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The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will. Nobel was personally interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for progress through scientific discoveries in laboratories. The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
is presented to the recipient(s) at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal provides the same profile of Alfred Nobel as depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature; its reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on October 2, 2017 and has been awarded to three Americans – Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young – for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.[2] As of 2015, 106 Nobel Prizes in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
have been awarded to 198 men and 12 women. The first Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine
Medicine
was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and the development of a vaccine against diphtheria. The first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine, Gerty Cori, received it in 1947 for her role in elucidating the metabolism of glucose, important in many aspects of medicine, including treatment of diabetes. Some awards have been controversial. This includes one to António Egas Moniz in 1949 for the prefrontal leucotomy, bestowed despite protests from the medical establishment. Other controversies resulted from disagreements over who was included in the award. The 1952 prize to Selman Waksman
Selman Waksman
was litigated in court, and half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz who was not recognized by the prize. The 1962 prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
for their work on DNA
DNA
structure and properties did not acknowledge the contributing work from others, such as Oswald Avery and Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
who had died by the time of the nomination. Since the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, one prize being awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery. Also forbidden is awarding any one prize to more than three recipients, and since in the last half century there has been an increasing tendency for scientists to work as teams, this rule has resulted in controversial exclusions.

Contents

1 Background 2 Nomination and selection 3 Prizes

3.1 Medals 3.2 Diplomas 3.3 Award money 3.4 Ceremony and banquet

4 Laureates

4.1 Time factor and death 4.2 Controversial inclusions and exclusions 4.3 Limits on number of awardees

5 Years without awards 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources

7 Further reading 8 External links

Background[edit]

Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own laboratories.

Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden into a family of engineers.[3] He was a chemist, engineer and inventor who amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions of which dynamite is the most famous.[4] He was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own labs in France and Italy
Italy
to conduct experiments in blood transfusions. Keeping abreast of scientific findings, he was generous in his donations to Ivan Pavlov's laboratory in Russia, and was optimistic about the progress resulting from scientific discoveries made in laboratories.[5] In 1888, Nobel was surprised to read his own obituary, titled "The merchant of death is dead", in a French newspaper. As it happened, it was Nobel's brother Ludvig who had died, but Nobel, unhappy with the content of the obituary and concerned that his legacy would reflect poorly on him, was inspired to change his will.[6] In his last will, Nobel requested that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.[7] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died at the age of 63.[8] Because his will was contested, it was not approved by the Storting (Norwegian Parliament) until 26 April 1897.[9] After Nobel's death, the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
was set up to manage the assets of the bequest.[10] In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by Swedish King Oscar II.[11][12] According to Nobel's will, the Karolinska Institutet
Karolinska Institutet
in Sweden, a medical school and research center, is responsible for the Prize in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine.[13] Today, the prize is commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Medicine.[14] Nomination and selection[edit] It was important to Nobel that the prize be awarded for a "discovery" and that it was of "greatest benefit on mankind".[15] Per the provisions of the will, only select persons are eligible to nominate individuals for the award. These include members of academies around the world, professors of medicine in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, and Finland, as well as professors of selected universities and research institutions in other countries. Past Nobel laureates may also nominate.[16] Until 1977, all professors of Karolinska Institutet together decided on the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine. That year, changes in Swedish law forced the Institute to make any documents pertaining to the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
public and it was considered necessary to establish a legally independent body for the Prize work. Therefore, the Nobel Assembly was constituted, consisting of 50 professors at Karolinska Institutet. It elects the Nobel Committee with 5 members who evaluate the nominees, the Secretary who is in charge of the organization, and each year 10 adjunct members to assist in the evaluation of candidates. In 1968, a provision was added that no more than three persons may share a Nobel prize.[17] True to its mandate, the Committee has selected researchers working in the basic sciences over those who have made applied contributions. Harvey Cushing, a pioneering American neurosurgeon who identified Cushing's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
never was awarded the prize, nor was Sigmund Freud, as his psychoanalysis lacks hypotheses that can be tested experimentally.[18] The public expected Jonas Salk
Jonas Salk
or Albert Sabin
Albert Sabin
to receive the prize for their development of the polio vaccines, but instead the award went to John Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins whose basic discovery that the polio virus could reproduce in monkey cells in laboratory preparations was a fundamental finding that led to the elimination of the disease of polio.[19] Through the 1930s, there were frequent prize laureates in classical physiology, but after that the field began dissolving into specialties. The last classical physiology laureates were John Eccles, Alan Hodgkin, and Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
in 1963 for their findings regarding "unitary electrical events in the central and peripheral nervous system."[20] Prizes[edit] A Medicine
Medicine
or Physiology
Physiology
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money.[21] These are awarded during the prize ceremony at the Stockholm
Stockholm
Concert Hall. Medals[edit] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals, minted by Myntverket[22] in Sweden, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in left profile on the obverse (front side of the medal). The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature
Literature
have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Before 1980, the medals were made of 23K gold; since then the medals are of 18K green gold, plated with 23K gold.[23] The medal awarded by the Karolinska Institute displays an image of "the Genius of Medicine
Medicine
holding an open book in her lap, collecting the water pouring out from a rock in order to quench a sick girl's thirst." The medal is inscribed with words taken from Virgil's Aeneid and reads: Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes, which translates to "inventions enhance life which is beautified through art."[24] Diplomas[edit] Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the King of Sweden. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureate that receives it. In the case of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine, that is the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute. Well-known artists and calligraphers from Sweden are commissioned to create it.[25] The diploma contains a picture and text which states the name of the laureate and a citation as to why they received the prize.[25] Award money[edit] The amount of prize money fluctuates depending on how much money the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
can award that year, and is awarded in Swedish kronor (SEK).[26] The first award in 1901 was for 150,782 kronor (7,872,648 kronor in 2009 value).[26] In 2009, the prize money totaled 10,000,000 kronor.[26] Due to budget cuts, in 2012, the amount for each Nobel prize was 8 million Swedish Krona, or US$1.1 million.[27] If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others.[28] Ceremony and banquet[edit] The awards are bestowed at a gala ceremony followed by a banquet.[29] The Nobel Banquet is an extravagant affair with the menu, planned months ahead of time, kept secret until the day of the event. The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
chooses the menu after tasting and testing selections submitted by selected chefs of international repute. Currently it is a three course dinner, although it was originally six courses when it began in 1901. Every Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate is allowed to bring up to 16 guests, and Sweden's royal family is always there. Typically, the Prime Minister and other members of the government attend as well as representatives of the Nobel family.[30] Laureates[edit] Main article: List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine

Nikolaas Tinbergen
Nikolaas Tinbergen
(left) and Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(right) were awarded (with Karl von Frisch) for their discoveries concerning animal behavior.[31]

The first Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil Adolf von Behring.[32] Behring's discovery of serum therapy in the development of the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines put "in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths".[33][34] In 1902, the award went to Ronald Ross
Ronald Ross
for his work on malaria, "by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it".[35] He identified the mosquito as the transmitter of malaria, and worked tirelessly on measures to prevent malaria worldwide.[36][37] The 1903 prize was awarded to Niels Ryberg Finsen, the first Danish laureate, "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science".[38][39] He died within a year after receiving the prize at the age of 43.[40] Ivan Pavlov, whose work Nobel admired and supported, received the prize in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion.[41] Subsequently, those selecting the recipients have exercised wide latitude in determining what falls under the umbrella of Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine. The awarding of the prize in 1973 to Nikolaas Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
for their observations of animal behavioral patterns could be considered a prize in the behavioral sciences rather than medicine or physiology.[14] Tinbergen expressed surprise in his Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
acceptance speech at "the unconventional decision of the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
to award this year's prize 'for Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine' to three men who had until recently been regarded as 'mere animal watchers'".[42] Laureates have been awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in a wide range of fields that relate to physiology or medicine. As of 2010[update], eight Prizes have been awarded for contributions in the field of signal transduction through G proteins and second messengers. 13 have been awarded for contributions in the field of neurobiology[43] and 13 have been awarded for contributions in Intermediary metabolism.[44] The 100 Nobel Prizes in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
have been awarded to 195 individuals through 2009.[45][46] Ten women have received the prize: Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
(1947), Rosalyn Yalow
Rosalyn Yalow
(1977), Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
(1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
(1986), Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
(1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck
Linda B. Buck
(2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn
Elizabeth H. Blackburn
(2009), and Carol W. Greider (2009).[47] Only one woman, Barbara McClintock, has received an unshared prize in this category, for the discovery of genetic transposition.[45][48] Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies was awarded the prize in 2007 for the discovery of a gene targeting procedure (a type of genetic recombination) for introducing homologous recombination in mice, employing embryonic stem cells through the development of the knockout mouse.[49][50] There have been 37 times when the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
was awarded to a single individual, 31 times when it was shared by two, and 33 times there were three laureates (the maximum allowed). In 2009, the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
was awarded to Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak
Jack W. Szostak
of the United States
United States
for discovering the process by which chromosomes are protected by telomeres (regions of repetitive DNA
DNA
at the ends of chromosomes) and the enzyme telomerase; they shared the prize of 10,000,000 SEK (slightly more than €1 million, or US$1.4 million).[51] Rita Levi-Montalcini, an Italian neurologist, who together with colleague Stanley Cohen, received the 1986 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
for their discovery of Nerve growth factor
Nerve growth factor
(NGF), was the first Nobel laureate to reach the 100th birthday.[46]

In 1947, Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
was the first woman to be awarded the Prize in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine.

Time factor and death[edit] Because of the length of time that may pass before the significance of a discovery becomes apparent, some prizes are awarded many years after the initial discovery. Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
made her discoveries in 1944, before the structure of the DNA
DNA
molecule was known; she was not awarded the prize until 1983. Similarly, in 1916 Peyton Rous discovered the role of tumor viruses in chickens, but was not awarded the prize until 50 years later, in 1966.[52] Nobel laureate Carol Greider's research leading to the prize was conducted over 20 years before. She noted that the passage of time is an advantage in the medical sciences, as it may take many years for the significance of a discovery to become apparent.[53] In 2011, Canadian immunologist Ralph M. Steinman was awarded the prize; however, unknown to the committee, he had died three days before the announcement. The committee decided that since the prize was awarded "in good faith," it would be allowed to stand. Controversial inclusions and exclusions[edit] Main article: Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
controversies Some of the awards have been controversial. The person who was deserving of the 1923 prize for the discovery of insulin as a central hormone for controlling diabetes (awarded only a year after its discovery)[54] has been heatedly debated. It was shared between Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
and John Macleod; this infuriated Banting who regarded Macleod's involvement as minimal. Macleod was the department head at the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
but otherwise was not directly involved in the findings. Banting thought his laboratory partner Charles Best, who had shared in the laboratory work of discovery, should have shared the prize with him as well. In fairness, he decided to give half of his prize money to Best. Macleod on his part felt the biochemist James Collip, who joined the laboratory team later, deserved to be included in the award and shared his prize money with him.[54] Some maintain that Nicolae Paulescu, a Romanian professor of physiology at the University of Medicine
Medicine
and Pharmacy in Bucharest, was the first to isolate insulin, in 1916, although his pancrein was an impure aqueous extract unfit for human treatment similar to the one used previously by Israel Kleiner.[55][56][57] In the paper that brought him the Nobel,[58] Paulescu already held a patent for his discovery (10 April 1922, patent no. 6254 (8322) "Pancreina şi procedeul fabricaţiei ei"/"Pancrein and the process of making it", from the Romanian Ministry of Industry and Trade).[59][60][61]

Scandal and controversy resulted from the 2008 award to Harald zur Hausen for the discovery of HPV, and to Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
and Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
for discovering HIV.

In 1949, despite protests from the medical establishment, the Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz
António Egas Moniz
received the Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
Prize for his development of the prefrontal leucotomy, which he promoted by declaring the procedure's success just 10 days postoperative. Due largely to the publicity surrounding the award, it was prescribed without regard for modern medical ethics. Favorable results were reported by such publications as The New York Times. It is estimated that around 40,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States
United States
before the procedure's popularity faded.[62] Joseph Kennedy, the father of John Kennedy, subjected his daughter, Rosemary, to the procedure which incapacitated her to the degree that she needed to be institutionalized for the rest of her life.[63][64] The 1952 prize, awarded solely to Selman Waksman
Selman Waksman
for his discovery of streptomycin, omitted the recognition some felt due to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz.[65][66] There was litigation brought by Schatz against Waksman over the details and credit of the streptomycin discovery; Schatz was awarded a substantial settlement, and, together with Waksman, Schatz was to be officially recognized as a co-discoverer of streptomycin as concerned patent rights. However, he is not recognized as a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate.[65] The 1962 Prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins—for their work on DNA
DNA
structure and properties—did not recognize contributing work from others, such as Alec Stokes and Herbert Wilson. In addition, Erwin Chargaff, Oswald Avery, and Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
(whose key DNA
DNA
x-ray crystallography work was the most detailed yet least acknowledged among the three)[67][page needed] contributed directly to the ability of Watson and Crick to solve the structure of the DNA
DNA
molecule—but Avery died in 1955, and Franklin in 1958 and posthumous nominations for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
are not permitted. However, recently unsealed files of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
nominations reveal that no one ever nominated Franklin for the prize when she was alive.[68] Wilkins' crucial contribution was to show Rosalind Franklin's key x-ray photos to Watson.[69] As a result of Watson's misrepresentations of Franklin and her role in the discovery of the double helix in his book The Double Helix, Franklin has come to be portrayed as a classic victim of sexism in science.[70][71] Chargaff, for his part, was not quiet about his exclusion from the prize, bitterly writing to other scientists about his disillusionment regarding the field of molecular biology.[69] The 2008 award went to Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
in recognition of his discovery that human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer, and to Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
and Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
for discovering the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[72] Whether Robert Gallo
Robert Gallo
or Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
deserved more credit for the discovery of the virus that causes AIDS has been a matter of considerable controversy. As it was, Gallo was left out and not awarded a prize.[73][74] Additionally, there was scandal when it was learned that Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
was being investigated for having a financial interest in vaccines for the cervical cancer that HPV
HPV
can cause. AstraZeneca, who with a stake in two lucrative HPV
HPV
vaccines could benefit financially from the prize, had agreed to sponsor Nobel Media and Nobel Web. According to Times Online, two senior figures in the selection process that chose zur Hausen also had strong links with AstraZeneca.[75] Limits on number of awardees[edit] The provision that restricts the maximum number of nominees to three for any one prize, introduced in 1968, has caused considerable controversy.[17][76] From the 1950s onward, there has been an increasing trend to award the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
to more than one person. There were 59 people who received the prize in the first 50 years of the last century, while 113 individuals received it between 1951 and 2000. This increase could be attributed to the rise of the international scientific community after World War II, resulting in more persons being responsible for the discovery, and nominated for, a particular prize. Also, current biomedical research is more often carried out by teams rather than by scientists working alone, making it unlikely that any one scientist, or even a few, is primarily responsible for a discovery;[19] this has meant that a prize nomination that would have to include more than three contributors is automatically excluded from consideration.[52] Also, deserving contributors may not be nominated at all because the restriction results in a cut off point of three nominees per prize, leading to controversial exclusions.[15] Years without awards[edit] There have been nine years in which the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942). Most of these occurred during either World War I
World War I
(1914–1918) or World War II (1939–1945).[46] In 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich
Third Reich
forbade Gerhard Domagk
Gerhard Domagk
to accept his prize.[77] He was later able to receive the diploma and medal but not the money.[46][78] References[edit] Citations[edit]

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Nobel Prize
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Papers". The DNA
DNA
Riddle: King's College, London, 1951–1953. USA.gov. Retrieved 19 June 2010.  ^ Fredholm, Lotta (30 September 2003). "The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA
DNA
– The Double Helix". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 16 June 2010.  ^ a b Judson, Horace (20 October 2003). "No Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Whining". New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ Holt, Jim (28 October 2002). "Photo Finish: Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
and the great DNA
DNA
race". The New Yorker. Retrieved 19 June 2010.  ^ Brenda Maddox (23 January 2003). "The double helix and the 'wronged heroine'" (PDF). Nature. 421 (6921): 407–408. doi:10.1038/nature01399. PMID 12540909.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
2008 Harald zur Hausen, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ Cohen J, Enserink M (October 2008). " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine. HIV, HPV
HPV
researchers honored, but one scientist is left out". Science. 322 (5899): 174–5. doi:10.1126/science.322.5899.174. PMID 18845715.  ^ Enserink, Martin; Jon Cohen (6 October 2008). "Nobel Prize Surprise". Science Now. AAAS. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010.  ^ Charter, David (19 December 2008). " AstraZeneca
AstraZeneca
row as corruption claims engulf Nobel prize". The Sunday Times. London. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2010.  ^ Levinovitz, p. 61 ^ Levinovitz, p. 23 ^ Wilhelm, Peter (1983). The Nobel Prize. Springwood Books. p. 85. ISBN 0-86254-111-5. 

Sources[edit]

Books

Feldman, Burton (2001). The Nobel prize: a history of genius, controversy, and prestige. Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1-55970-592-2.  Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin (2001). Nils Ringertz, ed. The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years. Imperial College Press and World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 981-02-4664-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Doherty, Peter (2008). The Beginner's Guide to Winning the Nobel Prize: Advice for Young Scientists. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13897-0.  Leroy, Francis (2003). A century of Nobel Prizes recipients: chemistry, physics, and medicine. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8247-0876-8.  Rifkind, David; Freeman, Geraldine L. (2005). The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winning discoveries in infectious diseases. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-369353-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine.

All Nobel Laureates in Medicine
Medicine
– Index webpage on the official site of the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine Official site of the Nobel Foundation. Graphics: National Medicine
Medicine
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
shares 1901–2009 by citizenship at the time of the award and by country of birth. From J. Schmidhuber (2010), Evolution of National Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Shares in the 20th Century at arXiv:1009.2634v1

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine

1901–1925

1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925

1926–1950

1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench

1951–1975

1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders
John Enders
/ Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin
Alan Hodgkin
/ Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–present

2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

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