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Nishapur
Nishapur
or Nishabur ( pronunciation (help·info); Persian: نیشابور‎, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, Neyshābūr, and Neeshapoor, from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur",[2] or "Perfect built of Shapur")[3] is a city in Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province, capital of the Nishapur County
Nishapur County
and former capital of Province Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains. It had an estimated population of 239,185 as of 2011 and its county 433,105. Nearby are the turquoise mines that have supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia. The city was founded in the 3rd century by Shapur I
Shapur I
as a Sasanian
Sasanian
satrapy capital. Nishapur
Nishapur
later became the capital of Tahirid dynasty and was reformed by Abdullah Tahir in 830, and was later selected as the capital of Seljuq dynasty
Seljuq dynasty
by Tughril
Tughril
in 1037. From the Abbasid
Abbasid
era to the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran, the city evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center within the Islamic world. Nishapur, along with Merv, Herat
Herat
and Balkh
Balkh
were one of the four great cities of Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
and one of the greatest cities in the middle ages, a seat of governmental power in eastern of caliphate, a dwelling place for diverse ethnic and religious groups, a trading stop on commercial routes from Transoxiana and China, Iraq
Iraq
and Egypt. Nishapur
Nishapur
reached the height of its prosperity under the Samanids
Samanids
in the 10th century, but was destroyed and the entire population slaughtered by Mongols
Mongols
in 1221. This massacre, combined with subsequent earthquakes and other invasions are believed to have destroyed the pottery industry the city was known for.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-history and archaeology 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Toponymy

2 Culture

2.1 Anthem 2.2 Popular culture 2.3 Local and cultural days

3 Arts

3.1 Pottery 3.2 Carpet-weaving 3.3 Turquoise
Turquoise
masonry 3.4 Tile 3.5 Wooden arts 3.6 Calligraphy 3.7 Statuary 3.8 Wall Painting

4 People

4.1 Language 4.2 Religion 4.3 Notable people

5 Education

5.1 Schools, universities and colleges 5.2 Libraries

6 Sport

6.1 Sport centers

7 Transportation

7.1 Nishapur
Nishapur
train disaster 7.2 Road 44

8 Industry and economy 9 Geography

9.1 Weather 9.2 Geology 9.3 Seismicity

10 Mass media

10.1 Newspaper publishing 10.2 Broadcasting 10.3 Printing

11 Administration 12 Popular culture 13 Recent incidents 14 Souvenirs 15 Sister cities 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Nishapur

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)

Pre-history and archaeology[edit]

Attar of Nishapur
Attar of Nishapur
Mausoleum

Little archaeology has been done on this vast and complicated site. George Curzon remarked that Nishapur
Nishapur
had been destroyed and rebuilt more times than any other city in history,[4] an evocative statement whether or not it is statistically true. The Metropolitan Museum of Art undertook excavations from 1935 that were interrupted in 1940. Searching largely for museum-worthy trophies that they shared with the government of the Shah, the Metropolitan's publications were limited to its own Nishapur
Nishapur
ceramics. The site of Nishapur
Nishapur
has been ransacked for half a century since World War II, to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art. Shadiyakh
Shadiyakh
("Palace of Happiness") was one of the main palaces of old Nishapur
Nishapur
up to the 9th century AD, which became more important and populated after that. Some notable people like Attar lived there. Attar's tomb is nowadays in that area. This palace was perhaps completely ruined in the 13th century. Middle Ages[edit] Nishapur
Nishapur
occupies an important strategic position astride the old Silk Road that linked Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
with China. On the Silk Road, Nishapur
Nishapur
has often defined the flexible frontier between the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. The town derived its name from its reputed founder, the Sassanian
Sassanian
king Shapur I, who is said to have established it in the 3rd century CE. Nearby are the turquoise mines that supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia. It became an important town in the Khorasan region but subsequently declined in significance until a revival in its fortunes in the 9th century under the Tahirid
Tahirid
dynasty, when the glazed ceramics of Nishapur
Nishapur
formed an important item of trade to the west. For a time Nishapur
Nishapur
rivaled Baghdad
Baghdad
or Cairo: Toghrül, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur
Nishapur
his residence in 1037 and proclaimed himself sultan there, but it declined thereafter, as Seljuk fortunes were concentrated in the west. In the year 1000 CE, it was among the ten largest cities on earth.[5] The city was destroyed by Mongols
Mongols
in 1221, after the husband of Genghis
Genghis
Khan's daughter was killed at Nishapur. She requested the death of every resident of the city to avenge her husband's death, and over the course of 10 days Khan's troops killed, and beheaded the entire population. The number of people massacred were around 17,400 and not 1.74 millions as is claimed in some documents written hundreds of years later.[6] Their skulls were reputedly piled in pyramids by the Mongols.[7] After the massacre a much smaller settlement was established just north of the ancient town, and the once bustling metropolis lay underground—until a team of excavators from the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
arrived in the mid-20th century. They worked at Nishapur
Nishapur
between 1935 and 1940, returning for a final season in the winter of 1947–48.[8] What remains of old Nishapur
Nishapur
is a 3500-hectare "Kohandejh" area, south of the current city of Nishapur. Toponymy[edit]

Most historians believe the name Nishapur
Nishapur
to be derived from the name of Shapur I[citation needed]

Name Nishapur
Nishapur
Derives from word Nisha which means blue, which is also a color of turquoise mined there.[citation needed] Culture[edit] Anthem[edit] The special Anthem of Nishapur
Nishapur
was unveiled for the first time on April 14, 2011;[9] it has introduction and three parts, noted on three invasive and destructive in the history of Nishapur, delineated by frightening sounds of bells, along with sounds of percussion and wailing women represent the miseries caused by these attacks.[10][11]

Persian original UniPers alphabet English translation

:ای پایتخت اول ایرانی من

ای آسمانت فرصتِ بارانی من «فیروزه» ات نقش نگین مهربانی اندیشه های مردمانت آسمانی روییده در هر گوشه ات گل‌های احساس خرداد «بینالود» تو سرشار «ریواس» شرمنده از کردار خود «تاتار» و «چنگیز» پاینده باشی ای «برشهر» هنرخیز در کوچه باغت مانده رد پایی از ماه گل کرده در چشمان تو نام «قدمگاه»

:Ey pâyetaxte avale irâniye man

Ey asemânat forsate bârâniye man Firuzeh
Firuzeh
at naqše negine mehrabâni Andiše hâye mardomânat asemâni Ruiyedeh dar har guše at gol hâye ehsâs Xordâde binâlude to saršâre rivâs Šarmande az kerdâre xod tâtâr o čangiz Pâyandeh bâshi ey baršahre honar xiz Dar kuče bâqat mânde rade pâyi az mâh Gol kardeh dar češmâne to nâmeh qadamgâh

Oh! My Iranian first capital Oh! your sky my rainy time your Turquoise, pattern of kindness ring Your People's thoughts Heavenly Sprouting in your every corner flowers of love Khordad of your Binalud full of rhubarb, Tartar and Genghis
Genghis
ashamed of their actions May you stand proud, you Art fertile land The moon left footsteps in your gardens Qadamgah's name has bloomed in your eyes

Popular culture[edit]

US band Santana released an instrumental track entitled "Incident at Neshabur" on their 1970 LP release, Abraxas. Carlos Santana says this was a reference to a place in Haiti. Yo-Yo Ma
Yo-Yo Ma
released an instrumental track entitled "Blue as the Turquoise
Turquoise
Night of Neyshabur" as part of the Silk Road
Silk Road
Project.

Local and cultural days[edit]

Name Day Calendar

Farvardin (Hamal) 1 Nowruz Solar Hijri

Farvardin (Hamal) 13 Sizdah Be-dar, Day of Nature Solar Hijri

Farvardin (Hamal) 25 Respect day for Attar of Nishapur Solar Hijri

Ordibehesht(Thawr) 28 Respect day for Omar Khayyam Solar Hijri

Tir (Saratan) 10 Remembrance day for Imam Ali al-Ridha Solar Hijri

Mordad 2 Sympathy day for the victims of Boozhan flood Solar Hijri

Azar 30 Night of Yalda Solar Hijri

Bahman 29 Sympathy day the victims of Nishapur
Nishapur
train disaster Solar Hijri

Last Wednesday of Esfand Chaharshanbe Suri
Chaharshanbe Suri
Festival Solar Hijri

Esfand 29 Celebrate the end of winter Solar Hijri

Muharram
Muharram
10 Remembrance of Muharram Lunar Hijri

Safar 20 Arba'een Lunar Hijri

Rabi' al-awwal
Rabi' al-awwal
17 Mawlid Lunar Hijri

Rajab
Rajab
25 Respect day for Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, death of Musa al-Kadhim Lunar Hijri

Sha'aban 14 Borat Nights (3 nights) Lunar Hijri

Shawwal 1 Eid al-Fitr Lunar Hijri

Dhu al-Hijjah
Dhu al-Hijjah
18 Eid of Ghadir, Day of Visiting Sadaat Lunar Hijri

Arts[edit] About the arts in Nishapur
Nishapur
or Old Nishapur: Pottery[edit]

Bowl painted on slip under transparent glaze (polychrome), Nishabur, 9th or 10th century. National Museum of Iran, Tehran.

Nishapur
Nishapur
during the Islamic Golden Age, especially the 9th and 10th centuries, was one of the great centers of pottery and related arts.[12] Most of the Ceramic artifacts discovered in Nishapur
Nishapur
are preserved in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
and Museums in Tehran
Tehran
and Mashhad. Ceramics produced at Nishapur
Nishapur
showed links with Sassanid art and Central Asian.[13] Nowadays there are 4 Pottery
Pottery
workshop in Nishapur.[14] Carpet-weaving[edit] Weaving carpets and rugs common in the more than 470 villages in Nishapur
Nishapur
County, the most important carpet Workshop located in the villages of: Shafi' Abad, Garineh
Garineh
Darrud
Darrud
Baghshan
Baghshan
Kharv
Kharv
Bozghan
Bozghan
Sayyed Abad Sar Chah Suleymani Sultan Abad and Eshgh Abad. Nishapur
Nishapur
Carpet workshops weaved the biggest Carpets in the world, like carpets of : Sheikh Zayed Mosque,[15] Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque,[16] Armenian Presidential Palace, Embassy of Finland in Tehran, Mohammed Al-Ameen Mosque
Mosque
in Oman.[17] Modern art of carpet in Nishapur
Nishapur
began in 1946 after inauguration of a carpet-weaving workshop in a caravansary. Turquoise
Turquoise
masonry[edit]

Cutting and grinding Nishapur
Nishapur
turquoise in Mashhad, Iran, 1973

For at least 2,000 years, Iran, known before as Persia, has remained an important source of turquoise, which was named by Iranians initially "pirouzeh" meaning "victory" and later after Arab invasion "firouzeh".[citation needed] In Iranian architecture, the blue turquoise was used to cover the domes of the Iranian palaces because its intense blue colour was also a symbol of heaven on earth.[citation needed] This deposit, which is blue naturally, and turns green when heated due to dehydration, is restricted to a mine-riddled region in Nishapur, the 2,012-metre (6,601 ft) mountain peak of Ali-mersai, which is tens of kilometers from Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province, Iran. A weathered and broken trachyte is host to the turquoise, which is found both in situ between layers of limonite and sandstone, and amongst the scree at the mountain's base. These workings, together with those of the Sinai Peninsula, are the oldest known. Tile[edit]

Geometrically patterned tilework in Muhammad al-Mahruq Mosque, Nishapur

In many important historical or modern monuments and buildings the art of Tiles are widely used in Nishapur, Wooden arts[edit]

Wooden Mosque

Calligraphy[edit]

Calligraphy Conference about Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
in Nishapur, July 31, 2013

[Bowl with Arabic
Arabic
Inscription. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Statuary[edit]

Statue of Kamal-ol-molk
Kamal-ol-molk
on his grave

Wall Painting[edit]

Members of Red Crescent in village of Shur Rud, painting walls

People[edit] Language[edit]

A hawza in Nishapur, a school that taught Arabic
Arabic
in religious studies courses. Other schools in Nishapur
Nishapur
taught Arabic
Arabic
as historical and religious language

Most people speak Persian in Nishapur. Religion[edit] Islam
Islam
is first religion and Twelever Mahdist Shia is first Madhab in Nishapur. Notable people[edit]

Abul al-Wafa Buzjani

Abū-Sa'id Abul-Khayr

Omar Khayyam

Attar of Nishapur

Haji Bektash Veli

Parviz Meshkatian

Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani

Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri

Sorted by date

Mazdak
Mazdak
- (died c. 524 or 528) was a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
prophet, Iranian reformer and religious activist Kanarang - was a unique title in the Sassanid army, given to the commander of the Sassanid Empire's northeasternmost frontier province, Abarshahr
Abarshahr
(encompassing the cities of Tus, Nishapur
Nishapur
and Abiward). Behafarid
Behafarid
- was an 8th-century Persian Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
heresiarch Sunpadh - (died 755) cleric Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh - muhaddith, faqih Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri - 9th-century philosopher, mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer and author Ibn Khuzaymah - Muslim scholar Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
- Muslim scholar Abu al-Hassan al-Amiri - (died 992) was a Muslim theologian and philosopher Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī
Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī
- (10 June 940 – 15 July 998) was a mathematician and astronomer Hakim al-Nishaburi - (933 - 1012), was a Sunni scholar and historian Tha'ālibī
Tha'ālibī
-(961–1038), Muslim philologist, writer and poet Ahmad ibn 'Imad al-Din - was a Persian physician and alchemist. He was probably from Nishapur
Nishapur
in the 11th century. Ibn Abi Sadiq
Ibn Abi Sadiq
- was an 11th-century Persian physician Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr
Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr
- (December 7, 967 - January 12, 1049) was a famous Persian Sufi and poet Al-Juwayni (1028—1085 CE) was a Sunni Shafi'i Faqih and Mutakallim. Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tha'labi - was an 11th-century Islamic scholar. Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri
Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri
- was born in 986 CE (376 AH), Philosopher
Philosopher
and Sufi Omar Khayyám
Omar Khayyám
- (18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. Mu'izzi - was an 11th and 12th-centuries poet Haji Bektash Veli
Haji Bektash Veli
- was a Muslim mystic Attar of Nishapur
Attar of Nishapur
- (c. 1145 – c. 1221), was a Muslim poet, theoretician of Sufism, and hagiographer . Abu al-Qasim al-Habib Neishapuri - physician mid-15th century. Saadat Ali Khan I
Saadat Ali Khan I
- (b. c. 1680 – d. 19 March 1739) was the Subahdar Nawab of Oudh. All the rulers of Oudh
Oudh
State in India
India
belonged to a Shia Muslim dynasty of Persian origin from Nishapur. They were renowned for their secularism and broad outlook. After they rebelled against the British their state was annexed to form the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[18] Hamid Hussain Musavi - i (born 1830 - died 1880) was a leading Shia scholar Heydar Yaghma
Heydar Yaghma
- Badi' - Abolghasem Sakhdari - wrestler Saeed Khani - footballer Yaghoub Ali Shourvarzi
Yaghoub Ali Shourvarzi
- wrestler Nur-Ali Shushtari
Nur-Ali Shushtari
- Esmail Shooshtari
Esmail Shooshtari
- Parviz Meshkatian
Parviz Meshkatian
- Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani
Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani
- i (born 1939) is a Persian writer, poet, literary critic, editor, and translator. Hossein Vahid Khorasani‍—‌(born January 1, 1921) is an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja Abdolreza Kahani‍—‌ Hamed Behdad‍—‌(1973–) Actor

Education[edit] Schools, universities and colleges[edit] Islamic Azad University of Nishapur is a main branch of Islamic Azad University. It was established in 1985 and has two faculties in IAUM, Agriculture, and Engineering
Engineering
faculty offers Bachelor, and master's degrees. Libraries[edit] Al-Ghadir library:Moalem street Sport[edit] Nishapur
Nishapur
has one professional football team, Jahan Electric Nishapur, who compete in Razavi Khorasan's Provincial Leagues. Sport centers[edit] Enghelab Sports Complex is an indoor arena in Nishapur. The arena houses Nishapur's basketball, volleyball, and futsal teams. Transportation[edit] Nishapur
Nishapur
train disaster[edit] Main article: Nishapur
Nishapur
train disaster On 18 February 2004, runaway train wagons crashed into the village of Khayyam near Nishapur, causing an explosion and killing over 300 people. The entire village of Khayyam was destroyed.[citation needed] Road 44[edit] Road 44 is a highway that goes from Tehran
Tehran
to Mashhad
Mashhad
and also passes Nishapur
Nishapur
on the way. Industry and economy[edit] Foolad steel complex which is producing steel. Geography[edit]

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Nishapur
Nishapur
is located at an elevation of 1213 metres on a wide fertile plain almost at the southwestern foot of Mount Binalud
Mount Binalud
in northcentral Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province. The city is connected by both railroad and highways to Mashhad
Mashhad
and Tehran
Tehran
and also to South Khorasan Province. Among its agricultural products are cereals and cotton. Making pottery and weaving carpets are among important crafts. Weather[edit] Nishapur
Nishapur
has a generally Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
with the rainy seasons mostly in the spring and winter. Towards the west of the city, however, the weather gradually changes to a cold semi-desert climate. Geology[edit] The city of Nishapur
Nishapur
lies on a Holocene
Holocene
alluvial plain on top of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
sediments in the southwestern part of the Binalud Mountains. The Binalud Range, running northwest-southeast, is made predominantly of Triassic
Triassic
and Jurassic
Jurassic
rocks. On the southern side of the northwestern part of the range there is a section of Eocene
Eocene
rocks that are volcanic in origin. The well-known Nishabur turquoise comes from the weathered and broken trachytes and andesites of the Eocene volcanic rocks of this part of the mountain range. The main turquoise mines are situated about 50 kilometres northwest of the city of Nishapur
Nishapur
in the foothills of the Binalud Range.[19] Seismicity[edit] Nishapur
Nishapur
is located in a region with a rather high risk of earthquakes. Many earthquakes have seriously harmed the city; among the important ones are the historical earthquakes that ruined the city in the 12th and 13th centuries. Mass media[edit] Newspaper publishing[edit] General publications in Nishapur
Nishapur
includes the weekly and local newspapers. The first local newspaper of Khorasan province
Khorasan province
is Morning of Nishapur, published since 1989. Others include Shadiakh, published since 2000, Khayyam Nameh, since 2004, Nasim, since 2006, and Far reh Simorgh, since 2010.[20][dead link] Broadcasting[edit] IRIB center of Mashhad
Mashhad
covers news of Nishapur. Printing[edit] Two book publishers working in the city:Klidar & Abar Shahr.[21][22][dead link] Administration[edit]

Left: Hadi Moslemi, former mayor of Nishapur ; right: Gholam-Hossein Mozaffari, currently Governor of Nishapur
Nishapur
County.

Popular culture[edit] US band Santana released an instrumental track entitled "Incident at Neshabur" on their 1970 LP release, Abraxas. Recent incidents[edit]

On July 24, 1987, a flood in Boojan village killed over 1,000 people and destroyed some villages. On February 18, 2004, in the Nishapur
Nishapur
train disaster, a train carrying flammable goods derailed and caught fire near the town. Five hours later, during fire fighting and rescue work, a massive explosion destroyed the train and many nearby buildings. Around 300 people were said to have been killed, mainly fire and rescue workers but also the local governor and mayor and the heads of the fire and rail services.[23]

Souvenirs[edit] The most important Nishapur
Nishapur
souvenirs include turquoise and rhubarb. Neyshabur Turquoise
Turquoise
has been used for more than 2000 years and for this turquoise it is sometimes called "the turquoise land". Neyshabur turquoise and jewellery made from it are sold as souvenirs in Neyshabur and Mashhad
Mashhad
resorts. Rhubarb
Rhubarb
(Persian rivaas or rivand), a sour vegetable, grows at the foot of the eponymous Rivand Mountains (more recently, Turkified as Mount Binalud). Soft drinks made from the stems of the plant, such as "Sharbate rivaas" (شربت ریواس) and "Khoshaabe rivaas" (خوشاب ریواس), are sold at some Nishapur
Nishapur
resorts as souvenirs. Sister cities[edit]

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Kairouan, Tunisia Karbala, Iraq Khoy, Iran Baghdad, Iraq Basra, Iraq Ghazni, Afghanistan Balkh, Afghanistan Herat, Afghanistan Merv, Turkmenistan Bukhara, Uzbekistan Samarqand, Uzbekistan Khiva, Uzbekistan Khojand, Tajikistan Kulob, Tajikistan Konya, Turkey

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal Nishapur
Nishapur
portal

Saeedi Garden

References[edit]

^ The Cambridge History of Iran
Iran
- Volume 1 - Page 68 ^ Honigmann, E.; Bosworth, C.E.. "Nīs̲h̲āpūr." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2013. Reference. 31 December 2013 ^ Nishapur
Nishapur
can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3076915" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ George N. Curzon, Persia
Persia
and the Persian Question, Vol. I, (Routledge, 2005), 262. ^ "Tres Fronteras: Where Colombia, Peru and Brazil Meet in the Amazon". TripSavvy. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ Weatherford, Jack (2010-02-16). The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Rescued His Empire. Crown/Archetype. p. 75. ISBN 9780307589361. Although the reported number of 1,747,000 executed exceeded credibility by a factor of about one hundred times the actual number, it nevertheless shows the horror felt for the Mongols.  ^ Clark, Josh (14 January 2008). "Did Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
really kill 1,748,000 people in one hour?". HowStuffWorks.  ^ Sardar, Author: Marika. "The Metropolitan Museum's Excavations at Nishapur
Nishapur
Essay Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ "روزنامه كيهان90/2/1: سرود ويژه نيشابور ساخته شد". www.magiran.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ روزنه, شرکت مهندسی. "پایتخت اول ایرانی من؛ سرود نیشابور - روزنه". www.rovzane.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ Nishapur: Pottery
Pottery
of the Early Islamic Period, Wilkinson, Charles K. (1973) ^ " Nishapur
Nishapur
pottery". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ " Iran
Iran
weaves world's largest carpet". news.webindia123.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ Muscat ^ bam. "Nawabs of Oudh
Oudh
& Their Secularism". oudh.tripod.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 271. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.  ^ http://551.ir/images/stories/news/newspaper/farresimorq/farresimorq-46-2.jpg ^ "کلبه کتاب کلیدر". www.klidar.ir. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ http://www.abarshar.ir ^ " Iran
Iran
train blast kills hundreds". 2004-02-18. Retrieved 2018-02-10. 

Further reading[edit]

Wilkinson, Charles K. (1973). Nishapur: pottery of the early Islamic period. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870990764. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nishapur.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nishapur

Nishapur
Nishapur
Mayors (in Persian) Nishapur
Nishapur
governors (in Persian) Ceramics of Nishapur
Nishapur
and other centers World Gazetteer on Nishapur
Nishapur
at Archive.is
Archive.is
(archived 2012-12-17) Neyshaburian e-newspaper (in Persian) A useful weblog about Nishapur
Nishapur
(in Persian) wooden village website Nishapur
Nishapur
Mathhouse Neyshabur bonyad (in Persian) The Metropolitan Museum Excavations at Nishapur Elias Pirasteh, Neyshabur, Photo Set, flickr Ardavan Ruzbeh, When National Heritage is not an equal to the Emām-Jom'eh, a reportage on the demolition of a national monument, Madreseh-ye Golshan (مدرسه گلشن), in Nishabur, in Persian, Radio Zamāneh, May 29, 2008: Text, Audio. Hossein Davoudi, Dizbād: A Staircase to History, in Persian, Jadid Online, 2008. A Slide Show of Dizbād, by Hossein Davoudi, Jadid Online, 2008, (5 min 39 sec). Note: Dizbād is a small village between Mashhad
Mashhad
and Neyshābūr, located at some 40 km distance from Mashhad.

Preceded by - Capital of Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
(Persia) 1037–1043 Succeeded by Rey

v t e

Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province

Capital

Mashhad

Counties and cities

Bajestan
Bajestan
County

Bajestan Yunesi

Bakharz
Bakharz
County

Bakharz

Bardaskan
Bardaskan
County

Bardaskan Anabad Shahrabad

Chenaran
Chenaran
County

Chenaran

Dargaz
Dargaz
County

Dargaz Chapeshlu Lotfabad Now Khandan

Davarzan
Davarzan
County

Davarzan

Fariman
Fariman
County

Fariman Farhadgerd Qalandarabad Sefid Sang

Firuzeh
Firuzeh
County

Firuzeh Hemmatabad

Gonabad
Gonabad
County

Gonabad Bidokht Kakhk

Joghatai
Joghatai
County

Joghatai

Jowayin County

Neqab

Kalat County

Kalat Shahr-e Zow

Kashmar
Kashmar
County

Kashmar Rivash

Khalilabad County

Khalilabad Kondor

Khoshab County

Soltanabad

Khvaf
Khvaf
County

Khvaf Nashtifan Qasemabad Salami Sangan

Mahvelat County

Feyzabad Shadmehr

Mashhad
Mashhad
County

Mashhad Malekabad Razaviyeh

Nishapur
Nishapur
County

Nishapur Chekneh Darrud Kharv Eshqabad Qadamgah

Quchan
Quchan
County

Quchan Bajgiran

Rashtkhvar
Rashtkhvar
County

Rashtkhvar Jangal

Sabzevar
Sabzevar
County

Sabzevar Rud Ab Sheshtomad

Sarakhs
Sarakhs
County

Sarakhs Mazdavand

Taybad
Taybad
County

Taybad Kariz Mashhad
Mashhad
Rizeh

Torbat-e Heydarieh
Torbat-e Heydarieh
County

Torbat-e Heydarieh Bayg Kadkan Robat-e Sang

Torbat-e Jam
Torbat-e Jam
County

Torbat-e Jam Nasrabad Nilshahr Salehabad

Torqabeh
Torqabeh
and Shandiz
Shandiz
County

Torqabeh Shandiz

Zaveh County

Dowlatabad

Landmarks

Imam Reza shrine Goharshad Mosque Tus citadel Kooh Sangi Akhlamad Mount Binalud Zist-e Khavar Kian Center Azar Barzin Mehr fire temple,Sabzevar Tomb of Ferdowsi
Tomb of Ferdowsi
in Tus Haruniyeh Dome in Tus Tomb of Farid ad-Din Attar,Nishapur Kohandezh, Nishapur Tomb of Omar Khayyám, Nishapur

populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province

v t e

Nishapur
Nishapur
County

Capital

Nishapur

Districts

Central

Cities

Nishapur

Rural Districts and villages

Binalud

Aliabad Andar Ab Baqi Barag Shahi Bojnu-ye Olya Bojnu-ye Sofla Bormahan Chahar Gushli Dahaneh-ye Heydari Farsiyeh Fazelabad Gardan Heydarabad Kalateh-ye Abuzar Kalateh-ye Ali Morad Kalateh-ye Mohammad Jan Karan Karji Khar Barreh Khorramabad Marusk Nasirabad Qaruneh Sar Chah Sar Gerik Seyyedabad-e Asadollah Khan Seyyedabad-e Bar Madan Tangeh-ye Olya Telli Tijan Zarandeh

Darbqazi

Abirabad Ahmadabad Aliabad-e Shahid Amirabad Badiabad Bagh-e Jafarabad Bahman Bahrudi Baniabad Berzu Boshruy Bujakhak Chah-e Salari Daghi Deh Now Deh Now-e Lakzi Ebrahimabad-e Muri Emamiyeh Eqbali Eshqabad-e Kohneh Eslamabad-e Arab Farajabad Farkh Jan Fathabad Fazl Ferdows Haqqiyeh Hoseynabad-e Chaghuki Hoseyni Jalandeh Jijabad Jilu Juri Karimabad Karimabad-e Suis Karizak-e Kenar Kal Karizak-e Kohneh Kariz-e Sabah Kazemabad Khanshah Khujan Kowsar Lak Lak Ashian Mahmudabad-e Fazl Mansuriyeh Mohammadabad-e Aqa Zadeh Naqdbesh Nowbahar Nowruzabad Nurabad Qaleh Now Qaleh Now-ye Mehdiabad Rahimabad Ruhabad Sadrabad Salehabad Seh Gonbad Shad Mianeh Shahr-e Kohneh Shib Shurikeh Soltanabad Taqiabad-e Telayi Zirjan

Fazl

Abbasabad Abu Sadi Adg Barf Riz Boshrabad Buzhabad Buzhan Chah Boland Damdari Dasht Livestock Center Dar os Salam Darbehesht Dasht Deh Now Deh Sheykh Eshratabad Eslamabad-e Lakazi Eynabad Fakhriyeh Farkhak Feyzabad-e Lalaha Filkhaneh Firuzi Fushenjan Ghar Hajj Kazemi Hamidabad Hesar Hoseynabad-e Jadid Hoseynabad-e Nazer Kalateh-ye Vahdat Kheyrabad Khorramabad Khvosh-e Bala Mamuri Muri Naimabad Qaleh Now-ye Alireza Bek Qoreyshabad Rud Sadabad Sheykhlan Sowqand Taht-e Manzar Tarababad Turani Yahyaabad

Mazul

Abquy Asgarabad Baghshan-e Gach Bashnij Chah-e Sadiq Salar Ali Akbar Chah-e Saidi Chah-e Shomareh-ye Yek Golshan Darbehesht Deh Baf Deh Now-ye Khaleseh Deh Sang Deh-e Hallaj Dowlatabad Elahi Eshqabad Eyshabad Feyzabad Feyzabad Feyzabad Gachdarreh Garab Hajjian Hasanabad-e Emam Jomeh Hasanabad-e Sar Tappeh Hesar Juq Hesar-e Khuni Honarstan-e Kashavarzi Jomhuri Kaboli Kheyrabad Khorram Bak Khvajeh Bachcheh Mamuri Manzar Mazraeh-ye Sheikh Abu Al Hasan Mirabad Mirabad Mohammadabad-e Do Khaneh Neqab Pir Komaj Qaleh Now-e Jamshid Qatnabad Ranajabad Red Crescent Building Number 1 Ringan Rostamabad Sahlabad Salahi Samghan Sanguni Sar Ab-e Kushk Seh Chub Seyfabad Seyyedabad Shadab Shahrak Shamsabad Sowmeeh Yahyaabad Yek Lengeh Zarandeh

Rivand

Abgineh Abjeqan Ahangaran Aliabad-e Takeh Allahjegerd Anjidan Ardesman Arezumandeh Baghat-e Dastgerdan Bakavol Batan Bolqosheh Chanbaran Dalashan Deh Now Deh Now-e Kherabeh Deh-e Darugheh Deh-e Habbeh Diglani Eslamiyeh Eynabad Farhad Farrokhabad Golshan Hakimabad Hantabad Hasanabad-e Kherabeh Hashemabad-e Soltani Helali Heshmatiyeh Hoseynabad-e Makhtari Karjij Khezrabad Khomar Lotfabad Malek Kandeh Masihabad Mirabad Mobarakeh Mohammadabad Mohitabad Mohsenabad Moinabad Mozaffarabad Nasrabad Now Kariz Qabed Qasemabad Rahimabad Rahimabad Rahmatabad Ruhabad Salehabad Samarghan Shad Mehrak Shaeykh Shafiabad Shahabad Shahabad-e Hoseyni Shamsabad Shamsiyeh Sowmeeh Taherabad

Miyan Jolgeh

Cities

Eshqabad

Rural Districts and villages

Belharat

Abdolabad Anbarkeh Astayesh Bezq Dehnow Eshratabad Eslamabad Golbui-ye Bala Golbui-ye Pain Hasanabad-e Belher Homai Hoseynabad Jandab Mehdiabad Moskabad Qaleh Shisheh Qush Aghel Rigi Salari Shahr-e Kohneh Zammeh

Eshqabad

Akbarabad Aliabad Amirabad Ardameh Arghesh Attaiyeh Badiabad Bagh Jahan Baqeriyeh Chah Nasar Chah-e Bazghani Chah-e Hajjiabad Chah-e Raisi Chehel Morghian Deh Now-e Shur Derakht-e Senjed Ebrahimabad Fathabad Golshan Hajjiabad Hesar Now Hoseynabad-e Arab Kalateh-ye Hasanabad Kheyrabad Kushk Kushkak Mahmudabad Marus Mazhdabad Mian Band Naimabad Nasrabad-e Olya Pir Gaz Qarah Khan Qasemabad Qasemi Raisi Sadabad-e Arab Samadiyeh Shahrak-e Emam Shur Rud Soleymani Taqiabad

Ghazali

Ahmadabad Alvan Chah-e Salar Chah-e Yabu Dast Feshad Deh-e Hoseyni Fadisheh Gol Qandasht Hesar Sorkh Hoseynabad-e Jangal Kalateh-ye Bagh Kalateh-ye Hajj Allahyar Kalateh-ye Hajj Hasan Kalateh-ye Hajji Shir Mohammad Nasrabad Nowabad Pa Baz Rizab Shahrabad

Sarvelayat

Cities

Chekneh

Rural Districts and villages

Barzanun

Barzanun Emamzadeh-ye Hoseyn Asghar Gavkosh Kalateh-ye Hajji Kheyrabad Qareh Gol Shotor Sang Tah Mangan Tiran Zohan

Sarvelayat

Abdiyeh Abdollah Givi Aminabad Aq Qayah Beshkan Bid Khan Chakaneh-ye Olya Dezq Eshqabad Fahneh Ghezel Aghul Golbin Hajjiabad Hasanabad Inchegan Kalateh-ye Feshay Kalateh-ye Meydan Kelidar Khayesk Khvajehabad Kuh Sakht Mazraeh-ye Reza Mowtowr Ab-e Soltani Nowmiri Nowsara Pirshahbaz Qezel Qaleh Saqi Beyg Sheykh Mostafa Soltan Meydan Suleh Talebi Yengejeh Ziarat Zig

Zeberkhan

Cities

Darrud Kharv Qadamgah

Rural Districts and villages

Eshaqabad

Ahmadabad Ahovan Aziziyeh Chah-e Amiq Taheri Chah-e Naimabad-e Yeha Chah-e Shomareh-ye Do Mehdi Dastjerd-e Aqa Bozorg Dishdish Ebrahimabad Eshaqabad Esmatabad Fakhrabad Fathabad Hesar Heshmatiyeh Hoseynabad Jahanabad Kalateh-ye Hajji Jahan Beyk Kalateh-ye Qanbar Nowbahar Yusefabad

Ordughesh

Abdollahabad Akbarabad Allahabad Borj Buzh Mehran Deh Now-ye Hashemabad Istgah Kheyam Kalateh-ye Saqi Karimabad Kariz-e Now Kazemabad Kheyam Industrial Estate Khosrowabad Mohsenabad Ordughesh Sahel Borj Saidiyeh Seyyedabad

Zeberkhan

Aliabad Baghshan Baz-e Heydar Chenaran Cheshmeh Khosrow Daneh Kashefiyeh Darudbakht Das Deh Hajji Dizbad-e Olya Dowlatabad Feyzabad Garineh Hajjiabad Harimabad Hasanabad-e Sabrow Hesar Jafarabad Javadiyeh Kalateh-ye Luyedani Kalateh-ye Saru Kalateh-ye Soltani Kariz-e Now Khorombeyk Majdabad Mohammadabad Mushan Nowhalua Pishkuhi Pust Forushan Qaleh Vazir Qarah Dash Qareh Beyk Sakhdar Sartalkh

v t e

Iranian architecture

Styles

Parsian

Achaemenid pre-Parsian

Parthian

Khorasani Sasanian

Other

Azeri Isfahani Razi

Types

Bazaars Caravanserais Khaneqah Mosques Tekyeh

Elements

Ab anbar Andaruni Biruni Burj Chahartaq Dalan e Vorudi Gonbad Hashti Howz Imamzadeh Iwan Kariz Kucheh Panjdari Persian Garden (hayāt) Qanat Robats Sahn Shabestan Talar Windcatchers Yakhchal

Traditional cities

Amol Andijan Baku Bam Bukhara Ctesiphon Derbent Ganja Gur-e-Amir Hatra Herat Isfahan Kashan Khiva Khorramabad Mashhad Merv Nakhchivan Nishapur Persepolis Qazvin Qom Samarkand Shahrisabz Shiraz Susa Tabriz Takht-e Soleymān Tehran Yazd

Theory and analysis

Islamic architecture Traditional Persian residential architecture Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity

Lists

Architects of Iran Args, castles, and ghal'ehs List of ab anbars of Qazvin List of mosques Li

.