The NIZAM-UL-MULK OF HYDERABAD, popularly known as the
Hyderabad , was a monarch of the
Hyderabad State , now divided into
Hyderabad-Karnataka region of
Marathwada region of
Maharashtra . NIZAM, shortened from
NIZAM-UL-MULK, meaning _Administrator of the Realm_, the title of the
Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since
1724, belonging to the
Asaf Jah dynasty.
Asaf Jah Dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi , a
viceroy of the
Deccan under the
Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He
intermittently ruled after
Aurangzeb 's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal
control lapsed, and
Asaf Jah declared himself independent in
Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of
the rise of
Maratha Empire . The
Nizam himself saw many invasions by
the Marathas in the 1720s, which resulted in the
Nizam paying a
regular tax (_
Chauth _) to the Marathas. The major battles fought
between the Marathas and the
Nizam include Palkhed , Bhopal ,
Rakshasbhuvan , and Kharda , in all of which the
Following the conquest of
Bajirao I and the imposition of
_chauth_ by him,
Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all
intent and purposes.
In 1805, after the British victory in the
Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War ,
Hyderabad came under the protection of the British East India
In 1903 the Berar region of the state was separated and merged into
the Central Provinces of
British India , to form the Central Provinces
and Berar .
In 1947, at the time of the partition of India , Britain offered the
565 princely states in the sub-continent the options of acceding to
either India or Pakistan, or remaining independent.
Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous state of all princely
states in India. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of
fairly homogeneous territory and had a population of roughly 16.34
million people (as per the 1941 census), of which a majority (85%) was
Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication
system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio
broadcasting service. In spite of the overwhelming
Hindus were severely under-represented in government, police and the
military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421
were Hindus, and 121 others were Christians, Parsis and Sikhs. Of the
officials drawing a salary between Rs.600-1200 per month, 59 were
Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions. The
his nobles, who were mostly Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in
Nizam decided to keep
Hyderabad independent, unlike the other
princely states, most of which acceded to India or to Pakistan
voluntarily. The leaders of the new
Indian Union did not want an
independent - and possibly hostile - state in the heart of their new
country, and were determined to assimilate
Hyderabad into the Indian
Union, by force if necessary. In September 1948, in _
Operation Polo _,
Indian Army marched into Hyderabad, deposed the Nizam, and annexed
the state into the Indian Union.
Seven Nizams ruled
Hyderabad for two centuries until 1947. The Asaf
Jahi rulers were great patrons of literature, art, architecture, and
culture, and rich food . The Nizams patronized aspects of a Persianate
society , copied from their Turco-Mongol Mughal overlords, and which
became central to the
Hyderabadi Muslims identity. The last
been the richest man in the world in his time. The Nizams also
developed the railway, and the introduction of electricity; developed
roads, airways, irrigation and reservoirs; in fact, all major public
Hyderabad City were built during his reign under the
British Raj . He pushed education, science, and establishment of
Osmania University .
Hyderabad State in 1909
* 1 Origin of the title
* 2 Reign of the Nizams
* 3 Infrastructure
* 4 List of Nizams of
* 5 Descendants of the last Nizam,
Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII
* 6 Family tree
* 7 Palaces of the Nizams
* 8 Major Contributions to their State
* 9 End of the dynasty and removal of the last
* 10 Places and things named after the
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links
ORIGIN OF THE TITLE
Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in
Urdu around 1600 to mean
_Governor of the realm_ or _Deputy for the Whole Empire_. The word is
derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (11
April 1018 – 14 October 1092), better known by his honorific title
Nizam al-Mulk (Arabic: نظامالملک, "Order of the
Realm"), Nizām (نظام), meaning _order, arrangement_. The Nizam
was referred to as
Ala Hadrat / Ala Hazrat or
Nizam Sarkar, meaning
His Exalted Highness.
REIGN OF THE NIZAMS
Nizam ruled on behalf of the Mughal emperors . After the
Aurangzeb , the Nizams split from the Mughals to form an
independent kingdom. When the British achieved paramountcy over India,
the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as
client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over
until 17 September 1948 when
Hyderabad was integrated into the new
Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a
period of 13 years after the rule of the first
Nizam when three of his
sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were not
officially recognised as the rulers.
By tradition no
Nizam has ever left India no matter how good a reason
might exist for doing so, as it was said, "the
Sovereign is too
precious to his people ever to leave India." After the
the next group in the hierarchy was the
Paigah family . The royal
family had matrimonial relations only with them and were the closest
group of nobles during the Nizam's period.
The Nizam's of
Hyderabad throne in
During the period of
Hyderabad State became the richest.
Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and his family including Salar Jung I
were taught by Nawab Sarwar Ul Mulk and Agha Mirza Baig Bahadur, who
was his political advisor, and the senior-most salute state among the
Indian princely states . It was spread over 223,000 km2 (86,000 sq mi)
in the Deccan, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The Nizams were
conferred with the title of His
Exalted Highness , and "Faithful Ally
of the British Government" by the imperial-colonial British government
for their collaborating role in the wars against
Tipu Sultan of
Mysore, the First war of Indian Independence of 1857–1858, becoming
the only Indian prince to be given both these titles. The rule of the
Nizams brought cultural and economic growth for
Hyderabad city. One
example of the wealth of
Nizam rule is the
Jewels of the Nizams ,
which is an international tourist attraction occasionally displayed in
Salar Jung Museum . In 1948
Hyderabad state had an estimated
population of 17 million (1.7 crore ), and it generated an estimated
annual revenue of £90,029,000. The state had its own currency known
Hyderabadi rupee , until 1951. The pace at which the last
Mir Osman Ali Khan
Mir Osman Ali Khan amassed wealth made him one of the world's
richest men in 1937 and he was also known for his miserliness. He was
estimated to be worth ₹660 crores (roughly US$2 billion by the then
exchange rates). According to the _
Forbes All-Time Wealthiest List_
Mir Osman Ali Khan
Mir Osman Ali Khan is the fifth richest man in recorded
history per the figures, with an estimated worth of US$210.8 billion
Forbes as per the growth of the US GDP since that period
and the present exchange-rate of the US dollar against the Indian
rupee. The Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of the
dynasty including hospitals and schools, colleges, universities that
imparted education in Urdu. Inspired by the
Indian Civil Service ,
the Nizams established their own local
Hyderabad Civil Service . They
were great engineers: for example, they built large reservoirs. Survey
work on the
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was initiated during this time,
although the actual work was actually completed under the aegis of the
Government of India in 1969.
LIST OF NIZAMS OF HYDERABAD (1724–1948)
DATE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH
NIZAM-UL-MULK, ASAF JAH I
نظامالملک آصف جاہ MIR QAMAR-UD-DIN KHAN
20 August 1671
31 July 1724
1 June 1748
نصیرجنگ MIR AHMED ALI KHAN
26 February 1712
1 June 1748
16 December 1750
مظفرجنگ MIR HIDAYAT MUHI-UD-DIN SA\\'ADULLAH KHAN
16 December 1750
13 February 1751
صلابت جنگ MIR SA\\'ID MUHAMMAD KHAN
24 November 1718
13 February 1751
8 July 1762
(_deposed_) 16 September 1763
NIZAM-UL-MULK, ASAF JAH II
نظامالملک آصف جاہ دوم MIR NIZAM ALI KHAN
7 March 1734
8 July 1762
6 August 1803
SIKANDER JAH, ASAF JAH III
سکندر جاہ ،آصف جاہ تریہم MIR AKBAR ALI KHAN
11 November 1768
6 August 1803
21 May 1829
NASIR-UD-DAULA, ASAF JAH IV
ناصر الدولہ ،آصف جاہ چارہم MIR FARQUNDA ALI
25 April 1794
21 May 1829
16 May 1857
AFZAL-UD-DAULA, ASAF JAH V
افضال الدولہ ،آصف جاہ پنجم MIR TAHNIYATH ALI
11 October 1827
16 May 1857
26 February 1869
ASAF JAH VI
آصف جاہ شیشم MIR MAHBUB ALI KHAN
17 August 1866
26 February 1869
29 August 1911
ASAF JAH VII
آصف جاہ ہفتم MIR OSMAN ALI KHAN
6 April 1886
29 August 1911
17 September 1948
(_deposed_) 24 February 1967
DESCENDANTS OF THE LAST NIZAM, OSMAN ALI KHAN, ASIF JAH VII
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed . (July 2012)_ _(Learn how and when to
remove this template message )_
On 22 February 1937 a cover story by
TIME called Osman Ali Khan,
Asif Jah VII as the wealthiest man in the world
The last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII, had 28 sons and 44
Asaf Jah dynasty followed the Order of Precedence of
male primogeniture regardless of the mother's marital status or rank.
Among his children were
Azam Jah , Prince of Berar (21 February 1907
– 9 October 1970) the eldest son.
* _ I. ASAF JAH I , YAMIN US-SULTANAT, RUKN US-SULTANAT, JUMLAT
UL-MULK, MADAR UL-MAHAM, NIZAM UL-MULK, NIZAM UD-DAULA, KHAN-I-DAURAN,
NAWAB MIR GHAZI UD-DIN SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, FATH JANG, SIPAH SALAR,
NAWAB SUBADAR OF THE DECCAN, 1ST NIZAM OF HYDERABAD (CR. 1720) (20
August 1671 – 1 June 1748). A senior governor and counsellor in the
Imperial government. Defeated the Imperial forces on 19 June 1720 at
Hasanpur and formed an independent state of his own. Confirmed in his
possessions by Imperial firman _ and crowned on 31 July. Named
Vice-Regent of the
Mughal Empire by the Emperor Muhammad Shah on 8
February 1722, secured the province of Berar on 11 October 1724 and
Hyderabad City his new capital on 7 December 1724.
* _ II. HUMAYUN JAH, NIZAM UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR AHMAD \'ALI SIDDIQI,
KHAN BAHADUR, NASIR JANG, NAWAB SUBADAR OF THE DECCAN, 2ND NIZAM OF
HYDERABAD (26 February 1712 – k. by the Nawab of Kadapa 16 December
1750; r. 1 June 1748 – 16 December 1750).
* Sahibzadi Khair un-nisa Begum. Married Nawab Talib Muhi ud-din
Mutasawwil Khan Bahadur, Muzaffar Jang:
* III. NAWAB HIDAYAT MUHI UD-DIN SA\'ADU\'LLAH SIDDIQI, KHAN
BAHADUR, MUZAFFAR JANG, NAWAB SUBADAR OF THE DECCAN, 3RD NIZAM OF
HYDERABAD_ (k. by the Nawab of Kurnool 13 February 1751; r. 16
December 1750 – 13 February 1751).
* _ IV. AMIR UL-MAMALIK, ASAF UD-DAULA, NAWAB SAID MUHAMMAD
SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, ZAFFAR JANG, NAWAB SUBADAR OF THE DECCAN, 4TH
NIZAM OF HYDERABAD_ (November 1718 – 16 September 1763; r. 13
February 1751 – 8 July 1762). Deposed by his younger brother on 8
July 1762 and killed in prison the following year, aged 44.
* _ V. ASAF JAH II , NIZAM UL-MULK, NIZAM UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR NIZAM
\'ALI SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, FATH JANG, SIPAH SALAR, NAWAB SUBADAR OF
THE DECCAN, 5TH NIZAM OF HYDERABAD (7 March 1734 – 6 August 1803; r.
8 July 1762 – 6 August 1803)
* VI. ASAF JAH III , MUZAFFAR UL-MAMALUK, NIZAM UL-MULK, NIZAM
UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR AKBAR \'ALI SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, FULAD JANG, 6TH
NIZAM OF HYDERABAD (11 November 1768 – 21 May 1829; r. 6 August 1803
– 21 May 1829). The first of the dynasty to be officially granted
the title of Nizam_.
* _ VII. RUSTAM-I-DAURAN, ARISTU-I-ZAMAN, ASAF JAH IV , MUZAFFAR
UL-MAMALUK, NIZAM UL-MULK, NIZAM UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR FARKHANDA \'ALI
SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR , SIPAH SALAR, FATH JANG, AYN WAFFADAR
FIDVI-I-SENLIENA, IQTIDAR-I-KISHWARSITAN MUHAMMAD AKBAR SHAH
PADSHAH-I-GHAZI, 7TH NIZAM OF HYDERABAD (25 April 1794 – 16 May
1857; r. 21 May 1829 – 16 May 1857).
* VIII. ASAF JAH V , NIZAM UL-MULK, AFZAL UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR
TAHNIYAT \'ALI SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, 8TH NIZAM OF HYDERABAD,
October 1827 – 26 February 1869; r. 16 May 1857 – 26 February
1869). The first of the dynasty to come under British rule.
* IX. RUSTAM-I-DAURAN, ARUSTU-I-ZAMAN, WAL MAMALUK, ASAF JAH VI ,
MUZAFFAR UL-MAMALUK, NIZAM UL-MULK, NIZAM UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR MAHBUB
\'ALI SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, SIPAH SALAR, FATH JANG, 9TH NIZAM OF
HYDERABAD GCB ,
GCSI (17 August 1866 – 31 August 1911; r. 26
February 1869 – 31 August 1911). Succeeded his father on 26 February
1869, ruled under a regency until 5 February 1884, when he was
invested with full ruling powers by the
Viceroy of India.
* X. RUSTAM-I-DAURAN, ARUSTU-I-ZAMAN, WAL MAMALUK, ASAF JAH VII ,
MUZAFFAR UL-MAMALUK, NIZAM UL-MULK, NIZAM UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR OSMAN
‘ALI SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, SIPAH SALAR, FATH JANG, FAITHFUL ALLY OF
THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, 10TH NIZAM OF HYDERABAD AND OF BERAR
Royal Victorian Chain , MP (6 April 1886 – 24 January 1967; r.
31 August 1911 – 26 January 1950). Granted the style of His Exalted
Highness_ (1 January 1918), the title of _Faithful Ally of the British
Government_ (24 January 1918) and _
Hyderabad and of Berar_
(13 November 1936). The last of the ruling Nizams; ruled absolutely
from his accession until 19 September 1948, when the state was
formally annexed to the
Union of India . Maintained semi-ruling and
semi-autonomous status from then until 23 November 1949, when he
accepted the paramountcy of the new Indian government and Constitution
and acceded to the Union. Formally lost his sovereignty, ending 230
years of Asaf Jahi rule, upon the formal promulgation of the
Constitution on 26 January 1950. Served as _
Rajpramukh _ of the new
Hyderabad State from 26 January 1950 until 31 October 1956, when the
post was abolished. Served as a titular monarch from 26 January 1950
until his death.
Azam Jah , Prince of Berar
GBE (21 February 1907 – 9
October 1970). Granted the title of _His Highness the Prince of Berar_
(13 November 1936). Passed over in the line of succession in 1967 in
favour of his elder son.
* XI. RUSTAM-I-DAURAN, ARUSTU-I-ZAMAN, WAL MAMALUK, ASAF JAH VIII,
MUZAFFAR UL-MAMALUK, NIZAM UL-MULK, NIZAM UD-DAULA, NAWAB MIR BARAKAT
‘ALI SIDDIQI, KHAN BAHADUR, SIPAH SALAR, FATH JANG, 11TH NIZAM OF
HYDERABAD AND BERAR (b. 6 October 1933; 11th Nizam: 24 January 1967
– 28 December 1971; dynastic head and pretender since then).
* Azmat Jah, Nawab Mir Muhammad Azmat ‘Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur
(b. 23 June 1960; appointed Prince of Berar and heir apparent: 2002)
The Nizam's daughters had been married traditionally to young men of
Paigah family . This family belonged to the Sunni sect, and from
the second Nizam's time they had been personal bodyguards of the
_italics_ – Considered pretenders by most historians; refrained
from exercising traditional authority during their reigns.
PALACES OF THE NIZAMS
The Asaf Jahis were prolific builders. Several palaces of the Nizams
King Kothi Palace
Hyderabad House , New Delhi.
* Bella Vista
Hill Fort Palace
* Khilwath Palace
Other landmarks include the
High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad ,
City College , Public Gardens, also known as Bagh-e-aam , Jubilee Hall
, Asafia library , The Assembly building ,
Niloufer Hospital , the
Osmania Arts College and the
Osmania Medical College are among their
The Nizams liked the European style of architecture and created a
fusion of European traditions with
Islamic forms and motifs
MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO THEIR STATE
THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (March 2017)_
END OF THE DYNASTY AND REMOVAL OF THE LAST NIZAM
Hyderabad Campaign (1948)
General El Edroos (at
right) offers his surrender of the
Hyderabad State Forces to Major
General (later General and Army Chief)
Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri at
Independence of India in 1947, the
Nizam of Hyderabad
initially chose to join neither India nor Pakistan. He later declared
Hyderabad a free, self-governing independent state but the Government
of India, desirous of ending marginalization of the population under
Nizam, refused to accept his point of view citing as reasons:
Hyderabad being surrounded by India on all sides and not having an
access to the sea. After extensive attempts by India to persuade the
Nizam to accede to India failed, the Indian government finally
launched a military operation named
Operation Polo to overthrow his
rule. When the
Indian Army invaded his princely State on 13 September
1948, his overwhelmingly untrained forces were unable to withstand the
Indian army and were defeated. The
Nizam capitulated in surrendering
his forces on 17 September 1948; that same afternoon he broadcast the
news over the State radio network. The
Nizam was forced to accept
accession to the new Republic of India. His abdication on 17 September
1948 marked the end of the dynasty's ambitions. Mir Osman Ali Khan,
the last Nizam, died on Friday 24 February 1967. All the Nizams are
buried in royal graves at the Makkah Masjid near
Hyderabad excepting the last,
Mir Osman Ali Khan
Mir Osman Ali Khan , who wished to be
buried beside his mother, in the graveyard of
Judi Mosque facing King
Kothi Palace opposite, befitting the rulers in time and place.
PLACES AND THINGS NAMED AFTER THE NIZAM
* Nizamabad , a city and district in state of Telangana
Jamia Nizamia university
* Nizam\'s Museum
* Nizam\'s Guaranteed State Railway
* Nizam\'s Institute of Medical Sciences
Jewels of the Nizams
Nizam , a Royal Australian Naval vessel named for the Nizam
prince who helped finance her construction
* History of
* History of
Salar Jung family
List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
* ^ "Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z". _google.com.pk_.
* ^ "The State at War in South Asia". _google.com.pk_.
* ^ Nath Sen, Sailendra. "Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96, Volume
* ^ "
Hyderabad Rulers with their Coinage details". Chiefacoins.com.
* ^ "Official Website of Indian Army". Retrieved 28 September 2014.
* ^ "
Hyderabad on the Net". Retrieved 28 September 2014.
* ^ "Top 10: Richest Men (of All Time)". _inStash_. Retrieved 28
* ^ "Hyderabad:silver jubilee durbar". _
Time (magazine) _. 22
February 1937. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Hyderabad:the holdout". _
Time (magazine) _. 30 August
1948. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Richest Indian in history!". _Daily Star (United
Kingdom) _. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2011. "Making money
the royal way". _
The Economic Times _. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 15
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Jewel in the crown: a palace fit for a Nizam".
The Guardian _. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
History of the rupee
* ^ Mahmood Bin, Muhammad (1999). _A policeman ponders: memories
and melodies of a varied life_. A.P.H.Publishing Corporation. p. 19.
ISBN 978-81-7648-026-0 .
* ^ Rann Singh, Mann (1996). _Tribes of India:ongoing challenges_.
MD Publication Pvt Ltd. p. 310. ISBN 81-7533-007-4 .
* ^ "hyder". Retrieved 28 September 2014.
* ^ http://joyhyderabad.com/web/history-of-hyderabad/
* Briggs, Henry George (1861). _The Nizam: His History and Relations
With the British Government, Volume 1_. London: B. Quaritch .
* Hastings, Fraser (1865). _Our Faithful Ally, the Nizam_. London:
Smith, Elder & Co.
* Lynton, Harriet Ronken; Rajan, Mohini (1974). _The Days of the
University of California Press . ISBN 0-520-02442-7 .
* Lynton, Harriet Ronken; Rajan, Mohini. _The Days of the Beloved_.
Berkeley University Press.
* Nayeem, M. A. _Mughal Administration of
Deccan Under Nizamul Mulk
Asaf Jah, 1720–48 A.D._ Indian Council of Historical Research,
University of Pune, Dept. of History.
* Ranga, Reddy A. (2003). _The state of Rayalaseema_. Naurang Rai,
Mittal Publication. p. 5. ISBN 978-81-7099-814-3 .
* P.V, Kate (1987). _
Marathwada Under the Nizams, 1724–1948_.
Mittal Publications. pp. 23–47. ISBN 81-7099-017-3 .
* Regani, Sarojini (1988) . _Nizam-British Relations, 1724–1857_.
New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-195-1 .
* Zubrzycki, John (2006). _The Last Nizam: An Indian Prince in the
Australian Outback_. Australia:
Pan Macmillan . ISBN 978-0-330-42321-2
Wikimedia Commons has media related to NIZAMS OF HYDERABAD _.
Asaf Jahi Dynasty with Genealogical Tree and Photos
* Detailed genealogy of the Nizams of Hyderabad
* Rare colour footage of