Henderson, ArthurArthur Henderson —

1935 Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick Joliot-Curie, FrédéricFrédéric Joliot-Curie; Joliot-Curie, IrèneIrène Joliot-Curie Spemann, HansHans Spemann None von Ossietzky, CarlCarl von Ossietzky —

1936 Hess, Victor FrancisVictor Francis Hess; Anderson, Carl DavidCarl David Anderson Debye, PeterPeter Debye Dale, Henry HallettHenry Hallett Dale; Loewi, OttoOtto Loewi O'Neill, EugeneEugene O'Neill Lamas, Carlos SaavedraCarlos Saavedra Lamas —

1937 Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson; Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson Haworth, NormanNorman Haworth; Karrer, PaulPaul Karrer Szent-Györgyi, AlbertAlbert Szent-Györgyi du Gard, Roger MartinRoger Martin du Gard Cecil of Chelwood, The ViscountThe Viscount Cecil of Chelwood —

1938 Fermi, EnricoEnrico Fermi Kuhn, RichardRichard Kuhn[A] Heymans, CorneilleCorneille Heymans Buck, Pearl S.Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees —

1939 Lawrence, ErnestErnest Lawrence Butenandt, AdolfAdolf Butenandt;[A] Ružička, LeopoldLeopold Ružička Domagk, GerhardGerhard Domagk[A] Sillanpää, Frans EemilFrans Eemil Sillanpää None —

1940 None None None None None —

1941 None None None None None —

1942 None None None None None —

1943 Stern, OttoOtto Stern Hevesy, George deGeorge de Hevesy Dam, HenrikHenrik Dam; Doisy, Edward AdelbertEdward Adelbert Doisy None None —

1944 Rabi, Isidor IsaacIsidor Isaac Rabi Hahn, OttoOtto Hahn Erlanger, JosephJoseph Erlanger; Gasser, Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer Gasser Jensen, Johannes VilhelmJohannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross —

1945 Pauli, WolfgangWolfgang Pauli Virtanen, Artturi IlmariArtturi Ilmari Virtanen Fleming, AlexanderAlexander Fleming; Chain, Ernst BorisErnst Boris Chain; Florey, HowardHoward Florey Mistral, GabrielaGabriela Mistral Hull, CordellCordell Hull —

1946 Bridgman, Percy WilliamsPercy Williams Bridgman Sumner, James B.James B. Sumner; Northrop, John HowardJohn Howard Northrop; Stanley, Wendell MeredithWendell Meredith Stanley Muller, Hermann JosephHermann Joseph Muller Hesse, HermannHermann Hesse Balch, Emily GreeneEmily Greene Balch; Mott, JohnJohn Mott —

1947 Appleton, Edward VictorEdward Victor Appleton Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson Cori, Carl FerdinandCarl Ferdinand Cori; Cori, GertyGerty Cori; Houssay, BernardoBernardo Houssay Gide, AndréAndré Gide Friends Service Council; American Friends Service Committee —

1948 Blackett, PatrickPatrick Blackett Tiselius, ArneArne Tiselius Müller, Paul HermannPaul Hermann Müller Eliot, T. S.T. S. Eliot None[B] —

1949 Yukawa, HidekiHideki Yukawa Giauque, WilliamWilliam Giauque Hess, Walter RudolfWalter Rudolf Hess; Moniz, António EgasAntónio Egas Moniz Faulkner, WilliamWilliam Faulkner Boyd Orr, JohnJohn Boyd Orr —

1950 Powell, C. F.C. F. Powell Diels, OttoOtto Diels; Alder, KurtKurt Alder Hench, Philip ShowalterPhilip Showalter Hench; Kendall, Edward CalvinEdward Calvin Kendall; Reichstein, TadeusTadeus Reichstein Russell, BertrandBertrand Russell Bunche, RalphRalph Bunche —

1951 Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft; Walton, ErnestErnest Walton McMillan, EdwinEdwin McMillan; Seaborg, Glenn T.Glenn T. Seaborg Theiler, MaxMax Theiler Lagerkvist, PärPär Lagerkvist Jouhaux, LéonLéon Jouhaux —

1952 Bloch, FelixFelix Bloch; Purcell, Edward MillsEdward Mills Purcell Martin, Archer John PorterArcher John Porter Martin; Synge, Richard Laurence MillingtonRichard Laurence Millington Synge Waksman, SelmanSelman Waksman Mauriac, FrançoisFrançois Mauriac Schweitzer, AlbertAlbert Schweitzer —

1953 Zernike, FritsFrits Zernike Staudinger, HermannHermann Staudinger Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs; Lipmann, Fritz AlbertFritz Albert Lipmann Churchill, WinstonWinston Churchill Marshall, GeorgeGeorge Marshall —

1954 Born, MaxMax Born; Bothe, WaltherWalther Bothe Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling Enders, John FranklinJohn Franklin Enders; Robbins, Frederick ChapmanFrederick Chapman Robbins; Weller, Thomas HuckleThomas Huckle Weller Hemingway, ErnestErnest Hemingway United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees —

1955 Lamb, WillisWillis Lamb; Kusch, PolykarpPolykarp Kusch du Vigneaud, VincentVincent du Vigneaud Theorell, HugoHugo Theorell Laxness, HalldórHalldór Laxness None —

1956 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen; Brattain, Walter HouserWalter Houser Brattain; Shockley, WilliamWilliam Shockley Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood; Semyonov, NikolayNikolay Semyonov Cournand, André FrédéricAndré Frédéric Cournand; Forssmann, WernerWerner Forssmann; Richards, Dickinson W.Dickinson W. Richards Jiménez, Juan RamónJuan Ramón Jiménez None —

1957 Yang, Chen NingChen Ning Yang; Lee, Tsung-DaoTsung-Dao Lee Todd, The LordThe Lord Todd Bovet, DanielDaniel Bovet Camus, AlbertAlbert Camus Pearson, Lester B.Lester B. Pearson —

1958 Cherenkov, PavelPavel Cherenkov; Frank, IlyaIlya Frank; Tamm, IgorIgor Tamm Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Beadle, George WellsGeorge Wells Beadle; Tatum, Edward LawrieEdward Lawrie Tatum; Lederberg, JoshuaJoshua Lederberg Pasternak, BorisBoris Pasternak[C] Pire, DominiqueDominique Pire —

1959 Segrè, Emilio G.Emilio G. Segrè; Chamberlain, OwenOwen Chamberlain Heyrovský, JaroslavJaroslav Heyrovský Kornberg, ArthurArthur Kornberg; Ochoa, SeveroSevero Ochoa Quasimodo, SalvatoreSalvatore Quasimodo Noel-Baker, PhilipPhilip Noel-Baker —

1960 Glaser, Donald A.Donald A. Glaser Libby, WillardWillard Libby Burnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet; Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar Perse, Saint-JohnSaint-John Perse Lutuli, AlbertAlbert Lutuli —

1961 Hofstadter, RobertRobert Hofstadter; Mössbauer, RudolfRudolf Mössbauer Calvin, MelvinMelvin Calvin von Békésy, GeorgGeorg von Békésy Andrić, IvoIvo Andrić Hammarskjöld, DagDag Hammarskjöld —

1962 Landau, LevLev Landau Perutz, MaxMax Perutz; Kendrew, JohnJohn Kendrew Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick; Watson, James D.James D. Watson; Wilkins, MauriceMaurice Wilkins Steinbeck, JohnJohn Steinbeck Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling —

1963 Wigner, EugeneEugene Wigner; Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer; Jensen, J. Hans D.J. Hans D. Jensen Ziegler, KarlKarl Ziegler; Natta, GiulioGiulio Natta Eccles, JohnJohn Eccles; Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin; Huxley, AndrewAndrew Huxley Seferis, GiorgosGiorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross; League of Red Cross societies —

1964 Townes, Charles HardCharles Hard Townes; Basov, NikolayNikolay Basov; Prokhorov, AlexanderAlexander Prokhorov Hodgkin, DorothyDorothy Hodgkin Bloch, Konrad EmilKonrad Emil Bloch; Lynen, Feodor Felix KonradFeodor Felix Konrad Lynen Sartre, Jean-PaulJean-Paul Sartre[D] King, Jr., Martin LutherMartin Luther King, Jr. —

1965 Tomonaga, Sin-ItiroSin-Itiro Tomonaga; Schwinger, JulianJulian Schwinger; Feynman, RichardRichard Feynman Woodward, Robert BurnsRobert Burns Woodward Jacob, FrançoisFrançois Jacob; Lwoff, André MichelAndré Michel Lwoff; Monod, JacquesJacques Monod Sholokhov, MikhailMikhail Sholokhov United Nations
United Nations
International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) —

1966 Kastler, AlfredAlfred Kastler Mulliken, Robert S.Robert S. Mulliken Rous, Francis PeytonFrancis Peyton Rous; Huggins, Charles BrentonCharles Brenton Huggins Agnon, Shmuel YosefShmuel Yosef Agnon; Sachs, NellyNelly Sachs None —

1967 Bethe, HansHans Bethe Eigen, ManfredManfred Eigen; Norrish, Ronald George WreyfordRonald George Wreyford Norrish; Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter Granit, RagnarRagnar Granit; Hartline, Haldan KefferHaldan Keffer Hartline; Wald, GeorgeGeorge Wald Asturias, Miguel ÁngelMiguel Ángel Asturias None —

1968 Alvarez, Luis WalterLuis Walter Alvarez Onsager, LarsLars Onsager Holley, Robert W.Robert W. Holley; Khorana, Har GobindHar Gobind Khorana; Nirenberg, Marshall WarrenMarshall Warren Nirenberg Kawabata, YasunariYasunari Kawabata Cassin, RenéRené Cassin —

1969 Gell-Mann, MurrayMurray Gell-Mann Barton, DerekDerek Barton; Hassel, OddOdd Hassel Delbrück, MaxMax Delbrück; Hershey, AlfredAlfred Hershey; Luria, SalvadorSalvador Luria Beckett, SamuelSamuel Beckett International Labour Organization Frisch, RagnarRagnar Frisch; Tinbergen, JanJan Tinbergen

1970 Alfvén, HannesHannes Alfvén; Néel, LouisLouis Néel Leloir, Luis FedericoLuis Federico Leloir Axelrod, JuliusJulius Axelrod; von Euler, UlfUlf von Euler; Katz, BernardBernard Katz Solzhenitsyn, AleksandrAleksandr Solzhenitsyn Borlaug, NormanNorman Borlaug Samuelson, PaulPaul Samuelson

1971 Gabor, DennisDennis Gabor Herzberg, GerhardGerhard Herzberg Sutherland, Jr., Earl WilburEarl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Neruda, PabloPablo Neruda Brandt, WillyWilly Brandt Kuznets, SimonSimon Kuznets

1972 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen; Cooper, LeonLeon Cooper; Schrieffer, John RobertJohn Robert Schrieffer Anfinsen, Christian B.Christian B. Anfinsen; Moore, StanfordStanford Moore; Stein, William HowardWilliam Howard Stein Edelman, GeraldGerald Edelman; Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter Böll, HeinrichHeinrich Böll None Hicks, JohnJohn Hicks; Arrow, KennethKenneth Arrow

1973 Esaki, LeoLeo Esaki; Giaever, IvarIvar Giaever; Josephson, Brian DavidBrian David Josephson Fischer, Ernst OttoErnst Otto Fischer; Wilkinson, GeoffreyGeoffrey Wilkinson von Frisch, KarlKarl von Frisch; Lorenz, KonradKonrad Lorenz; Tinbergen, NikolaasNikolaas Tinbergen White, PatrickPatrick White Kissinger, HenryHenry Kissinger; Duc Tho, LeLe Duc Tho[E] Leontief, WassilyWassily Leontief

1974 Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle; Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish Flory, PaulPaul Flory Claude, AlbertAlbert Claude; de Duve, ChristianChristian de Duve; Palade, George EmilGeorge Emil Palade Johnson, EyvindEyvind Johnson; Martinson, HarryHarry Martinson MacBride, SeánSeán MacBride; Satō, EisakuEisaku Satō Myrdal, GunnarGunnar Myrdal; Hayek, FriedrichFriedrich Hayek

1975 Bohr, AageAage Bohr; Mottelson, Ben RoyBen Roy Mottelson; Rainwater, JamesJames Rainwater Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth; Prelog, VladimirVladimir Prelog Baltimore, DavidDavid Baltimore; Dulbecco, RenatoRenato Dulbecco; Temin, Howard MartinHoward Martin Temin Montale, EugenioEugenio Montale Sakharov, AndreiAndrei Sakharov Kantorovich, LeonidLeonid Kantorovich; Koopmans, TjallingTjalling Koopmans

1976 Richter, BurtonBurton Richter; Ting, Samuel C. C.Samuel C. C. Ting Lipscomb, WilliamWilliam Lipscomb Blumberg, Baruch SamuelBaruch Samuel Blumberg; Gajdusek, Daniel CarletonDaniel Carleton Gajdusek Bellow, SaulSaul Bellow Williams, BettyBetty Williams; Maguire, MaireadMairead Maguire Friedman, MiltonMilton Friedman

1977 Anderson, Philip WarrenPhilip Warren Anderson; Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott; Van Vleck, John HasbrouckJohn Hasbrouck Van Vleck Prigogine, IlyaIlya Prigogine Guillemin, RogerRoger Guillemin; Schally, AndrewAndrew Schally; Yalow, Rosalyn SussmanRosalyn Sussman Yalow Aleixandre, VicenteVicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Ohlin, BertilBertil Ohlin; Meade, JamesJames Meade

1978 Kapitsa, PyotrPyotr Kapitsa; Penzias, Arno AllanArno Allan Penzias; Wilson, Robert WoodrowRobert Woodrow Wilson Mitchell, Peter D.Peter D. Mitchell Arber, WernerWerner Arber; Nathans, DanielDaniel Nathans; Smith, Hamilton O.Hamilton O. Smith Singer, Isaac BashevisIsaac Bashevis Singer Sadat, AnwarAnwar Sadat; Begin, MenachemMenachem Begin Simon, Herbert A.Herbert A. Simon

1979 Glashow, Sheldon LeeSheldon Lee Glashow; Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam; Weinberg, StevenSteven Weinberg Brown, Herbert C.Herbert C. Brown; Wittig, GeorgGeorg Wittig Cormack, Allan McLeodAllan McLeod Cormack; Hounsfield, GodfreyGodfrey Hounsfield Elytis, OdysseasOdysseas Elytis Teresa, MotherMother Teresa Schultz, TheodoreTheodore Schultz; Lewis, ArthurArthur Lewis

1980 Cronin, JamesJames Cronin; Fitch, Val LogsdonVal Logsdon Fitch Berg, PaulPaul Berg; Gilbert, WalterWalter Gilbert; Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Benacerraf, BarujBaruj Benacerraf; Dausset, JeanJean Dausset; Snell, George DavisGeorge Davis Snell Miłosz, CzesławCzesław Miłosz Esquivel, Adolfo PérezAdolfo Pérez Esquivel Klein, LawrenceLawrence Klein

1981 Bloembergen, NicolaasNicolaas Bloembergen; Schawlow, Arthur LeonardArthur Leonard Schawlow; Siegbahn, KaiKai Siegbahn Fukui, KenichiKenichi Fukui; Hoffmann, RoaldRoald Hoffmann Sperry, Roger WolcottRoger Wolcott Sperry; Hubel, David H.David H. Hubel; Wiesel, TorstenTorsten Wiesel Canetti, EliasElias Canetti United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees Tobin, JamesJames Tobin

1982 Wilson, Kenneth G.Kenneth G. Wilson Klug, AaronAaron Klug Bergström, SuneSune Bergström; Samuelsson, Bengt I.Bengt I. Samuelsson; Vane, JohnJohn Vane Márquez, Gabriel GarcíaGabriel García Márquez Myrdal, AlvaAlva Myrdal; Robles, Alfonso GarcíaAlfonso García Robles Stigler, GeorgeGeorge Stigler

1983 Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar; Fowler, William AlfredWilliam Alfred Fowler Taube, HenryHenry Taube McClintock, BarbaraBarbara McClintock Golding, WilliamWilliam Golding Wałęsa, LechLech Wałęsa Debreu, GérardGérard Debreu

1984 Rubbia, CarloCarlo Rubbia; van der Meer, SimonSimon van der Meer Merrifield, Robert BruceRobert Bruce Merrifield Jerne, Niels KajNiels Kaj Jerne; Köhler, Georges J. F.Georges J. F. Köhler; Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein Seifert, JaroslavJaroslav Seifert Tutu, DesmondDesmond Tutu Stone, RichardRichard Stone

1985 von Klitzing, KlausKlaus von Klitzing Hauptman, Herbert A.Herbert A. Hauptman; Karle, JeromeJerome Karle Brown, Michael StuartMichael Stuart Brown; Goldstein, Joseph L.Joseph L. Goldstein Simon, ClaudeClaude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Modigliani, FrancoFranco Modigliani

1986 Ruska, ErnstErnst Ruska; Binnig, GerdGerd Binnig; Rohrer, HeinrichHeinrich Rohrer Herschbach, Dudley R.Dudley R. Herschbach; Lee, Yuan T.Yuan T. Lee; Polanyi, JohnJohn Polanyi Cohen, StanleyStanley Cohen; Levi-Montalcini, RitaRita Levi-Montalcini Soyinka, WoleWole Soyinka Wiesel, ElieElie Wiesel Buchanan, James M.James M. Buchanan

1987 Bednorz, Johannes GeorgJohannes Georg Bednorz; Müller, Karl AlexanderKarl Alexander Müller Cram, Donald J.Donald J. Cram; Lehn, Jean-MarieJean-Marie Lehn; Pedersen, Charles J.Charles J. Pedersen Tonegawa, SusumuSusumu Tonegawa Brodsky, JosephJoseph Brodsky Arias, ÓscarÓscar Arias Solow, RobertRobert Solow

1988 Lederman, Leon M.Leon M. Lederman; Schwartz, MelvinMelvin Schwartz; Steinberger, JackJack Steinberger Deisenhofer, JohannJohann Deisenhofer; Huber, RobertRobert Huber; Michel, HartmutHartmut Michel Black, James W.James W. Black; Elion, Gertrude B.Gertrude B. Elion; Hitchings, George H.George H. Hitchings Mahfouz, NaguibNaguib Mahfouz United Nations
United Nations
Peace-Keeping Forces Allais, MauriceMaurice Allais

1989 Ramsey, Jr., Norman FosterNorman Foster Ramsey, Jr.; Dehmelt, Hans GeorgHans Georg Dehmelt; Paul, WolfgangWolfgang Paul Altman, SidneySidney Altman; Cech, ThomasThomas Cech Bishop, J. MichaelJ. Michael Bishop; Varmus, Harold E.Harold E. Varmus Cela, Camilo JoséCamilo José Cela Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama), TenzinTenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama) Haavelmo, TrygveTrygve Haavelmo

1990 Friedman, Jerome IsaacJerome Isaac Friedman; Kendall, Henry WayHenry Way Kendall; Taylor, Richard E.Richard E. Taylor Corey, Elias JamesElias James Corey Murray, JosephJoseph Murray; Thomas, E. DonnallE. Donnall Thomas Paz, OctavioOctavio Paz Gorbachev, MikhailMikhail Gorbachev Markowitz, HarryHarry Markowitz; Miller, MertonMerton Miller; Sharpe, William F.William F. Sharpe

1991 Gennes, Pierre-Gilles dePierre-Gilles de Gennes Ernst, Richard R.Richard R. Ernst Neher, ErwinErwin Neher; Sakmann, BertBert Sakmann Gordimer, NadineNadine Gordimer Suu Kyi, Aung SanAung San Suu Kyi Coase, RonaldRonald Coase

1992 Charpak, GeorgesGeorges Charpak Marcus, Rudolph A.Rudolph A. Marcus Fischer, Edmond H.Edmond H. Fischer; Krebs, Edwin G.Edwin G. Krebs Walcott, DerekDerek Walcott Menchú, RigobertaRigoberta Menchú Becker, GaryGary Becker

1993 Hulse, Russell AlanRussell Alan Hulse; Taylor, Jr., Joseph HootonJoseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. Mullis, KaryKary Mullis; Smith, MichaelMichael Smith Roberts, Richard J.Richard J. Roberts; Sharp, Phillip AllenPhillip Allen Sharp Morrison, ToniToni Morrison Mandela, NelsonNelson Mandela; de Klerk, F. W.F. W. de Klerk Fogel, RobertRobert Fogel; North, DouglassDouglass North

1994 Brockhouse, BertramBertram Brockhouse; Shull, CliffordClifford Shull Olah, George AndrewGeorge Andrew Olah Gilman, Alfred G.Alfred G. Gilman; Rodbell, MartinMartin Rodbell Ōe, KenzaburōKenzaburō Ōe Arafat, YasserYasser Arafat; Peres, ShimonShimon Peres; Rabin, YitzhakYitzhak Rabin Harsanyi, JohnJohn Harsanyi; Nash, Jr., John ForbesJohn Forbes Nash, Jr.; Selten, ReinhardReinhard Selten

1995 Perl, Martin LewisMartin Lewis Perl; Reines, FrederickFrederick Reines Crutzen, Paul J.Paul J. Crutzen; Molina, Mario J.Mario J. Molina; Rowland, Frank SherwoodFrank Sherwood Rowland Lewis, Edward B.Edward B. Lewis; Nüsslein-Volhard, ChristianeChristiane Nüsslein-Volhard; Wieschaus, Eric F.Eric F. Wieschaus Heaney, SeamusSeamus Heaney Rotblat, JosephJoseph Rotblat; Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Lucas, Jr., RobertRobert Lucas, Jr.

1996 Lee, DavidDavid Lee; Osheroff, DouglasDouglas Osheroff; Richardson, Robert ColemanRobert Coleman Richardson Curl Jr., Robert F.Robert F. Curl Jr.; Kroto, HarryHarry Kroto; Smalley, RichardRichard Smalley Doherty, Peter C.Peter C. Doherty; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.Rolf M. Zinkernagel Szymborska, WisławaWisława Szymborska Belo, Carlos Filipe XimenesCarlos Filipe Ximenes Belo; Ramos-Horta, JoséJosé Ramos-Horta Mirrlees, JamesJames Mirrlees; Vickrey, WilliamWilliam Vickrey

1997 Chu, StevenSteven Chu; Cohen-Tannoudji, ClaudeClaude Cohen-Tannoudji; Phillips, William DanielWilliam Daniel Phillips Boyer, Paul D.Paul D. Boyer; Walker, John E.John E. Walker; Skou, Jens ChristianJens Christian Skou Prusiner, Stanley B.Stanley B. Prusiner Fo, DarioDario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines; Williams, JodyJody Williams Merton, Robert C.Robert C. Merton; Scholes, MyronMyron Scholes

1998 Laughlin, Robert B.Robert B. Laughlin; Störmer, Horst LudwigHorst Ludwig Störmer; Tsui, Daniel C.Daniel C. Tsui Kohn, WalterWalter Kohn; Pople, JohnJohn Pople Furchgott, Robert F.Robert F. Furchgott; Ignarro, LouisLouis Ignarro; Murad, FeridFerid Murad Saramago, JoséJosé Saramago Hume, JohnJohn Hume; Trimble, DavidDavid Trimble Sen, AmartyaAmartya Sen

1999 Hooft, Gerard 'tGerard 't Hooft; Veltman, Martinus J. G.Martinus J. G. Veltman Zewail, AhmedAhmed Zewail Blobel, GünterGünter Blobel Grass, GünterGünter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Mundell, RobertRobert Mundell

2000 Alferov, ZhoresZhores Alferov; Kroemer, HerbertHerbert Kroemer; Kilby, JackJack Kilby Heeger, Alan J.Alan J. Heeger; MacDiarmid, AlanAlan MacDiarmid; Shirakawa, HidekiHideki Shirakawa Carlsson, ArvidArvid Carlsson; Greengard, PaulPaul Greengard; Kandel, EricEric Kandel Xingjian, GaoGao Xingjian Dae-jung, KimKim Dae-jung Heckman, JamesJames Heckman; McFadden, DanielDaniel McFadden

2001 Cornell, Eric AllinEric Allin Cornell; Ketterle, WolfgangWolfgang Ketterle; Wieman, CarlCarl Wieman Knowles, William StandishWilliam Standish Knowles; Noyori, RyōjiRyōji Noyori; Sharpless, Karl BarryKarl Barry Sharpless Hartwell, Leland H.Leland H. Hartwell; Hunt, TimTim Hunt; Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse Naipaul, V. S.V. S. Naipaul United Nations; Annan, KofiKofi Annan Akerlof, GeorgeGeorge Akerlof; Spence, MichaelMichael Spence; Stiglitz, JosephJoseph Stiglitz

2002 Davis, Jr., RaymondRaymond Davis, Jr.; Koshiba, MasatoshiMasatoshi Koshiba; Giacconi, RiccardoRiccardo Giacconi Fenn, JohnJohn Fenn; Tanaka, KoichiKoichi Tanaka; Wüthrich, KurtKurt Wüthrich Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner; Horvitz, H. RobertH. Robert Horvitz; Sulston, JohnJohn Sulston Kertész, ImreImre Kertész Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter Kahneman, DanielDaniel Kahneman; Smith, Vernon L.Vernon L. Smith

2003 Abrikosov, Alexei AlexeyevichAlexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov; Ginzburg, VitalyVitaly Ginzburg; Leggett, Anthony JamesAnthony James Leggett Agre, PeterPeter Agre; MacKinnon, RoderickRoderick MacKinnon Lauterbur, PaulPaul Lauterbur; Mansfield, PeterPeter Mansfield Coetzee, J. M.J. M. Coetzee Ebadi, ShirinShirin Ebadi Engle, Robert F.Robert F. Engle; Granger, CliveClive Granger

2004 Gross, DavidDavid Gross; Politzer, Hugh DavidHugh David Politzer; Wilczek, FrankFrank Wilczek Ciechanover, AaronAaron Ciechanover; Hershko, AvramAvram Hershko; Rose, IrwinIrwin Rose Axel, RichardRichard Axel; Buck, Linda B.Linda B. Buck Jelinek, ElfriedeElfriede Jelinek Maathai, WangariWangari Maathai Kydland, Finn E.Finn E. Kydland; Prescott, Edward C.Edward C. Prescott

2005 Glauber, Roy J.Roy J. Glauber; Hall, John L.John L. Hall; Hänsch, Theodor W.Theodor W. Hänsch Chauvin, YvesYves Chauvin; Grubbs, Robert H.Robert H. Grubbs; Schrock, Richard R.Richard R. Schrock Marshall, BarryBarry Marshall; Warren, RobinRobin Warren Pinter, HaroldHarold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency; ElBaradei, MohamedMohamed ElBaradei Aumann, RobertRobert Aumann; Schelling, ThomasThomas Schelling

2006 Mather, John C.John C. Mather; Smoot, GeorgeGeorge Smoot Kornberg, Roger D.Roger D. Kornberg Fire, AndrewAndrew Fire; Mello, CraigCraig Mello Pamuk, OrhanOrhan Pamuk Yunus, MuhammadMuhammad Yunus; Grameen Bank Phelps, EdmundEdmund Phelps

2007 Fert, AlbertAlbert Fert; Grünberg, PeterPeter Grünberg Ertl, GerhardGerhard Ertl Capecchi, MarioMario Capecchi; Evans, MartinMartin Evans; Smithies, OliverOliver Smithies Lessing, DorisDoris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Gore, AlAl Gore Hurwicz, LeonidLeonid Hurwicz; Maskin, EricEric Maskin; Myerson, RogerRoger Myerson

2008 Nambu, YoichiroYoichiro Nambu; Kobayashi, MakotoMakoto Kobayashi; Maskawa, ToshihideToshihide Maskawa Shimomura, OsamuOsamu Shimomura; Chalfie, MartinMartin Chalfie; Tsien, Roger Y.Roger Y. Tsien zur Hausen, HaraldHarald zur Hausen; Barré-Sinoussi, FrançoiseFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi; Montagnier, LucLuc Montagnier Le Clézio, J. M. G.J. M. G. Le Clézio Ahtisaari, MarttiMartti Ahtisaari Krugman, PaulPaul Krugman

2009 Kao, Charles K.Charles K. Kao; Boyle, Willard S.Willard S. Boyle; Smith, George E.George E. Smith Ramakrishnan, VenkatramanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan; Steitz, Thomas A.Thomas A. Steitz; Yonath, AdaAda Yonath Blackburn, ElizabethElizabeth Blackburn; Greider, Carol W.Carol W. Greider; Szostak, Jack W.Jack W. Szostak Müller, HertaHerta Müller Obama, BarackBarack Obama Ostrom, ElinorElinor Ostrom; Williamson, Oliver E.Oliver E. Williamson

2010 Geim, AndreAndre Geim; Novoselov, KonstantinKonstantin Novoselov Heck, Richard F.Richard F. Heck; Negishi, Ei-ichiEi-ichi Negishi; Suzuki, AkiraAkira Suzuki Edwards, Robert G.Robert G. Edwards Vargas Llosa, MarioMario Vargas Llosa Xiaobo, LiuLiu Xiaobo[F] Diamond, Peter A.Peter A. Diamond; Mortensen, Dale T.Dale T. Mortensen; Pissarides, Christopher A.Christopher A. Pissarides

2011 Perlmutter, SaulSaul Perlmutter; Riess, Adam G.Adam G. Riess; Schmidt, BrianBrian Schmidt Shechtman, DanDan Shechtman Beutler, BruceBruce Beutler; Hoffmann, Jules A.Jules A. Hoffmann; Steinman, Ralph M.Ralph M. Steinman Tranströmer, TomasTomas Tranströmer Sirleaf, Ellen JohnsonEllen Johnson Sirleaf; Gbowee, LeymahLeymah Gbowee; Karman, TawakelTawakel Karman Sargent, Thomas J.Thomas J. Sargent; Sims, Christopher A.Christopher A. Sims

2012 Haroche, SergeSerge Haroche; J. Wineland, DavidDavid J. Wineland Kobilka, Brian K.Brian K. Kobilka; Lefkowitz, Robert J.Robert J. Lefkowitz Gurdon, John B.John B. Gurdon; Yamanaka, Shinya Shinya Yamanaka Yan, MoMo Yan Union, EuropeanEuropean Union Roth, Alvin E.Alvin E. Roth; Shapley, Lloyd S.Lloyd S. Shapley

2013 Englert, FrançoisFrançois Englert; Higgs, Peter W.Peter W. Higgs Karplus, MartinMartin Karplus; Levitt, MichaelMichael Levitt; Warshel, AriehArieh Warshel Rothman, James E.James E. Rothman; Schekman, Randy W.Randy W. Schekman; Südhof, Thomas C.Thomas C. Südhof Munro, AliceAlice Munro for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, OrganisationOrganisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Fama, Eugene F.Eugene F. Fama; Hansen, Lars PeterLars Peter Hansen; Shiller, Robert J.Robert J. Shiller

2014 Akasaki, IsamuIsamu Akasaki; Amano, HiroshiHiroshi Amano; Nakamura, ShujiShuji Nakamura Betzig, EricEric Betzig; Hell, StefanStefan Hell; Moerner, WilliamWilliam Moerner O'Keefe, JohnJohn O'Keefe; Moser, May-BrittMay-Britt Moser; Moser, EdvardEdvard Moser Modiano, PatrickPatrick Modiano Satyarthi, KailashKailash Satyarthi; Yousafzai, MalalaMalala Yousafzai Tirole, JeanJean Tirole

2015 Kajita, TakaakiTakaaki Kajita; McDonald, Arthur B.Arthur B. McDonald Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl; Modrich, Paul L.Paul L. Modrich; Sancar, AzizAziz Sancar Campbell, William C.William C. Campbell; Ōmura, SatoshiSatoshi Ōmura; Youyou, TuTu Youyou Alexievich, SvetlanaSvetlana Alexievich National Dialogue Quartet, TunisianTunisian National Dialogue Quartet Deaton, AngusAngus Deaton

2016[11] J. Thouless, DavidDavid J. Thouless; Haldane, DuncanDuncan Haldane; Kosterlitz, John M.John M. Kosterlitz Sauvage, Jean-PierreJean-Pierre Sauvage; Stoddart, FraserFraser Stoddart; Feringa, BenBen Feringa Ohsumi, YoshinoriYoshinori Ohsumi Dylan, BobBob Dylan Santos, Juan ManuelJuan Manuel Santos Hart, OliverOliver Hart; Holmström, Bengt R.Bengt R. Holmström

2017 Weiss, RainerRainer Weiss; Barish, BarryBarry Barish; Thorne, KipKip Thorne Dubochet, JacquesJacques Dubochet; Frank, JoachimJoachim Frank; Henderson, RichardRichard Henderson Hall, Jeffrey C.Jeffrey C. Hall; Rosbash, MichaelMichael Rosbash; Young, Michael W.Michael W. Young Ishiguro, KazuoKazuo Ishiguro Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, InternationalInternational Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Thaler, RichardRichard Thaler

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology or Medicine Literature Peace Economics

Notes

A In 1938 and 1939, the government of Germany did not allow three German Nobel nominees to accept their Nobel Prizes. The three were Richard Kuhn, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1938; Adolf Butenandt, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1939; and Gerhard Domagk, Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 1939. They were later awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
diploma and medal, but not the money.[9] B In 1948, the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Peace was not awarded. The Nobel Foundation's website suggests that it would have been awarded to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, however, due to his assassination earlier that year, it was left unassigned in his honor.[12] C In 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak, under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union, was forced to decline the Nobel Prize in Literature.[9] D In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
refused to accept the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past.[9] E In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize. His reason was that he felt he did not deserve it because although he helped negotiate the Paris Peace Accords
Paris Peace Accords
(a cease-fire in the Vietnam War), there had been no actual peace agreement.[7][9] F In 2010, Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo
was unable to receive the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
as he was sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment by the Chinese authorities.[13]

See also

List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
by country List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
by university affiliation Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates by secondary school affiliation

References

General

"All Nobel Laureates in Physics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  "All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  "All Nobel Laureates in Medicine". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  "All Nobel Laureates in Literature". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  "All Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  "All Laureates in Economics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 

Specific

^ " Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
– The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.  ^ a b "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Amounts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-11-27.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27.  ^ "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-30.  ^ a b Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
1901-2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-30.  ^ "All Nobel Prizes". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ a b c d e f " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-11.  ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-11.  ^ "2016 Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prizes
- Prize Announcement Dates". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2016.  ^ Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved January 3, 2010. Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
had he been alive one more year.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nobel laureates.

Official website of the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences Official website of the Nobel Foundation Downloadable Database of Nobel Laureates

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