Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet
(2015) NOBEL PEACE PRIZE LAUREATE(S)
Juan Manuel Santos
The NOBEL PEACE PRIZE (Norwegian : _Nobels fredspris)_ is one of the
five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and
Alfred Nobel , along with the prizes in
Physics , Physiology or Medicine , and Literature . Since
December 1901, it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to
those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between
nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the
holding and promotion of peace congresses ".
Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian
Nobel Committee , a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament
Norway . Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo
City Hall each year. The prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of
the University of
Oslo Faculty of Law (1947–89), the Norwegian Nobel
Institute (1905–46), and the Parliament (1901–04).
Due to its political nature, the Nobel
Peace Prize has, for most of
its history, been the subject of controversies .
* 1 Background
* 2 Nomination and selection
* 2.1 Nomination
* 2.2 Selection
* 3 Awarding the prize
* 4 Criticism
* 4.1 Criticism of individual conferments
* 4.2 Notable omissions
* 5 List of laureates
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links
According to Nobel's will, the
Peace Prize shall be awarded to the
person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best
work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of
standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace
Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a
committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament.
Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing
peace as a prize category. As he was a trained chemical engineer, the
categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The
reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the
Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with
Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner , a
peace activist and later recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced
his decision to include peace as a category. Some Nobel scholars
suggest it was Nobel's way to compensate for developing destructive
forces. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite , both of
which were used violently during his lifetime.
Ballistite was used in
war and the
Irish Republican Brotherhood , an Irish nationalist
organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was
also instrumental in turning
Bofors from an iron and steel producer
into an armaments company.
It is unclear why Nobel wished the
Peace Prize to be administered in
Norway, which was ruled in union with
Sweden at the time of Nobel's
Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have
Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not
have the same militaristic traditions as
Sweden . It also notes that
at the end of the 19th century, the
Norwegian parliament had become
closely involved in the
Inter-Parliamentary Union 's efforts to
resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration.
NOMINATION AND SELECTION
Norwegian Nobel Institute in Oslo,
The Norwegian Parliament appoints the
Norwegian Nobel Committee ,
which selects the Nobel
Peace Prize laureate .
Each year, the
Norwegian Nobel Committee specifically invites
qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel
Peace Prize. The
statutes of the
Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who
are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel
Peace Prize. These
* Members of national assemblies and governments and members of the
* Members of the
Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration and the
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice at the Hague
* Members of
Institut de Droit International
* University professors of history, social sciences , philosophy,
law, and theology, university presidents, and directors of peace
research and international affairs institutes
* Former recipients , including board members of organizations that
have previously received the prize
* Present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee
* Former permanent advisers to the
Norwegian Nobel Institute
14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama and Archbishop
Desmond Tutu , Nobel Peace
Nominations must usually be submitted to the Committee by the
beginning of February in the award year. Nominations by committee
members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting
after this deadline.
In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was
broken again in 2010 with 237 nominations; in 2011, the record was
broken once again with 241 nominations. The statutes of the Nobel
Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations,
or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for
at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded. Over time, many
individuals have become known as "Nobel
Peace Prize Nominees", but
this designation has no official standing, and means only that one of
the thousands of eligible nominators suggested the person's name for
consideration. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, however, have been
released in a database.
Nominations are considered by the
Nobel Committee at a meeting where
a short list of candidates for further review is created. This short
list is then considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute,
which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director
and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject
areas relating to the prize. Advisers usually have some months to
complete reports, which are then considered by the Committee to select
the laureate. The Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision, but
this is not always possible. The
Nobel Committee typically comes to a
conclusion in mid-September, but occasionally the final decision has
not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement
at the beginning of October.
AWARDING THE PRIZE
Obverse of the Nobel
Peace Prize Medal presented to Sir Ralph
Norman Angell in 1933; the
Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum , London
The Chairman of the
Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel
Peace Prize in the presence of the King of
Norway on 10 December each
year (the anniversary of Nobel's death). The
Peace Prize is the only
Nobel Prize not presented in
Stockholm . The Nobel laureate receives a
diploma, a medal, and a document confirming the prize amount. As of
2013 , the prize was worth 10 million SEK (about US$1.5 million).
Since 1990, the Nobel
Peace Prize Ceremony is held at
Oslo City Hall .
From 1947 to 1989, the Nobel
Peace Prize ceremony was held in the
Atrium of the University of
Oslo Faculty of Law , a few hundred metres
Oslo City Hall. Between 1905 and 1946, the ceremony took place at
Norwegian Nobel Institute . From 1901 to 1904, the ceremony took
place in the _Storting _ (Parliament).
It has been expressed that the
Peace Prize has been awarded in
politically motivated ways for more recent or immediate achievements,
or with the intention of encouraging future achievements. Some
commentators have suggested that to award a peace prize on the basis
of unquantifiable contemporary opinion is unjust or possibly
erroneous, especially as many of the judges cannot themselves be said
to be impartial observers.
In 2011, a feature story in the Norwegian newspaper _
contended that major criticisms of the award were that the Norwegian
Nobel Committee ought to recruit members from professional and
international backgrounds, rather than retired members of parliament;
that there is too little openness about the criteria that the
committee uses when they choose a recipient of the prize; and that the
adherence to Nobel's will should be more strict. In the article,
Norwegian historian Øivind Stenersen argues that
Norway has been able
to use the prize as an instrument for nation building and furthering
Norway's foreign policy and economic interests.
In another 2011 _Aftenposten_ opinion article, the grandson of one of
Nobel's two brothers, Michael Nobel, also criticised what he believed
to be the politicisation of the award, claiming that the Nobel
Committee has not always acted in accordance with Nobel's will.
Fredrik S. Heffermehl has criticized the management
CRITICISM OF INDIVIDUAL CONFERMENTS
Nobel Prize controversies
Barack Obama with
Thorbjørn Jagland at the 2009 Nobel
Peace Prize ceremony From
left-to-right, Yasser Arafat,
Shimon Peres and
Yitzhak Rabin receiving
the 1994 Nobel
Peace Prize following the
Oslo Accords Nobel
Peace Prize 2001
United Nations - diploma in the lobby of the United
Nations Headquarters in
New York City
New York City
The awards given to
Mikhail Gorbachev ,
Yitzhak Rabin , Shimon Peres
Menachem Begin and
Yasser Arafat ,
Lê Đức Thọ , Henry
Jimmy Carter ,
Al Gore , IPCC ,
Liu Xiaobo , Barack
Obama , and the
European Union have all been the subject of
The awards given to
Lê Đức Thọ and
Henry Kissinger prompted two
dissenting Committee members to resign. Thọ refused to accept the
prize, on the grounds that such "bourgeois sentimentalities" were not
for him and that peace had not actually been achieved in Vietnam.
Kissinger donated his prize money to charity, did not attend the award
ceremony and would later offer to return his prize medal after the
fall of South Vietnam to North Vietnamese forces 18 months later.
Foreign Policy _ has listed
Mahatma Gandhi ,
Eleanor Roosevelt , U
Václav Havel ,
Ken Saro-Wiwa ,
Fazle Hasan Abed , Sari
Nusseibeh , and
Corazon Aquino as people who "never won the prize, but
should have". Other notable omissions that have drawn criticism
John Paul II
John Paul II ,
Hélder Câmara , and
Dorothy Day .
Eleanor Roosevelt and
Dorothy Day were recipients of the Gandhi
Peace Award .
The omission of
Mahatma Gandhi has been particularly widely
discussed, including in public statements by various members of the
Nobel Committee. The Committee has confirmed that Gandhi was
nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947, and, finally, a few days before
his assassination in January 1948. The omission has been publicly
regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee.
Geir Lundestad ,
Norwegian Nobel Committee in 2006 said, "The greatest
omission in our 106-year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi
never received the Nobel
Peace prize. Gandhi could do without the
Peace prize, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is
the question". In 1948, following Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee
declined to award a prize on the ground that "there was no suitable
living candidate" that year. Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded
Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this
was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi".
LIST OF LAUREATES
Main article: List of Nobel
Peace Prize laureates
List of peace prizes
List of Nobel laureates
Peace Prize Concert
* Nobel Women\'s Initiative
* World Summit of Nobel
List of peace activists
Ramon Magsaysay Award
* Indira Gandhi
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Nobel secretary regrets Obama peace prize
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