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The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).[2][3] Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, here "work" refers to an author's work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year. The academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895; the others are the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize, and Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine. Although the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
has become the world's most prestigious literature prize,[4] the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain widely studied and read. The prize has "become widely seen as a political one - a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them.[5] Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors ... [to] compar[e] a poet from Indonesia, perhaps translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon, perhaps available only in French, and another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...".[6] As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin. The Academy has often been alleged to be biased towards European, and in particular Swedish, authors.[7] Some, such as Indian academic Sabaree Mitra, have noted that, though the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
is significant and tends to overshadow other awards, it is "not the only benchmark of literary excellence."[8] Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as either "idealistic" or "ideal".[3][9] The Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale.[3][10]

Contents

1 Background 2 Nomination procedure 3 Prizes

3.1 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Medals 3.2 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Diplomas

4 Laureates

4.1 Potential candidates

5 Criticism

5.1 Controversies about Nobel Laureate selections 5.2 Nationality-based criticism 5.3 Overlooked literary achievements

6 Similar international prizes 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit]

In 1901, French poet and essayist Sully Prudhomme (1839–1907) was the first person to be awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect."

Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.[11][12] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris
Paris
on 27 November 1895.[13][14] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor (US$198 million, €176 million in 2016), to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.[15] Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting (Norwegian Parliament) approved it.[16][17] The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman
Ragnar Sohlman
and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
that were to award the Peace
Peace
Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences on 11 June.[18][19] The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.[17][20][21] According to Nobel's will, the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
was to award the Prize in Literature.[21] Nomination procedure[edit] Each year, the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, and the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate. It is not permitted to nominate oneself.[22] Thousands of requests are sent out each year, and as of 2011[update] about 220 proposals are returned.[23] These proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates.[23] By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee.[23] The subsequent four months are then spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates.[23] In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature. No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed repeatedly over the years.[23] The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer.[23] Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes.[24] Prizes[edit] A Literature
Literature
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money.[25] The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
that year.[26] If a prize is awarded to more than one laureate, the money is either split evenly among them or, for three laureates, it may be divided into a half and two quarters.[27] If a prize is awarded jointly to two or more laureates, the money is split among them.[27] The prize money of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
has been fluctuating since its inauguration but as of 2012[update] it stood at kr 8,000,000 (about US$1,100,000), previously it was kr 10,000,000.[28][29][30] This was not the first time the prize-amount was decreased—beginning with a nominal value of kr 150,782 in 1901 (worth 8,123,951 in 2011 SEK) the nominal value has been as low as kr 121,333 (2,370,660 in 2011 SEK) in 1945—but it has been uphill or stable since then, peaking at an SEK-2011 value of 11,659,016 in 2001.[30] The laureate is also invited to give a lecture during "Nobel Week" in Stockholm; the highlight is the prize-giving ceremony and banquet on 10 December.[31] It is the richest literary prize in the world by a large margin. Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Medals[edit] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
medals, minted by Myntverket[32] in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in left profile on the obverse (front side of the medal). The Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine, and Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a slightly different design.[33] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry
Chemistry
and Physics
Physics
share the same design.[34] The medal for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
was designed by Erik Lindberg.[35] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Diplomas[edit] Nobel laureates receive a Diploma
Diploma
directly from the King of Sweden. Each Diploma
Diploma
is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureate that receives it.[36] The Diploma
Diploma
contains a picture and text that states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize.[36] Laureates[edit] Main article: List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
in Literature Potential candidates[edit] Potential recipients of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
are difficult to predict as nominations are kept secret for fifty years until they are publicly available at The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. Currently, only nominations submitted between 1901 and 1965 are available for public viewing.[37] This secrecy has led to speculation about the next Nobel laureate.

What about the rumours circling around the world about certain people being nominated for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
this year? - Well, either it's just a rumour, or someone among the invited nominators has leaked information. Since the nominations are kept secret for 50 years, you'll have to wait until then to find out.[38] — www.nobelprize.org, in Nomination FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions about the Nomination and Selection of Nobel Laureates

According to Professor Göran Malmqvist
Göran Malmqvist
of the Swedish Academy, Chinese writer Shen Congwen
Shen Congwen
was to have been awarded the 1988 Nobel Prize in Literature, had he not suddenly died that year.[39] Criticism[edit] Controversies about Nobel Laureate selections[edit]

Selma Lagerlöf, the first female writer to be awarded a Nobel Prize in literature, faced major controversies. Illustration from Svenska Dagbladet, 11 December 1909

From 1901 to 1912, the committee, headed by the conservative Carl David af Wirsén, weighed the literary quality of a work against its contribution towards humanity's struggle 'toward the ideal'. Tolstoy, Ibsen, Zola, and Mark Twain
Mark Twain
were rejected in favor of authors little read today.[9][40] Also, many believe Sweden's historic antipathy towards Russia is the reason neither Tolstoy
Tolstoy
nor Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov
were awarded the prize.[citation needed] During World War I and its immediate aftermath, the committee adopted a policy of neutrality, favouring writers from non-combatant countries.[9] August Strindberg was repeatedly bypassed by the committee, but holds the singular distinction of being awarded an Anti-Nobel Prize, conferred by popular acclaim and national subscription and presented to him in 1912 by future prime minister Hjalmar Branting.[41][42][43] James Joyce
James Joyce
wrote the books that rank 1st and 3rd on the Modern Library 100 Best Novels – Ulysses and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
– but Joyce never won; as biographer Gordon Bowker wrote, "That prize was just out of Joyce's reach."[44] The academy considered Czech writer Karel Čapek's War With the Newts too offensive to the German government. He also declined to suggest some noncontroversial publication that could be cited as an example of his work, stating "Thank you for the good will, but I have already written my doctoral dissertation".[45] He was thus denied the prize. The choice of Selma Lagerlöf
Selma Lagerlöf
(Sweden 1858–1940) as Nobel Laureate in 1909 (for the 'lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterizes her writings'[46]) followed fierce debate because of her writing style and subject matter, which broke literary decorums of the time.[47][48] According to Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
archives studied by the newspaper Le Monde on their opening in 2008, French novelist and intellectual André Malraux
André Malraux
was seriously considered for the prize in the 1950s. Malraux was competing with Albert Camus
Albert Camus
but was rejected several times, especially in 1954 and 1955, "so long as he does not come back to novel". Thus, Camus was awarded the prize in 1957.[49] Some attribute W. H. Auden's not being awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
to errors in his translation of 1961 Peace
Peace
Prize laureate Dag Hammarskjöld's Vägmärken (Markings)[50] and to statements that Auden made during a Scandinavian lecture tour suggesting that Hammarskjöld was, like Auden, homosexual.[51] In 1962, John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
received the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature. The selection was heavily criticized, and described as "one of the Academy's biggest mistakes" in one Swedish newspaper.[52] The New York Times asked why the Nobel committee gave the award to an author whose "limited talent is, in his best books, watered down by tenth-rate philosophising", adding, "we think it interesting that the laurel was not awarded to a writer ... whose significance, influence and sheer body of work had already made a more profound impression on the literature of our age".[52] Steinbeck himself, when asked if he deserved the Nobel on the day of the announcement, replied: "Frankly, no."[52] In 2012 (50 years later), the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
opened its archives and it was revealed that Steinbeck was a "compromise choice" among a shortlist consisting of Steinbeck, British authors Robert Graves
Robert Graves
and Lawrence Durrell, French dramatist Jean Anouilh
Jean Anouilh
and Danish author Karen Blixen.[52] The declassified documents showed that he was chosen as the best of a bad lot:[52] "There aren't any obvious candidates for the Nobel prize and the prize committee is in an unenviable situation," wrote committee member Henry Olsson.[52] In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, but he declined it, stating that "It is not the same thing if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
or if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate. A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honorable form."[53] Soviet dissident writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, the 1970 prize laureate, did not attend the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
ceremony in Stockholm
Stockholm
for fear that the USSR
USSR
would prevent his return afterwards (his works there were circulated in samizdat—clandestine form).[54] After the Swedish government refused to honor Solzhenitsyn with a public award ceremony and lecture at its Moscow embassy, Solzhenitsyn refused the award altogether, commenting that the conditions set by the Swedes (who preferred a private ceremony) were "an insult to the Nobel Prize itself." Solzhenitsyn did not accept the award and prize money until 10 December 1974, after he was deported from the Soviet Union.[55] In 1974, Graham Greene, Vladimir Nabokov, and Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
were considered but rejected in favor of a joint award for Swedish authors Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
and Harry Martinson, both members of the Swedish Academy at the time,[56] and unknown outside their home country.[57][58] Bellow received the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
in 1976; neither Greene nor Nabokov was awarded it.[59] Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
was nominated for the Prize several times but, as Edwin Williamson, Borges's biographer, states, the Academy did not award it to him, most likely because of his support of certain Argentine and Chilean right-wing military dictators, including Augusto Pinochet, which, according to Tóibín's review of Williamson's Borges: A Life, had complex social and personal contexts.[60] Borges' failure to receive the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for his support of these right-wing dictators contrasts with the Committee honoring writers who openly supported controversial left-wing dictatorships, including Joseph Stalin, in the cases of Sartre and Pablo Neruda,[61][62] Also, controversially, Gabriel García Márquez supported the Cuban Revolutionary and President Fidel Castro.[63] In 1986, the Nigerian
Nigerian
writer Wole Soyinka
Wole Soyinka
received the prize, regardless of the fact that he had held a radio station up at gunpoint in his native country in 1965. The award to Italian performance artist Dario Fo
Dario Fo
in 1997 was initially considered "rather lightweight"[64] by some critics, as he was seen primarily as a performer, and Catholic organizations saw the award to Fo as controversial as he had previously been censured by the Roman Catholic Church.[65] The Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano expressed surprise at Fo's selection for the prize commenting that "Giving the prize to someone who is also the author of questionable works is beyond all imagination."[66] Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
and Arthur Miller had been strongly favoured to receive the Prize, but the Nobel organisers were later quoted as saying that they would have been "too predictable, too popular."[67] Camilo José Cela
Camilo José Cela
willingly offered his services as an informer for Franco's regime and had moved voluntarily from Madrid
Madrid
to Galicia during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
in order to join the rebel forces there; an article by Miguel Angel Villena, Between Fear and Impunity which compiled commentaries by Spanish novelists on the noteworthy silence of the older generation of Spanish novelists on the Francoist pasts of public intellectuals, appeared below a photograph of Cela during the Nobel ceremony in Stockholm
Stockholm
in 1989.[68] The choice of the 2004 laureate, Elfriede Jelinek, was protested by a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund, who had not played an active role in the Academy since 1996; Ahnlund resigned, alleging that selecting Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage" to the reputation of the award.[69][70] The selection of Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
for the Prize in 2005 was delayed for a couple of days, apparently due to Ahnlund's resignation, and led to renewed speculations about there being a "political element" in the Swedish Academy's awarding of the Prize.[10] Although Pinter was unable to give his controversial Nobel Lecture in person because of ill health, he delivered it from a television studio on video projected on screens to an audience at the Swedish Academy, in Stockholm. His comments have been the source of much commentary and debate. The issue of their "political stance" was also raised in response to the awards of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
to Orhan Pamuk and Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
in 2006 and 2007, respectively.[71] The 2016 choice of Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
was the first time a musician and song-writer won the Nobel for Literature. The award caused some controversy, particularly among writers arguing that the literary merits of Dylan’s work are not equal to those of some of his peers. Lebanese novelist Rabih Alameddine tweeted that " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
winning a Nobel in Literature
Literature
is like Mrs Fields
Mrs Fields
being awarded 3 Michelin stars."[72] The French Moroccan writer Pierre Assouline
Pierre Assouline
described the decision as "contemptuous of writers".[73] In a live webchat hosted by The Guardian, Norwegian writer Karl Ove Knausgård
Karl Ove Knausgård
said that "I’m very divided. I love that the novel committee opens up for other kinds of literature – lyrics and so on. I think that’s brilliant. But knowing that Dylan is the same generation as Thomas Pynchon, Philip Roth, Cormac McCarthy, makes it very difficult for me to accept it."[74] Scottish novelist Irvine Welsh
Irvine Welsh
said "I'm a Dylan fan, but this is an ill conceived nostalgia award wrenched from the rancid prostates of senile, gibbering hippies."[75] Dylan's songwriting peer and friend Leonard Cohen
Leonard Cohen
said that no prizes were necessary to recognize the greatness of the man who transformed pop music with records like Highway 61 Revisited. "To me," Cohen said, "[the Nobel] is like pinning a medal on Mount Everest
Mount Everest
for being the highest mountain."[76] Writer and commentator Will Self
Will Self
wrote that the award "cheapened" Dylan whilst hoping the laureate would "follow Sartre in rejecting the award".[77] Nationality-based criticism[edit]

French author Albert Camus
Albert Camus
was the first African-born writer to receive the award.

The prize's focus on European men, and Swedes in particular, has been the subject of criticism, even from Swedish newspapers.[78] The majority of laureates have been European, with Sweden itself receiving more prizes (8) than all of Asia (7, if Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk
is included), as well as all of Latin America (7, if Derek Walcott
Derek Walcott
is included). In 2009, Horace Engdahl, then the permanent secretary of the Academy, declared that "Europe still is the centre of the literary world" and that "the US is too isolated, too insular. They don't translate enough and don't really participate in the big dialogue of literature."[79] In 2009, Engdahl's replacement, Peter Englund, rejected this sentiment ("In most language areas ... there are authors that really deserve and could get the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
and that goes for the United States
United States
and the Americas, as well") and acknowledged the Eurocentric
Eurocentric
nature of the award, saying that, "I think that is a problem. We tend to relate more easily to literature written in Europe and in the European tradition."[80] American critics are known to object that those from their own country, like Philip Roth, Thomas Pynchon, and Cormac McCarthy, have been overlooked, as have Latin Americans such as Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, and Carlos Fuentes, while in their place Europeans lesser-known to that continent have triumphed. The 2009 award to Herta Müller, previously little-known outside Germany but many times named favorite for the Nobel Prize, re-ignited the viewpoint that the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
was biased and Eurocentric.[81] However, the 2010 prize was awarded to Mario Vargas Llosa, a native of Peru
Peru
in South America. When the 2011 prize was awarded to the eminent Swedish poet Tomas Tranströmer, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy Peter Englund
Peter Englund
said the prize was not decided based on politics, describing such a notion as "literature for dummies".[82] The Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
awarded the next two prizes to non-Europeans, Chinese author Mo Yan
Mo Yan
and Canadian short story writer Alice Munro. French writer Patrick Modiano's win in 2014 renewed questions of Eurocentrism; when asked by The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
"So no American this year, yet again. Why is that?", Englund reminded Americans of the Canadian origins of the previous year's winner, the Academy's desire for literary quality and the impossibility of rewarding everyone who deserves the prize.[83] Overlooked literary achievements[edit] In the history of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, many literary achievements were overlooked. The literary historian Kjell Espmark admitted that "as to the early prizes, the censure of bad choices and blatant omissions is often justified. Tolstoy, Ibsen, and Henry James should have been rewarded instead of, for instance, Sully Prudhomme, Eucken, and Heyse".[84] There are omissions which are beyond the control of the Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
such as the early death of an author as was the case with Marcel Proust, Italo Calvino, and Roberto Bolaño. According to Kjell Espmark "the main works of Kafka, Cavafy, and Pessoa were not published until after their deaths and the true dimensions of Mandelstam's poetry were revealed above all in the unpublished poems that his wife saved from extinction and gave to the world long after he had perished in his Siberian exile".[84] British novelist Tim Parks ascribed the never-ending controversy surrounding the decisions of the Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
to the "essential silliness of the prize and our own foolishness at taking it seriously"[85] and noted that "eighteen (or sixteen) Swedish nationals will have a certain credibility when weighing up works of Swedish literature, but what group could ever really get its mind round the infinitely varied work of scores of different traditions. And why should we ask them to do that?"[85] Similar international prizes[edit] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
is not the only literary prize for which all nationalities are eligible. Other notable international literary prizes include the Neustadt International Prize for Literature, the Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
Prize, the Man Booker International Prize, and the recently reinstated Formentor Prize. In contrast to the other prizes mentioned, the Neustadt International Prize is awarded biennially. The journalist Hephzibah Anderson has noted that the Man Booker International Prize "is fast becoming the more significant award, appearing an ever more competent alternative to the Nobel".[86] The Man Booker International Prize
Man Booker International Prize
"highlights one writer's overall contribution to fiction on the world stage"[87] and "has literary excellence as its sole focus".[87] Established in 2005, it is not yet possible to analyze its importance on potential future Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
laureates. Only Alice Munro (2009) has been awarded with both. However, some winners of the Man Booker International Prize, such as Ismail Kadare
Ismail Kadare
(2005) and Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(2011) are considered contenders for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature.[citation needed] The Neustadt International Prize for Literature
Literature
is regarded as one of the most prestigious international literary prizes, often referred to as the American equivalent to the Nobel Prize.[88][89] Like the Nobel or the Man Booker International Prize, it is awarded not for any one work, but for an entire body of work. It is frequently seen as an indicator of who may be awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. Gabriel García Márquez (1972 Neustadt, 1982 Nobel), Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
(1978 Neustadt, 1980 Nobel), Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1982 Neustadt, 1990 Nobel), Tomas Tranströmer (1990 Neustadt, 2011 Nobel) were first awarded the Neustadt International Prize for Literature
Literature
before being awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. Another award of note is the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award (formerly Prince of Asturias Award) in Letters. During the first years of its existence it was almost exclusively awarded to writers in the Spanish language, but in more recent times writers in other languages have been awarded as well. Writers who have won both the Asturias Award in Letters and the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
include Camilo José Cela, Günter Grass, Doris Lessing, and Mario Vargas Llosa. The America Award in Literature, which does not include a monetary prize, presents itself as an alternative to the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. To date, Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
and José Saramago
José Saramago
are the only writers to have received both the America Award and the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. There are also prizes for honouring the lifetime achievement of writers in specific languages, like the Miguel de Cervantes Prize
Miguel de Cervantes Prize
(for Spanish language, established in 1976) and the Camões Prize
Camões Prize
(for Portuguese language, established in 1989). Nobel laureates who were also awarded the Miguel de Cervantes Prize
Miguel de Cervantes Prize
include Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1981 Cervantes, 1990 Nobel); Mario Vargas Llosa
Mario Vargas Llosa
(1994 Cervantes, 2010 Nobel); and Camilo José Cela
Camilo José Cela
(1995 Cervantes, 1989 Nobel). José Saramago is the only author to receive both the Camões Prize
Camões Prize
(1995) and the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
(1998) to date. The Hans Christian Andersen Award is sometimes referred to as "the Little Nobel." The award has earned this appellation since, in a similar manner to the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, it recognizes the lifetime achievement of writers, though the Andersen Award focuses on a single category of literary works (children's literature).[90] See also[edit]

List of literary awards List of Nobel laureates List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
in Literature Nobel Library Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
Nordic Prize World literature

References[edit]

^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
amount is raised by SEK 1 million". Nobelprize.org.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ a b c John Sutherland (13 October 2007). "Ink and Spit". Guardian Unlimited Books. The Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
award". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ Feldman, Burton. The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige. Arcade Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9781559705929. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ Parks, Tim. "What's Wrong With the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ Altman, Anna. "What Is a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Really Worth?". Op-Talk. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ "Allure of literature prize strong for China". Global Times. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.  ^ a b c Kjell Espmark (3 December 1999). "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 August 2006.  ^ a b Neil Smith (13 October 2005). "'Political element' to Pinter Prize". BBC News. bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Few people would deny Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
is a worthy recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. As a poet, screenwriter and author of more than 30 plays, he has dominated the English literary scene for half a century. However, his outspoken criticism of US foreign policy and opposition to the war in Iraq undoubtedly make him one of the more controversial figures to be awarded this prestigious honour. Indeed, the Nobel academy's decision could be read in some quarters as a selection with an inescapably political element. 'There is the view that the Nobel literature prize often goes to someone whose political stance is found to be sympathetic at a given moment,' said Alan Jenkins, deputy editor of the Times Literary Supplement. 'For the last 10 years he has been more angry and vituperative, and that cannot have failed to be noticed.' However, Mr Jenkins insists that, though Pinter's political views may have been a factor, the award is more than justified on artistic criteria alone. 'His dramatic and literary achievement is head and shoulders above any other British writer. He is far and away the most interesting, the best, the most powerful and most original of English playwrights.'  ^ "History – Historic Figures: Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
(1833–1896)". BBC. Retrieved 15 January 2010.  ^ "Guide to Nobel Prize". Britannica.com. Retrieved 15 January 2010.  ^ Ragnar Sohlman: 1983, Page 7 ^ von Euler, U.S. (6 June 1981). "The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
and its Role for Modern Day Science". Die Naturwissenschaften. Springer-Verlag. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2010.  ^ "The Will of Alfred Nobel", nobelprize.org. Retrieved 6 November 2007. ^ "The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
– History". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 October 2010.  ^ a b Agneta Wallin Levinovitz: 2001, Page 13 ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
History —". Infoplease.com. 13 October 1999. Retrieved 15 January 2010.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. " Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
(Scandinavian organisation) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 15 January 2010.  ^ AFP, "Alfred Nobel's last will and testament" Archived 9 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine., The Local(5 October 2009): accessed 20 January 2010. ^ a b "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 15 January 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online:

After Nobel’s death, the Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
was set up to carry out the provisions of his will and to administer his funds. In his will, he had stipulated that four different institutions—three Swedish and one Norwegian—should award the prizes. From Stockholm, the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences confers the prizes for physics, chemistry, and economics, the Karolinska Institute confers the prize for physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
confers the prize for literature. The Norwegian Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
based in Oslo confers the prize for peace. The Nobel Foundation
Nobel Foundation
is the legal owner and functional administrator of the funds and serves as the joint administrative body of the prize-awarding institutions, but it is not concerned with the prize deliberations or decisions, which rest exclusively with the four institutions.

^ "Nomination for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature". nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ a b c d e f Per Wästberg
Per Wästberg
(President of The Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
for Literature), "Do We Need the Nobel?", The New York Review of Books, 22 December 2011. Last accessed December 2011. ^ "Nomination and Selection of the Nobel Laureates in Literature". nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ Tom Rivers (10 December 2009). "2009 Nobel Laureates Receive Their Honors Europe English". .voanews.com. Retrieved 15 January 2010.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Amounts". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 October 2011.  ^ a b " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
– Prizes" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 15 January 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online:

Each Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
consists of a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money, the amount of which depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation. (A sum of $1,300,000 accompanied each prize in 2005.) A Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
is either given entirely to one person, divided equally between two persons, or shared by three persons. In the latter case, each of the three persons can receive a one-third share of the prize or two together can receive a one-half share.

^ "The Size of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Is Being Reduced to Safeguard Long-Term Capital". Nobel official website. 11 June 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2012.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Amount". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ a b " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Amounts" (PDF). Nobel website. Retrieved 12 June 2012.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Award Ceremonies". nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ "Medalj – ett traditionellt hantverk" (in Swedish). Myntverket. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2007.  ^ "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Peace" Archived 16 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine., "Linus Pauling: Awards, Honors, and Medals", Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Retrieved 7 December 2007. ^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Chemistry. Front and back images of the medal. 1954", "Source: Photo by Eric Arnold. Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers. Honors and Awards, 1954h2.1", "All Documents and Media: Pictures and Illustrations", Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Retrieved 7 December 2007. ^ "The Nobel Medal for Literature". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 11 November 2014.  ^ a b "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Diplomas". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 October 2011.  ^ "The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, 1901-1965". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "Nomination FAQ". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2012.  ^ Jeffrey C. Kinkley, ed. (2004). Selected Stories of Shen Congwen. Chinese University Press. p. xiv. ISBN 978-9629961107.  ^ Eldridge, Richard. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature. Oxford University Press. p. 288. ISBN 9780199724109. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ Innes, edited by Frederick J. Marker, Christopher (1998). Modernism in European drama : Ibsen, Strindberg, Pirandello, Beckett : essays from Modern drama. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-8020-8206-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Steene, selected, translated, and edited by Egil Törnqvist and Birgitta (2007). Strindberg on drama and theatre : a source book. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-90-5356-020-4.  ^ Warme, edited by Lars G. (1996). A history of Scandinavian literatures. Lincoln, Neb.: Univ. of Nebraska Press in cooperation with the American-Scandinavian Foundation. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-8032-4750-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Gordon Bowker. James Joyce: A New Biography. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011. p. 537 ^ Peter Swirski. From Lowbrow to Nobrow. McGill Queen's University Press.  ^ Glenday, Craig (2010). Guinness World Records 2011. ISBN 9781904994572.  ^ "Article (in Swedish): "Violent debate in the Academy when Lagerlöf was elected". 25 September 2009" (in Swedish). Svd.se. Retrieved 3 February 2012.  ^ Lindberg, Sebastian Nilsson. "Writer Portrait: Selma Lagerlöf". The Literary Magazine of Swedish Books and Writers. Retrieved 17 March 2017.  ^ Olivier Truc, "Et Camus obtint enfin le prix Nobel". Le Monde, 28 December 2008. ^ Harold Orlans, "Self-Centered Translating: Why W. H. Auden Misinterpreted 'Markings' When Translating It from Swedish to English", Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning (published by Heldref Publications for The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching), 1 May 2000, Highbeam Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com, accessed 26 April 2008: "Swedish dismay at the mangled translation may have cost Auden the Nobel prize in literature." ^ Alex Hunnicutt, "Dag Hammarskjöld" Archived 19 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine., glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture (Heldref Publications, 2004), glbtq.com, accessed 11 August 2006: "Unless some hidden manuscript surfaces or an aging lover suddenly feels moved to revelation, it seems unlikely the world will ever know for sure the details of Hammarskjöld's sexual experience. W. H. Auden, who translated Markings, was convinced of his [Hammarsköld's] homosexuality. Saying so publicly during a lecture tour of Scandinavia may have cost Auden the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
that he was widely expected to receive in the 1960s." ^ a b c d e f Alison Flood (3 January 2013). " Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
reopens controversy surrounding Steinbeck's Nobel prize". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  ^ English, Jason. "Odd facts about Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners". CNN. Retrieved 11 November 2014.  ^ Feldbrugge, F. J. M. (1975). Samizdat
Samizdat
and Political Dissent in the Soviet Union. Leyden: A.W. Sijthoff. p. 24. ISBN 9789028601758.  ^ Stig Fredrikson, "How I Helped Alexandr Solzhenitsyn Smuggle His Nobel Lecture from the USSR", nobelprize.org, 22 February 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2011. ^ Barkman, Clas (6 October 2011). "Tidigare val av svenska Nobelpristagare hårt kritiserade" [Previous choices of Swedish Nobel Laureates severely criticized]. www.dn.se. Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ Hansson, Anita (31 August 2000). "Martinson begick harakiri" [Martinson committed hara-kiri]. wwwc.aftonbladet.se. Aftonbladet. Retrieved 29 January 2016.  ^ Shankar, Ravi (12 October 2014). "A Prize With a View". www.newindianexpress.com. The New Indian Express. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ Alex Duval Smith (14 October 2005). "A Nobel Calling: 100 Years of Controversy". The Independent. news.independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Not many women, a weakness for Anglo-Saxon literature and an ostrich-like ability to resist popular or political pressure. Alex Duval Smith reports from Stockholm
Stockholm
on the strange and secret world of the Swedish Academy.  ^ Colm Tóibín
Colm Tóibín
(11 May 2006). "Don't Abandon Me". The London Review of Books. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ New studies agree that Beauvoir is eclipsing Sartre as a philosopher and writer The Independent
The Independent
25 May 2008. Retrieved on 4 January 2009. ^ Textos escondidos de Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
Libros 14 April 2005. Retrieved on 4 January 2009. ^ "Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Fidel Castro: A controversial friendship". The Economic Times. 18 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.  ^ Rahim, Sameer (9 October 2009). "Who is Herta Müller, laureate of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for literature 2009?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ Carroll, Julie (27 February 2007). "The Catholic Spirit: 'Pope and Witch' draws Catholic protests". Catholic Online. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ Bohlen, Celestine (10 October 1997). "Italy's Barbed Political Jester, Dario Fo, Wins Nobel Prize". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ "Nobel Stuns Italy's Left-wing Jester", The Times, 10 October 1997, rpt. in Archives of a list at hartford-hwp.com. Retrieved 17 October 2007. ^ Unearthing Franco's Legacy, p.17, University of Nortre dame Press. ^ "Nobel Judge Steps Down in Protest". BBC News
BBC News
Online. BBC. 11 October 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2007.  ^ Associated Press, "Who Deserves Nobel Prize? Judges Don't Agree", MSNBC, 11 October 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2007. ^ Dan Kellum, "Lessing's Legacy of Political Literature: The Nation: Skeptics Call It A Nonliterary Nobel Win, But Academy Saw Her Visionary Power", CBS News, rpt. from The Nation
The Nation
(column), 14 October 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007. ^ Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
winning a Nobel in Literature
Literature
is like Mrs Fields
Mrs Fields
being awarded 3 Michelin stars, Rabih Alameddine's Twitter page, 13 October 2016. ^ Le bras d’honneur des Nobel à la littérature américaine, La Républic, Ocbtober 13, 2016. ^ Karl Ove Knausgaard webchat – your questions answered on self-loathing, love and Jürgen Klopp, The Guardian, 17 October 2016. ^ "Don't think twice, it's all right: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
wins Nobel Lit". Associated Press. Yahoo! News. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ Leonard Cohen: giving Nobel to Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
like 'pinning medal on Everest', Guardian, 13 October 2016. ^ "'Dylan towers over everyone' – Salman Rushdie, Kate Tempest and more pay tribute to Bob Dylan". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ Dagens Nyheter
Dagens Nyheter
Akademien väljer helst en europé (The Academy prefers to pick a European) ^ Kirsch, Adam (3 October 2008). "The Nobel Committee
Nobel Committee
has no clue about American literature". Slate.com. Retrieved 16 June 2010.  ^ "Judge: Nobel literature prizes 'too Eurocentric' World news guardian.co.uk". Guardian. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2010.  ^ Jordan, Mary (9 October 2009). "Herta Mueller Wins Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature". Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2017.  ^ Kite, Lorien. "Sweden's 'buzzard' poet wins Nobel Prize". Financial Times. Retrieved on 6 October 2011. "Before Thursday's announcement, there had also been much speculation that the committee would choose to honour the Syrian poet Adonis in a gesture towards the Arab Spring. But Mr England (sic) dismissed the notion that there was a political dimension to the prize; such an approach, he said, was “literature for dummies”." ^ Grundberg, Sven; Hansegard, Jens (9 October 2014). "So no American this year, yet again. Why is that?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 October 2014.  ^ a b Espmark, Kjell. "Nobel's Will and the Literature
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Nobel Prize
in Literature". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ Anderson, Hephzibah (31 May 2009). "Alice Munro: The mistress of all she surveys". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ a b "One writer's achievement in fiction". The Booker Prize Foundation. Retrieved 2 June 2012.  ^ Clark, David Draper. "World Literature
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External links[edit]

Wikisource has original works on the topic: Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature

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Nobel Prize
in Literature.

The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Medal for Literature
Literature
– Official webpage of the Nobel Foundation. Graphics: National Literature
Literature
Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
shares 1901-2009 by citizenship at the time of the award and by country of birth. From J. Schmidhuber (2010), Evolution of National Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Shares in the 20th Century at arXiv:1009.2634v1 What the Nobel Laureates Receive – Featured link in "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies" on the official site of the Nobel Foundation. "The rise of the Prize" - Article by Nilanjana S. Roy dealing with the history of the award by decade, from the 1900s to the 2000s.

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1 Nobel Memorial Prize (not one of the original Nobel Prizes).

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature

1901–1925

1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw

1926–1950

1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell

1951–1975

1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale

1976–2000

1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian

2001–present

2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2

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