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The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine. The first Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays). This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
and widely regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics. It is presented in Stockholm
Stockholm
at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2017, a total of 206 individuals have been awarded the prize.[2] Only two women have won the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics: Marie Curie
Marie Curie
in 1903, and Maria Goeppert Mayer
Maria Goeppert Mayer
in 1963.[3]

Contents

1 Background 2 Nomination and selection 3 Prizes

3.1 Medals 3.2 Diplomas 3.3 Award money 3.4 Ceremony

4 Laureates 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Sources

7 External links

Background[edit] Alfred Nobel, in his last will and testament, stated that his wealth be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.[4] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.[5][6] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor (US$198 million, Euro€176 million in 2016), to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.[7] Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting (Norwegian Parliament).[8][9] The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman
Ragnar Sohlman
and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
who were to award the Peace
Peace
Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11.[10][11] The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.[9][12] According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics.[12] Nomination and selection[edit]

Three Nobel Laureates in Physics. Front row L-R: Albert A. Michelson (1907 prizewinner), Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(1921 prizewinner) and Robert A. Millikan (1923 prizewinner).

A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics.[13][14] Compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics
Physics
is long and rigorous. This is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics.[15] The Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
for Physics, a Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In the first stage that begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics
Physics
and Chemistry, etc. – are sent confidential forms to nominate candidates. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
no later than 31 January of the following year. These nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to approximately fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the final candidates into the Academy, where, in the Physics
Physics
Class, it is further discussed. The Academy then makes the final selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote.[16] The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, and neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years.[17] While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee (typically in October) and the ceremony in December. Prior to 1974, posthumous awards were permitted if the recipient had died after being nominated.[18] The rules for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
require that the significance of achievements being recognized has been "tested by time". In practice, it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is typically on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, half of the 1983 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
was awarded to Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
for his work on stellar structure and evolution that was done during the 1930s. As a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized. Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a prize, as the discoverers die by the time the impact of their work is appreciated.[19][20] Prizes[edit] A Physics
Physics
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money.[21] The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
that year.[22] If a prize is awarded to more than one laureate, the money is either split evenly among them or, for three laureates, it may be divided into a half and two quarters.[23] Medals[edit] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals, minted by Myntverket[24] in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal has an image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in left profile on the obverse. The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature
Literature
have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a slightly different design.[25][26] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals for Chemistry
Chemistry
and Physics
Physics
share the same design of Nature, as a Goddess, whose veil is held up by the Genius of Science. These medals and the ones for Physiology/ Medicine
Medicine
and Literature
Literature
were designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902.[27] Diplomas[edit] Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureate that receives it.[28] The diploma contains a picture and text which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize.[28] Award money[edit] The laureate is also given a sum of money when they receive the Nobel Prize in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded; in 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million).[22] Due to budget cuts, in 2012, the amount for each Nobel prize was 8 million SEK, or US$1.1 million.[29] The amount may differ depending on how much money the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
can award that year. If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others.[30][31][32] Ceremony[edit] The committee and institution serving as the selection board for the prize typically announce the names of the laureates in October. The prize is then awarded at formal ceremonies held annually in Stockholm Concert Hall on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The laureates receive a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount.[33] Laureates[edit] Main article: List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
in Physics See also[edit]

Physics
Physics
portal

Sakurai Prize, presented by the American Physical Society Wolf Prize in Physics Fundamental Physics
Physics
Prize

References[edit]

^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
amount is raised by SEK 1 million". Nobelprize.org.  ^ "All Nobel Prizes in Physics". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-01-19.  ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Awarded Women". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media 2017. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ "History – Historic Figures: Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
(1833–1896)". BBC. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ Ragnar Sohlman: 1983, Page 7 ^ von Euler, U.S. (6 June 1981). "The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
and its Role for Modern Day Science" (PDF). Die Naturwissenschaften. Springer-Verlag. Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ "Nobel's will". Nobel.org. Retrieved May 4, 2015.  ^ "The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
– History". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ a b Agneta Wallin Levinovitz: 2001, Page 13 ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
History –". Infoplease.com. 1999-10-13. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. " Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
(Scandinavian organisation) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ a b "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 15 January 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online:

After Nobel’s death, the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
was set up to carry out the provisions of his will and to administer his funds. In his will, he had stipulated that four different institutions—three Swedish and one Norwegian—should award the prizes. From Stockholm, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences confers the prizes for physics, chemistry, and economics, the Karolinska Institute confers the prize for physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy confers the prize for literature. The Norwegian Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
based in Oslo confers the prize for peace. The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
is the legal owner and functional administrator of the funds and serves as the joint administrative body of the prize-awarding institutions, but it is not concerned with the prize deliberations or decisions, which rest exclusively with the four institutions.

^ Nobelprize.org. "Facts and figures". Retrieved May 4, 2015.  ^ "GJSFR" (PDF). Retrieved May 4, 2015.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Selection Process". Brittanica Encyclopaedia. Retrieved May 4, 2015.  ^ "Nomination and Selection of Physics
Physics
Laureates". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.  ^ "50 year secrecy rule". Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015.  ^ "About posthumous awards". Retrieved May 4, 2015.  ^ Gingras, Yves; Wallace, Matthew L. (2009). "Why it has become more difficult to predict Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners: A bibliometric analysis of nominees and winners of the chemistry and physics prizes (1901–2007)". Scientometrics. 82 (2): 401. doi:10.1007/s11192-009-0035-9.  ^ "A noble prize". Nature Chemistry. 1 (7): 509. 2009. Bibcode:2009NatCh...1..509.. doi:10.1038/nchem.372. PMID 21378920.  ^ Tom Rivers (2009-12-10). "2009 Nobel Laureates Receive Their Honors Europe English". .voanews.com. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ a b "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Amounts". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
– Prizes" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 15 January 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online:

Each Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
consists of a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money, the amount of which depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation. (A sum of $1,300,000 accompanied each prize in 2005.) A Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
is either given entirely to one person, divided equally between two persons, or shared by three persons. In the latter case, each of the three persons can receive a one-third share of the prize or two together can receive a one-half share.

^ "Medalj – ett traditionellt hantverk" (in Swedish). Myntverket. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2007-12-15.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Peace" Archived 2009-09-16 at the Wayback Machine., "Linus Pauling: Awards, Honors, and Medals", Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Retrieved 7 December 2007. ^ "The Medals". Retrieved May 4, 2015.  ^ [1] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Physics
Physics
and Chemistry. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Diplomas". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Nobel prize amounts to be cut 20% in 2012". CNN. 2012-06-11. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ Sample, Ian (2009-10-05). "Nobel prize for medicine shared by scientists for work on ageing and cancer Science guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ Ian Sample, Science correspondent (2008-10-07). "Three share Nobel prize for physics Science guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ "The 2009 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
– Press Release". Nobelprize.org. 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Nobel prize award ceremony". Retrieved May 4, 2015. 

Sources[edit]

Friedman, Robert Marc (2001). The Politics of Excellence: Behind the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Science. New York & Stuttgart: VHPS (Times Books). ISBN 0-7167-3103-7, ISBN 978-0-7167-3103-0. Hillebrand, Claus D. (June 2002). "Nobel Century: A Biographical Analysis of Physics
Physics
Laureates". Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 27.2: 87-93. Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2010). Evolution of National Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Shares in the 20th Century at arXiv:1009.2634v1 with graphics: National Physics
Physics
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
shares 1901–2009 by citizenship at the time of the award and by country of birth. Lemmel, Birgitta. "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Medals and the Medal for the Prize in Economics". nobelprize.org. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
2006. (An article on the history of the design of the medals.)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics.

"All Nobel Laureates in Physics" – Index webpage on the official site of the Nobel Foundation. "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Award Ceremonies" – Official hyperlinked webpage of the Nobel Foundation. "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics" – Official webpage of the Nobel Foundation. "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Medal for Physics" – Official webpage of the Nobel Foundation.

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

v t e

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or Medicine

by criterion

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by country

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by year

By year

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Physiology
or Medicine Norwegian Nobel Committee

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Related topics

Controversies Other prizes Alfred Nobel

1 Nobel Memorial Prize (not one of the original Nobel Prizes).

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