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NIUE (/ˈnjuːeɪ/ _NEW-ay_ ; Niuean : _Niuē_) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean , 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand , and east of Tonga , south of Samoa and west of the Cook Islands . Its land area is 260 square kilometres (100 sq mi) and its population, predominantly Polynesian , was around 1,612 as of November 2016. The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia ".

Niue, whose capital is the village of Alofi , is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand ; and New Zealand conducts most diplomatic relations on its behalf. Niueans are citizens of New Zealand, and Queen Elizabeth II is head of state in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand . Between 90–95% of Niuean people live in New Zealand, along with about 70% of the speakers of the Niuean language . A bilingual country , Niue has over 30% of its population speak both Niuean and English , though the percentage of monolingual English-speaking people is only 11%, while 46% are monolingual Niuean speakers. Rugby is the most played sport in Niue. In October 2016, Niue officially declared that all its national debt was paid off, and that there was no longer any national debt in Niue.

Niue is not a member of the United Nations (UN), but UN organisations have accepted its status as a freely-associated state as equivalent to independence for the purposes of international law. As such, Niue is a full member of some UN specialised agencies (such as UNESCO , and the WHO ), and is invited, alongside the other non-UN member state, the Cook Islands , to attend United Nations conferences open to "all states". Niue is subdivided into 14 _villages_ (municipalities ). Each village has a village council that elects its chairman. The villages are at the same time electoral districts. Each village sends an assemblyman to the Parliament of Niue .

In 2003, Niue became the first country in the world to provide state-funded wireless internet to all inhabitants. Niue Island Organic Farmers Association is currently paving way to an MEA (Multilateral Environmental Agreement) committed to making Niue the world's first fully organic nation . A leader in green growth , Niue is also transitioning to solar power, with help from the European Union . On the other hand, Niue has currently one of the highest rates of greenhouse gasses production per capita in the world (second only to Kuwait and Brunei ). In 2015, Niue started providing phone landlines to all of its inhabitants. In 2008, Niue became the first country in the world where laptops are provided to all school students . A small and highly democratic nation , Niueans enjoy high freedom, and elections are held every 3 years . There are no political parties in Niue ; all assembly members are independents . The last political party, Niue People\'s Party (1987–2003), won once, but was subsequently disbanded in 2003.

In January 2004, Niue was hit by Cyclone Heta , which caused extensive damage to the entire island, including wiping out most of the south of the capital, Alofi . The disaster set the island back about two years from its planned timeline to implement the _Niue Integrated Strategic Plan _ (NISP), since national efforts concentrated on recovery. In 2008, Niue had yet to fully recover. Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres above sea level . A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to to Alofi. A notable feature are the many limestone caves found close to the coast.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Politics

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Defence and foreign affairs

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Revenue * 5.2 Agriculture

* 5.3 Tourism

* 5.3.1 Sailing

* 5.4 Debt

* 6 Media * 7 Information technology * 8 Culture * 9 Demographics * 10 Renewable energy * 11 Sport * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Niue

Polynesians from Samoa settled Niue around 900 AD. Further settlers arrived from Tonga in the 16th century.

Until the beginning of the 18th century, Niue appears to have had no national government or national leader ; chiefs and heads of families exercised authority over segments of the population. Around 1700 the concept and practice of kingship appear to have originated through contact with the Tongans who settled around the 1600s. A succession of _patu-iki_ (kings) ruled , beginning with Puni-mata. Tui-toga, who reigned from 1875 to 1887, was the first Christian king.

The first Europeans to sight Niue sailed under Captain James Cook in 1774. Cook made three attempts to land, but the inhabitants refused to grant permission to do so. He named the island "Savage Island" because, as legend has it, the natives who "greeted" him were painted in what appeared to be blood. The substance on their teeth was hulahula, a native red banana .

For the next couple of centuries, Niue was known as Savage Island until its original name, Niuē, which translates as "behold the coconut", regained use.

The next notable European visitors represented the London Missionary Society ; they arrived in 1846 on the _Messenger of Peace_. After many years of trying to land a European missionary, a Niuean named Nukai Peniamina was taken to Samoa and trained as a pastor at the Malua Theological College. Peniamina returned as a missionary with the help of Toimata Fakafitifonua. He was finally allowed to land in Uluvehi Mutalau after a number of attempts in other villages had failed. The chiefs of Mutalau village allowed him to land and assigned over 60 warriors to protect him day and night at the fort in Fupiu. Interior of church building in Alofi , 1896. _Photo by Thomas Andrew (1855–1939)._

In July 1849 Captain John Erskine visited the island in HMS _Havannah_ .

Christianity was first taught to the Mutalau people before it spread to all the villages; originally other major villages opposed the introduction of Christianity and had sought to kill Peniamina. The people from the village of Hakupu, although the last village to receive Christianity, came and asked for a "word of God"; hence, their village was renamed "Ha Kupu Atua" meaning "any word of God", or "Hakupu" for short.

In 1889 the chiefs and rulers of Niue, in a letter to Queen Victoria , asked her "to stretch out towards us your mighty hand, that Niue may hide herself in it and be safe". After expressing anxiety lest some other nation should take possession of the island, the letter continued: "We leave it with you to do as seems best to you. If you send the flag of Britain that is well; or if you send a Commissioner to reside among us, that will be well". The British did not initially take up the offer. In 1900 a petition by the Cook Islanders asking for annexation included Niue "if possible". In a document dated 19 October 1901, the "King" and Chiefs of Niue consented to "Queen Victoria taking possession of this island". A despatch to the Secretary of State for the Colonies from the Governor of New Zealand referred to the views expressed by the Chiefs in favour of "annexation" and to this document as "the deed of cession". A British Protectorate was declared, but it remained short-lived. Niue was brought within the boundaries of New Zealand on 11 June 1901 by the same Order and Proclamation as the Cook Islands. The Order limited the islands to which it related by reference to an area in the Pacific described by co-ordinates, and Niue, at 19.02 S., 169.55 W, lies within that area.

The New Zealand Parliament restored self-government in Niue with the 1974 constitution , following a referendum in 1974 in which Niueans had three options: independence, self-government or continuation as a New Zealand territory. The majority selected self-government, and Niue's written constitution was promulgated as supreme law. Robert Rex , ethnically part European, part native, was appointed the first premier , a position he held until his death 18 years later. Rex became the first Niuean to receive a knighthood – in 1984.

In January 2004 Cyclone Heta hit Niue, killing two people and causing extensive damage to the entire island, including wiping out most of the south of the capital, Alofi.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Niue

The Niue Constitution Act vests executive authority in Her Majesty the Queen in Right of New Zealand and the Governor-General of New Zealand . The Constitution specifies that in everyday practice sovereignty is exercised by the Niue Cabinet of Ministers , composed of the premier and three other ministers. The premier and ministers are members of the Niue Legislative Assembly , the nation's parliament.

The assembly consists of 20 elected members, 14 of whom are elected by the electors of each village constituency , six by all registered voters in all constituencies. Electors must be New Zealand citizens, resident for at least three months, and candidates must be electors and resident for 12 months. Everyone born in Niue must register on the electoral roll.

The Speaker is elected by the assembly and is the first official to be elected in the first sitting of the Legislative Assembly following an election. The Speaker calls for nominations for premier; the candidate with the most votes from the 20 members is elected. The premier selects three other members to form the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive arm of government. The other two organs of government, following the Westminster model , are the Legislative Assembly and the Judiciary. General elections take place every three years, most recently on 6 May 2017.

The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. There are a High Court and a Court of Appeal, with appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Niue See also: List of villages in Niue Map of Niue Coral chasm in Niue Niue's coastline

Niue is a 269 km2 (104 sq mi) raised coral atoll in the southern Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga. The geographic co-ordinates are 19°03′48″S 169°52′11″W / 19.06333°S 169.86972°W / -19.06333; -169.86972 . There are three outlying coral reefs within the Exclusive Economic Zone , with no land area:

* Beveridge Reef , at 20°00′S, 167°48′W, 240 km (150 mi) southeast, submerged atoll drying during low tide, 9.5 km (5.9 mi) north-south, 7.5 km (4.7 mi) East-West, total area 56 km2 (22 sq mi), no land area, lagoon 11 metres (36 ft) deep. * Antiope Reef, at 18°15′S, 168°24′W, 180 km (110 mi) northeast, a circular plateau approximately 400 metres (1,300 ft) in diameter, with a least depth of 9.5 metres (31 ft). * Haran Reef (Harans Reef), at 21°33′S, 168°55′W, reported to break furiously, 294 km (183 mi) southeast,

Besides these, Albert Meyer Reef, (20°53′S, 172°19′W, almost 5 km (3.1 mi) long and wide, least depth 3 m (9.8 ft), 326 km (203 mi) southwest) is not officially claimed by Niue, and the existence of Haymet Rocks (26°S, 160°W, 1,273 km (791 mi) ESE ) is in doubt.

Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres (200 ft) above sea level. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi. A notable feature is the number of limestone caves found close to the coast.

The island is roughly oval in shape (with a diameter of about 18 kilometres (11 mi)), with two large bays indenting the western coast, Alofi Bay in the centre and Avatele Bay in the south. Between these is the promontory of Halagigie Point. A small peninsula, TePā Point (Blowhole Point), is close to the settlement of Avatele in the southwest. Most of the population resides close to the west coast, around the capital, and in the northwest.

Some of the soils are geochemically very unusual. They are extremely highly weathered tropical soils, with high levels of iron and aluminium oxides (oxisol ) and mercury, and they contain high levels of natural radioactivity . There is almost no uranium , but the radionucleides Th-230 and Pa-231 head the decay chains . This is the same distribution of elements as found naturally on very deep seabeds, but the geochemical evidence suggests that the origin of these elements is extreme weathering of coral and brief sea submergence 120,000 years ago . Endothermal upwelling, by which mild volcanic heat draws deep seawater up through the porous coral, may also contribute.

No adverse health effects from the radioactivity or the other trace elements have been demonstrated, and calculations show that the level of radioactivity is probably much too low to be detected in the population. These unusual soils are very rich in phosphate , but it is not accessible to plants, being in the very insoluble form of iron phosphate , or crandallite. It is thought that similar radioactive soils may exist on Lifou and Mare near New Caledonia , and Rennell in the Solomon Islands , but no other locations are known.

According to the World Health Organization, residents are evidently very susceptible to skin cancer. In 2002 Niue reported 2,482 deaths per 100,000 people – far higher than any other country.

Niue is separated from New Zealand by the International Date Line . The time difference is 23 hours during the Southern Hemisphere winter and 24 hours when New Zealand uses Daylight Saving Time.

CLIMATE

The island has a tropical climate , with most rainfall occurring between November and April.

CLIMATE DATA FOR ALOFI

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 32 (90) 36 (97) 30 (86) 32 (90) 35 (95) 37 (99) 36 (97) 31 (88) 37 (99) 36 (97) 38 (100)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 28 (82) 29 (84) 28 (82) 27 (81) 26 (79) 26 (79) 25 (77) 25 (77) 26 (79) 26 (79) 27 (81) 28 (82) 27 (81)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 26 (79) 27 (81) 26 (79) 25 (77) 25 (77) 23 (73) 22 (72) 23 (73) 23 (73) 24 (75) 25 (77) 26 (79) 25 (77)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 23 (73) 24 (75) 24 (75) 23 (73) 22 (72) 21 (70) 20 (68) 20 (68) 21 (70) 21 (70) 22 (72) 23 (73) 22 (72)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 20 (68) 20 (68) 20 (68) 14 (57) 15 (59) 13 (55) 11 (52) 11 (52) 15 (59) 15 (59) 11 (52) 17 (63) 11 (52)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION CM (INCHES) 26 (10.2) 25 (9.8) 30 (11.8) 20 (7.9) 13 (5.1) 8 (3.1) 9 (3.5) 10 (3.9) 10 (3.9) 12 (4.7) 14 (5.5) 19 (7.5) 207 (81.5)

Source: Weatherbase

DEFENCE AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS

Main article: Foreign relations of Niue Premier Sir Toke Talagi in Hawaii in 2011.

Niue has been self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 3 September 1974 when the people endorsed the Constitution in a plebiscite. Niue is fully responsible for its internal affairs. Niue's position concerning its external relations is less clear cut. Section 6 of the Niue Constitution Act provides that: "Nothing in this Act or in the Constitution shall affect the responsibilities of Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand for the external affairs and defence of Niue." Section 8 elaborates but still leaves the position unclear:

Effect shall be given to the provisions of sections 6 and 7 of this Act, and to any other aspect of the relationship between New Zealand and Niue which may from time to time call for positive co-operation between New Zealand and Niue after consultation between the Prime Minister of New Zealand and the Premier of Niue , and in accordance with the policies of their respective Governments; and, if it appears desirable that any provision be made in the law of Niue to carry out these policies, that provision may be made in the manner prescribed in the Constitution, but not otherwise."

Niue has a representative mission in Wellington , New Zealand. It is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum and a number of regional and international agencies. It is not a member of the United Nations, but is a state party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change , the Ottawa Treaty and the Treaty of Rarotonga . The country is a member state of UNESCO since 26 October 1993.

Traditionally, Niue's foreign relations and defence have been regarded as the responsibility of New Zealand. However, in recent years Niue has begun to follow its own foreign relations, independent of New Zealand, in some spheres. It established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China on 12 December 2007. The joint communique signed by Niue and China is different in its treatment of the Taiwan question from that agreed by New Zealand and China. New Zealand "acknowledged" China's position on Taiwan but has never expressly agreed with it, but Niue "recognises that there is only one China in the world, the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China and Taiwan is an inalienable part of the territory of China." Niue established diplomatic relations with India on 30 August 2012. On 10 June 2014 the Government of Niue Press Release : Niue has now signed new diplomatic relations with Turkey. Honourable Minister of Infrastructure Dalton Tagelagi formalised the agreement over the weekend at the Pacific Small Island States, Foreign Ministers meeting in Istanbul, Turkey. The Memorandum of Understanding with Turkey, increases Niue's foreign relationship with countries including Peoples Republic of China, India, Australia, Thailand, Samoa, Cook Islands and Singapore.

The people of Niue have fought as part of the New Zealand military. In World War I , Niue sent about 200 soldiers as part of the Māori Battalion in the New Zealand forces.

Niue is not a republic but its full name was listed as "the Republic of Niue" for a number of years on the ISO list of country names (ISO- 3166-1 ). In its newsletter of 14 July 2011, the ISO acknowledged that this was a mistake and the words "the Republic of" were deleted from the ISO list of country names.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Niue Alofi , the capital of Niue.

Niue's economy is small. Its gross domestic product (GDP) was NZ$17 million in 2003, or US$10 million at purchasing power parity . Niue uses the New Zealand dollar.

The Niue Integrated Strategic Plan (NISP) is the national development plan, setting national priorities for development. Cyclone Heta set the island back about two years from its planned timeline to implement the NISP, since national efforts concentrated on recovery efforts. In 2008, Niue had yet to fully recover. After Heta the government made a major commitment to rehabilitate and develop the private sector. The government allocated $1 million for the private sector, and spent it on helping businesses devastated by the cyclone, and on construction of the Fonuakula Industrial Park. This industrial park is now completed and some businesses are already operating from there.The Fonuakula Industrial Park is managed by the Niue Chamber of Commerce, a not-for-profit organisation providing advisory services to businesses.

JOINT VENTURES

The government and the Reef Group from New Zealand started two joint ventures in 2003 and 2004 to develop of fisheries and a 120-hectare noni juice operation. Noni fruit comes from _Morinda citrifolia_ a small tree with edible fruit. Niue Fish Processors Ltd (NFP) is a joint venture company processing fresh fish, mainly tuna (yellow fin, big eye and albacore), for export to overseas markets. NFP operates out of a state-of-the-art fish plant in Amanau Alofi South, completed and opened in October 2004.

TRADE

Niue is negotiating free trade agreements with other Pacific countries, PICTA Trade in Services ( PICTA TIS ), Economic Partnership Agreements with the European Union , and PACER Plus with Australia and New Zealand. The Office of the Chief Trade Adviser (OCTA) has been set up to assist Niue and other Pacific countries in the negotiation of the PACER Plus.

MINING

In August 2005, an Australian mining company, Yamarna Goldfields, suggested that Niue might have the world's largest deposit of uranium. By early September these hopes were seen as overoptimistic, and in late October the company cancelled its plans, announcing that exploratory drilling had identified nothing of commercial value. The Australian Securities and Investments Commission filed charges in January 2007 against two directors of the company, now called Mining Projects Group Ltd, alleging that their conduct had been deceptive and that they engaged in insider trading . This case was settled out of court in July 2008, both sides withdrawing their claims.

REVENUE

Remittances from expatriates were a major source of foreign exchange in the 1970s and early 1980s. Continuous migration to New Zealand has shifted most members of nuclear and extended families there, removing the need to send remittances back home. In the late 1990s, PFTAC conducted studies on the balance of payments , which confirmed that Niueans are receiving few remittances but are sending more money overseas.

FOREIGN AID

Foreign aid has been Niue's principal source of income. Although most aid comes from New Zealand, this is currently being phased out with reductions of NZ$250,000 each year. The country will need to rely more upon its own economy. The government generates some revenue, mainly from income tax , import tax and the lease of phone lines.

OFFSHORE BANKING

The government briefly flirted with offshore banking, but, under pressure from the US Treasury , agreed to end its support for schemes designed to minimise tax in countries like New Zealand. Niue provides automated Companies Registration, administered by the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development . The Niue Legislative Assembly passed the Niue Consumption Tax Act in the first week of February 2009, and the 12.5% tax on goods and services was expected to come into effect on 1 April 2009. Income tax has been lowered, and import tax may be reset to zero except for "sin" items like tobacco, alcohol and soft drinks. Tax on secondary income has been lowered from 35% to 10%, with the stated goal of fostering increased labour productivity.

INTERNET

In 1997, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), under contract with the US Department of Commerce, assigned the Internet Users Society- Niue (IUS-N), a private nonprofit, as manager of the .nu top-level domain on the Internet. IUS-N's charitable purpose was – and continues to be – to use revenue from the registration of .nu domain names to fund low-cost or free Internet services for the people of Niue. In a letter to ICANN in 2007, IUS-N's independent auditors reported IUS-N had invested US$3 million for Internet services in Niue between 1999 and 2005 from .nu domain name registration revenue during that period. In 1999, IUS-N and the Government of Niue signed an agreement whereby the Government recognised that IUS-N managed the .nu ccTLD under IANA's authority and IUS-N committed to provide free Internet services to government departments as well as to Niue's private citizens. A newly elected government later disputed that agreement and attempted to assert a claim on the domain name, including a requirement for IUS-N to make direct payments of compensation to the Government. In 2005, a Government-appointed Commission of Inquiry into the dispute released its report, which found no merit in the government's claims; the government subsequently dismissed the claims in 2007. Starting in 2003, IUS-N began installing WiFi connections throughout the capital village of Alofi and in several nearby villages and schools, and has been expanding WiFi coverage into the outer villages since then, making Niue the first WiFi Nation. To assure security for Government departments, IUS-N provides the government with a secure DSL connection to IUS-N's satellite Internet link, at no cost.

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is very important to the lifestyle of Niueans and the economy, and around 204 square kilometres of the land area are available for agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is very much part of Niue's culture, where nearly all the households have plantations of taro . Taro is a staple food , and the pink taro now dominant in the taro markets in New Zealand and Australia is an intellectual property of Niue. This is one of the naturally occurring taro varieties on Niue, and has a strong resistance to pests. The Niue taro is known in Samoa as "talo Niue" and in international markets as pink taro. Niue exports taro to New Zealand. Tapioca or cassava, yams and kumara also grow very well, as do different varieties of bananas. Coconut meat , passionfruit and limes dominated exports in the 1970s, but in 2008 vanilla , noni and taro were the main export crops.

Most families grow their own food crops for subsistence and sell their surplus at the Niue Makete in Alofi, or export to their families in New Zealand. Coconut crab , or uga, is also part of the food chain ; it lives in the forest and coastal areas.

In 2003, the government made a commitment to develop and expand vanilla production with the support of NZAID . Vanilla has grown wild on Niue for a long time. Despite the setback caused by the devastating Cyclone Heta in early 2004, work on vanilla production continues. The expansion plan started with the employment of the unemployed or underemployed labour force to help clear land, plant supporting trees and plant vanilla vines. The approach to accessing land includes planning to have each household plant a small plot of around half to 1-acre (0.40 ha) to be cleared and planted with vanilla vines. There are a lot of planting materials for supporting trees to meet demand for the expansion of vanilla plantations, but a severe shortage of vanilla vines for planting stock. There are of course the existing vanilla vines, but cutting them for planting stock will reduce or stop the vanilla from producing beans. At the moment, the focus is in the areas of harvesting and marketing.

The last agricultural census was in 1989.

TOURISM

Avatele Beach

Tourism is one of the three priority economic sectors (the other two are fisheries and agriculture) for economic development. In 2006, estimated visitor expenditure reached $1.6 million making tourism a major industry for Niue. Niue will continue to receive direct support from the government and overseas donor agencies. The only airport is Niue International Airport . Air New Zealand is the sole airline, flying twice a week from Auckland . In the early 1990s Hanan International Airport was served by a local airline, Niue Airlines , but it closed in 1992.

There is a tourism development strategy to increase the number of rooms available to overseas tourists at a sustainable level. Niue is trying to attract foreign investors to invest in the tourism industry of Niue by offering import and company tax concessions as incentives. New Zealand businessman Earl Hagaman, founder of Scenic Hotel Group, was awarded a contract in 2014 to manage the Matavai Resort in Niue after he made a $101,000 political donation to the National Party, which leads a minority government in New Zealand. The resort is subsidized by New Zealand, which wants to build up the tourism industry there. In 2015 NZ announced $7.5m in additional funding for expansion of the resort. The selection of the Matavai contractor was made by the Niue Tourism Property Trust, whose trustees are appointed by NZ Foreign Affairs minister Murray McCully . Prime Minister John Key said he did not handle campaign donations, and that Niue premier Toke Talagi has long pursued tourism as a growth strategy. McCully denied any link between the donation, the foreign aid and the contractor selection.

Sailing

The sailing season begins in May. Alofi Bay has many mooring buoys and yacht crews can stay at Niue Backpackers. The anchorage in Niue is one of the least protected anchorages in the South Pacific. Other challenging characteristics of the anchorage are a primarily coral bottom and lots of deep spots. Fortunately, the mooring buoys are attached to seine floats that support the mooring lines away from seabed obstructions.

DEBT

Niue declared itself debt-free as of the 27th of October 2016. The Government plans to spend money saved from servicing loans on raising pensions and offering incentives to lure expatriates home. However, Niue isn't entirely independent. New Zealand pays $14 million in aid each year and Niue still depends on New Zealand. Premier Toke Talagi said Niue accomplished to pay off US$4 million of debt and had "no interest" in borrowing again, particularly from huge powers such as China.

MEDIA

Niue has two broadcast outlets, Television Niue and Radio Sunshine , managed and operated by the Broadcasting Corporation of Niue , and one newspaper, the _ Niue Star _.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Students using their OLPC laptops in the school yard.

The first computers were Apple machines brought in by the University of the South Pacific Extension Centre around the early 1980s. The Treasury Department computerised its general ledger in 1986 using NEC personal computers that were IBM PC XT compatible. The Census of Households and Population in 1986 was the first to be processed using a personal computer with the assistance of David Marshall , FAO Adviser on Agricultural Statistics, advising UNFPA Demographer Dr Lawrence Lewis and Niue Government Statistician Bill Vakaafi Motufoou to switch from using manual tabulation cards. In 1987 Statistics Niue got its new personal computer NEC PC AT use for processing the 1986 census data; personnel were sent on training in Japan and New Zealand to use the new computer. The first Computer Policy was developed and adopted in 1988.

In August 2008 it has been reported that all school students have what is known as the OLPC XO-1 , a specialised laptop by the One Laptop per Child project designed for children in the developing world. Niue was also a location of tests for the OpenBTS project, which aims to deliver low-cost GSM base stations built with open source software . In July 2011, Telecom Niue launched pre-paid mobile services (Voice/EDGE – 2.5G) as Rokcell Mobile based on the commercial GSM product of vendor Lemko. Three BTS sites will cover the nation. International roaming is not currently available. The fibre optic cable ring is now completed around the island (FTTC), Internet/ADSL services were rolled out towards the end of 2011.

In January 2015 Telecom Niue completed the laying of the fibre optic cable around Niue connecting all the 14 villages, making land line phones and ADSL internet connection available to households.

CULTURE

See also: Music of Niue Niuean dancers at the Pasifika Festival .

Niue is the birthplace of New Zealand artist and writer John Pule . Author of _The Shark That Ate the Sun_, he also paints tapa cloth inspired designs on canvas. In 2005, he co-wrote _Hiapo: Past and Present in Niuean Barkcloth_, a study of a traditional Niuean artform, with Australian writer and anthropologist Nicholas Thomas .

Taoga Niue is a new Government Department responsible for the preservation of culture, tradition and heritage. Recognising its importance, the Government has added Taoga Niue as the sixth pillar of the Niue Integrated Strategic Plan (NISP).

DEMOGRAPHICS

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook .

POPULATION

YEAR POPULATION

1950 4,667

1960 4,830

1970 5,130

1980 3,402

1990 2,332

2000 1,900

2010 1,620

2014 1,190

POPULATION GROWTH RATE

* −0.03%

NATIONALITY

* Niuean(s) (noun) * Niuean (adjective)

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Niuean 67% * part-Niuean 13% * non-Niuean 20% (includes 12% European and Asian and 8% Pacific Islanders )

RELIGIONS

* Protestant 70%

* Congregational Christian Church of Niue 67% * Seventh-day Adventist 1% * Presbyterian 1% * Methodist 1%

* Mormon 10% * Roman Catholic 10% * Jehovah\'s Witnesses 2% * Other 6% * None 2%

LANGUAGES

* Niuean (official) 46% (a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan ) * Niuean and English 32% * English (official) 11% * Niuean and others 5%, * Other 6%

RENEWABLE ENERGY

The European Union is helping Niue convert to renewable energy . In July 2009 a solar panel system was installed, injecting about 50 kW into the Niue national power grid. This is nominal 6% of the average 833 kW electricity production. The solar panels are at Niue High School (20 kW), Niue Power Corporation office (1.7 kW) and the Niue Foou Hospital (30 kW). The EU-funded grid-connected PV systems are supplied under the REP-5 programme and were installed recently by the Niue Power Corporation on the roofs of the high school and the power station office and on ground-mounted support structures in front of the hospital. They will be monitored and maintained by the NPC. In 2014 two additional solar power installations were added to the Niue national power grid, one funded under PALM5 of Japan is located outside of the Tuila power station – so far only this has battery storage, the other under European Union funding is located opposite the Niue International Airport Terminal.

SPORT

See also: Rugby union in Niue The Niue sevens team performing a takalo

Despite being a small country, a number of sports are popular. Rugby union is the most popular sport, played by both men and women; Niue were the 2008 FORU Oceania Cup champions. Netball is played only by women. There is a nine-hole golf course at Fonuakula. There is a lawn bowling green under construction. Association Football is a popular sport, as evidenced by the Niue Soccer Tournament , though the Niue national football team has played only two matches . Rugby league is also a popular sport. Niue Rugby League have only started making strides within the international arena since their first ever test match against Vanuatu, going down 22–20 in 2013. On 4 October 2014, the Niue rugby league team record their first ever international test match win defeating the Philippines 36–22. In May 2015, Niue Rugby League recorded their second international test match win against the South African Rugby League side, 48–4. Niue now sit 31st in the Rugby League World Rankings.

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Oceania portal

* Outline of Niue * Bibliography of Niue * Cuisine of Niue * Niuean diplomatic missions * Transportation in Niue

REFERENCES

* ^ "The World today" (PDF). UN . * ^ "Repertory of Practice - Organs Supplement" (PDF) (8). UN: 10 . * ^ http://www.geohive.com/cntry/niue.aspx * ^ " Niue Population (2016) - Worldometers". _www.worldometers.info_. Retrieved 2016-11-18. * ^ " Niue Population (2016) - Worldometers". _www.worldometers.info_. Retrieved 2016-11-18. * ^ "Introducing Niue". _Lonely Planet_. Retrieved 2016-10-24. * ^ "QuickStats About Pacific Peoples". Statistics New Zealand. 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2011. * ^ Moseley, Christopher and R. E. Asher, ed. _Atlas of the World's Languages_ (New York: Routelage, 1994) p. 100 * ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/oct/27/land-that-debt-forgot-tiny-pacific-country-of-niue-has-no-interest-in-loans * ^ http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/publications-archived/2000/pacific-peoples-constitution-report-september-2000/documents/Bibliography.doc * ^ " UNESCO International Bureau of Education. Bureau international d\'éducation. Oficina Internacional de Educacion. IBE. BIE. OIE. - UNESCO.org : Niue". _unesco.org_. * ^ "List of member countries of the World Health Organisation". * ^ "Pacific Climate Change: Niue urges world leaders to leave legacy of action at climate conference". _climatepasifika.blogspot.com.br_. * ^ http://www.paclii.org/nu/legis/num_act/nivco1967321/ Niue Village Councils Ordinance 1967 * ^ "Light Reading – Networking the Telecom Industry". Unstrung.com. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ Creating a Wireless Nation, IUSN White Paper, July 2003 * ^ http://capacity4dev.ec.europa.eu/acp-meas/document/niue-island-organic-farmers-association * ^ http://www.sunnyportal.com/Templates/PublicPageOverview.aspx?plant=08532994-451b-4b3b-a530-ca48b6ea4537&splang=en-US * ^ http://www.delfji.ec.europa.eu/en/achievements/niue.htm * ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7576573.stm * ^ http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?id=5526&op=read * ^ "Niue". Encyclopædia Britannica . 10 August 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2017. * ^ Smith, S Percy (1903). "Niuē-fekai (or Savage) Island and its People". pp. 36–44 * ^ Horowitz, Anthony 'Tony' (2002). "8". _Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before_ . * ^ Marks, Kathy (9 July 2008). "World\'s smallest state aims to become the first smoke-free paradise island". _ The Independent _. London. Retrieved 21 July 2008. * ^ "The Church Missionary Gleaner, October 1853". _Savage Island_. Adam Matthew Digital . Retrieved 18 October 2015. (Subscription required (help)). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _Commonwealth and Colonial Law_ by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. p. 897 * ^ "Constitution Act 1974". Paclii.org. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ "Niuean criminal court system". Association of Commonwealth Criminal Lawyers. Retrieved 29 December 2010. * ^ Jacobson G, Hill PJ (1980) Hydrogeology of a raised coral atoll, Niue Island, South Pacific Ocean. _Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics_, 5 271–278. * ^ Whitehead, N. E.; J. Hunt; D. Leslie; P. Rankin (June 1993). "The elemental content of Niue Island soils as an indicator of their origin" (PDF). _ New Zealand Journal of Geology ">(PDF) on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2007. * ^ "UV radiation: Burden of disease by country". World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory Data Repository. 2002. * ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Alofi, Niue". Weatherbase. Retrieved 3 August 2009. * ^ Masahiro Igarashi, _Associated Statehood in International Law_, p. 167 * ^ Section 8, Niue Constitution Act . * ^ "UNESCO.ORG Communities Member States". Erc.unesco.org. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Full text of joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency . 12 December 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2008. * ^ " India establishes Diplomatic Relations with Niue". Ministry of External Affairs of India. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012. * ^ Margaret Pointer (2000). _Tagi tote e loto haaku – My Heart is Crying a Little: Niue Involvement in the Great War 1914–1918_. ISBN 978-982-02-0157-6 . * ^ "ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-9 "Name changes for Fiji, Myanmar as well as other minor corrections" (Published 14 July 2011)" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2014. * ^ "Country Information Paper - Niue". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade . 8 April 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2009. * ^ "Niue". _World Factbook_. CIA. Retrieved 2 October 2008. * ^ " Reef Group looks to NZ for help Niue projects". _Radio New Zealand_. March 13, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2016. * ^ "Yamarna loses passion for Niue\'s uranium]". _The Age_. 6 September 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-24. * ^ NIUE: No Mineable Uranium, Says Exploration Company, Pacific Magazine, 3 November 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-24. * ^ "ASIC takes action against directors of Melbourne mining company" (Press release). Australian Securities and Investments Commission . 23 January 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007. * ^ "ASIC discontinues proceedings against directors of Melbourne mining company" (Press release). Australian Securities and Investments Commission . 4 July 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008. * ^ "Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre". PFTAC. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ http://www.aid.govt.nz/programmes/c-niue.html * ^ "12.5% Niue Consumption Tax from 1 April". Niue Business News. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. * ^ Rhoads, Christopher (29 March 2006). "On a tiny island, catchy Web name sparks a battle". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010. * ^ " Niue government criticised over internet stance". RNZI. 13 November 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010. * ^ " WiFi Nation". WiFi Nation. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Niue, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, January 2009. * ^ Pollock, Nancy J. (1979). "Work, wages, and shifting cultivation on Niue". _Journal of Pacific Studies_. Pacific Institute. 2 (2): 132–43. * ^ Agriculture Products, _CIA World Factbook_, Central Intelligence Agency. * ^ Eagles, Jim (23 September 2010). "Niue: Hunting the uga". _The New Zealand Herald _. Retrieved 30 October 2011. * ^ Niue Agricultural Census 1989 – Main Results, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 1989. * ^ " Niue Tourism – Official Website". Retrieved 4 June 2013. * ^ Jo Moir (April 18, 2016). "Foreign Affairs minister Murray McCully denies link between party donation and Niue contract". _Stuff_. Retrieved April 19, 2016. * ^ "Sailing Season Commences on Niue - Niue". _niueisland.com_. * ^ "sailwhisper.com". * ^ " Niue Yacht Club – Damage NYC Mooring #10". _nyc.nu_. * ^ Roy, Eleanor Ainge (2016-10-27). "Land that debt forgot: tiny Pacific country of Niue has no interest in loans". _The Guardian_. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 2016-11-18. * ^ "Le Programme international pour le développement de la communication de l\' UNESCO soutient le journal de Niue", UNESCO , 16 July 2002 * ^ "One laptop for every Niuean child". _BBC News_. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010. * ^ " Niue Pilot System". Openbts.sourceforge.net. Retrieved 26 June 2010. * ^ Whitney, Scott (1 July 2002). "The Bifocal World of John Pule: This Niuean Writer and Painter Is Still Searching For A Place To Call Home". _Pacific Magazine_ . * ^ " John Pule and Nicholas Thomas. Hiapo: Past and present in Niuean barkcloth". New Zealand: Otago University Press. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ "Australia- Oceania : NIUE". CIA The World Factbook. * ^ " Niue – Tuila Office – Tuila overview". Sunny Portal. Retrieved 26 June 2010. * ^ "Achievements for Niue". The European Commission's Delegation to the Pacific. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ " Niue take Oceania Cup rugby union final". Radio Australia. 1 September 2008. .

FURTHER READING

See also: Bibliography of Niue

* Hekau, Maihetoe & al., _Niue: A History of the Island_, Suva : Institute of Pacific Studies (USP ) padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutNIUEat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

Government

* Niuean Government official site_

General information

* "Niue". _ The World Factbook _. Central Intelligence Agency . * Niue from _UCB Libraries GovPubs_ * Niue at DMOZ * Wikimedia Atlas of Niue

Travel

* Niue Tourism Office

Other

* Niue Film Commission * Niue Island .nu portal for the people of Niue * Niue Island food and caves

Coordinates : 19°03′S 169°55′W / 19.050°S 169.917°W / -19.050; -169.917

* v * t * e

Niue topics

POLITICS

* Cabinet * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Free association * International recognition * Monarchy * Parliament * Premier

CULTURE

* Anthem * Demographics * Education * Flag * Language * Literature * Music * Mythology

* Sport

* rugby union * football

OTHER TOPICS

* History

* Geography

* climate * villages

* Economy (Coconut production , Fishing )

* telecommunications * transport

* Outline * Bibliography * Category * WikiProject

* v * t * e

Administrative divisions of the Realm of New Zealand

SOVEREIGN STATES New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

REGIONS 11 non-unitary regions 5 unitary regions Chatham Islands

Outlying islands outside any regional authority (the Kermadec Islands , Three Kings Islands , and Subantarctic Islands ) Ross Dependency Tokelau 15 islands 14 villages

TERRITORIAL AUTHORITIES 13 cities and 53 districts

NOTES Some districts lie in more than one region These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one Special territorial authority The outlying Solander Islands form part of the Southland Region New Zealand's Antarctic territory Non-self-governing territory of New Zealand States in free association with New Zealand

* v * t * e

Realm of New Zealand

* Cook Islands * New Zealand * Niue

* Ross Dependency * Tokelau

* v * t * e

Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)

MEMBERS

* Australia * Cook Islands * Fiji * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Micronesia * Nauru * New Zealand * Niue * Palau * Papua New Guinea * Samoa * Solomon Islands * Tonga * Tuvalu * Vanuatu

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

* French Polynesia * New Caledonia

OBSERVERS

* Commonwealth of Nations * East Timor * Tokelau * United Nations * Wallis and Futuna * Guam * American Samoa * Northern Mariana Islands * Asian Development Bank * Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)

DIALOGUE PARTNERS

* Canada * China * Cuba * European Union * France * India * Indonesia * Italy * Japan * Republic of Korea * Malaysia * Philippines * Spain * Thailand * Turkey * United Kingdom * United States

MEETINGS

* 45th

*

ARTICLES RELATING TO NIUE\'S LOCALE

* v * t * e

Polynesia

POLYNESIAN TRIANGLE

* Cook Islands * Easter Island

* French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotus

* Hawaiian Islands * New Zealand * Niue * Pitcairn Islands * Rotuma * Sala y Gómez * Samoan Islands * Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu * Wallis and Futuna Islands

POLYNESIAN OUTLIERS

* Aniwa * Anuta * Emae * Futuna * Kapingamarangi * Loyalty Islands * Mele * Nuguria * Nukumanu * Nukuoro * Ontong Java * Ouvéa * Pileni * Rennell * Sikaiana * Takuu * Tikopia

POLYNESIAN-INFLUENCED

* Lau Islands

* v * t * e

Countries and territories of Oceania

SOVEREIGN STATES

ENTIRE

* Australia * Federated States of Micronesia * Fiji * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * New Zealand * Palau * Papua New Guinea * Samoa * Solomon Islands * Tonga * Tuvalu * Vanuatu

IN PART

* Chile

* Easter Island * Juan Fernández Islands

* Indonesia

* West Papua * Papua

* Japan

* Bonin Islands

* United States

* Hawaii * Palmyra Atoll

Associated states of New Zealand

* Niue * Cook Islands

Dependencies and other territories

AUSTRALIA

* Ashmore and Cartier Islands * Coral Sea Islands * Kangaroo Island * Lord Howe Island * Macquarie Islands * Norfolk Island

UNITED STATES

* American Samoa * Baker Island * Guam * Howland Island * Jarvis Island * Johnston Atoll * Kingman Reef * Midway Atoll * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

NEW ZEALAND

* Auckland Islands * Bounty Islands * Chatham Islands * Campbell Island * Tokelau

OTHERS

* French Polynesia / New Caledonia / Wallis and Futuna

* France

* Pitcairn Islands

* UK

* v * t * e

Culture of indigenous Oceania

List of resources about traditional arts and culture of Oceania

ART

* Ahu * Australia * Austronesia * Cook Islands * Hawaiʻi * kapa (Hawaiʻi) * Lei * magimagi * Māori * moai * New Zealand * nguzu nguzu * Oceania * Papua New Guinea * reimiro * tā moko * tabua * ta\'ovala * tapa * tattoo * tēfui * tivaevae

BROAD CULTURE

* areca nut * kava, " ʻawa" (Hawaii) , "yaqona" (Fiji), or "sakau" (Pohnpei) * Kava culture * Lapita * Māori * Polynesia * Polynesian navigation * Sāmoa \'ava ceremony * wood carving

Geo-specific, general

* Australia * Australian Aboriginal astronomy * Austronesia * Caroline Islands , _- Pwo _ * Chatham Islands * Cook Islands * Easter Island

* Fiji

* _ Lau Islands _ * _traditions and ceremonies _

* Guam

* Hawaiʻi

* _ Lomilomi massage _

* Kiribati * French Polynesia\'s Marquesas Islands

* Marshall Islands

* _Stick charts of _

* Federated States of Micronesia * Nauru * New Caledonia * New Zealand * Niue * Norfolk Island * Palau * Papua New Guinea * Pitcairn Islands * Sāmoa * Solomon Islands * Tonga * Torres Strait Islands * Tuvalu * Vanuatu * Wallis and Futuna

* Yap

* _navigation _ * _ Weriyeng navigation school _

CANOES

* Aboriginal Dugout * Alingano Maisu * Drua * Dugout (boat) * Hawaiʻiloa * Hōkūleʻa * Malia (Hawaiian) * Māori migration * Outrigger * Polynesian sailing * Proa

* Waka

* list

* Walap

DANCE

* \ 'Aparima * cibi * fara * fire dancing * firewalking * haka * hivinau * hula * kailao * kapa haka * Kiribati * meke * \'ote\'a * pa\'o\'a * poi * Rotuma * siva * Tahiti * tāmūrē * tautoga * Tonga * \'upa\'upa

FESTIVALS

* Australia

* Garma Festival

* Hawaiʻi

* Aloha Festivals * Merrie Monarch Festival * World Invitational Hula Festival

* Fiji

* New Zealand

* Pasifika Festival

* The Pacific Community

* Festival of Pacific Arts

* Papua New Guinea

LANGUAGES

BY AREA

* v * t * e

Languages of Oceania

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Australia * Federated States of Micronesia * Fiji * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * New Zealand * Palau * Papua New Guinea * Samoa * Solomon Islands * Tonga * Tuvalu * Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

* Cook Islands * Niue

Dependencies and other territories

* American Samoa * Christmas Island * Cocos (Keeling) Islands * Easter Island * French Polynesia * Guam * Hawaii * New Caledonia * Norfolk Island * Northern Mariana Islands * Pitcairn Islands * Tokelau * Wallis and Futuna

BY CATEGORY Languages of Oceania

LITERATURE

* v * t * e

Literature of Oceania

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Australia * Federated States of Micronesia * Fiji * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * New Zealand * Palau * Papua New Guinea * Samoa * Solomon Islands * Tonga * Tuvalu * Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

* Cook Islands * Niue

Dependencies and other territories

* American Samoa * Christmas Island * Cocos (Keeling) Islands * Easter Island * French Polynesia * Guam * Hawaii * New Caledonia * Norfolk Island * Northern Mariana Islands * Pitcairn Islands * Tokelau * Wallis and Futuna

MUSIC

* Austral Islands (French Polynesia) * Australia * Austronesia * Cook Islands * Easter Island * Fiji * Guam * Hawaiʻi * Kiribati * Lali * Māori * Melanesia * Micronesia * Federated States of Micronesia * Nauru * New Caledonia * New Zealand * Niue * Northern Mariana Islands * Palau * Papua New Guinea * Polynesia * Sāmoa * Slit drum * Solomon Islands * Tahiti * Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu * Vanuatu * Wallis and Futuna

MYTHOLOGY

* Australian Aboriginal * Fijian * Hawaiian * Mangarevan * Maohi * Māori * Melanesian * Menehune * Micronesian * Oceanian legendary creatures * Polynesian * Rapa Nui * Samoan * Tuvaluan * Vanuatuan

RESEARCH

* Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium * Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

PEOPLE

* Indigneous Australian * Austronesian * Chamorro * Chatham Islander (Moriori _or_ Rekohu) * Fijian (iTaukei) * Hawaiian (kānaka maoli) * Māori * Marshallese * Melanesian * Micronesian * Negrito * Norfolk Islander * Papuan * Polynesian * Indigenous Polynesian (Mā’ohi) * Rapa Nui * Rotuman * Samoan (Tagata Māo‘i) * Tahitian * Tongan * Torres Strait Islander

RELIGION

* v * t * e

Religion in Oceania

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Australia * Federated States of Micronesia * Fiji * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * New Zealand * Palau * Papua New Guinea * Samoa * Solomon Islands * Tonga * Tuvalu * Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

* Cook Islands * Niue

Dependencies and other territories

* American Samoa * Christmas Island * Cocos (Keeling) Islands * Easter Island * French Polynesia * Guam * Hawaii * New Caledonia * Norfolk Island * Northern Mariana Islands * Pitcairn Islands * Tokelau * Wallis and Futuna

Not included: Oceanian: cinema , (indigenous) currency, dress, folkore, cuisine . Also see Category:Oceanian culture .

* v * t * e

_ British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations _ _Historical flags of the British Empire _

EUROPE

* 1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) * 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca * Since 1713 Gibraltar * 1800–1813 _Malta (Protectorate) _ * 1813–1964 _Malta (Colony) _ * 1807–1890 Heligoland * 1809–1864 Ionian Islands * 1878–1960 _ Cyprus _ * 1921–1937 Irish Free State

NORTH AMERICA

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

* 1579 New Albion * 1583–1907 Newfoundland * 1605–1979 *_Saint Lucia _ * 1607–1776 Virginia * Since 1619 Bermuda * 1620–1691 Plymouth * 1623–1883 Saint Kitts * 1624–1966 *_Barbados _ * 1625–1650 Saint Croix * 1627–1979 *_Saint Vincent and the Grenadines _ * 1628–1883 Nevis * 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay * 1632–1776 Maryland * since 1632 Montserrat * 1632–1860 Antigua * 1636–1776 Connecticut * 1636–1776 Rhode Island * 1637–1662 New Haven

* 1643–1860 Bay Islands * Since 1650 Anguilla * 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast * 1655–1962 *_Jamaica _ * 1663–1712 Carolina * 1664–1776 New York * 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey * Since 1666 Virgin Islands * Since 1670 Cayman Islands * 1670–1973 *_Bahamas _ * 1670–1870 Rupert\'s Land * 1671–1816 Leeward Islands * 1674–1702 East Jersey * 1674–1702 West Jersey * 1680–1776 New Hampshire * 1681–1776 Pennsylvania * 1686–1689 New England * 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

* 1701–1776 Delaware * 1712–1776 North Carolina * 1712–1776 South Carolina * 1713–1867 Nova Scotia * 1733–1776 Georgia * 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island * 1762–1974 *_Grenada _ * 1763–1978 _Dominica _ * 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island * 1763–1791 Quebec * 1763–1783 East Florida * 1763–1783 West Florida * 1784–1867 New Brunswick * 1791–1841 Lower Canada * 1791–1841 Upper Canada * Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

* 1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country 1 * 1833–1960 Windward Islands * 1833–1960 Leeward Islands * 1841–1867 Canada * 1849–1866 Vancouver Island * 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands * 1858–1866 British Columbia * 1859–1870 North-Western Territory * 1860–1981 *_British Antigua and Barbuda _ * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 *_ Dominion of Canada _2 * 1871–1964 Honduras * 1882–1983 *_ Saint Kitts and Nevis _ * 1889–1962 _Trinidad and Tobago _ * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of Canada . * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a _de jure _ Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

SOUTH AMERICA

* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland * 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 _Guiana _ * Since 1833 Falkland Islands 5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 5

* 4. Now a department of Colombia . * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982.

AFRICA

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

* Since 1658 Saint Helena 14 * 1792–1961 _Sierra Leone _ * 1795–1803 Cape Colony

* Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 _ Mauritius _ * 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland * 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt

* 1884–1900 Niger Coast * 1884–1966 Bechuanaland * 1884–1960 Somaliland * 1887–1897 Zululand * 1890–1962 _Uganda _ * 1890–1963 Zanzibar * 1891–1964 Nyasaland * 1891–1907 Central Africa * 1893–1968 _Swaziland _ * 1895–1920 East Africa * 1899–1956 Sudan

* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria * 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria * 1900–1910 Orange River * 1900–1910 Transvaal * 1903–1976 _ Seychelles _ * 1910–1931 _South Africa _ * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa * 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 _Kenya _ * 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia 7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

* 6. League of Nations mandate . * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia ) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement . After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

ASIA

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

* 1685–1824 Bencoolen * 1702–1705 Pulo Condore * 1757–1947 Bengal * 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite * 1781-1784 and 1795-1819 Padang * 1786–1946 Penang * 1795–1948 Ceylon * 1796–1965 _Maldives _

* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton * 1819–1826 Malaya * 1826–1946 Straits Settlements * 1839–1967 Aden * 1839–1842 Afghanistan * 1841–1997 Hong Kong * 1841–1946 Sarawak * 1848–1946 Labuan * 1858–1947 India * 1874–1963 Borneo

* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) * 1882–1963 North Borneo * 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States * 1888–1984 _ Brunei _ * 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman * 1892–1971 Trucial States * 1895–1946 Federated Malay States * 1898–1930 Weihai * 1878–1960 _ Cyprus _

* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) * 1918–1961 Kuwait * 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8 * 1921–1946 Transjordan 8 * 1923–1948 Palestine 8 * 1945–1946 South Vietnam * 1946–1963 North Borneo * 1946–1963 Sarawak * 1946–1963 _Singapore _ * 1946–1948 Malayan Union * 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya * Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus ) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles )

8 League of Nations mandate . Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

OCEANIA

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

* 1788–1901 New South Wales * 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands 9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides * 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia * 1836–1901 South Australia * since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

* 1841–1907 New Zealand * 1851–1901 Victoria * 1874–1970 _ Fiji _10 * 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories * 1884–1949 Papua * 1888–1901 Rarotonga / Cook Islands 9 * 1889–1948 Union Islands 9 * 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands 12

* 1900–1970 Tonga * 1900–1974 Niue 9 * 1901–1942 *_ Australia _ * 1907–1953 *_ New Zealand _ * 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru * 1919–1949 New Guinea * 1949–1975 _Papua and New Guinea _13

* 9. Now part of the *_Realm of New Zealand _. * 10. Suspended member. * 11. Now _ Kiribati _ and *_ Tuvalu _. * 12. Now the *_ Solomon Islands _. * 13. Now *_ Papua New Guinea _.

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC

* Since 1658 Saint Helena 14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816