Second World War
COMBINED OPERATIONS SHOULDER PATCH
NO. 12 COMMANDO was a battalion -sized commando unit of the British
Army during the Second World War . Formed in 1940 in Northern Ireland
, they carried out a number of small-scale raids in
* 1 Background
* 2 History
* 2.1 Formation * 2.2 Operations * 2.3 Disbandment
* 3 Battle honours * 4 References
The commandos were formed in 1940, by the order of Winston Churchill the British Prime Minister . He called for specially trained troops that would "develop a reign of terror down the enemy coast". At first they were a small force of volunteers who carried out small raids against enemy occupied territory, but by 1943 their role had changed into lightly equipped assault infantry which specialised in spearheading amphibious landings.
The man initially selected as the overall commander of the force was
By the autumn of 1940 more than 2,000 men had volunteered for
commando training, and what became known as the
By 1943 the commandos had moved away from small raiding operations and had been formed into brigades of assault infantry to spearhead future Allied landing operations. Three units were left un-brigaded to carry out smaller-scale raids.
Formed on 5 August 1940 in
Compared with some of the other commando units, No. 12 Commando had a short history. Its first raid came on the night of 27/28 July 1941 when a party of 16 men carried out a landing near Ambleteuse , France . Embarking on an assault landing craft, they were towed to a position 2 miles (3.2 km) from the mouth of the Slack River by a motor launch . Although no prisoners were taken, the raid was partially successful and the commandos were ashore for approximately an hour before returning to their landing craft and heading back to Britain.
On 9 December 1941, a detachment from No. 12 Commando, along with a
detachment from No. 6
Commando and some Norwegian soldiers, took part
Operation Kitbag , a raid on the town of Florø in
Later that month, on 26 December 1941, No. 12
Commando took part in
After this No. 12
Commando undertook a series of small scale
operations, with half of the unit forming
Northforce in Norway, while
the other half carried out operations in
The decision was finally made to disband the unit in December 1943 as part of the re-organisation of the commandos into four brigades underneath the divisional-sized commando Group HQ and the subsequent conceptual change in emphasis from small-scale raiding towards that of larger-scale infantry operations in which the commandos were treated as highly trained infantry instead of raiders. In addition to this, the losses suffered by the commando units serving in North Africa and Italy needed to be replaced. At the time there were widespread shortages across the entire British Army, and the volunteer nature of the commandos meant that there were even greater difficulties to replace commando losses. As a result, it was decided that some of these losses could be made up by disbanding No. 12 Commando.
Following the disbandment of the unit, many of the unit's personnel were transferred to other commando units, namely Nos. 1 , 3 , 5 and 6 Commandos.
The following Battle honours were awarded to the British Commandos during the Second World War.
* Argenta Gap
* Burma 1943–45
* Dives Crossing
* Djebel Choucha
* Greece 1944–45
* Italy 1943–45
* Landing at Porto San Venere
* Landing in Sicily
* Middle East 1941, 1942, 1944
* Monte Ornito
* North Africa 1941–43
* North-West Europe 1942, 1944–1945
* ^ "No. 12 Commando". Commando Veterans Association. Retrieved 3 June 2010. * ^ Chappell 1996, p.5 * ^ Chappell 1996, p.3 * ^ Moreman 2006, p.8 * ^ Chappell 1996, p.6 * ^ A B C Haskew 2007, p.48 * ^ Moreman 2006, p.12 * ^ van der Bijl 2006, p.12 * ^ Moreman 2006, pp.84–85 * ^ Chappell 1996, p. 15. * ^ A B C D E "No 12 Army Commando – The ‘Irish’ Commando". www.commandoveterans.org. Retrieved 2009-08-17. * ^ Moreman 2006, p. 18. * ^ Saunders 1959, p. 41. * ^ A B C D E Chappell 1996, p. 14. * ^ A B Saunders 1959, p. 42. * ^ Chappell 1996, p. 47. * ^ Saunders 1959, p. 51. * ^ Saunders 1959, pp. 187–188. * ^ Saunders 1959, p. 70. * ^ Saunders 1959, p. 100. * ^ Chappell 1996, p. 30. * ^ Moreman 2006, p. 29. * ^ Moreman, p.94
* van der Bijl, Nick (2006). No. 10 Inter-Allied
Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-999-1 .
* Chappell, Mike (1996). Army Commandos 1940–1945. Elite Series #
64. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-579-9 .
* Haskew, Michael E (2007). Encyclopaedia of Elite Forces in the
Second World War. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-84415-577-4 .
* Moreman, Tim (2006).
British Commandos 1940–46. Osprey
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-986-8 .
* Saunders, Hilary St. George (1959) . The Green Beret: The
Commandos at War. London: Four Square Books.
* v * t * e
British Commando units of the Second World War
* No. 1 Commando * No. 2 Commando * No. 3 Commando * No. 4 Commando * No. 5 Commando * No. 6 Commando * No. 7 Commando * No. 8 (Guards) Commando * No. 9 Commando * No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando * No. 11 (Scottish) Commando * No. 12 Commando * No. 14 (Arctic) Commando * No. 50 Commando * No. 51 Commando * No. 52 Commando * No. 62 Commando (Small Scale Raiding Force) * Middle East Commando
* No. 40 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 41 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 42 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 43 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 44 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 45 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 46 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 47 (Royal Marine) Commando * No. 48 (Royal Marine) Commando
ROYAL AIR FORCE:
* No. 30 Commando
AD HOC FORCES:
OTHER COMMANDO FORCES: