The Info List - Noah's Ark

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Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(Hebrew: תיבת נח‎; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative
Genesis flood narrative
( Genesis chapters 6–9) by which God
spares Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood.[1][2] According to Genesis, God gave Noah
instructions for building the ark. Seven days before the deluge, God
told Noah
to enter the ark with his household and the animals. The story goes on to describe the ark being afloat for 150 days and then coming to rest on the Mountains of Ararat
Mountains of Ararat
and the subsequent receding of the waters.[3] The story is repeated, with variations, in the Quran, where the ark appears as Safina Nūḥ (Arabic: سفينة نوح‎ "Noah's boat"). The Genesis flood narrative is similar to numerous other flood myths from a variety of cultures. The earliest known written flood myth is the Sumerian flood myth found in the Epic of Ziusudra.[4] Searches for Noah's Ark
Searches for Noah's Ark
have been made from at least the time of Eusebius (c. 275–339 CE) to the present day. There is no scientific evidence for a global flood, and despite many expeditions, no evidence of the ark has been found.[5][6][7][8][9][10] The challenges associated with housing all living animal types, and even plants, would have made building the ark a practical impossibility.[11]


1 Ark: Genesis 6–9 2 Theology: the ark as microcosm 3 Origins

3.1 Composition of the flood narrative 3.2 Comparative mythology: the Babylonian origins of Noah's ark

4 Religious views

4.1 Rabbinic Judaism 4.2 Christianity 4.3 Islam 4.4 Bahá'í

5 Historicity

5.1 Ark's geometrics 5.2 Searches for Noah's Ark 5.3 Flood geology

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography

8 Further reading

Ark: Genesis 6–9[edit] The Hebrew word for the ark, teva, occurs twice in the Bible, in the flood narrative and in the Book of Exodus, where it refers to the basket in which Jochebed
places the infant Moses. (The word for the ark of the covenant[12] is quite different.) In both cases teva has a connection with salvation from waters.[13]:21 Noah
is warned of the coming flood and told to construct the ark. God spells out to Noah
the dimensions of the vessel: 300 cubits in length, 50 cubits in width and 30 cubits in height (450 × 75 × 45 ft or 137 × 22.9 × 13.7 m).[14][15] It had three internal divisions (which are not actually called "decks", although presumably this is what is intended), a door in the side, and a tsohar, which may be either a roof or a skylight.[16] It is made of "gopher" wood, a word which appears nowhere else in the Bible, and is divided into qinnim, a word which always refers to birds' nests elsewhere, leading some scholars[who?] to emend this to qanim (reeds), the material used for the boat of Atrahasis, the Babylonian flood-hero. God
instructs Noah
to kapar (smear) the ark with koper (pitch): in Hebrew the first of these words is a verb formed from the second and, like "gopher", it is a word found nowhere else in the Bible. Noah
is instructed to take on board his wife, his three sons, and his sons' wives. He is also to take two of every living thing, and seven pairs of every clean creature and of every bird, together with sufficient food. Theology: the ark as microcosm[edit] The story of the flood closely parallels the story of the creation: a cycle of creation, un-creation, and re-creation, in which the ark plays a pivotal role.[17] The universe as conceived by the ancient Hebrews comprised a flat disk-shaped habitable earth with the heavens above and Sheol, the underworld of the dead, below.[18] These three were surrounded by a watery "ocean" of chaos, protected by the firmament, a transparent but solid dome resting on the mountains which ringed the earth.[18] Noah's three-deck ark represents this three-level Hebrew cosmos in miniature: the heavens, the earth, and the waters beneath.[19] In Genesis 1, God
created the three-level world as a space in the midst of the waters for humanity; in Genesis 6–8 (the flood narrative) he fills that space with waters again, saving only Noah, his family and the animals with him in the ark.[17] Origins[edit] Composition of the flood narrative[edit] There is a consensus among scholars that the Pentateuch
(the first five books of the Bible, beginning with Genesis) was the product of a long and complex process that was not completed until after the Babylonian exile.[20] Comparative mythology: the Babylonian origins of Noah's ark[edit] Main article: Flood myth For well over a century scholars have recognised that the Bible's story of Noah's ark is based on older Mesopotamian models.[21] Because all these flood stories deal with events that allegedly happened at the dawn of history, they give the impression that the myths themselves must come from very primitive origins. But in fact, the myth of the global flood that destroys all life only begins to appear in the Old Babylonian period (20th–16th centuries BCE).[22] The reasons for this emergence of the typical Mesopotamian flood myth may have been bound up with the specific circumstances of the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
around 2004 BCE and the restoration of order by the First Dynasty of Isin.[23] There are nine known versions of the Mesopotamian flood story, each more or less adapted from an earlier version. In the oldest version, the hero is King Ziusudra
and this version was inscribed around 1600 BCE in the Sumerian city of Nippur. It is known as the Sumerian Flood Story, and probably derives from an earlier version. The Ziusudra version tells how he builds a boat and rescues life, when the gods decide to destroy it. This remains the basic plot for several subsequent flood-stories and heroes, including Noah. Ziusudra's Sumerian name means "He of long life". In Babylonian versions his name is Atrahasis, but the meaning is the same. In the Atrahasis
version, the flood is a river flood (lines 6–9 Atrahasis
III,iv) Probably the most famous version is contained in a longer work called the Epic of Gilgamesh, now known only from a 1st millennium Assyrian copy in which the flood hero is named Utnapishtim, "He-found-life". (Gilgamesh is the hero of the complete epic, not the flood story hero). The last known version of the Mesopotamian flood story was written in Greek in the 3rd century BCE by a Babylonian priest named Berossus. From the fragments that survive, it seems little changed from the versions of two thousand years before.[24] The version closest to the Biblical story of Noah, as well as its most likely source, is that of Utnapishtim
in the Epic of Gilgamesh.[25] The most complete text of Utnapishtim's story is a clay tablet dating from the 7th century BCE, but fragments of the story have been found from as far back as the 19th century BCE.[25] The parallels – both similarities and differences – between Noah's Ark and the boat of the Babylonian flood-hero Atrahasis
have often been noted. Noah's ark is rectangular, while Atrahasis
was instructed to build his in the form of a cube; Atrahasis's ark has seven decks with nine compartments on each level, while Noah's has three decks, but he is not given any instructions on the number of compartments to build.[26] The word used for "pitch" (sealing tar or resin) is not the normal Hebrew word, but is closely related to the word used in the Babylonian story.[27] The causes for God/gods having sent the flood also differ. In the Hebrew narrative the flood comes as God's judgment on a wicked humanity. In the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
the reasons are not given and the flood appears to be the result of the caprice of the gods.[28] In the Atrahasis
version of the Babylonian flood story, the flood was sent by the gods to reduce human over-population, and after the flood, other measures were introduced to prevent the problem recurring.[29][30][31] Religious views[edit] Rabbinic Judaism[edit]

The Building of Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(painting by a French master of 1675).

Main article: Noah
in rabbinic literature Talmudic tractates Sanhedrin, Avodah Zarah and Zevahim relate that, while Noah
was building the ark, he attempted to warn his neighbors of the coming deluge, but was ignored or mocked. In order to protect Noah and his family, God
placed lions and other ferocious animals to guard them from the wicked who tried to stop them from entering the ark. According to one Midrash, it was God, or the angels, who gathered the animals to the ark, together with their food. As there had been no need to distinguish between clean and unclean animals before this time, the clean animals made themselves known by kneeling before Noah as they entered the ark. A differing opinion said that the ark itself distinguished clean animals from unclean, admitting seven pairs each of the former and one pair each of the latter. According to Sanhedrin 108b, Noah
was engaged both day and night in feeding and caring for the animals, and did not sleep for the entire year aboard the ark.[32] The animals were the best of their species, and so behaved with utmost goodness. They abstained from procreation, so that the number of creatures that disembarked was exactly equal to the number that embarked. The raven created problems, refusing to leave the ark when Noah
sent it forth and accusing the patriarch of wishing to destroy its race, but as the commentators pointed out, God wished to save the raven, for its descendants were destined to feed the prophet Elijah. According to one tradition, refuse was stored on the lowest of the ark's three decks, humans and clean beasts on the second, and the unclean animals and birds on the top; a differing interpretation described the refuse as being stored on the utmost deck, from where it was shoveled into the sea through a trapdoor. Precious stones, said to be as bright as the noon sun, provided light, and God
ensured that food remained fresh.[33][34][35] Some more unorthodox interpretations of the ark narrative also surfaced: the 12th-century Jewish commentator Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra
interpreted the ark as being a vessel that remained underwater for 40 days, after which it floated to the surface.[36] Christianity[edit]

An artist's depiction of the construction of the Ark, from the Nuremberg Chronicle
Nuremberg Chronicle

A woodcut of Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
from Anton Koberger's German Bible

Interpretations of the ark narrative played an important role in early Christian
doctrine. The First Epistle of Peter
First Epistle of Peter
(composed around the end of the first century AD[37]) compared Noah's salvation through water to salvation through water in baptism.[1Pt 3:20–21] St. Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
(died 235) sought to demonstrate that "the Ark was a symbol of the Christ
who was expected", stating that the vessel had its door on the east side—the direction from which Christ
would appear at the Second Coming—and that the bones of Adam
were brought aboard, together with gold, frankincense, and myrrh (the symbols of the Nativity of Christ). Hippolytus furthermore stated that the ark floated to and fro in the four directions on the waters, making the sign of the cross, before eventually landing on Mount Kardu "in the east, in the land of the sons of Raban, and the Orientals call it Mount Godash; the Armenians
call it Ararat".[38] On a more practical plane, Hippolytus explained that the lowest of the three decks was for wild beasts, the middle for birds and domestic animals, and the top level for humans. He says that male animals were separated from the females by sharp stakes so that there would be no breeding on board.[38] The early Church Father
Church Father
and theologian Origen
(c. 182–251), in response to a critic who doubted that the ark could contain all the animals in the world, argued that Moses, the traditional author of the book of Genesis, had been brought up in Egypt
and would therefore have used the larger Egyptian cubit. He also fixed the shape of the ark as a truncated pyramid, square at its base, and tapering to a square peak one cubit on a side; it was not until the 12th century that it came to be thought of as a rectangular box with a sloping roof.[39] Early Christian
artists depicted Noah
standing in a small box on the waves, symbolizing God
saving the Christian
Church in its turbulent early years. St. Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(354–430), in his work City of God, demonstrated that the dimensions of the ark corresponded to the dimensions of the human body, which according to Christian
doctrine is the body of Christ
and in turn the body of the Church.[40] St. Jerome (c. 347–420) identified the raven, which was sent forth and did not return, as the "foul bird of wickedness" expelled by baptism;[41] more enduringly, the dove and olive branch came to symbolize the Holy Spirit and the hope of salvation and eventually, peace.[42] The olive branch remains a secular and religious symbol of peace today. Ussher's chronology, one of the most prominent attempts to date events according to the Bible, calculated that Noah
would have lived from 2948 until 1998 BCE, with the deluge occurring in 2349 BCE. Calculations based on figures in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
place the flood in 1656 AM (Anno Mundi); those based on the Greek LXX
Bible in 2262 AM; and those based on the Samaritan Pentateuch, in 1308 AM. The Book of Jubilees, by a different calculation, also yields the date 1308 AM for the flood. Islam[edit] Main article: Noah
in Islam

Miniature from Hafiz-i Abru's Majma al-tawarikh. Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
Iran (Afghanistan), Herat; Timur's son Shah Rukh (1405–1447) ordered the historian Hafiz-i Abru
Hafiz-i Abru
to write a continuation of Rashid al-Din's famous history of the world, Jami al-tawarikh. Like the Il-Khanids, the Timurids were concerned with legitimizing their right to rule, and Hafiz-i Abru's A Collection of Histories covers a period that included the time of Shah Rukh himself.

Noah's ark and the deluge from Zubdat-al Tawarikh

In contrast to the Jewish tradition, which uses a term that can be translated as a "box" or "chest" to describe the Ark, surah 29:15 of the Quran
refers to it as a safina, an ordinary ship, and surah 54:13 describes the ark as "a thing of boards and nails". Abd Allah
ibn Abbas, a contemporary of Muhammad, wrote that Noah
was in doubt as to what shape to make the ark, and that Allah
revealed to him that it was to be shaped like a bird's belly and fashioned of teak wood.[43] Abdallah ibn 'Umar al-Baidawi, writing in the 13th century, explains that in the first of its three levels wild and domesticated animals were lodged, in the second the human beings, and in the third the birds. On every plank was the name of a prophet. Three missing planks, symbolizing three prophets, were brought from Egypt
by Og, son of Anak, the only one of the giants permitted to survive the Flood. The body of Adam
was carried in the middle to divide the men from the women. Surah 11:41 says: "And he said, 'Ride ye in it; in the Name of Allah
it moves and stays!'"; this was taken to mean that Noah
said, "In the Name of Allah!" when he wished the ark to move, and the same when he wished it to stand still. Noah
spent five or six months aboard the ark, at the end of which he sent out a raven. But the raven stopped to feast on carrion, and so Noah
cursed it and sent out the dove, which has been known ever since as the friend of humanity. The medieval scholar Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (died 956) wrote that Allah
commanded the Earth
to absorb the water, and certain portions which were slow in obeying received salt water in punishment and so became dry and arid. The water which was not absorbed formed the seas, so that the waters of the flood still exist. Masudi says that the ark began its voyage at Kufa
in central Iraq
and sailed to Mecca, circling the Kaaba
before finally traveling to Mount Judi, which surah 11:44 states was its final resting place. This mountain is identified by tradition with a hill near the town of Jazirat ibn Umar
Jazirat ibn Umar
on the east bank of the Tigris in the province of Mosul
in northern Iraq, and Masudi says that the spot could be seen in his time.[33][34]

The Subsiding of the Waters of the Deluge (1829), a painting by the American painter Thomas Cole

Bahá'í[edit] The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
regards the Ark and the Flood as symbolic.[44] In Bahá'í belief, only Noah's followers were spiritually alive, preserved in the "ark" of his teachings, as others were spiritually dead.[45][46] The Bahá'í scripture Kitáb-i-Íqán
endorses the Islamic belief that Noah
had numerous companions on the ark, either 40 or 72, as well as his family, and that he taught for 950 (symbolic) years before the flood.[47] The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
was founded in 19th century Persia, and it recognizes divine messengers from both the Abrahamic and the Indian traditions. Historicity[edit] The practical challenges associated with building an ark large enough to house all living animal types, and even plants, would have been very considerable.[11] Various editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica reflect the collapse of belief in the historicity of the ark in the face of advancing scientific knowledge. Its 1771 edition offered the following as scientific evidence for the ark's size and capacity: "... Buteo and Kircher have proved geometrically, that, taking the common cubit as a foot and a half, the ark was abundantly sufficient for all the animals supposed to be lodged in it ... the number of species of animals will be found much less than is generally imagined, not amounting to a hundred species of quadrupeds". By the eighth edition (1853–60), the encyclopedia said of the Noah
story, "The insuperable difficulties connected with the belief that all other existing species of animals were provided for in the ark are obviated by adopting the suggestion of Bishop Stillingfleet, approved by Matthew Poole
Matthew Poole
... and others, that the Deluge did not extend beyond the region of the Earth
then inhabited". By the ninth edition, in 1875, no attempt was made to reconcile the Noah
story with scientific fact, and it was presented without comment. In the 1960 edition, the article on the ark stated that "Before the days of 'higher criticism' and the rise of the modern scientific views as to the origin of the species, there was much discussion among the learned, and many ingenious and curious theories were advanced, as to the number of animals on the ark".[48] Ark's geometrics[edit]

This engraving, made from carved sardonyx and gold, features a line of animals on the gangway to Noah's ark. It is based on a woodcut by the French illustrator Bernard Salomon.[49] The Walters Art Museum.

In Europe, the Renaissance
saw much speculation on the nature of the ark that might have seemed familiar to early theologians such as Origen
and Augustine. At the same time, however, a new class of scholarship arose, one which, while never questioning the literal truth of the ark story, began to speculate on the practical workings of Noah's vessel from within a purely naturalistic framework. In the 15th century, Alfonso Tostada gave a detailed account of the logistics of the ark, down to arrangements for the disposal of dung and the circulation of fresh air. The 16th-century geometer Johannes Buteo calculated the ship's internal dimensions, allowing room for Noah's grinding mills and smokeless ovens, a model widely adopted by other commentators.[42] Searches for Noah's Ark[edit] Main article: Searches for Noah's Ark Searches for Noah's Ark
Searches for Noah's Ark
have been made from at least the time of Eusebius (c.275–339 CE) to the present day. Various locations for the ark have been suggested but have never been confirmed.[5][6] The practice is widely regarded as pseudoarchaeology.[7][8][9] Search sites have included Durupınar site, a site on Mount Tendürek
Mount Tendürek
in eastern Turkey
and Mount Ararat, but geological investigation of possible remains of the ark has only shown natural sedimentary formations.[50] Flood geology[edit] Main article: Flood geology Flood geology
Flood geology
is the religiously-inspired interpretation of the geological history of the Earth
in terms of the global flood described in Genesis 6–9. Similar views played a part in the early development of the science of geology, even after the biblical chronology had been rejected by geologists in favour of an ancient Earth. Flood geology
Flood geology
is a creation science, which is a part of young Earth creationism.[51][52] Modern geology and its sub-disciplines utilize the scientific method to analyze the geology of the earth. Flood geology
Flood geology
contradicts the scientific consensus in geology and paleontology, as well as that in related disciplines such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, cosmology, biology, geophysics and stratigraphy.[53][54][55] There is an absence of evidence for any of the effects proposed by flood geologists, and their claims concerning phenomena such as fossil layering are not taken seriously by scientists.[56] More generally, the key tenets of flood geology are refuted by scientific analysis,[53] and it is considered to be pseudoscience within the scientific community.[57] Author JJ Dyken notes that established civilizations in Egypt
and China were not impacted by claims of a global flood during the time of Noah's Ark.[58] See also[edit]

Religion portal Christianity portal Islam portal Judaism portal Mythology portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Noah's Ark.

has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Noah's Ark.

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deluge hypothesis Book of Noah Gilgamesh flood myth List of Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
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References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Graves, Robert; Patai, Raphael (1986). Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis. Random House. p. 315. ISBN 9780795337154.  ^ Schwartz, Howard; Loebel-Fried, Caren; Ginsburg, Elliot K. (2007). Tree
of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford
University Press. p. 704. ISBN 9780195358704.  ^ "In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month" the flood began ( Genesis 7:11, KJV). "The water receded steadily from the earth. At the end of the hundred and fifty days the water had gone down, and on the seventeenth day of the seventh month the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. The waters continued to recede until the tenth month, and on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains became visible." Genesis 8:3-5; The 17th day of the 7th month - the 17 day of the 2nd month = 5 months @ 30 days / month = 150 days. ^ Bandstra 2008, pp. 61, 62. ^ a b Mayell, Hillary (27 April 2004). " Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
Found? Turkey Expedition Planned for Summer". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ a b Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
Quest Dead in Water
– National Geographic ^ a b Fagan, Brian M.; Beck, Charlotte (1996). The Oxford
Companion to Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0195076184. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ a b Cline, Eric H. (2009). Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0199741077. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ a b Feder, Kenneth L. (2010). Encyclopedia of Dubious Archaeology: From Atlantis to the Walam Olum. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 031337919X. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ Isaak 1998; Young 1995; Isaak 2006; Morton 2001; Isaak 2007, p. 173; Stewart 2010, p. 123; Schadewald 1982, pp. 12–17; Scott 2003. ^ a b Moore, Robert A. (1983). "The Impossible Voyage of Noah's Ark". Creation Evolution
Journal. 4 (1): 1–43.  ^ Hebrew: אָרוֹן הַבְּרִית ʾĀrôn Habbərît, modern Hebrew pronunciation: Aron Habrit ^ Levenson, Jon D. (2004). "Genesis: introduction and annotations". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195297515.  ^ W. Gunther Plaut, Bernard J. Bamberger, William W. Hallo (eds.) (1981). The Torah. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations. ISBN 9780807400555 ^ See also footnote to Genesis 6:16 in New International Version
New International Version
and text of The Expanded Bible ^ Hamilton 1990, pp. 280–282. ^ a b Gooder 2005, p. 38. ^ a b Knight 1990, pp. 175–176. ^ Kessler & Deurloo 2004, p. 81. ^ Enns 2012, p. 23. ^ Kvanvig 2011, p. 210. ^ Chen 2013, p. 3-4. ^ Chen 2013, p. 253. ^ Finkel 2014, p. 89-101. ^ a b Nigosian 2004, p. 40. ^ Hamilton 1990, p. 282. ^ McKeown 2008, p. 55. ^ May, Herbert G., and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford
Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. ^ Stephanie Dalley, ed., Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others, pp. 5–8. ^ Alan Dundes, ed., The Flood Myth, pp. 61–71. ^ J. David
Pleins, When the Great Abyss Opened: Classic and Contemporary Readings of Noah's Flood, pp. 102–103. ^ Avigdor Nebenzahl, Tiku Bachodesh Shofer: Thoughts for Rosh Hashanah, Feldheim Publishers, 1997, p. 208. ^ a b McCurdy, J. F.; Bacher, W.; Seligsohn, M.; et al., eds. (1906). "Noah". Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com.  ^ a b McCurdy, J. F.; Jastrow, M. W.; Ginzberg, L.; et al., eds. (1906). "Ark of Noah". Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com.  ^ Hirsch, E. G.; Muss-Arnolt, W.; Hirschfeld, H., eds. (1906). "The Flood". Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com.  ^ Ibn Ezra's Commentary to Genesis 7:16. HebrewBooks.org. ^ The Early Christian
World, Volume 1, p.148, Philip Esler ^ a b Hippolytus. "Fragments from the Scriptural Commentaries of Hippolytus". New Advent. Retrieved 27 June 2007.  ^ Cohn 1999, p. 38. ^ St. Augustin (1890) [c. 400]. "Chapter 26:That the ark Which Noah Was Ordered to Make Figures In Every Respect Christ
and the Church". In Schaff, Philip. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers [St. Augustin's City of God
and Christian
Doctrine]. 1. 2. The Christian
Literature Publishing Company.  ^ Jerome
(1892) [c. 347–420]. "Letter LXIX. To Oceanus.". In Schaff, P. Niocene and Post-Niocene Fathers: The Principal Works of St. Jerome. 2. 6. The Christian
Literature Publishing Company.  ^ a b Cohn 1999 ^ Baring-Gould, Sabine (1884). "Noah". Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets and Other Old Testament Characters from Various Sources. James B. Millar and Co., New York. p. 113.  ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, 28 October 1949: Bahá'í News, No. 228, February 1950, p. 4. Republished in Compilation 1983, p. 508 ^ Poirier, Brent. "The Kitab-i-Iqan: The key to unsealing the mysteries of the Holy Bible". Retrieved 25 June 2007.  ^ Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
(1971). Messages to the Bahá'í World, 1950–1957. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 104. ISBN 0-87743-036-5.  ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
to an individual believer, 25 November 1950. Published in Compilation 1983, p. 494 ^ All quotations from the article "Ark" in the 1960 Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Cameo with Noah's Ark". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ Collins, Lorence G. (2011). "A supposed cast of Noah's ark in eastern Turkey" (PDF).  ^ Parkinson 2004, pp. 24–27; Numbers 2006, p. 10. ^ Evans 2009 Proponents were first known as flood geologists, but renamed themselves as "scientific creationists" or "young-earth creationists" in the early 1970s. ^ a b Young 1995; Isaak 2006; Morton 2001; Isaak 2007, p. 173; Stewart 2010, p. 123. ^ Young Earth
Creationism : NCSE ^ Montgomery, David
R. (2012). The Rocks Don't Lie: A Geologist Investigates Noah's Flood. Norton. ISBN 9780393082395.  ^ Isaak 1998. ^ Schadewald 1982, pp. 12–17; Scott 2003. ^ Dyken, JJ (2013). The Divine Default. Algora Publishing. 


Bandstra, Barry L. (2008), Reading the Old Testament : An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(4th ed.), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning, pp. 61–63, ISBN 0495391050  Best, Robert (1999), Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
And the Ziusudra
Epic, ISBN 09667840-1-4  Blenkinsopp, Joseph
(2011), Creation, Un-creation, Re-creation: A Discursive Commentary on Genesis 1–11, A&C Black, ISBN 9780567372871  Chen, Y.S. (2013), The Primeval Flood Catastrophe: Origins and Early Development in Mesopotamian Traditions, OUP Oxford, ISBN 9780199676200  Cohn, Norman (1996). Noah's Flood: The Genesis Story in Western Thought. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06823-9.  Cotter, David
W. (2003). Genesis. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814650400.  Enns, Peter (2012), The Evolution
of Adam: What the Bible Does and Doesn't Say about Human Origins, Baker Books, ISBN 9781587433153  Finkel, Irving L. (2014), The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood, Hodder & Stoughton  Gooder, Paula (2005). The Pentateuch: a story of beginnings. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567084187.  Hamilton, Victor P. (1990). The book of Genesis: chapters 1–17. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802825216.  Kessler, Martin; Deurloo, Karel Adriaan (2004). A commentary on Genesis: the book of beginnings. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809142057.  Knight, Douglas A. (1990). "Cosmology". In Watson E. Mills (General Editor). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-402-6.  Kvanvig, Helge (2011), Primeval History: Babylonian, Biblical, and Enochic: An Intertextual Reading, BRILL, ISBN 9004163808  McKeown, James (2008). Genesis. Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 398. ISBN 0-8028-2705-5.  Isaak, Mark (2007). "Creationist claim CD750". The Counter Creationism Handbook. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. p. 330. ISBN 978-0-520-24926-4.  Nigosian, S.A. (2008), From Ancient Writings to Sacred Texts: The Old Testament and Apocrypha, JHU Press, ISBN 9780801879883  Numbers, Ronald L. (2006). The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design, Expanded Edition. Harvard University Press. p. 624. ISBN 0-674-02339-0.  Stewart, Melville Y. (2010). Science and religion in dialogue. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 123. ISBN 1-4051-8921-5.  Young, Davis A. (1995). The Biblical Flood: a case study of the Church's response to extrabiblical evidence. Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans. p. 340. ISBN 0-8028-0719-4. Retrieved 16 September 2008.  Young, Davis A.; Stearley, Ralph F. (2008). The Bible, rocks, and time : geological evidence for the age of the earth. Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic. ISBN 978-0-8308-2876-0.  Parkinson, William (January–February 2004). "Questioning 'Flood Geology': Decisive New Evidence to End an Old Debate". NCSE Reports. National Center for Science Education. 24 (1). Retrieved 2 November 2010.  Schadewald, Robert J. (Summer 1982). "Six Flood Arguments Creationists Can't Answer". Creation/ Evolution
Journal. National Center for Science Education. 3 (3): 12–17. Retrieved 16 November 2010.  Schadewald, Robert (1986). "Scientific Creationism and Error". Creation/Evolution. 6 (1): 1–9. Retrieved 29 March 2007.  Evans, Gwen (3 February 2009). "Reason or faith? Darwin expert reflects". UW-Madison News. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved 18 June 2010.  Isaak, Mark (5 November 2006). "Index to Creationist Claims, Geology". TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved 2 November 2010.  Isaak, M. (1998). "Problems with a Global Flood". TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved 29 March 2007. Isaak no a geologist  Morton, Glenn (17 February 2001). "The Geologic Column and its Implications for the Flood". TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved 2 November 2010. Morton not a geologist  Scott, Eugenie C. (January–February 2003), My Favorite Pseudoscience, 23 (1) 

Further reading[edit] Commentaries on Genesis

Rogerson, John William (1991). Genesis 1–11. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567083388.  Sacks, Robert D. (1990). A Commentary on the Book of Genesis. Edwin Mellen.  Towner, Wayne Sibley (2001). Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664252564.  Von Rad, Gerhard (1972). Genesis: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664227456.  Wenham, Gordon (2003). "Genesis". In James D. G. Dunn; John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Bible Commentary. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.  Whybray, R. N. (2001). "Genesis". In John Barton. Oxford
Bible Commentary. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780198755005. 


Aune, David
E. (2003). "Cosmology". Westminster Dictionary of the New Testament and Early Christian
Literature. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664219178.  Batto, Bernard Frank (1992). Slaying the Dragon: Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664253530.  Browne, Janet (1983). The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeography. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0-300-02460-6.  Brueggemann, Walter (2002). Reverberations of Faith: a Theological Handbook of Old Testament Themes. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780664222314.  Campbell, Antony F.; O'Brien, Mark A. (1993). Sources of the Pentateuch: Texts, Introductions, Annotations. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413670.  Campbell, A. F.; O'Brien, M. A. (1993). Sources of the Pentateuch: Texts, Introductions, Annotations. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413670.  Carr, David
M. (1996). Reading the Fractures of Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664220716.  Clines, David
A. (1997). The Theme of the Pentateuch. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 9780567431967.  Davies, G. I. (1998). "Introduction to the Pentateuch". In John Barton. Oxford
Bible Commentary. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.  Kugler, Robert; Hartin, Patrick (2009). The Old Testament between theology and history: a critical survey. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846365.  Levin, Christoph L. (2005). The Old testament: A Brief Introduction. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691113947.  Levin, C. (2005). The Old Testament: A Brief Introduction. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691113944.  Longman, Tremper (2005). How to Read Genesis. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830875603.  McEntire, Mark (2008). Struggling with God: An Introduction to the Pentateuch. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780881461015.  Ska, Jean-Louis (2006). Introduction to Reading the Pentateuch. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575061221.  Van Seters, John (1992). Prologue to History: The Yahwist As Historian in Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press.  Van Seters, John (1998). "The Pentateuch". In Steven L. McKenzie; Matt Patrick Graham. The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
today: an introduction to critical issues. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256524.  Van Seters, John (2004). The Pentateuch: A Social-science Commentary. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780567080882.  Walsh, Jerome
T. (2001). Style and Structure in Biblical Hebrew Narrative. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814658970.  Bailey, Lloyd R. (1989). Noah, the Person and the Story. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-637-6.  Campbell, Antony F.; O'Brien, Mark A. (1993). Sources of the Pentateuch: Texts, Introductions, Annotations. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413670.  Campbell, A. F.; O'Brien, M. A. (1993). Sources of the Pentateuch: Texts, Introductions, Annotations. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413670.  Best, Robert M. (1999). Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
and the Ziusudra
Epic. Fort Myers, Florida: Enlil Press. ISBN 0-9667840-1-4.  Compilation (1983). Hornby, Helen, ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. ISBN 81-85091-46-3.  Dalrymple, G. Brent (1991). The Age of the Earth. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2331-1.  Emerton, J. A. (1988). Joosten, J., ed. "An Examination of Some Attempts to Defend the Unity of the Flood Narrative in Genesis: Part II". Vetus Testamentum. International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament. XXXVIII (1).  Nicholson, Ernest W. (2003). The Pentateuch
in the Twentieth Century: the legacy of Julius Wellhausen. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780199257836.  Plimer, Ian (1994). Telling Lies for God: Reason vs Creationism. Random House Australia. p. 303. ISBN 0-09-182852-X.  Speiser, E. A. (1964). Genesis. The Anchor Bible. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-00854-6. 

Tigay, Jeffrey H., (1982). The Evolution
of the Gilgamesh Epic. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-7805-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Van Seters, John (2004). The Pentateuch: A Social-Science commentary. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780567080882.  Wenham, Gordon (1994). "The Coherence of the Flood Narrative". In Hess, Richard S.; Tsumura, David
Toshio. I Studied Inscriptions From Before the Flood (Google Books)format= requires url= (help). Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. 4. Eisenbrauns. p. 480. ISBN 0-931464-88-9.  Young, Davis A. (March 1995). The Biblical Flood: A Case Study of the Church's Response to Extrabiblical Evidence. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Pub Co. p. 340. ISBN 0-8028-0719-4.  Douglas, J. D.; Tenney, Merrill C., eds. (2011). Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. revised by Moisés Silva (Revised ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. ISBN 0310229839. 

v t e

People and things in the Quran



Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr



The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah


Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')


‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)




Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)



Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)


Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)


People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier


Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad



Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
who helped Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi



Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
and Lot



Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)


(Hell) Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:


Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor




Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)



Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm


Al-Injîl (The Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)


Mā’ ( Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)


Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār


Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark


Genesis flood narrative
Genesis flood narrative
in the Book of Genesis


Noah Shem Ham Japheth Wives aboard Noah's Ark


Captain Noah
and His Magical Ark (1967) Noah's Island (1997) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1999) The Ark (2015)


Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1928) Father Noah's Ark (1933) The Bible: In the Beginning... (1966) O Trapalhão na Arca de Noé (1983) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) Genesis: The Creation and the Flood (1994) Noah
(1998) Raining Cats and Frogs
Raining Cats and Frogs
(2003) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(2007) Evan Almighty
Evan Almighty
(2007) 40 Days and Nights
40 Days and Nights
(2012) Noah
(2014) Ooops! Noah
Is Gone... (2015)


The Flowering Peach (1954 play) Two by Two (1970 musical)


Il diluvio universale
Il diluvio universale
(1830) Le Déluge (1875) Noé (1885) Noye's Fludde
Noye's Fludde


Captain Noah
and His Floating Zoo (1970) "The Prophet's Song" (1975) "Animals" (1980) "Forever Not Yours" (2002)


Noah's Ark Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1992) Super 3D Noah's Ark
Super 3D Noah's Ark


The Moon
in the Cloud (1969) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1977) Not Wanted on the Voyage
Not Wanted on the Voyage
(1984) Many Waters
Many Waters
(1986) Not the End of the World (2004)

Other cultures

Flood myth Sumerian creation myth Gilgamesh flood myth Ancient Greek flood myths Finnish flood myth Great Flood of China Mesoamerican flood myths Cessair Bergelmir Noah
in Islam Noah
in rabbinic literature


Black Sea
deluge hypothesis Flood geology Searches for Noah's Ark


In Search of Noah's Ark Mountains of Ararat Mount Judi Mosque
of Ibn Tulun


Ararat anomaly Durupınar site

Story within a story

Angel's Egg Doctor Dolittle and the Secret Lake Fantasia 2000 "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass" "This Is the Way the World Ends"


"The Unicorn" Peluda

Related theology

Book of Noah Generations of Noah Gopher wood Noah's wine Seven Laws of Noah


Noah's Brother Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
replicas and derivatives Boner's Ark Noah'