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In the Abrahamic religions, Noah[a] (/ˈnoʊ.ə/ NOH-ə)[1][2] was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs. The story of Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
is told in the Bible's Genesis flood narrative. The biblical account is followed by the story of the Curse of Ham. In addition to the Book of Genesis, Noah
Noah
is mentioned in the Old Testament in the First Book of Chronicles, and the books of Tobit, Wisdom, Sirach, Isaiah, Ezekiel, 2 Esdras, 4 Maccabees; in the New Testament, he is mentioned in the gospels of Matthew, and Luke, the Epistle to the Hebrews, 1st Peter and 2nd Peter. Noah
Noah
was the subject of much elaboration in the literature of later Abrahamic religions, including the Quran
Quran
(Surahs 71, 7, 1, and 21).

Contents

1 Biblical account

1.1 Genesis flood narrative 1.2 After the flood 1.3 Noah's drunkenness 1.4 Curse of Ham 1.5 Table of nations

2 Family tree 3 Narrative analysis 4 Other accounts

4.1 Pseudepigrapha 4.2 Dead Sea scrolls

5 Comparative mythology

5.1 Mesopotamian 5.2 Sumerian 5.3 Ancient Greek

6 Religious views

6.1 Judaism 6.2 Christianity

6.2.1 Isaac
Isaac
Newton 6.2.2 Mormon theology

6.3 Islam 6.4 Gnostic 6.5 Bahá'í 6.6 In South East Asia

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Biblical account[edit]

12th-century Venetian mosaic depiction of Noah
Noah
sending the dove

The primary account of Noah
Noah
in the Bible
Bible
is in the Book of Genesis. Noah
Noah
was the tenth of the pre-flood (antediluvian) Patriarchs. His father was Lamech and his mother is unknown.[3] When Noah
Noah
was five hundred years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth ( Genesis 5:32). Genesis flood narrative[edit] Main article: Genesis flood narrative The Genesis flood narrative
Genesis flood narrative
makes up chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis, in the Bible.[4] The narrative, one of many flood myths found in human cultures, indicates that God intended to return the Earth
Earth
to its pre-Creation state of watery chaos by flooding the Earth
Earth
because of humanity's misdeeds and then remake it using the microcosm of Noah's ark. Thus, the flood was no ordinary overflow but a reversal of creation.[5] The narrative discusses the evil of mankind that moved God to destroy the world by the way of the flood, the preparation of the ark for certain animals, Noah, and his family, and God's guarantee (the Noahic Covenant) for the continued existence of life under the promise that he would never send another flood.[6] After the flood[edit] Main article: Covenant (biblical)
Covenant (biblical)
§ Noahic covenant After the flood, Noah
Noah
offered burnt offerings to God, who said: "I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart [is] evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done" (8:20–21). "And God blessed Noah
Noah
and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth" (9:1). They were also told that all fowls, land animals, and fishes would be afraid of them. Furthermore, as well as green plants, every moving thing would be their food with the exception that the blood was not to be eaten. Man's life blood would be required from the beasts and from man. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man" (9:6). A rainbow, called "my bow", was given as the sign of a covenant "between me and you and every living creature that [is] with you, for perpetual generations" (9:2–17), called the Noahic covenant or the rainbow covenant. Noah
Noah
died 350 years after the flood, at the age of 950,[7] the last of the extremely long-lived antediluvian Patriarchs. The maximum human lifespan, as depicted by the Bible, diminishes thereafter, from almost 1,000 years to the 120 years of Moses.[8] Noah's drunkenness[edit]

Noah's drunkenness, Ham mocks Noah, Noah
Noah
is covered, Canaan
Canaan
is cursed. Egerton Genesis

After the flood, the Bible
Bible
says that Noah
Noah
became a husbandman and he planted a vineyard. He drank wine made from this vinyard, and got drunk; and lay "uncovered" within his tent. Noah's son Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father naked and told his brothers, which led to Ham's son Canaan
Canaan
being cursed by Noah.[9] As early as the Classical era, commentators on Genesis 9:20–21 have excused Noah's excessive drinking because he was considered to be the first wine drinker; the first person to discover the effects of wine.[10] John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, and a Church Father, wrote in the 4th Century that Noah's behaviour is defensible: as the first human to taste wine, he would not know its effects: "Through ignorance and inexperience of the proper amount to drink, fell into a drunken stupor".[11] Philo, a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher, also excused Noah
Noah
by noting that one can drink in two different manners: (1) to drink wine in excess, a peculiar sin to the vicious evil man or (2) to partake of wine as the wise man, Noah
Noah
being the latter.[12] In Jewish tradition
Jewish tradition
and rabbinic literature on Noah, rabbis blame Satan
Satan
for the intoxicating properties of the wine.[13][14] Curse of Ham[edit] Main article: Curse of Ham

Noah
Noah
curses Ham by Gustave Dore

In the field of psychological biblical criticism, J. H. Ellens and W. G. Rollins address the narrative of Genesis 9:18–27 that narrates the unconventional behavior that occurs between Noah
Noah
and Ham. Because of its brevity and textual inconsistencies, it has been suggested that this narrative is a "splinter from a more substantial tale".[15][16] A fuller account would explain what exactly Ham had done to his father, or why Noah
Noah
directed a curse at Canaan
Canaan
for Ham's misdeed, or how Noah came to know what occurred. The narrator relates two facts: (1) Noah became drunken and "he was uncovered within his tent", and (2) Ham "saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without". Thus, these passages revolve around sexuality and the exposure of genitalia as compared with other Hebrew Bible
Bible
texts, such as Habakkuk 2:15 and Lamentations 4:21.[17] Other commentaries mention that seeing someone's nakedness could mean having sex with that person as seen in Leviticus 18:7-8 and Leviticus 20:11).[18] Table of nations[edit]

The dispersion of the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth
Japheth
(map from the 1854 Historical Textbook and Atlas of Biblical Geography)

See also: Sons of Noah Genesis 10 sets forth the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, from whom the nations branched out over the earth after the flood. Among Japheth’s descendants were the maritime nations. (10:2–5) Ham’s son Cush had a son named Nimrod, who became the first man of might on earth, a mighty hunter, king in Babylon
Babylon
and the land of Shinar. (10:6–10) From there Asshur went and built Nineveh. (10:11–12) Canaan’s descendants – Sidon, Heth, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites – spread out from Sidon
Sidon
as far as Gerar, near Gaza, and as far as Sodom and Gomorrah. (10:15–19) Among Shem’s descendants was Eber. (10:21) These genealogies differ structurally from those set out in Genesis 5 and 11. It has a segmented or treelike structure, going from one father to many offspring. It is strange that the table, which assumes that the population is distributed about the Earth, precedes the account of the Tower of Babel, which says that all the population is in one place before it is dispersed.[19] Family tree[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adam

 

Eve

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cain

 

 

 

Abel

 

 

 

Seth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enoch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mehujael

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahalalel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methushael

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jared

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adah

 

Lamech

 

 

 

Zillah

 

 

 

Enoch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jabal

 

Jubal

 

Tubal-Cain

 

Naamah

 

Methuselah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lamech

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Noah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shem

 

Ham

 

Japheth

Narrative analysis[edit] According to the documentary hypothesis, the first five books of the Bible
Bible
(Pentateuch/Torah), including Genesis, were collated during the 5th century BC from four main sources, which themselves date from no earlier than the 10th century BC. Two of these, the Jahwist, composed in the 10th century BC, and the Priestly source, from the late 7th century BC, make up the chapters of Genesis which concern Noah. The attempt by the 5th-century editor to accommodate two independent and sometimes conflicting sources accounts for the confusion over such matters as how many of each animal Noah
Noah
took, and how long the flood lasted.[20][21] The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible
Bible
notes that this story echoes parts of the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
story: Noah
Noah
is the first vintner, while Adam
Adam
is the first farmer; both have problems with their produce; both stories involve nakedness; and both involve a division between brothers leading to a curse. However, after the flood, the stories differ. Noah
Noah
plants the vineyard and utters the curse, not God, so "God is less involved".[22] Other accounts[edit] Noah
Noah
appears in several non-canonical books. Pseudepigrapha[edit] The Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees
refers to Noah
Noah
and says that he was taught the arts of healing by an angel so that his children could overcome "the offspring of the Watchers".[23] In 10:1–3 of the Book of Enoch
Book of Enoch
(which is part of the Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon), Uriel
Uriel
was dispatched by "the Most High" to inform Noah
Noah
of the approaching "deluge".[24] Dead Sea scrolls[edit] There are 20 or so fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls
Dead Sea scrolls
that appear to refer to Noah.[25] Lawrence Schiffman
Lawrence Schiffman
writes, "Among the Dead Sea Scrolls at least three different versions of this legend are preserved."[26] In particular, "The Genesis Apocryphon
Genesis Apocryphon
devotes considerable space to Noah." However, "The material seems to have little in common with Genesis 5 which reports the birth of Noah." Also, Noah's father is reported as worrying that his son was actually fathered by one of the Watchers.[27] Comparative mythology[edit] Main article: Flood myth Indian and Greek flood-myths also exist, although there is little evidence that they were derived from the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
flood-myth that underlies the biblical account.[28] Mesopotamian[edit] The Noah
Noah
story of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
is almost identical to a flood story contained in the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
Epic of Gilgamesh, composed about 2000 BC. The few variations including the number of days of the deluge, the order of the birds, and the name of the mountain on which the ark rests. The flood story in Genesis 6–8 matches the Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
flood myth so closely that "few doubt that [it] derives from a Mesopotamian account."[29] What is particularly noticeable is the way the Genesis flood story follows the Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
flood tale "point by point and in the same order", even when the story permits other alternatives.[30] The earliest written flood myth is found in the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
Epic of Atrahasis and Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
texts. The Encyclopædia Britannica says "These mythologies are the source of such features of the biblical Flood story as the building and provisioning of the ark, its flotation, and the subsidence of the waters, as well as the part played by the human protagonist."[31] The Encyclopedia Judaica adds that there is a strong suggestion that "an intermediate agent was active. The people most likely to have fulfilled this role are the Hurrians, whose territory included the city of Haran, where the Patriarch Abraham
Abraham
had his roots. The Hurrians inherited the Flood story from Babylonia".[32] The encyclopedia mentions another similarity between the stories: Noah
Noah
is the tenth patriarch and Berossus notes that "the hero of the great flood was Babylonia’s tenth antediluvian king." However, there is a discrepancy in the ages of the heroes. For the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
antecedents, "the reigns of the antediluvian kings range from 18,600 to nearly 65,000 years." In the Bible, the lifespans "fall far short of the briefest reign mentioned in the related Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
texts." Also, the name of the hero differs between the traditions: "The earliest Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
flood account, written in the Sumerian language, calls the deluge hero Ziusudra."[32] Gilgamesh’s historical reign is believed to have been approximately 2700 BC,[33] shortly before the earliest known written stories. The discovery of artifacts associated with Aga and Enmebaragesi of Kish, two other kings named in the stories, has lent credibility to the historical existence of Gilgamesh.[34] The earliest Sumerian Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
poems date from as early as the Third dynasty of Ur (2100–2000 BC).[35] One of these poems mentions Gilgamesh’s journey to meet the flood hero, as well as a short version of the flood story.[36] The earliest Akkadian versions of the unified epic are dated to ca. 2000–1500 BC.[37] Due to the fragmentary nature of these Old Babylonian versions, it is unclear whether they included an expanded account of the flood myth; although one fragment definitely includes the story of Gilgamesh’s journey to meet Utnapishtim. The "standard" Akkadian version included a long version of the flood story and was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni
Sin-liqe-unninni
sometime between 1300 and 1000 BC.[38] Sumerian[edit] Utnapishtim, a character in The Epic of Gilgamesh, tells the story of a flood very similar to that of Noah. In this story, the gods are enraged by the noise that man has raised from the earth. To quiet them they decide to send a great flood to silence mankind. Various correlations between the stories of Noah
Noah
and Utnapishtim
Utnapishtim
(the flood, the construction of the ark, the salvation of animals, and the release of birds following the flood) have led to this story being seen as the inspiration for the story of Noah. However, his role in Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
is to provide the secret of everlasting life to the hero, who promptly falls asleep before Utnapishtim
Utnapishtim
gives him the secret of life. Ancient Greek[edit] Noah
Noah
has often been compared to Deucalion, the son of Prometheus
Prometheus
and Pronoia
Pronoia
in Greek mythology. Like Noah, Deucalion
Deucalion
is warned of the flood (by Zeus
Zeus
and Poseidon); he builds an ark and staffs it with creatures – and when he completes his voyage, gives thanks and takes advice from the gods on how to repopulate the Earth. Deucalion
Deucalion
also sends a pigeon to find out about the situation of the world and the bird returns with an olive branch.[39][40] Deucalion, in some versions of the myth, also becomes the inventor of wine, like Noah.[41] Philo[42] and Justin equate Deucalion
Deucalion
with Noah, and Josephus
Josephus
used the story of Deucalion
Deucalion
as evidence that the flood actually occurred and that, therefore, Noah
Noah
existed.[43][44] Religious views[edit] Judaism[edit] See also: Noah in rabbinic literature
Noah in rabbinic literature
and Noach (parsha)

A Jewish depiction of Noah

The righteousness of Noah
Noah
is the subject of much discussion among rabbis.[45] The description of Noah
Noah
as "righteous in his generation" implied to some that his perfection was only relative: In his generation of wicked people, he could be considered righteous, but in the generation of a tzadik like Abraham, he would not be considered so righteous. They point out that Noah
Noah
did not pray to God on behalf of those about to be destroyed, as Abraham
Abraham
prayed for the wicked of Sodom and Gomorrah. In fact, Noah
Noah
is never seen to speak; he simply listens to God and acts on his orders. This led such commentators to offer the figure of Noah
Noah
as "the man in a fur coat," who ensured his own comfort while ignoring his neighbour.[46] Others, such as the medieval commentator Rashi, held on the contrary that the building of the Ark was stretched over 120 years, deliberately in order to give sinners time to repent. Rashi
Rashi
interprets his father's statement of the naming of Noah
Noah
(in Hebrew נֹחַ) "This one will comfort us (in Hebrew– yeNaHamainu יְנַחֲמֵנו) in our work and in the toil of our hands, which come from the ground that the Lord had cursed",[47] by saying Noah
Noah
heralded a new era of prosperity, when there was easing (in Hebrew – nahah – נחה) from the curse from the time of Adam when the Earth
Earth
produced thorns and thistles even where men sowed wheat and that Noah
Noah
then introduced the plow.[48] According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "The Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
contains two accounts of Noah." In the first, Noah
Noah
is the hero of the flood, and in the second, he is the father of mankind and a husbandman who planted the first vineyard. "The disparity of character between these two narratives has caused some critics to insist that the subject of the latter account was not the same as the subject of the former." Perhaps the original name of the hero of the flood was actually Enoch.[49] The Encyclopedia Judaica notes that Noah's drunkenness is not presented as reprehensible behavior. Rather, "It is clear that ... Noah’s venture into viticulture provides the setting for the castigation of Israel’s Canaanite neighbors." It was Ham who committed an offense when he viewed his father’s nakedness. Yet, "Noah’s curse, ...is strangely aimed at Canaan
Canaan
rather than the disrespectful Ham." (p. 288)[32] Christianity[edit]

An early Christian depiction showing Noah
Noah
giving the gesture of orant as the dove returns

2 Peter 2:5 refers to Noah
Noah
as a "preacher of righteousness". In the Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
and the Gospel of Luke, Jesus
Jesus
compares Noah's flood with the coming Day of Judgement: "Just as it was in the days of Noah, so too it will be in the days of the coming of the Son of Man. For in the days before the flood, people were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day Noah
Noah
entered the ark; and they knew nothing about what would happen until the flood came and took them all away. That is how it will be at the coming of the Son of Man."[50][51] The First Epistle of Peter
First Epistle of Peter
compares the saving power of baptism with the Ark saving those who were in it. In later Christian thought, the Ark came to be compared to the Church: salvation was to be found only within Christ and his Lordship, as in Noah's time it had been found only within the Ark. St Augustine of Hippo
St Augustine of Hippo
(354–430), demonstrated in The City of God that the dimensions of the Ark corresponded to the dimensions of the human body, which corresponds to the body of Christ; the equation of Ark and Church is still found in the Anglican
Anglican
rite of baptism, which asks God, "who of thy great mercy didst save Noah," to receive into the Church the infant about to be baptised.[52] In medieval Christianity, Noah's three sons were generally considered as the founders of the populations of the three known continents, Japheth/Europe, Shem/Asia, and Ham/Africa, although a rarer variation held that they represented the three classes of medieval society – the priests (Shem), the warriors (Japheth), and the peasants (Ham). In medieval Christian thought, Ham was considered to be the ancestor of the people of black Africa. So, in racialist arguments, the curse of Ham became a justification for the slavery of the black races.[53] Isaac
Isaac
Newton[edit] Isaac
Isaac
Newton, in his religious works on the development of religion, wrote about Noah
Noah
and his offspring. In Newton's view, while Noah
Noah
was a monotheist, the gods of pagan antiquity are identified with Noah
Noah
and his descendants. "Newton argues that Noah
Noah
is ultimately deified as the god Saturn." "Newton thus traces all ancient political and religious history back to Noah
Noah
and Noah's offspring and simultaneously gives a historical account of the rise of polytheism and idolatry in these gentile nations as the result of the posthumous deification of their leaders and heroes, a polytheistic process which thoroughly corrupts the core monotheistic truth ... in the original religion of Noah".[54] Mormon theology[edit] In Mormon theology, Noah
Noah
plays an important role, prior to his birth, as the angel Gabriel, and then lived in his mortal life as the patriarch-prophet Noah. Gabriel
Gabriel
and Noah
Noah
are regarded as the same individual under different names.[55][56] Mormons
Mormons
also believe that Noah
Noah
returned to earth as Gabriel
Gabriel
after his earthly life[57] and appeared to Daniel to teach him about the Second Coming; to Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist; and to Mary, the mother of Jesus.[58] Noah
Noah
is considered the head of a dispensation along with Adam, Enoch, Abraham, Moses, Jesus
Jesus
and Joseph Smith. A dispensation is a period of time in which the Lord has at least one authorized servant on earth who bears the keys of the holy priesthood.[59] Noah
Noah
became the means by which the gospel of Jesus
Jesus
Christ— the plan of salvation —is revealed anew, the means by which divine transforming powers, including saving covenants and ordinances, are extended to people during an age of time called a dispensation.[60] Islam[edit] Main article: Noah
Noah
in Islam

An Islamic depiction of Noah
Noah
in a 16th-century Mughal miniature.

Noah's ark
Noah's ark
and the deluge from Zubdat-al Tawarikh

Noah
Noah
is a highly important figure in Islam
Islam
and is seen as one of the most significant of all prophets. The Quran
Quran
contains 43 references to Noah, or Nuḥ, in 28 chapters, and the seventy-first chapter, Sūrat Nūḥ (Arabic: سورة نوح‎), is named after him. His life is also spoken of in the commentaries and in Islamic legends. Noah's narratives largely cover his preaching as well the story of the Deluge. Noah's narrative sets the prototype for many of the subsequent prophetic stories, which begin with the prophet warning his people and then the community rejecting the message and facing a punishment. Noah
Noah
has several titles in Islam, based primarily on praise for him in the Qur'an, including "True Messenger of God" (XXVI: 107) and "Grateful Servant of God" (XVII: 3).[32][61] The Qur'an focuses on several instances from Noah's life more than others, and one of the most significant events is the Flood. God makes a covenant with Noah
Noah
just as he did with Abraham, Moses, Jesus
Jesus
and Muhammad
Muhammad
later on (33:7). Noah
Noah
is later reviled by his people and reproached by them for being a mere human messenger and not an angel (10:72–74). Moreover, the people mock Noah's words and call him a liar (7:62), and they even suggest that Noah
Noah
is possessed by a devil when the prophet ceases to preach (54:9). Only the lowest in the community join Noah
Noah
in believing in God's message (11:29), and Noah's narrative further describes him preaching both in private and public. Noah
Noah
prays to God, "Lord, leave not one single family of Infidels from the land: / For if thou leave them they will beguile thy servants and will beget only sinners, infidels."[dead link][62] The Qur'an narrates that Noah
Noah
received a revelation to build an Ark, after his people refused to believe in his message and hear the warning. The narrative goes on to describe that waters poured forth from the Heavens, destroying all the sinners. Even one of his sons disbelieved him, stayed behind, and was drowned. In the Qur'an, Noah
Noah
originally had four sons, but they are not named. After the Flood ended, the Ark rested atop Mount Judi
Mount Judi
(Quran 11:44). Also, Islamic beliefs deny the idea of Noah
Noah
being the first person to drink wine and experience the aftereffects of doing so.[32][61] Quran 29:14 states that Noah
Noah
had been living among the people who he was sent to for 950 years when the flood started.

And, indeed, [in times long past] We sent forth Noah
Noah
unto his people, and he dwelt among them a thousand years bar fifty; and then the floods overwhelmed them while they were still lost in evildoing.

According to the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
understanding of the Quran, the period described in the Quran
Quran
is the age of his dispensation, which extended until the time of Ibrahim (Abraham, 950 years). The first 50 years were the years of spiritual progress, which were followed by 900 years of spiritual deterioration of the people of Noah.[63] Gnostic[edit] An important Gnostic text, the Apocryphon of John, reports that the chief archon caused the flood because he desired to destroy the world he had made, but the First Thought informed Noah
Noah
of the chief archon's plans, and Noah
Noah
informed the remainder of humanity. Unlike the account of Genesis, not only are Noah's family saved, but many others also heed Noah's call. There is no ark in this account. According to Elaine Pagels, "Rather, they hid in a particular place, not only Noah, but also many other people from the unshakable race. They entered that place and hid in a bright cloud."[64] Bahá'í[edit] The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
regards the Ark and the Flood as symbolic.[65] In Bahá'í belief, only Noah's followers were spiritually alive, preserved in the ark of his teachings, as others were spiritually dead.[66][67] The Bahá'í scripture Kitáb-i-Íqán
Kitáb-i-Íqán
endorses the Islamic belief that Noah
Noah
had a large number of companions, either 40 or 72, besides his family on the Ark, and that he taught for 950 (symbolic) years before the flood.[68] In South East Asia[edit] According to the Hikayat Seri Rama
Hikayat Seri Rama
an Malaysian poem is an mix of Hindu ans Islamic Mythology , Noah
Noah
is descended from the genealogical line of Seri Rama, one of the ancestors of Prophet
Prophet
Adam
Adam
the first human and the frist prophet in Islam. See also[edit]

Atra-Hasis, central character in one version of the Akkadian flood myth Bergelmir, a Norse mythological version of Noah. Biblical criticism Evan Almighty, a film about Noah, who is portrayed by Steve Carell. Mannus, ancestral figure in Germanic mythology Manu, central character in the Hindu flood myth Menes, ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period. Minos, king of Crete, son of Zeus
Zeus
and Europa. Noah's wine, a term that refers to an alcoholic beverage. Nu'u, Hawaiian mythological character who built an ark and escaped a Great Flood. Nüwa, goddess in Chinese mythology best known for creating mankind. Patriarchal age Searches for Noah's Ark, sometimes referred to as arkeology Seven Laws of Noah Tomb of Noah

Notes[edit]

^ Hebrew: נֹחַ, נוֹחַ‬, Modern Nōaẖ, Tiberian Nōaḥ; Syriac: ܢܘܚ‎ Nukh; Arabic: نُوح‎ Nūḥ; Ancient Greek: Νῶε

References[edit]

^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «nō´a» ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180  ^ Fullom, SW., The History of Woman, and Her Connexion with Religion, Civilization, & Domestic Manners, from the Earliest Period, 1855, p.10 ^ Silverman, Jason (2013). Opening Heaven's Floodgates: The Genesis Flood Narrative, Its Context, and Reception. Gorgias Press.  ^ Bandstra 2009, p. 61. ^ Cotter 2003, pp. 49, 50. ^ Genesis 9:28–29 ^ Genesis 6:3; Deuteronomy 31:22; 34:37 ^ Genesis 9:20–27 ^ Ellens & Rollins. Psychology and the Bible: From Freud to Kohut, 2004, (ISBN 027598348X, 9780275983482), p.52 ^ Hamilton, 1990, pp. 202–203 ^ Philo, 1971, p. 160 ^ Gen. Rabbah 36:3 ^ JewishEncyclopedia.com – NOAH ^ Speiser, 1964, 62 ^ T. A. Bergren. Biblical Figures Outside the Bible, 2002, (ISBN 1563384116, ISBN 978-1-56338-411-0), p. 136 ^ Ellens & Rollins, 2004, p.53 ^ Levenson, 2004, 26 ^ Bandstra, B. (2008), Reading the Old Testament: Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Cengage Learning, pp. 67–68  ^ Collins, John J. (2004). Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-8006-2991-4.  ^ Friedman, Richard Elliotty (1989). Who Wrote the Bible?. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 59. ISBN 0-06-063035-3.  ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 318. ^ Lewis, Jack Pearl, A Study of the Interpretation of Noah
Noah
and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature, BRILL, 1968, p. 14. ^ "Chapter X". The Book of Enoch. translated by Robert H. Charles. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1917.  ^ Peters, DM., Noah
Noah
Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity, Society of Biblical Lit, 2008, pp. 15–17. ^ Schiffman, LH., Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Volume 2', Granite Hill Publishers, 2000, pp. 613–614. ^ Lewis, Jack Pearl, A Study of the Interpretation of Noah
Noah
and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature, BRILL, 1968, p. 11. "the offspring of the Watchers" ^ Frazer, JG., in Dundes, A (ed.), The Flood Myth, University of California Press, 1988, pp. 121–122. ^ George, =A. R. (2003). The Babylonian Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-19-927841-1. Retrieved 8 November 2012 – via Google Books.  ^ Rendsburg, Gary. "The Biblical flood story in the light of the Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
flood account," in Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
and the world of Assyria, eds Azize, J & Weeks, N. Peters, 2007, p. 117 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Noah. ^ a b c d e Skolnik, Fred; Berenbaum, Michael (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 287–291. ISBN 978-0-02-865943-5.  ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, pages 123, 502 ^ Dalley, Stephanie, Myths from Mesopotamia, Oxford University Press (1989), p. 40–41 ^ Andrew George, page xix ^ "The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature; The death of Gilgameš (three versions, translated)".  ^ Andrew George, page 101, "Early Second Millennium BC" in Old Babylonian ^ Andrew George, pages xxiv–xxv ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Deucalion. ^ Wajdenbaum, P., Argonauts of the Desert: Structural Analysis of the Hebrew Bible, Routledge, 2014, pp. 104–108. ^ Anderson, G., Greek and Roman Folklore: A Handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. pp. 129–130. ^ Lewis, JP.; Lewis, JP., A Study of the Interpretation of Noah
Noah
and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature, BRILL, 1968, p. 47. ^ Peters, DM., Noah
Noah
Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity, Society of Biblical Lit, 2008, p. 4. ^ Feldman, LH., Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible, University of California Press, 1998, p. 133. ^ "JewishEncyclopedia.com – Noah
Noah
– His Marriage".  ^ Mamet, D., Kushner, L., Five Cities of Refuge: Weekly Reflections on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, Schocken Books, 2003, p. 1. ^ Genesis 5:29 ^ Frishman, J., Rompay, L. von, The Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
in Jewish and Oriental Christian Interpretation: A Collection of Essays, Peeters Publishers, 1997, pp. 62–65. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Noah. Critical View ^ Matthew 24:38 ^ Luke 17:26 ^ Peters, DM., Noah
Noah
Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity, Society of Biblical Lit, 2008, pp. 15–17. ^ Jackson, JP., Weidman, NM., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 4. ^ Force, J E (1999), "Essay 12: Newton, the "Ancients" and the "Moderns"", in Popkin, RH; Force, JE, Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence, International Archive of the History of Ideas (No 161), Kluwer, pp. 253–254 – via Google Books  ^ "Noah", Bible
Bible
Dictionary, KJV (LDS), LDS Church  ^ "Noah, Bible
Bible
Patriarch", Study Helps: The Guide to the Scriptures, Standard works, LDS Church  ^ "Chapter 8: The Everlasting Priesthood", Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith, LDS Church, 2001, pp. 101–113  ^ " Old Testament
Old Testament
Prophets: Noah", Ensign, February 2014  ^ "Dispensation", Study Helps: The Guide to the Scriptures, Standard works, LDS Church  ^ Millet, Robert L. (June 1994), " Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
among the Prophets", Ensign  ^ a b Gibb, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen (1995). The Encyclopaedia of Islam: NED-SAM. Brill. pp. 108–109.  ^ 71:26–27 Rodwell 1876 version[permanent dead link] ^ Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry. Hadhrat Nuh (PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. ISBN 1-85372-758-X.  ^ Pagels, Elaine (2013). The Gnostic Gospels. Orion. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-78022-670-5.  ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, October 28, 1949: Bahá'í News, No. 228, February 1950, p. 4. Republished in Compilation 1983, p. 508 ^ Poirier, Brent. "The Kitab-i-Iqan: The key to unsealing the mysteries of the Holy Bible". Retrieved 2007-06-25.  ^ Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
(1971). Messages to the Bahá'í World, 1950–1957. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 104. ISBN 0-87743-036-5.  ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
to an individual believer, November 25, 1950. Published in Compilation 1983, p. 494

Bibliography[edit]

Compilation (1983), Hornby, Helen, ed., Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India, ISBN 81-85091-46-3 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Noah.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Noah

Jewish Encyclopedia: Noah
Noah
from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Catholic Encyclopedia: Noah MuslimWiki: Nuh

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Adam
Adam
to David
David
according to the Bible

Creation to Flood

Adam Seth Enos Kenan Mahalalel Jared Enoch Methuselah Lamech Noah Shem

Cain
Cain
line

Adam Cain Enoch Irad Mehujael Methusael Lamech Tubal-cain

Patriarchs after Flood

Arpachshad Cainan Shelah Eber Peleg Reu Serug Nahor Terah Abraham Isaac Jacob

Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
to Kingdom

Judah Perez Hezron Ram Amminadab Nahshon Salmon Boaz Obed Jesse David

Names in italics only appear in the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
version

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah (?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
media

Source

Genesis flood narrative
Genesis flood narrative
in the Book of Genesis

Characters

Noah Shem Ham Japheth Wives aboard Noah's Ark

Television

Captain Noah and His Magical Ark (1967) Noah's Island (1997) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1999) The Ark (2015)

Film

Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1928) Father Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1933) The Bible: In the Beginning... (1966) O Trapalhão na Arca de Noé (1983) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) Genesis: The Creation and the Flood (1994) Noah
Noah
(1998) Raining Cats and Frogs
Raining Cats and Frogs
(2003) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(2007) Evan Almighty
Evan Almighty
(2007) 40 Days and Nights
40 Days and Nights
(2012) Noah
Noah
(2014) Ooops! Noah Is Gone... (2015)

Stage

The Flowering Peach (1954 play) Two by Two (1970 musical)

Opera

Il diluvio universale
Il diluvio universale
(1830) Le Déluge (1875) Noé (1885) Noye's Fludde
Noye's Fludde
(1958)

Songs

Captain Noah and His Floating Zoo (1970) "The Prophet's Song" (1975) "Animals" (1980) "Forever Not Yours" (2002)

Games

Noah's Ark Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1992) Super 3D Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1994)

Literature

The Moon in the Cloud
The Moon in the Cloud
(1969) Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
(1977) Not Wanted on the Voyage
Not Wanted on the Voyage
(1984) Many Waters
Many Waters
(1986) Not the End of the World (2004)

Other cultures

Flood myth Sumerian creation myth Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
flood myth Ancient Greek flood myths Finnish flood myth Great Flood of China Mesoamerican flood myths Cessair Bergelmir Noah
Noah
in Islam Noah
Noah
in rabbinic literature

Science

Black Sea deluge hypothesis Flood geology Searches for Noah's Ark

Geography

In Search of Noah's Ark Mountains of Ararat Mount Judi Mosque of Ibn Tulun

Theories

Ararat anomaly Durupınar site

Story within a story

Angel's Egg Doctor Dolittle and the Secret Lake Fantasia 2000 "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass" "This Is the Way the World Ends"

Exclusions

"The Unicorn" Peluda

Related theology

Book of Noah Generations of Noah Gopher wood Noah's wine Seven Laws of Noah

Other

Noah's Brother Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
replicas and derivatives Boner's Ark Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
silver coins

Religion portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Islam
Islam
portal Judaism
Judaism
portal Latter Day Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 11187922 LCCN: n82052547 GND: 118641328 BNF:

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