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Niue
Niue
(/ˈnjuːeɪ/ NEW-ay; Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres (101 sq mi)[7] and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016.[4] The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia".[8] Niue
Niue
is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres above sea level. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to Alofi. A notable feature are the many limestone caves near the coast. Niue, whose capital is the village of Alofi, is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand; and New Zealand
New Zealand
conducts most diplomatic relations (though not all) on its behalf. Niueans
Niueans
are citizens of New Zealand, and Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
is head of state in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand. Between 90–95% of Niuean people live in New Zealand,[9] along with about 70% of the speakers of the Niuean language.[10] A bilingual country, Niue
Niue
has over 30% of its population speak both Niuean and English, though the percentage of monolingual English-speaking people is only 11%, while 46% are monolingual Niuean speakers. Niue
Niue
is not a member of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN), but UN organisations have accepted its status as a freely-associated state as equivalent to independence for the purposes of international law.[11] As such, Niue is a full member of some UN specialised agencies (such as UNESCO,[12] and the WHO[13]), and is invited, alongside the other non-UN member state, the Cook Islands, to attend United Nations
United Nations
conferences open to "all states".[14] Niue
Niue
is subdivided into 14 villages (municipalities). Each village has a village council that elects its chairman. The villages are at the same time electoral districts; each village sends an assemblyman to the Parliament of Niue.[15] A small and highly democratic nation, Niueans
Niueans
enjoy high freedom, and elections are held every 3 years. In 2003, Niue
Niue
became the first country in the world to provide state-funded wireless internet to all inhabitants.[16][17] Niue
Niue
Island Organic Farmers Association is currently paving way to a Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEA) committed to making Niue
Niue
the world's first fully organic nation by 2020.[18][19][20] A leader in green growth, Niue
Niue
is also transitioning to solar power, with help from the European Union.[21][22] Niue
Niue
aims to become 80% renewable by 2025.[23][24][25] On the other hand, Niue
Niue
currently deals with one of the highest rates of greenhouse gas production per capita in the world (second only to Kuwait
Kuwait
and Brunei)[citation needed]. In 2015, Niue started providing phone landlines to all of its inhabitants. In 2008, Niue
Niue
became the first country in the world where laptops are provided to all school students.[26] In January 2004, Niue
Niue
was hit by Cyclone Heta, which caused extensive damage to the entire island, including wiping out most of the south of the capital, Alofi. The disaster set the island back about two years from its planned timeline to implement the Niue
Niue
Integrated Strategic Plan (NISP), since national efforts concentrated on recovery. In 2008, Niue
Niue
had yet to fully recover.

Contents

1 History 2 Politics 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Defence and foreign affairs 5 Economy

5.1 Revenue 5.2 Agriculture 5.3 Tourism

5.3.1 Sailing

5.4 Debt

6 Media 7 Information technology 8 Culture 9 Demographics

9.1 Population 9.2 Population growth rate 9.3 Nationality 9.4 Ethnic groups 9.5 Religions 9.6 Languages

10 Renewable energy 11 Sport 12 Notable people 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Niue Polynesians
Polynesians
from Samoa
Samoa
settled Niue
Niue
around 900 AD. Further settlers arrived from Tonga
Tonga
in the 16th century.[27] Until the beginning of the 18th century, Niue
Niue
appears to have had no national government or national leader; chiefs and heads of families exercised authority over segments of the population. Around 1700 the concept and practice of kingship appears to have originated through contact with the Tongans who settled around the 1600s.[citation needed] A succession of patu-iki (kings) ruled, beginning with Puni-mata. Tui-toga, who reigned from 1875 to 1887, was the first Christian
Christian
king.[28] The first Europeans
Europeans
to sight Niue
Niue
sailed under Captain James Cook
James Cook
in 1774. Cook made three attempts to land, but the inhabitants refused to grant permission to do so. He named the island "Savage Island" because, as legend has it, the natives who "greeted" him were painted in what appeared to be blood. The substance on their teeth was hulahula, a native red fe'i banana.[29] For the next couple of centuries, Niue
Niue
was known as Savage Island until its original name, Niuē, which translates as "behold the coconut",[30] regained use. The next notable European visitors represented the London Missionary Society; they arrived on the Messenger of Peace. After many years of trying to land a European missionary, a Niuean named Nukai Peniamina went with his friend, Niumaga, to Samoa
Samoa
and trained as a pastor at the Malua
Malua
Theological College.[citation needed] Peniamina returned in 1846 on the John Williams as a missionary with the help of Toimata Fakafitifonua. He was finally allowed to land in Uluvehi Mutalau
Mutalau
after a number of attempts in other villages had failed. The chiefs of Mutalau
Mutalau
village allowed him to land and assigned over 60 warriors to protect him day and night at the fort in Fupiu.

Interior of church building in Alofi, 1896. Photo by Thomas Andrew (1855–1939).

In July 1849 Captain John Erskine visited the island in HMS Havannah.[31] Christianity was first taught to the Mutalau
Mutalau
people before it spread to all the villages. Originally other major villages opposed the introduction of Christianity and had sought to kill Peniamina. The people from the village of Hakupu, although the last village to receive Christianity, came and asked for a "word of God"; hence, their village was renamed "Ha Kupu Atua" meaning "any word of God", or "Hakupu" for short. In 1889 the chiefs and rulers of Niue, in a letter to Queen Victoria, asked her "to stretch out towards us your mighty hand, that Niue
Niue
may hide herself in it and be safe".[32] After expressing anxiety lest some other nation should take possession of the island, the letter continued: "We leave it with you to do as seems best to you. If you send the flag of Britain that is well; or if you send a Commissioner to reside among us, that will be well".[32] The British did not initially take up the offer. In 1900 a petition by the Cook Islanders asking for annexation included Niue
Niue
"if possible".[32] In a document dated 19 October 1901, the "King" and Chiefs of Niue
Niue
consented to " Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
taking possession of this island". A despatch to the Secretary of State for the Colonies
Secretary of State for the Colonies
from the Governor of New Zealand referred to the views expressed by the Chiefs in favour of "annexation" and to this document as "the deed of cession". A British Protectorate was declared, but it remained short-lived. Niue
Niue
was brought within the boundaries of New Zealand
New Zealand
on 11 June 1901 by the same Order and Proclamation as the Cook Islands. The Order limited the islands to which it related by reference to an area in the Pacific described by co-ordinates, and Niue, at 19.02 S., 169.55 W, lies within that area.[32] The New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament restored self-government in Niue
Niue
with the 1974 constitution, following a referendum in 1974 in which Niueans
Niueans
had three options: independence, self-government or continuation as a New Zealand territory. The majority selected self-government, and Niue's written constitution[33] was promulgated as supreme law. Robert Rex, ethnically part European, part native, was appointed[by whom?] the first premier, a position he held until his death 18 years later. Rex became the first Niuean to receive a knighthood – in 1984. In January 2004 Cyclone Heta
Cyclone Heta
hit Niue, killing two people and causing extensive damage to the entire island, including wiping out most of the south of the capital, Alofi. Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Niue The Niue Constitution Act
Niue Constitution Act
vests executive authority in Her Majesty the Queen in Right of New Zealand
New Zealand
and the Governor-General of New Zealand. The Constitution specifies that in everyday practice sovereignty is exercised by the Niue
Niue
Cabinet of Ministers, composed of the premier and three other ministers. The premier and ministers are members of the Niue
Niue
Legislative Assembly, the nation's parliament. The assembly consists of 20 elected members, 14 of whom are elected by the electors of each village constituency, six by all registered voters in all constituencies.[34] Electors must be New Zealand citizens, resident for at least three months, and candidates must be electors and resident for 12 months. Everyone born in Niue
Niue
must register on the electoral roll.[citation needed] There are no political parties in Niue; all assembly members are independents. The last and only Niuean political party to have ever existed, the Niue People's Party (1987–2003), won once (in 2002) before being disbanded the following year.[35] The Speaker is elected by the assembly and is the first official to be elected in the first sitting of the Legislative Assembly following an election. The Speaker calls for nominations for premier; the candidate with the most votes from the 20 members is elected. The premier selects three other members to form the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive arm of government. The other two organs of government, following the Westminster model, are the Legislative Assembly and the Judiciary. General elections take place every three years, most recently on 6 May 2017. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. There are a High Court and a Court of Appeal, with appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
in London.[36] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Niue See also: List of villages in Niue

Map of Niue

Satellite image of Niue
Niue
in the Pacific Ocean

Niue
Niue
is a 269 km2 (104 sq mi) raised coral atoll in the southern Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga. The geographic co-ordinates are 19°03′48″S 169°52′11″W / 19.06333°S 169.86972°W / -19.06333; -169.86972.[37] There are three outlying coral reefs within the Exclusive Economic Zone, with no land area:

Beveridge Reef, at 20°00′S, 167°48′W, 240 km (150 mi) southeast, submerged atoll drying during low tide, 9.5 km (5.9 mi) north-south, 7.5 km (4.7 mi) East-West, total area 56 km2 (22 sq mi), no land area, lagoon 11 metres (36 ft) deep. Antiope Reef, at 18°15′S, 168°24′W, 180 km (110 mi) northeast, a circular plateau approximately 400 metres (1,300 ft) in diameter, with a least depth of 9.5 metres (31 ft). Haran Reef
Reef
(Harans Reef), at 21°33′S, 168°55′W, reported to break furiously, 294 km (183 mi) southeast,

Besides these, Albert Meyer Reef, (20°53′S, 172°19′W, almost 5 km (3.1 mi) long and wide, least depth 3 m (9.8 ft), 326 km (203 mi) southwest) is not officially claimed by Niue, and the existence of Haymet Rocks
Haymet Rocks
(26°S, 160°W, 1,273 km (791 mi) ESE) is in doubt. Niue
Niue
is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres (200 ft) above sea level. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi. A notable feature is the number of limestone caves near the coast. The island is roughly oval in shape (with a diameter of about 18 kilometres (11 mi)), with two large bays indenting the western coast, Alofi
Alofi
Bay in the centre and Avatele
Avatele
Bay in the south. Between these is the promontory of Halagigie Point. A small peninsula, TePā Point (Blowhole Point), is close to the settlement of Avatele
Avatele
in the southwest. Most of the population resides close to the west coast, around the capital, and in the northwest. Some of the soils are geochemically very unusual. They are extremely weathered tropical soils, with high levels of iron and aluminium oxides (oxisol) and mercury, and they contain high levels of natural radioactivity. There is almost no uranium, but the radionucleides Th-230 and Pa-231 head the decay chains. This is the same distribution of elements as found naturally on very deep seabeds, but the geochemical evidence suggests that the origin of these elements is extreme weathering of coral and brief sea submergence 120,000 years ago. Endothermal upwelling, by which mild volcanic heat draws deep seawater up through the porous coral, may also contribute.[38] No adverse health effects from the radioactivity or the other trace elements have been demonstrated, and calculations show that the level of radioactivity is probably much too low to be detected in the population. These unusual soils are very rich in phosphate, but it is not accessible to plants, being in the very insoluble form of iron phosphate, or crandallite. It is thought that similar radioactive soils may exist on Lifou
Lifou
and Mare near New Caledonia, and Rennell in the Solomon Islands, but no other locations are known. According to the World Health Organization, residents are evidently very susceptible to skin cancer. In 2002 Niue
Niue
reported 2,482 deaths per 100,000 people – far higher than any other country.[39] Niue
Niue
is separated from New Zealand
New Zealand
by the International Date Line. The time difference is 23 hours during the Southern Hemisphere winter and 24 hours when New Zealand
New Zealand
uses Daylight Saving Time.

Avatele
Avatele
beach

Coral
Coral
chasm

Niue's coastline

Natural stone arch

Climate[edit] The island has a tropical climate, with most rainfall occurring between November and April.

Climate data for Alofi

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 32 (90) 36 (97) 30 (86) 32 (90) 35 (95) 37 (99) 36 (97) 31 (88) 37 (99) 36 (97) 38 (100)

Average high °C (°F) 28 (82) 29 (84) 28 (82) 27 (81) 26 (79) 26 (79) 25 (77) 25 (77) 26 (79) 26 (79) 27 (81) 28 (82) 27 (81)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26 (79) 27 (81) 26 (79) 25 (77) 25 (77) 23 (73) 22 (72) 23 (73) 23 (73) 24 (75) 25 (77) 26 (79) 25 (77)

Average low °C (°F) 23 (73) 24 (75) 24 (75) 23 (73) 22 (72) 21 (70) 20 (68) 20 (68) 21 (70) 21 (70) 22 (72) 23 (73) 22 (72)

Record low °C (°F) 20 (68) 20 (68) 20 (68) 14 (57) 15 (59) 13 (55) 11 (52) 11 (52) 15 (59) 15 (59) 11 (52) 17 (63) 11 (52)

Average precipitation cm (inches) 26 (10.2) 25 (9.8) 30 (11.8) 20 (7.9) 13 (5.1) 8 (3.1) 9 (3.5) 10 (3.9) 10 (3.9) 12 (4.7) 14 (5.5) 19 (7.5) 207 (81.5)

Source: Weatherbase[40]

Defence and foreign affairs[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Niue

Premier Sir Toke Talagi
Toke Talagi
in Hawaii
Hawaii
in 2011.

Niue
Niue
has been self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 3 September 1974 when the people endorsed the Constitution in a plebiscite.[41] Niue
Niue
is fully responsible for its internal affairs. Niue's position concerning its external relations is less clear cut. Section 6 of the Niue Constitution Act
Niue Constitution Act
provides that: "Nothing in this Act or in the Constitution shall affect the responsibilities of Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand
New Zealand
for the external affairs and defence of Niue." Section 8 elaborates but still leaves the position unclear:

Effect shall be given to the provisions of sections 6 and 7 [concerning external affairs and defence and economic and administrative assistance respectively] of this Act, and to any other aspect of the relationship between New Zealand
New Zealand
and Niue
Niue
which may from time to time call for positive co-operation between New Zealand
New Zealand
and Niue
Niue
after consultation between the Prime Minister of New Zealand
New Zealand
and the Premier of Niue, and in accordance with the policies of their respective Governments; and, if it appears desirable that any provision be made in the law of Niue
Niue
to carry out these policies, that provision may be made in the manner prescribed in the Constitution, but not otherwise."

Niue
Niue
has a representative mission in Wellington, New Zealand. It is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
and a number of regional and international agencies. It is not a member of the United Nations, but is a state party to the United Nations
United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, the United Nations
United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Ottawa Treaty
Ottawa Treaty
and the Treaty of Rarotonga. The country is a member state of UNESCO
UNESCO
since 26 October 1993.[42] Traditionally, Niue's foreign relations and defence have been regarded as the responsibility of New Zealand. However, in recent years Niue has begun to follow its own foreign relations, independent of New Zealand, in some spheres. It established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China
China
on 12 December 2007.[43] The joint communique signed by Niue
Niue
and China
China
is different in its treatment of the Taiwan
Taiwan
question from that agreed by New Zealand
New Zealand
and China. New Zealand "acknowledged" China's position on Taiwan
Taiwan
but has never expressly agreed with it, but Niue
Niue
"recognises that there is only one China
China
in the world, the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
is an inalienable part of the territory of China."[43] Niue established diplomatic relations with India
India
on 30 August 2012.[44] On 10 June 2014 the Government of Niue
Niue
announced that Niue
Niue
had established diplomatic relations with Turkey. The Honourable Minister of Infrastructure Dalton Tagelagi formalised the agreement at the Pacific Small Island States Foreign Ministers meeting in Istanbul, Turkey. The Memorandum of Understanding with Turkey
Turkey
is part of increasing Niue's foreign relationship with countries including the People's Republic of China, India, Australia, Thailand, Samoa, Cook Islands and Singapore. The people of Niue
Niue
have fought as part of the New Zealand
New Zealand
military. In World War I, Niue
Niue
sent about 200 soldiers as part of the Māori Battalion in the New Zealand
New Zealand
forces.[45] Niue
Niue
is not a republic but its full name was listed as "the Republic of Niue" for a number of years on the ISO list of country names (ISO-3166-1). In its newsletter of 14 July 2011, the ISO acknowledged that this was a mistake and the words "the Republic of" were deleted from the ISO list of country names.[46] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Niue

Alofi, the capital of Niue.

Niue's economy is small. Its gross domestic product (GDP) was NZ$17 million in 2003,[47] or US$10 million at purchasing power parity.[48] Niue
Niue
uses the New Zealand
New Zealand
dollar. The Niue Integrated Strategic Plan (NISP) is the national development plan, setting national priorities for development. Cyclone Heta
Cyclone Heta
set the island back about two years from its planned timeline to implement the NISP, since national efforts concentrated on recovery efforts. In 2008, Niue
Niue
had yet to fully recover. After Heta the government made a major commitment to rehabilitate and develop the private sector.[citation needed] The government allocated $1 million[when?] for the private sector, and spent it on helping businesses devastated by the cyclone, and on construction of the Fonuakula Industrial Park. This industrial park is now completed and some businesses are already operating from there. The Fonuakula Industrial Park is managed by the Niue
Niue
Chamber of Commerce, a not-for-profit organisation providing advisory services to businesses. Joint ventures The government and the Reef
Reef
Group from New Zealand
New Zealand
started two joint ventures in 2003 and 2004 to develop fisheries and a 120-hectare noni juice operation.[49] Noni
Noni
fruit comes from Morinda citrifolia
Morinda citrifolia
a small tree with edible fruit. Niue
Niue
Fish Processors Ltd (NFP) is a joint venture company processing fresh fish, mainly tuna (yellow fin, big eye and albacore), for export to overseas markets. NFP operates out of a state-of-the-art fish plant in Amanau Alofi
Alofi
South, completed and opened in October 2004.[citation needed] Trade Niue
Niue
is negotiating free trade agreements with other Pacific countries, PICTA
PICTA
Trade in Services ( PICTA
PICTA
TIS), Economic Partnership Agreements with the European Union, and PACER Plus with Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. The Office of the Chief Trade Adviser (OCTA) has been set up to assist Niue
Niue
and other Pacific countries in the negotiation of the PACER Plus. Mining In August 2005, an Australian mining company, Yamarna Goldfields, suggested that Niue
Niue
might have the world's largest deposit of uranium. By early September these hopes were seen as overoptimistic,[50] and in late October the company cancelled its plans, announcing that exploratory drilling had identified nothing of commercial value.[51] The Australian Securities and Investments Commission
Australian Securities and Investments Commission
filed charges in January 2007 against two directors of the company, now called Mining Projects Group Ltd, alleging that their conduct had been deceptive and that they engaged in insider trading.[52] This case was settled out of court in July 2008, both sides withdrawing their claims.[53] Revenue[edit] Remittances from expatriates were a major source of foreign exchange in the 1970s and early 1980s. Continuous migration to New Zealand
New Zealand
has shifted most members of nuclear and extended families there, removing the need to send remittances back home. In the late 1990s, PFTAC conducted studies on the balance of payments,[54] which confirmed that Niueans
Niueans
are receiving few remittances but are sending more money overseas. Foreign aid Foreign aid has been Niue's principal source of income.[55] Although most aid comes from New Zealand, this is currently being phased out with reductions of NZ$250,000 each year. The country will need to rely more upon its own economy. The government generates some revenue, mainly from income tax, import tax and the lease of phone lines.[citation needed] Offshore banking The government briefly considered offshore banking. Under pressure from the US Treasury, Niue
Niue
agreed to end its support for schemes designed to minimise tax in countries like New Zealand. Niue
Niue
provides automated Companies Registration, administered by the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development. The Niue Legislative Assembly
Niue Legislative Assembly
passed the Niue Consumption Tax Act in the first week of February 2009, and the 12.5% tax on goods and services was expected to take effect on 1 April 2009. Income tax
Income tax
has been lowered, and import tax may be reset to zero except for "sin" items like tobacco, alcohol and soft drinks. Tax on secondary income has been lowered from 35% to 10%, with the stated goal of fostering increased labour productivity.[56] Internet In 1997, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), under contract with the US Department of Commerce, assigned the Internet Users Society- Niue
Niue
(IUS-N), a private nonprofit, as manager of the .nu top-level domain on the Internet. IUS-N's charitable purpose was – and continues to be – to use revenue from the registration of .nu domain names to fund low-cost or free Internet services for the people of Niue. In a letter to ICANN
ICANN
in 2007, IUS-N's independent auditors reported IUS-N had invested US$3 million for Internet services in Niue between 1999 and 2005 from .nu
.nu
domain name registration revenue during that period. In 1999, IUS-N and the Government of Niue
Niue
signed an agreement whereby the Government recognised that IUS-N managed the .nu ccTLD under IANA's authority and IUS-N committed to provide free Internet services to government departments as well as to Niue's private citizens. A newly elected government later disputed that agreement and attempted to assert a claim on the domain name, including a requirement for IUS-N to make direct payments of compensation to the Government.[57] In 2005, a Government-appointed Commission of Inquiry into the dispute released its report, which found no merit in the government's claims; the government subsequently dismissed the claims in 2007.[58] Starting in 2003, IUS-N began installing WiFi
WiFi
connections throughout the capital village of Alofi and in several nearby villages and schools, and has been expanding WiFi
WiFi
coverage into the outer villages since then, making Niue
Niue
the first WiFi
WiFi
Nation.[59] To assure security for Government departments, IUS-N provides the government with a secure DSL connection to IUS-N's satellite Internet link, at no cost. Agriculture[edit] Agriculture is very important to the lifestyle of Niueans
Niueans
and the economy, and around 204 square kilometres of the land area are available for agriculture.[60] Subsistence agriculture
Subsistence agriculture
is very much part of Niue's culture, where nearly all the households have plantations of taro.[61] Taro
Taro
is a staple food, and the pink taro now dominant in the taro markets in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia
Australia
is an intellectual property of Niue. This is one of the naturally occurring taro varieties on Niue, and has a strong resistance to pests. The Niue taro is known in Samoa
Samoa
as "talo Niue" and in international markets as pink taro. Niue
Niue
exports taro to New Zealand. Tapioca
Tapioca
or cassava, yams and kumara also grow very well,[62] as do different varieties of bananas. Coconut meat, passionfruit and limes dominated exports in the 1970s, but in 2008 vanilla, noni and taro were the main export crops. Most families grow their own food crops for subsistence and sell their surplus at the Niue
Niue
Makete in Alofi, or export to their families in New Zealand.[citation needed] Coconut crab, or uga, is also part of the food chain; it lives in the forest and coastal areas.[63] In 2003, the government made a commitment to develop and expand vanilla production with the support of NZAID. Vanilla
Vanilla
has grown wild on Niue
Niue
for a long time. Despite the setback caused by the devastating Cyclone Heta
Cyclone Heta
in early 2004, work on vanilla production continues. The expansion plan started with the employment of the unemployed or underemployed labour force to help clear land, plant supporting trees and plant vanilla vines. The approach to accessing land includes planning to have each household plant a small plot of around half to 1-acre (0.40 ha) to be cleared and planted with vanilla vines. There are a lot of planting materials for supporting trees to meet demand for the expansion of vanilla plantations, but a severe shortage of vanilla vines for planting stock. There are the existing vanilla vines, but cutting them for planting stock will reduce or stop the vanilla from producing beans. At the moment, the focus is in the areas of harvesting and marketing.[citation needed] The last agricultural census was in 1989.[64] Tourism[edit]

Avatele
Avatele
Beach

Tourism is one of the three priority economic sectors (the other two are fisheries and agriculture) for economic development. In 2006, estimated visitor expenditure reached $1.6 million making tourism a major industry for Niue. Niue
Niue
will continue to receive direct support from the government and overseas donor agencies. The only airport is Niue
Niue
International Airport. Air New Zealand
New Zealand
is the sole airline, flying twice a week from Auckland.[65] In the early 1990s Hanan International Airport was served by a local airline, Niue
Niue
Airlines, but it closed in 1992. There is a tourism development strategy to increase the number of rooms available to tourists at a sustainable level. Niue
Niue
is trying to attract foreign investors to invest in the tourism industry by offering import and company tax concessions as incentives. New Zealand businessman Earl Hagaman, founder of Scenic Hotel Group, was awarded a contract in 2014 to manage the Matavai Resort in Niue
Niue
after he made a $101,000 political donation to the National Party, which at that time led a minority government in New Zealand. The resort is subsidized by New Zealand, which wants to bolster tourism there. In 2015 NZ announced $7.5m in additional funding for expansion of the resort. The selection of the Matavai contractor was made by the Niue
Niue
Tourism Property Trust, whose trustees are appointed by NZ Foreign Affairs minister Murray McCully. Prime Minister John Key said he did not handle campaign donations, and that Niue
Niue
premier Toke Talagi
Toke Talagi
has long pursued tourism as a growth strategy. McCully denied any link between the donation, the foreign aid and the contractor selection.[66] Sailing[edit] The sailing season begins in May. Alofi
Alofi
Bay has many mooring buoys and yacht crews can lodge at Niue
Niue
Backpackers.[67] The anchorage in Niue is one of the least protected in the South Pacific. Other challenges of the anchorage are a primarily coral bottom and many deep spots.[68] Mooring buoys are attached to seine floats that support the mooring lines away from seabed obstructions.[69] Debt[edit] On 27 October 2016, Niue
Niue
officially declared that all its national debt was paid off, and that there was no longer any national debt in Niue.[70] The Government plans to spend money saved from servicing loans on increasing pensions, and offering incentives to lure expatriates back home. However, Niue
Niue
isn't entirely independent. New Zealand pays $14 million in aid each year and Niue
Niue
still depends on New Zealand. Premier Toke Talagi
Toke Talagi
said Niue
Niue
managed to pay off US$4 million of debt and had "no interest" in borrowing again, particularly from huge powers such as China.[71] Media[edit] Niue
Niue
has two broadcast outlets, Television Niue and Radio Sunshine, managed and operated by the Broadcasting Corporation of Niue, and one newspaper, the Niue
Niue
Star.[72] Information technology[edit]

Students
Students
using their OLPC laptops in the school yard.

The first computers were Apple machines brought in by the University of the South Pacific Extension Centre around the early 1980s. The Treasury Department computerised its general ledger in 1986 using NEC personal computers that were IBM PC XT compatible.[citation needed] The Census of Households and Population in 1986 was the first to be processed using a personal computer with the assistance of David Marshall, FAO Adviser on Agricultural Statistics, advising UNFPA Demographer Dr Lawrence Lewis and Niue
Niue
Government Statistician Bill Vakaafi Motufoou to switch from using manual tabulation cards. In 1987 Statistics Niue
Niue
got its new personal computer NEC
NEC
PC AT use for processing the 1986 census data; personnel were sent on training in Japan
Japan
and New Zealand
New Zealand
to use the new computer. The first Computer Policy was developed and adopted in 1988.[citation needed] In August 2008 it has been reported that all school students have what is known as the OLPC XO-1, a specialised laptop by the One Laptop
Laptop
per Child project designed for children in the developing world.[73] Niue was also a location of tests for the OpenBTS
OpenBTS
project, which aims to deliver low-cost GSM
GSM
base stations built with open source software.[74] In July 2011, Telecom Niue
Niue
launched pre-paid mobile services (Voice/EDGE – 2.5G) as Rokcell Mobile based on the commercial GSM
GSM
product of vendor Lemko. Three BTS sites will cover the nation. International roaming is not currently available. The fibre optic cable ring is now completed around the island (FTTC), Internet/ADSL services were rolled out towards the end of 2011.[citation needed] In January 2015 Telecom Niue
Niue
completed the laying of the fibre optic cable around Niue
Niue
connecting all the 14 villages, making land line phones and ADSL internet connection available to households. Culture[edit] See also: Music of Niue

Niuean dancers at the Pasifika Festival

Niue
Niue
is the birthplace of New Zealand
New Zealand
artist and writer John Pule. Author of The Shark That Ate the Sun, he also paints tapa cloth inspired designs on canvas.[75] In 2005, he co-wrote Hiapo: Past and Present in Niuean Barkcloth, a study of a traditional Niuean artform, with Australian writer and anthropologist Nicholas Thomas.[76] Taoga Niue is a new Government Department responsible for the preservation of culture, tradition and heritage. Recognising its importance, the Government has added Taoga Niue as the sixth pillar of the Niue Integrated Strategic Plan (NISP). Demographics[edit] The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.[77] Population[edit]

Year Population[citation needed]

1950 4,667

1960 4,830

1970 5,130

1980 3,402

1990 2,332

2000 1,900

2010 1,620

2014 1,190

Population growth rate[edit]

−0.03%

Nationality[edit]

Niuean(s) (noun) Niuean (adjective)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Niuean 67% Part-Niuean 13% Non-Niuean 20% (includes 12% European and Asian and 8% Pacific Islanders)

Religions[edit]

Protestant
Protestant
70%

Congregational Christian
Christian
Church of Niue
Niue
67% Seventh-day Adventist
Seventh-day Adventist
1% Presbyterian
Presbyterian
1% Methodist
Methodist
1%

Mormon
Mormon
10% Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
10% Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
2% Other 6% None 2%

Languages[edit]

Niuean (official) 46% (a Polynesian language
Polynesian language
closely related to Tongan and Samoan) Niuean and English 32% English (official) 11% Niuean and others 5%, Other 6%

Renewable energy[edit] The European Union
European Union
is helping Niue
Niue
convert to renewable energy. In July 2009 a solar panel system was installed, injecting about 50 kW into the Niue
Niue
national power grid. This is nominally 6% of the average 833 kW electricity production. The solar panels are at Niue High School (20 kW), Niue
Niue
Power Corporation office (1.7 kW)[78] and the Niue
Niue
Foou Hospital (30 kW). The EU-funded grid-connected PV systems are supplied under the REP-5 programme and were installed recently by the Niue
Niue
Power Corporation on the roofs of the high school and the power station office and on ground-mounted support structures in front of the hospital. They will be monitored and maintained by the NPC.[79] In 2014 two additional solar power installations were added to the Niue
Niue
national power grid, one funded under PALM5 of Japan
Japan
is located outside of the Tuila power station – so far only this has battery storage, the other under European Union
European Union
funding is located opposite the Niue
Niue
International Airport Terminal. Sport[edit] See also: Rugby union
Rugby union
in Niue

The Niue
Niue
sevens team performing a takalo

Despite being a small country, a number of sports are popular. Rugby union is the most popular sport, played by both men and women; Niue were the 2008 FORU Oceania Cup
FORU Oceania Cup
champions.[80] Netball
Netball
is played only by women. There is a nine-hole golf course at Fonuakula. There is a lawn bowling green under construction.[citation needed] Association Football is a popular sport, as evidenced by the Niue
Niue
Soccer Tournament, though the Niue national football team
Niue national football team
has played only two matches. Rugby league
Rugby league
is also a popular sport. Niue
Niue
Rugby League have only started making strides within the international arena since their first ever test match against Vanuatu, going down 22–20 in 2013. On 4 October 2014, the Niue
Niue
rugby league team record their first ever international test match win defeating the Philippines
Philippines
36–22. In May 2015, Niue
Niue
Rugby League recorded their second international test match win against the South African Rugby League side, 48–4. Niue
Niue
now sit 31st in the Rugby League World Rankings.

Notable people[edit]

Nahega Molifai Silimaka, matriarch and centenarian

See also[edit]

Geography portal Oceania
Oceania
portal

Outline of Niue Bibliography of Niue Cuisine of Niue Niuean diplomatic missions Transportation in Niue

References[edit]

^ "The World today" (PDF). UN . ^ "Repertory of Practice - Organs Supplement" (PDF) (8). UN: 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2013 . ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.  ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.  ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.  ^ "Introducing Niue". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2016-10-24.  ^ "QuickStats About Pacific Peoples". Statistics New Zealand. 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2011.  ^ Moseley, Christopher and R. E. Asher, ed. Atlas of the World's Languages (New York: Routelage, 1994) p. 100 ^ "Find a publication - New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry of Justice". www.justice.govt.nz.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
International Bureau of Education. Bureau international d'éducation. Oficina Internacional de Educacion. IBE. BIE. OIE. - UNESCO.org : Niue". unesco.org.  ^ "List of member countries of the World Health Organisation".  ^ "Pacific Climate Change: Niue
Niue
urges world leaders to leave legacy of action at climate conference". climatepasifika.blogspot.com.br.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2017.  ^ "Light Reading – Networking the Telecom Industry". Unstrung.com. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Creating a Wireless Nation, IUSN White Paper, July 2003 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ https://pafpnet.spc.int/attachments/article/776/Niue-Agriculture-Sector-Plan-2015-19.pdf ^ " Niue
Niue
Island Organic Farmers Association - PoetCom". www.organicpasifika.com.  ^ " Niue
Niue
- Tuila Office Tuila overview". Sunnyportal.com. Retrieved 2017-08-23.  ^ "EEAS - European External Action Service - European Commission". EEAS - European External Action Service. Retrieved 23 August 2017.  ^ http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Niue/1/Niue%20INDC%20Final.pdf ^ http://prdrse4all.spc.int/system/files/niue_strategic_energy_road_map_2015-2025_updated_3.pdf ^ " Niue
Niue
to embrace more solar and wind power". 3 November 2015.  ^ "BBC News - One laptop for every Niuean child". news.bbc.co.uk.  ^ "Niue". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ Smith, S Percy (1903). "Niuē-fekai (or Savage) Island and its People". pp. 36–44  ^ Horowitz, Anthony 'Tony' (2002). "8". Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before . ^ Marks, Kathy (9 July 2008). "World's smallest state aims to become the first smoke-free paradise island". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 July 2008.  ^ "The Church Missionary Gleaner, October 1853". Savage Island. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 18 October 2015. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b c d Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. p. 897 ^ "Constitution Act 1974". Paclii.org. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ "Niue's Government and Politics". www.niuegov.com. Retrieved 19 October 2017.  ^ "Niue's only party dissolved". Rnzi.com. 21 July 2003. Retrieved 2017-08-23.  ^ "Niuean criminal court system". Association of Commonwealth Criminal Lawyers. Retrieved 29 December 2010.  ^ Jacobson G, Hill PJ (1980) Hydrogeology of a raised coral atoll, Niue
Niue
Island, South Pacific Ocean. Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, 5 271–278. ^ Whitehead, N. E.; J. Hunt; D. Leslie; P. Rankin (June 1993). "The elemental content of Niue
Niue
Island soils as an indicator of their origin" (PDF). New Zealand
New Zealand
Journal of Geology & Geophysics. 36 (2): 243–255. doi:10.1080/00288306.1993.9514572. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  ^ "UV radiation: Burden of disease by country". World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory Data Repository. 2002.  ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Alofi, Niue". Weatherbase. Retrieved 3 August 2009.  ^ Masahiro Igarashi, Associated Statehood in International Law, p. 167 ^ "UNESCO.ORG Communities Member States". Erc.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ a b "Full text of joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China
China
and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. 12 December 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2008.  ^ " India
India
establishes Diplomatic Relations with Niue". Ministry of External Affairs of India. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.  ^ Margaret Pointer (2000). Tagi tote e loto haaku – My Heart is Crying a Little: Niue
Niue
Involvement in the Great War 1914–1918. ISBN 978-982-02-0157-6.  ^ "ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-9 "Name changes for Fiji, Myanmar as well as other minor corrections" (Published 14 July 2011)" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2014.  ^ "Country Information Paper - Niue". New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 8 April 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2009.  ^ "Niue". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2 October 2008.  ^ " Reef
Reef
Group looks to NZ for help Niue
Niue
projects". Radio New Zealand. March 13, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "Yamarna loses passion for Niue's uranium]". The Age. 6 September 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-24.  ^ NIUE: No Mineable Uranium, Says Exploration Company, Pacific Magazine, 3 November 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-24. ^ "ASIC takes action against directors of Melbourne mining company" (Press release). Australian Securities and Investments Commission. 23 January 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007.  ^ "ASIC discontinues proceedings against directors of Melbourne mining company" (Press release). Australian Securities and Investments Commission. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008.  ^ "Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre". PFTAC. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.  ^ "12.5% Niue Consumption Tax from 1 April". Niue
Niue
Business News. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009.  ^ Rhoads, Christopher (29 March 2006). "On a tiny island, catchy Web name sparks a battle". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ " Niue
Niue
government criticised over internet stance". RNZI. 13 November 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ " WiFi
WiFi
Nation". WiFi
WiFi
Nation. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Niue, United Nations
United Nations
Food and Agriculture Organization, January 2009. ^ Pollock, Nancy J. (1979). "Work, wages, and shifting cultivation on Niue". Journal of Pacific Studies. Pacific Institute. 2 (2): 132–43.  ^ Agriculture Products, CIA World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. ^ Eagles, Jim (23 September 2010). "Niue: Hunting the uga". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ Niue
Niue
Agricultural Census 1989 – Main Results, United Nations
United Nations
Food and Agriculture Organization, 1989. ^ " Niue
Niue
Tourism – Official Website". Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2013.  ^ Jo Moir (April 18, 2016). "Foreign Affairs minister Murray McCully denies link between party donation and Niue
Niue
contract". Stuff. Retrieved April 19, 2016.  ^ "Sailing Season Commences on Niue
Niue
- Niue". Niueisland.com. Retrieved 2017-08-23.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ " Niue
Niue
Yacht Club – Damage NYC Mooring #10". Nyc.nu. Retrieved 2017-08-23.  ^ Roy, Eleanor Ainge (27 October 2016). "Land that debt forgot: tiny Pacific country of Niue
Niue
has no interest in loans". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-08-23.  ^ Roy, Eleanor Ainge (2016-10-27). "Land that debt forgot: tiny Pacific country of Niue
Niue
has no interest in loans". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-11-18.  ^ "Le Programme international pour le développement de la communication de l' UNESCO
UNESCO
soutient le journal de Niue", UNESCO, 16 July 2002 ^ "One laptop for every Niuean child". BBC News. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010.  ^ " Niue
Niue
Pilot System". Openbts.sourceforge.net. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ Whitney, Scott (1 July 2002). "The Bifocal World of John Pule: This Niuean Writer and Painter Is Still Searching For A Place To Call Home". Pacific Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008 . ^ " John Pule and Nicholas Thomas. Hiapo: Past and present in Niuean barkcloth". New Zealand: Otago University Press. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ "Australia-Oceania : NIUE". CIA The World Factbook.  ^ " Niue
Niue
– Tuila Office – Tuila overview". Sunny Portal. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ "Achievements for Niue". The European Commission's Delegation to the Pacific. Retrieved 31 July 2009.  ^ " Niue
Niue
take Oceania
Oceania
Cup rugby union final". Radio Australia. 1 September 2008. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. .

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of Niue

Hekau, Maihetoe & al., Niue: A History of the Island, Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies (USP) & the government of Niue, 1982 [no ISBN] Tregear, Edward, "Niue: or Savage Island", The Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol.2, March 1893, pp. 11–16 Niue, the Pacific island struggling to cope as its population plummets

External links[edit]

Find more aboutNiueat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Government

Niuean Government official site

General information

"Niue". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Niue
Niue
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Niue
Niue
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Niue

Travel

Niue
Niue
Tourism Office

Coordinates: 19°03′S 169°55′W / 19.050°S 169.917°W / -19.050; -169.917

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v t e

Administrative divisions of the Realm of New Zealand

Sovereign states  New Zealand      Cook Islands  Niue

Regions 11 non-unitary regions 5 unitary regions Chatham Islands   Outlying islands outside any regional authority (the Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, and Subantarctic Islands) Ross Dependency  Tokelau 15 islands 14 villages

Territorial authorities 13 cities and 53 districts

Notes Some districts lie in more than one region These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one Special
Special
territorial authority The outlying Solander Islands
Solander Islands
form part of the Southland Region New Zealand's Antarctic territory Non-self-governing territory of New Zealand States in free association with New Zealand

v t e

Realm of New Zealand

 Cook Islands  New Zealand  Niue Ross Dependency  Tokelau

v t e

Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF)

Members

Australia Cook Islands Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Niue Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associate members

French Polynesia New Caledonia

Observers

Commonwealth of Nations East Timor Tokelau United Nations Wallis and Futuna Guam American Samoa Northern Mariana Islands Asian Development Bank Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)

Dialogue partners

Canada China Cuba European Union France India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea Malaysia Philippines Spain Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States

Meetings

45th

Articles relating to Niue's locale

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Polynesia

Polynesian triangle

Cook Islands Easter Island French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotus

Hawaiian Islands New Zealand Niue Pitcairn Islands Rotuma Sala y Gómez Samoan Islands Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
Islands

Polynesian outliers

Aniwa Anuta Emae Futuna Kapingamarangi Loyalty Islands Mele Nuguria Nukumanu Nukuoro Ontong Java Ouvéa Pileni Rennell Sikaiana Takuu Tikopia

Polynesian-influenced

Lau Islands

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Countries and territories of Oceania

Sovereign states

Entire

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

In part

Chile

Easter Island Juan Fernández Islands

Indonesia

West Papua Papua

Japan

Bonin Islands Minami-Tori-Shima

United States

Hawaii Palmyra Atoll

Associated states of New Zealand

Niue Cook Islands

Dependencies and other territories

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coral
Coral
Sea Islands Norfolk Island

United States

American Samoa Baker Island Guam Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

New Zealand

Tokelau

France

French Polynesia New Caledonia Wallis and Futuna

United Kingdom

Pitcairn Islands

v t e

Culture of indigenous Oceania

List of resources about traditional arts and culture of Oceania

Art

Ahu Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Hawaiʻi kapa (Hawaiʻi) Lei magimagi moai New Zealand

Māori

nguzu nguzu Oceania Papua New Guinea reimiro tā moko tabua ta'ovala tapa ["masi" (Fiji), "ngatu" (Tonga), "siapo" (Sāmoa), " ʻuha" (Rotuma)] tattoo tēfui tivaevae

Broad culture

areca nut kava, " ʻawa" (Hawaii), "yaqona" (Fiji), or "sakau" (Pohnpei) Kava
Kava
culture Lapita Māori Polynesia Polynesian navigation Sāmoa 'ava ceremony wood carving

Geo-specific, general

Australia

Australian Aboriginal astronomy)

Austronesia Caroline Islands, -Pwo Chatham Islands Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji

Lau Islands traditions and ceremonies

Guam Hawaiʻi

Lomilomi massage

Kiribati French Polynesia's Marquesas Islands Marshall Islands

Stick charts of

Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Norfolk Island Palau Papua New Guinea Pitcairn Islands Sāmoa Solomon Islands Tonga Torres Strait Islands Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna Yap

navigation Weriyeng navigation school

Canoes

Aboriginal Dugout Alingano Maisu Bangka Drua Dugout (boat) Hawaiʻiloa Hōkūleʻa Kaep Karakoa Malia (Hawaiian) Māori migration Outrigger Paraw Polynesian sailing Proa Vinta Waka

list

Walap

Dance

'Aparima cibi fara fire dancing firewalking haka hivinau hula kailao kapa haka Kiribati meke 'ote'a pa'o'a poi Rotuma siva Tahiti tāmūrē tautoga Tonga 'upa'upa

Festivals

Australia

Garma Festival

Hawaiʻi

Aloha Festivals Merrie Monarch Festival World Invitational Hula
Hula
Festival

Fiji New Zealand

Pasifika Festival

The Pacific Community

Festival of Pacific Arts

Papua New Guinea

Languages

by area

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Languages of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

by category

Languages of Oceania

Literature

v t e

Literature of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Music

Austral Islands
Austral Islands
(French Polynesia) Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji Guam Hawaiʻi Kiribati Lali Melanesia Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand

Māori

Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Polynesia Sāmoa Slit drum Solomon Islands Tahiti Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna

Mythology

Australian Aboriginal Fijian Hawaiian Mangarevan Maohi Māori Melanesian Menehune Micronesian Oceanian legendary creatures Polynesian Rapa Nui Samoan Tuvaluan Vanuatuan

Research

Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

People

Indigneous Australian Austronesian Bajau Chamorro Chatham Islander (Moriori or Rekohu) Fijian (iTaukei) Igorot Hawaiian (kānaka maoli) Māori Marshallese Melanesian Micronesian Negrito Norfolk Islander Papuan Polynesian Indigenous Polynesian (Mā’ohi) Rapa Nui Rotuman Ryukyuan Samoan (Tagata Māo‘i) Tahitian Taiwanese aborigines Tongan Torres Strait Islander Yami

Religion

v t e

Religion in Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Not included: Oceanian: cinema, (indigenous) currency, dress, folkore, cuisine. Also see Category:Oceanian culture.

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
Canada
and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada
Canada
in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland
Auckland
Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130229650 LCCN: n83232786 GND: 429352

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