Nobel Laureates
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The
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to ...
s ( sv, Nobelpriset, no, Nobelprisen) are awarded annually by the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic co ...
, the
Swedish Academy The Swedish Academy ( sv, Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic count ...
, the
Karolinska Institute The Karolinska Institute (KI; sv, Karolinska Institutet; sometimes known as the (Royal) Caroline Institute in English) is a research-led Medical school, medical university in Solna Municipality, Solna within the Stockholm urban area of Sweden. T ...
t, and the
Norwegian Nobel Committee , logo = , size = , motto = , formation = , headquarters = Oslo Oslo ( , also , , rarely ) is the Capital city, capital and List of towns and cities in Norway, most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a ...
to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of
chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a with other . ...
,
physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of eve ...
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...
,
peace upStatue of Eirene, goddess of peace in ancient Greek religion, with her son Pluto. Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior. In ...
, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of
Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist. He held 355 different patents NPOV disputes from March 2021 A patent is a title A title ...

Alfred Nobel
, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the
Nobel Foundation The Nobel Foundation ( sv, Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ...
. The
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the
central bank A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money ...

central bank
of
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, a Nobelist or ''
laureate In English, the word laureate has come to signify eminence or association with literary awards or Military awards and decorations, military glory. It is also used for recipients of the Nobel Prize, the Gandhi Peace Award, the Student Peace Prize, ...

laureate
'', receives a gold medal, a
diploma A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study. The word diploma also refers to an academic award w ...

diploma
, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.


Prize

Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics; the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. In 2017, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 9,000,000 SEK. The awards are presented in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Stockholm
in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize. The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
.


Laureates

Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations. Six Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize.
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator , the Kingdom of Italy, Italian dictator from 1922 to 1943 and Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Germany, German dictator from 1933 to 1945 A di ...

Adolf Hitler
forbade four Germans,
Richard Kuhn Richard Johann Kuhn (; 3 December 1900 – 1 August 1967) was an Austrian-German biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938 "for his work on carotenoids and vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molec ...
(Chemistry, 1938),
Adolf Butenandt Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy ...
(Chemistry, 1939),
Gerhard Domagk Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (30 October 1895 – 24 April 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist. He is credited with the discovery of Sulfonamidochrysoidine (KI-730), the first commercially available antibiotic An antibiotic is ...
(Physiology or Medicine, 1939),
Carl von Ossietzky Carl von Ossietzky (; 3 October 1889 – 4 May 1938) was a German journalist and Pacifism, pacifist. He was the recipient of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize for his work in exposing the clandestine German re-armament. As editor-in-chief of the magazin ...

Carl von Ossietzky
(Peace, 1936) from accepting their Nobel Prizes. The
Chinese government The government of the People's Republic of China () is collectively the state authority in the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries a ...
forbade
Liu Xiaobo Liu Xiaobo ( , 28 December 1955 – 13 July 2017) was a Chinese writer, literary criticism, literary critic, human rights activist, philosopher and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who called for political reforms and was involved in campaigns to en ...
from accepting his Nobel Prize (Peace, 2010) and the government of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
pressured
Boris Pasternak Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (; rus, Бори́с Леони́дович Пастерна́к, p=bɐˈrʲis lʲɪɐˈnʲidəvʲɪtɕ pəstɨrˈnak; 30 May 1960) was a Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator. Composed in 1917, Pasternak's ...
(Literature, 1958) to decline his award.
Liu Xiaobo Liu Xiaobo ( , 28 December 1955 – 13 July 2017) was a Chinese writer, literary criticism, literary critic, human rights activist, philosopher and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who called for political reforms and was involved in campaigns to en ...
,
Carl von Ossietzky Carl von Ossietzky (; 3 October 1889 – 4 May 1938) was a German journalist and Pacifism, pacifist. He was the recipient of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize for his work in exposing the clandestine German re-armament. As editor-in-chief of the magazin ...

Carl von Ossietzky
and
Aung San Suu Kyi Aung San Suu Kyi (; ; born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat, author, and a 1991 Nobel Peace Prize laureate who served as State Counsellor of Myanmar (equivalent to a prime minister) and Minister of Foreign Affairs A f ...

Aung San Suu Kyi
were all awarded their Nobel Prize while in prison or detention. Two Nobel laureates,
Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (, ; ; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French people, French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary criticism, literary critic. He was one of the key ...

Jean-Paul Sartre
(Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Thọ declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time. Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the
International Committee of the Red Cross The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; french: Comité international de la Croix-Rouge) is a humanitarian organization An aid agency, also known as development charity, is an organization dedicated to distributing aid. Many profess ...
has received the
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during t ...
three times, more than any other.
UNHCR The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a United Nations System, UN agency mandated to aid and protect refugees, Internally displaced person, forcibly displaced communities, and Statelessness, stateless people, and to assis ...

UNHCR
has been awarded the
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during t ...
twice. Also the
Nobel Prize in Physics ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "M ...
was awarded to
John Bardeen John Bardeen (; May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and o ...
twice, and the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MD ...
to
Frederick Sanger Frederick Sanger (; 13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist Biochemists are scientists who are trained in biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relatin ...

Frederick Sanger
. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field:
Marie Curie Marie Salomea Skłodowska Curie ( ; ; , born Maria Salomea Skłodowska ; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific meth ...

Marie Curie
(Physics and Chemistry) and
Linus Pauling Linus Carl Pauling (; February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific top ...

Linus Pauling
(Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was
Marie Curie Marie Salomea Skłodowska Curie ( ; ; , born Maria Salomea Skłodowska ; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific meth ...

Marie Curie
, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911.


List of laureates


See also

*
List of Nobel laureates by country This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country. Listings for ''Economics'' refer to the related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 567 times to 889 recipients, of ...
*
List of female Nobel laureates 500px, All Nobel Prizes won by women (1901–2020) As of 2020, 57 women have won the Nobel Prize, and a total of 58 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to women (Marie Curie Marie Skłodowska Curie ( ; ; ), born Maria Salomea Skłodowska (; 7 ...
*List of nominees for the Nobel Prize in Literature *List of nominees for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry *List of nominees for the Nobel Prize in Physics *List of female nominees for the Nobel Prize *List of organizations nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize


Notes


References

;General * * * * * * ;Specific


External links


Official website of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Official website of the Nobel Foundation

Downloadable Database of Nobel Laureates
{{DEFAULTSORT:Nobel Laureates Nobel laureates, * Lists of Nobel laureates,