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NINTENDO CO., LTD. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto
Kyoto
. Nintendo
Nintendo
is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as _ Mario
Mario
_, _ The Legend of Zelda _, and _ Pokémon _. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi , it originally produced handmade hanafuda playing cards . By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels . Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo then developed into a video game company in the 1970s, ultimately becoming one of the most influential in the industry and Japan's third most-valuable company with a market value of over $85 billion. From 1992 until 2016, Nintendo
Nintendo
was also the majority shareholder of Major League Baseball 's Seattle Mariners .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 1889–1956: As a card company * 1.2 1956–1974: New ventures * 1.3 1974–1978: Early electronic era * 1.4 1979–2003: Success with video games * 1.5 2004–2011: Nintendo DS and Wii
Wii
* 1.6 2011–2015: Nintendo 3DS and Wii
Wii
U * 1.7 2015–present: Mobile and Nintendo Switch
Nintendo Switch

* 2 Products

* 2.1 Home consoles

* 2.1.1 Color TV-Game
Color TV-Game
* 2.1.2 Nintendo Entertainment System * 2.1.3 Super Nintendo Entertainment System * 2.1.4 Nintendo 64 * 2.1.5 GameCube
GameCube
* 2.1.6 Wii
Wii
* 2.1.7 Wii
Wii
U * 2.1.8 Nintendo Switch
Nintendo Switch

* 2.2 Handheld consoles

* 2.2.1 Game & Watch * 2.2.2 Game Boy * 2.2.3 Nintendo DS * 2.2.4 Nintendo 3DS

* 3 Company structure

* 3.1 Marketing

* 3.2 Board of directors

* 3.2.1 Representative Directors * 3.2.2 Directors * 3.2.3 Outside Directors

* 3.3 Executive officers

* 3.3.1 Senior Executive Officers * 3.3.2 Executive Officers

* 3.4 Divisions

* 3.4.1 Entertainment Planning "> Former headquarters plate, from when Nintendo
Nintendo
was solely a playing card company

Nintendo
Nintendo
was founded as a card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on September 23, 1889. Based in Kyoto
Kyoto
, the business produced and marketed a playing card game called "_ Hanafuda _". The handmade cards soon became popular, and Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand. In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo
Nintendo
Karuta Co., Ltd. (Japanese : 任天堂骨牌株式会社, Hepburn : _Nintendō karuta kabushikigaisha_), doing business as The Nintendo
Nintendo
Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo
Nintendo
continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan
Japan
and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the " Nintendo
Nintendo
Cup". The word _Nintendo_ can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda".

1956–1974: NEW VENTURES

In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi , grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U.S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company , the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found that the biggest playing card company in the world was using only a small office. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point. He then acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales.

In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo
Nintendo
Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co., Ltd. The company then began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo
Nintendo
set up a taxi company called _Daiya_. This business was initially successful. However, Nintendo
Nintendo
was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It also set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company (selling instant rice ) and several other ventures. All of these ventures eventually failed, and after the 1964 Tokyo
Tokyo
Olympics , playing card sales dropped, and Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥ 60.

In 1966, Nintendo
Nintendo
moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand , an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new " Nintendo
Nintendo
Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo
Nintendo
continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine , Love Tester and the _Kousenjuu_ series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo
Nintendo
struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, and fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai
Bandai
and Tomy .

In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System , using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's _Kousenjuu_ series of toys, and set up in abandoned bowling alleys. Following some success, Nintendo
Nintendo
developed several more light gun machines (such as the light gun shooter game _Wild Gunman _) for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market.

1974–1978: EARLY ELECTRONIC ERA

Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo
Nintendo
began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game
Color TV-Game
home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game (for example, Color TV Game 6 featured six versions of _Light Tennis_).

A student product developer named Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
was hired by Nintendo
Nintendo
at this time. He worked for Yokoi, and one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create, direct and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry.

In 1975, Nintendo
Nintendo
moved into the video arcade game industry with _EVR Race _, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda , and several more titles followed. Nintendo
Nintendo
had some small success with this venture, but the release of _ Donkey Kong _ in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities (such as ports on the Atari 2600 , Intellivision and ColecoVision ) gave Nintendo
Nintendo
a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game also introduced an early iteration of Mario
Mario
, then known in Japan
Japan
as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot .

1979–2003: SUCCESS WITH VIDEO GAMES

Main articles: Game ">_ The Game "> Takashi Tezuka , Shigeru Miyamoto , and Koji Kondo in 2015

In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game , while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to _ Game & Watch _. In 1980, Nintendo
Nintendo
launched _Game & Watch_—a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi. These systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game released, titled _Ball_, was distributed worldwide. The modern "cross" D-pad design was developed in 1982, by Yokoi for a _ Donkey Kong _ version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo. It later earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award .

In 1983, Nintendo
Nintendo
launched the Family Computer (colloquialized as "Famicom") home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade titles. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known outside Japan
Japan
as the Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System or NES, launched in North America. The practice of bundling the system along with select games helped to make _Super Mario
Mario
Bros. _ one of the best-selling video games in history .

In 1988, Gunpei Yokoi and his team at Nintendo
Nintendo
R&D1 conceived the new Game Boy handheld system, with the purpose of merging the two very successful ideas of the Game "> Nintendo
Nintendo
deemed 1994 the "Year of the Cartridge". To further their support for cartridges, Nintendo announced that Project Reality, which had now been renamed the Ultra 64, would not use a CD format as expected, but would rather use cartridges as its primary media format. Nintendo
Nintendo
IRD general manager Genyo Takeda was impressed by video game development company Rare 's progress with real-time 3D graphics technology, using state of the art Silicon Graphics workstations. As a result, Nintendo
Nintendo
bought a 25% stake in the company, eventually expanding to 49%, and offered their catalogue of characters to create a CGI game around, making Rare Nintendo's first western-based second-party developer . Their first game as partners with Nintendo
Nintendo
was _ Donkey Kong Country
Donkey Kong Country
_. The game was a critical success and sold over eight million copies worldwide, making it the second best-selling game in the S NES
NES
library . In September 1994, Nintendo, along with six other video game giants including Sega, Electronic Arts , Atari, Acclaim , Philips, and 3DO approached the United States Senate and demanded a ratings system for video games to be enforced, which prompted the decision to create the Entertainment Software Rating Board .

Aiming to produce an affordable virtual reality console, Nintendo released the Virtual Boy in 1995, designed by Gunpei Yokoi. The console consists of a head-mounted semi-portable system with one red-colored screen for each of the user's eyes, featuring stereoscopic graphics . Games are viewed through a binocular eyepiece and controlled using an affixed gamepad. Critics were generally disappointed with the quality of the games and the red-colored graphics, and complained of gameplay-induced headaches. The system sold poorly and was quietly discontinued. Amid the system's failure, Yokoi retired from Nintendo. During the same year, Nintendo
Nintendo
launched the Satellaview
Satellaview
in Japan, a peripheral for the Super Famicom. The accessory allowed users to play video games via broadcast for a set period of time. Various games were made exclusively for the platform, as well as various remakes .

In 1996, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Ultra 64 as the Nintendo 64 in Japan and North America. The console was later released in Europe
Europe
and Australia
Australia
in 1997. The Nintendo 64 continued what had become a Nintendo
Nintendo
tradition of hardware design which is focused less on high performance specifications than on design innovations intended to inspire game development. With its market shares slipping to the Sega Saturn and partner-turned-rival Sony
Sony
PlayStation
PlayStation
, Nintendo revitalized its brand by launching a $185 million marketing campaign centered around the "Play it Loud" slogan. During the same year, Nintendo
Nintendo
also released the Game Boy Pocket in Japan, a smaller version of the Game Boy that generated more sales for the platform. On 4 October 1997, famed Nintendo
Nintendo
developer Gunpei Yokoi died in a car crash. In 1997, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the SNS-101 (called Super Famicom Jr. in Japan), a smaller redesigned version of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System .

In 1998, the successor to the Game Boy, the Game Boy Color, was released. The system had improved technical specifications allowing it to run games made specifically for the system as well as games released for the Game Boy, albeit with added color. The Game Boy Camera and Printer were also released as accessories. In October 1998, Retro Studios was founded as an alliance between Nintendo
Nintendo
and former Iguana Entertainment founder Jeff Spangenberg . Nintendo
Nintendo
saw an opportunity for the new studio to create games for the upcoming GameCube
GameCube
targeting an older demographic, in the same vein as Iguana Entertainment's successful _ Turok _ series for the Nintendo
Nintendo
64.

In 2001, just three years later, Nintendo
Nintendo
introduced the redesigned Game Boy Advance. The same year, Nintendo
Nintendo
also released the GameCube to lukewarm sales, and it ultimately failed to regain the market share lost by the Nintendo
Nintendo
64. When Yamauchi, the company's president since 1949, retired on 24 May 2002, Satoru Iwata
Satoru Iwata
succeeded as Nintendo's fourth president, becoming the first Nintendo
Nintendo
president who was unrelated to the Yamauchi family through blood or marriage since its founding in 1889.

In 2003, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Game Boy Advance SP , a redesign of the Game Boy Advance that featured a clamshell design that would later be used in Nintendo's DS and 3DS handheld video game systems.

2004–2011: NINTENDO DS AND WII

Main articles: Nintendo DS and Wii
Wii

In 2004, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Nintendo DS , its fourth major handheld system. The DS is a dual screened handheld featuring touch screen capabilities, which respond to either a stylus or the touch of a finger. Former Nintendo
Nintendo
president and now chairman Hiroshi Yamauchi was translated by GameScience as explaining, "If we can increase the scope of the industry, we can re-energise the global market and lift Japan
Japan
out of depression – that is Nintendo's mission." Regarding lukewarm GameCube
GameCube
sales which had yielded the company's first reported operating loss in over 100 years, Yamauchi continued: "The DS represents a critical moment for Nintendo's success over the next two years. If it succeeds, we rise to the heavens, if it fails, we sink into hell." Thanks to titles such as Nintendogs and Mario
Mario
Kart DS , the DS became a success. In 2005, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Game Boy Micro in North America, a redesign of the Game Boy Advance. The last system in the Game Boy line , it was also the smallest Game Boy, and the least successful. In the middle of 2005, Nintendo
Nintendo
opened the Nintendo World Store in New York City
New York City
, which would sell Nintendo
Nintendo
games, present a museum of Nintendo
Nintendo
history, and host public parties such as for product launches. The store was renovated and renamed as Nintendo New York in 2016. The Wii
Wii
Remote , along with the Wii
Wii
, was said to be revolutionary because of its motion detection capabilities

In the first half of 2006, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Nintendo DS Lite , a version of the original Nintendo DS with lighter weight, brighter screen, and better battery life. In addition to this streamlined design, its prolific subset of casual games appealed to the masses, such as the _ Brain Age _ series. Meanwhile, _New Super Mario
Mario
Bros. _ provided a substantial addition to the _Mario_ series when it was launched to the top of sales charts. The successful direction of the Nintendo DS had a big influence on Nintendo's next home console (including the common Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection
Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection
), which had been codenamed "Revolution" and was now renamed to " Wii
Wii
". In August 2006, Nintendo
Nintendo
published ES, a now-dormant, open source research operating system project designed around web application integration but for no specific purpose.

In the latter half of 2006, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Wii
Wii
as the backward-compatible successor to the GameCube. Based upon intricate Wii
Wii
Remote motion controls and a balance board , the Wii
Wii
inspired several new game franchises, some targeted at entirely new market segments of casual and fitness gaming. At more than 100 million units, the Wii
Wii
is the best selling console of the seventh generation, regaining the market share lost during the tenures of the Nintendo
Nintendo
64 and the GameCube.

On 1 May 2007, Nintendo
Nintendo
acquired an 80% stake on video game development company Monolith Soft , previously owned by Bandai
Bandai
Namco . Monolith Soft is best known for developing role-playing games such as the Xenosaga and Baten Kaitos series .

During the holiday season of 2008, Nintendo
Nintendo
followed up the success of the DS with the release of the Nintendo DSi in Japan. The system features a more powerful CPU
CPU
and more RAM, two cameras, one facing towards the player and one facing outwards, and had an online distribution store called DSiWare . The DSi was later released worldwide during 2009. In the latter half of 2009, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Nintendo DSi XL in Japan, a larger version of the DSi. This updated system was later released worldwide in 2010.

2011–2015: NINTENDO 3DS AND WII U

Main articles: Nintendo 3DS and Wii
Wii
U Nintendo 3DS

In 2011, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Nintendo 3DS , based upon a glasses-free 3D display. In February 2012, Nintendo
Nintendo
acquired Mobiclip , a France
France
-based research and development company specialized in highly optimized software technologies such as video compression. The company's name was later changed to Nintendo
Nintendo
European Research white-space:nowrap;"> Intending to broaden the 3DS market, Nintendo released 2013's cost-reduced Nintendo 2DS . The 2DS is compatible with but lacks the 3DS's more expensive but cosmetic autostereoscopic 3D feature. Nintendo
Nintendo
also released the Wii
Wii
Mini , a cheaper and non-networked redesign of the Wii.

On 25 September 2013, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced it had purchased a 28% stake in a Panasonic
Panasonic
spin-off company called PUX Corporation. The company specializes in face and voice recognition technology, with which Nintendo
Nintendo
intends to improve the usability of future game systems. Nintendo
Nintendo
has also worked with this company in the past to create character recognition software for a Nintendo DS touchscreen. After announcing a 30% dive in profits for the April to December 2013 period, president Satoru Iwata
Satoru Iwata
announced he would take a 50% pay-cut, with other executives seeing reductions by 20%–30%.

In January 2015, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced its exit from the Brazilian market after four years of distributing products in the country. Nintendo
Nintendo
cited high import duties and lack of local manufacturing operation as reasons for leaving. Nintendo
Nintendo
continues its partnership with Juegos de Video Latinoamérica to distribute products to the rest of Latin America
Latin America
.

On 11 July 2015, Iwata died from a bile duct tumor at the age of 55. Following his death, representative directors Genyo Takeda and Shigeru Miyamoto jointly led the company on an interim basis until the appointment of Tatsumi Kimishima as Iwata's successor on 16 September 2015. In addition to Kimishima's appointment, the company's management organization was also restructured—Miyamoto was named "Creative Fellow" and Takeda was named "Technology Fellow".

2015–PRESENT: MOBILE AND NINTENDO SWITCH

Main article: Nintendo Switch
Nintendo Switch

On 17 March 2015, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced a partnership with Japanese mobile developer DeNA to produce games for smart devices . The first of these, _ Miitomo _, was released in March 2016.

On the same day, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced a new "dedicated games platform with a brand new concept" with the codename "NX" that would be further revealed in 2016. Reggie Fils-Aimé , president of Nintendo
Nintendo
of America, referred to NX as "our next home console" in a June 2015 interview with _ The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
_. In a later 16 October 2015 article, _The Wall Street Journal_ relayed speculation from unnamed inside sources that, although unknown, the NX was intended to feature "industry leading" hardware specifications and be usable as both a home and portable console. It was also reported that Nintendo
Nintendo
had begun distributing software development kits (SDKs) for NX to third-party developers, with the unnamed source further speculating that these moves " the company is on track to introduce as early as ." At an investor's meeting on 27 April 2016, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced that the NX would be released worldwide in March 2017. In an interview with Asahi Shimbun
Asahi Shimbun
in May 2016, Kimishima stated that the NX was a new concept that would not succeed the 3DS or Wii
Wii
U product lines. At a shareholders' meeting following E3 2016, Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
stated that the company chose not to present the NX during the conference due to concerns that competitors could copy from it if they revealed it too soon. The same day, Kimishima also revealed during a Q&A session with investors that they were also researching virtual reality .

In May 2015, Universal Parks "> The Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System , Nintendo's first major success in the home console market

The NINTENDO ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM (abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit video game console, which released in North America in 1985, and in Europe
Europe
throughout 1986 and 1987. The console was initially released in Japan
Japan
as the FAMILY COMPUTER (abbreviated as FAMICOM) in 1983. The best-selling gaming console of its time, e the NES
NES
helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983 . With the NES, Nintendo
Nintendo
introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers , authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. The NES
NES
was bundled with _Super Mario
Mario
Bros. _, one of the best-selling video games of all time , and received ports of Nintendo's most popular arcade titles.

Nintendo
Nintendo
also produced a limited run of the NES
NES
Classic Edition in 2016. The NES
NES
Classic System was a dedicated console modeled after an NES
NES
with 30 built-in classic first- and third-party games from the NES library. By the end of its production in April 2017, Nintendo
Nintendo
shipped 2.3 million units.

Super Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System

Main articles: Super Nintendo Entertainment System and Super NES Classic Edition The Super Nintendo Entertainment System , the successor to the Nintendo Entertainment System

The SUPER NINTENDO ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM (abbreviated as the SUPER NES or SNES) is a 16-bit video game console, which was released in North America in 1991, and in Europe
Europe
in 1992. The console was initially released in Japan
Japan
in 1990 as the SUPER FAMICOM, officially adopting the colloquially abbreviated name of its predecessor. The console introduced advanced graphics and sound capabilities compared with other consoles at the time. Soon, the development of a variety of enhancement chips which were integrated onto each new game cartridge's circuit boards, progressed the SNES's competitive edge. While even crude three-dimensional graphics had previously rarely been seen on home consoles, the Super NES's enhancement chips suddenly enabled a new caliber of games containing increasingly sophisticated faux 3D effects as seen in 1991's _ Pilotwings _ and 1992's _Super Mario
Mario
Kart _. Argonaut Games developed the Super FX chip in order to replicate 3D graphics from their earlier Atari ST and Amiga
Amiga
_ Starglider _ series on the Super NES
NES
(more specifically, _ Starglider 2 _), starting with _ Star Fox _ in 1993. The S NES
NES
is the best-selling console of the 16-bit era although having experienced a relatively late start and fierce competition from Sega
Sega
's Mega Drive/Genesis console.

Nintendo
Nintendo
also plans to release a limited run of the Super NES
NES
Classic Edition in September 2017 through the end of the year. Like the NES Classic Edition, the Super NES
NES
Classic Edition is a dedicated console with 21 built-in games from its library, including the never-before-released _ Starfox 2 _.

Nintendo
Nintendo
64

Main article: Nintendo 64 The Nintendo 64 , named for its 64-bit graphics, was Nintendo's first home console to feature 3D computer graphics

The NINTENDO 64 was released in 1996, featuring 3D polygon model rendering capabilities and built-in multiplayer for up to four players. The system's controller introduced the analog stick and later introduced the Rumble Pak , an accessory for the controller that produces force feedback with compatible games. Both are the first such features to have come to market for home console gaming and eventually became the _de facto_ industry standard . Announced in 1995, prior to the console's 1996 launch, the 64DD ("DD" standing for "Disk Drive") was designed to enable the development of new genre of video games by way of 64 MB writable magnetic disks, video editing, and Internet connectivity. Eventually released only in Japan
Japan
in 1999, the 64DD peripheral's commercial failure there resulted in only nine games being released and precluded further worldwide release.

GameCube

Main article: GameCube
GameCube
The GameCube
GameCube
was Nintendo's first home console to use optical discs as a primary storage medium

The GAMECUBE (officially called NINTENDO GAMECUBE, abbreviated NGC in Japan
Japan
and GCN in North America) was released in 2001, in Japan
Japan
and North America, and in 2002 worldwide. The sixth-generation console is the successor to the Nintendo 64 and competed with Sony's PlayStation 2 , Microsoft's Xbox , and Sega's Dreamcast
Dreamcast
. The GameCube
GameCube
is the first Nintendo
Nintendo
console to use optical discs as its primary storage medium. The discs are similar to the mini DVD
DVD
format, but the system was not designed to play standard DVDs or audio CDs . Nintendo introduced a variety of connectivity options for the GameCube. The GameCube's game library has sparse support for Internet gaming , a feature that requires the use of the aftermarket Nintendo
Nintendo
GameCube Broadband Adapter and Modem Adapter . The GameCube
GameCube
supports connectivity to the Game Boy Advance , allowing players to access exclusive in-game features using the handheld as a second screen and controller.

Wii

Main article: Wii
Wii
The Wii
Wii
, Nintendo's best selling home video game console and first to use motion controls

The WII was released during the holiday season of 2006 worldwide. The system features the Wii
Wii
Remote controller , which can be used as a handheld pointing device and which detects movement in three dimensions . Another notable feature of the console is WiiConnect24 , which enables it to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode . It also features a game download service, called " Virtual Console ", which features emulated games from past systems. Since its release, the Wii
Wii
has spawned many peripheral devices, including the Wii
Wii
Balance Board and Motion Plus , and has had several hardware revisions . The _ Wii
Wii
Family Edition_ variant is identical to the original model, but is designed to sit horizontally and removes the GameCube
GameCube
compatibility. The _ Wii
Wii
Mini_ is a smaller, redesigned Wii
Wii
which lacks GameCube
GameCube
compatibility, online connectivity, the SD card slot and Wi-Fi support, and has only one USB port unlike the previous models' two. As of 31 March 2017 , Nintendo reports sales of 101.63 million Wii
Wii
hardware units and 914.28 million Wii
Wii
software units worldwide, making it Nintendo's best-selling home video game console.

Wii
Wii
U

Main article: Wii
Wii
U The Wii
Wii
U , the successor to the Wii
Wii

The WII U, the successor to the Wii, was released during the holiday season of 2012 worldwide. The Wii
Wii
U is the first Nintendo
Nintendo
console to support high-definition graphics . The Wii
Wii
U's primary controller is the Wii
Wii
U GamePad , which features an embedded touchscreen . Each software title may be designed to utilize this touchscreen as being supplemental to the main TV, or as the only screen for Off-TV Play . The system supports most Wii
Wii
controllers and accessories, and the more classically shaped Wii
Wii
U Pro Controller . The system is backward compatible with Wii
Wii
software and accessories; this mode also utilizes Wii-based controllers, and it optionally offers the GamePad as its primary Wii
Wii
display and motion sensor bar. The console has various online services powered by Nintendo Network , including: the Nintendo eShop for online distribution of software and content; and Miiverse , a social network which can be variously integrated with games and applications. As of 31 March 2017, worldwide Wii
Wii
U sales had totaled 12.80 million hardware units and 84.04 million software units.

Nintendo
Nintendo
Switch

Main article: Nintendo Switch
Nintendo Switch
Nintendo's new hybrid console, the Switch .

On 17 March 2015, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced a new "dedicated games platform with a brand new concept" with the codename "NX" that would be further revealed in 2016. Reggie Fils-Aimé , president of Nintendo
Nintendo
of America, referred to NX as "our next home console" in a June 2015 interview with _ The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
_. In a later article on 16 October 2015, _The Wall Street Journal_ relayed speculation from unnamed inside sources that, although the NX hardware specifications were unknown, it may be intended to feature "industry leading" hardware specifications and include both a console and a mobile unit that could either be used with the console or taken on the road for separate use. It was also reported that Nintendo
Nintendo
had begun distributing software development kits (SDKs) for NX to third-party developers, with the unnamed source further speculating that these moves " the company is on track to introduce as early as ." At an investor's meeting on 27 April 2016, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced that the NX would be released worldwide in March 2017. In an interview with Asahi Shimbun in May 2016, Kimishima referred to the NX as "neither the successor to the Wii
Wii
U nor to the 3DS", as well as it being a "new way of playing games," but it would "slow Wii
Wii
U sales" upon reveal and dissemination. In June 2016, Miyamoto stated that the reason Nintendo had not released any information on the "NX" up until that point was because they were afraid of imitators, saying he and Nintendo
Nintendo
thought other companies could copy "an idea that working on." The same day, Kimishima revealed during a Q&A session with investors that they were also researching virtual reality . On 19 October 2016, Nintendo announced they would release a trailer for the console the following day. The next day, Nintendo
Nintendo
unveiled the trailer that revealed the final name of the platform called Nintendo
Nintendo
Switch. As of 31 March 2017, worldwide Nintendo Switch
Nintendo Switch
sales had totaled 2.74 million hardware units and 5.46 million software units.

HANDHELD CONSOLES

Game & Watch

Main article: Game & Watch

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (March 2014)_

GAME & WATCH is a line of handheld electronic games produced by Nintendo
Nintendo
from 1980 to 1991 . Created by game designer Gunpei Yokoi , each _Game "> The original Game Boy

After the success of the _Game "> The Nintendo DS Lite is the best-selling handheld console of all time

Although originally advertised as an alternative to the Game Boy Advance, the NINTENDO DS replaced the Game Boy line after its initial release in 2004. It was distinctive for its dual screens and a microphone, as well as a touch-sensitive lower screen . The _Nintendo DS Lite _ brought a smaller form factor while the _ Nintendo DSi _ features larger screens and two cameras, and was followed by an even larger model, the _ Nintendo DSi XL _, with a 90% bigger screen.

Nintendo
Nintendo
3DS

Main articles: Nintendo 3DS and Nintendo 3DS family Nintendo 3DS XL

Further expanding the Nintendo DS line, the NINTENDO 3DS uses the process of autostereoscopy to produce a stereoscopic three-dimensional effect without glasses . Released to major markets during 2011, the 3DS got off to a slow start, initially missing many key features that were promised before the system launched. Partially as a result of slow sales, Nintendo
Nintendo
stock declined in value. Subsequent price cuts and game releases helped to boost 3DS and 3DS software sales and to renew investor confidence in the company. As of August 2013, the 3DS was the best selling console in the United States
United States
for four consecutive months. The _ Nintendo 3DS XL _ was introduced in August 2012 and includes a 90% larger screen, a 4 GB SD card and extended battery life. In August 2013, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced the cost-reduced _Nintendo 2DS _, a version of the 3DS without the 3D display. It has a slate-like design as opposed to the hinged, clamshell design of its predecessors.

A hardware revision, _New Nintendo 3DS _, was unveiled in August 2014. It is produced in a standard-sized model and a larger XL model; both models feature upgraded processors and additional RAM, an eye-tracking sensor to improve the stability of the autostereoscopic 3D image, colored face buttons, and near-field communication support for native use of Amiibo products. The standard-sized model also features slightly larger screens, and support for faceplate accessories.

COMPANY STRUCTURE

MARKETING

Main article: Nintendo marketing

Nintendo of America
Nintendo of America
has engaged in several high-profile marketing campaigns to define and position its brand. One of its earliest and most enduring slogans was "Now you're playing with power!", used first to promote its Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System. It modified the slogan to include "SUPER power" for the Super Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System, and "PORTABLE power" for the Game Boy. Its 1994 "Play It Loud!" campaign played upon teenage rebellion and fostered an edgy reputation. During the Nintendo 64 era, the slogan was "Get N or get out." During the GameCube
GameCube
era, the "Who Are You?" suggested a link between the games and the players' identities. The company promoted its Nintendo DS handheld with the tagline "Touching is Good." For the Wii, they used the " Wii
Wii
would like to play" slogan to promote the console with the people who tried the games including _Super Mario Galaxy _ and _Super Paper Mario
Mario
_. The Nintendo
Nintendo
DS's successor, the Nintendo
Nintendo
3DS, used the slogan "Take a look inside". The Wii's successor, the Wii
Wii
U , used the slogan "How U will play next."

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Representative Directors

* Tatsumi Kimishima , President * Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
, Fellow

Directors

* Shinya Takahashi, Managing Executive Officer, General Manager of Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment Planning ">_ Nintendo's former EAD division developed games for Nintendo's most well known franchises, such as Super Mario
Mario
_ and _ The Legend of Zelda _.

Nintendo's internal research and development operations are divided into three main divisions: Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment Planning Nintendo Platform Technology Development (or PTD), which focuses on home and handheld video game console hardware development; and Nintendo Business Development (or NBD), which focuses on refining business strategy and is responsible for overseeing the smart device arm of the business.

Entertainment Planning & Development (EPD)

The Nintendo Entertainment Planning & Development division is the primary software development division at Nintendo, formed as a merger between their former Entertainment Analysis & Development and Software Planning & Development divisions in 2015. Led by Shinya Takahashi, the division holds the largest concentration of staff at the company, housing more than 800 engineers and designers. The division is primarily located in the central Kyoto
Kyoto
R&D building, where they are overseen by Katsuya Eguchi , and also has a studio in Tokyo
Tokyo
overseen by Yoshiaki Koizumi
Yoshiaki Koizumi
.

Platform Technology Development (PTD)

The Nintendo Platform Technology Development division is a combination of Nintendo's former Integrated Research ">

The exterior of Nintendo's main headquarters in Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan
*

Nintendo of America
Nintendo of America
headquarters in Redmond , Washington *

Nintendo
Nintendo
of Europe
Europe
headquarters in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Germany *

Nintendo's Tokyo
Tokyo
office

Nintendo
Nintendo
Co., Ltd.

Headquartered in Kyoto, Japan
Japan
since the beginning, Nintendo
Nintendo
Co., Ltd. oversees the organization's global operations and manages Japanese operations specifically. The company's two major subsidiaries, Nintendo of America
Nintendo of America
and Nintendo
Nintendo
of Europe, manage operations in North America and Europe
Europe
respectively. Nintendo
Nintendo
Co., Ltd. moved from its original Kyoto
Kyoto
location to a new office in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto
Kyoto
,; in 2000, this became the research and development building when the head office relocated to its present location in Minami-ku, Kyoto
Kyoto
.

Nintendo
Nintendo
Of America

Nintendo's North American subsidiary is based in Redmond, Washington . Originally, the American headquarters handled sales, marketing, and advertising. However, the office in Redwood City
Redwood City
, California
California
now directs those functions. The company maintains distribution centers in Atlanta
Atlanta
( Nintendo
Nintendo
Atlanta) and North Bend, Washington ( Nintendo
Nintendo
North Bend ). The 380,000-square-foot (35,000 m2) Nintendo
Nintendo
North Bend facility processes more than 20,000 orders a day to Nintendo customers, which include retail stores that sell Nintendo
Nintendo
products in addition to consumers who shop Nintendo's web site. Nintendo
Nintendo
of America's Canadian branch, Nintendo
Nintendo
of Canada, Ltd., is based in Vancouver
Vancouver
, British Columbia
British Columbia
with a distribution center in Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
. Nintendo
Nintendo
of America's localisation team, dubbed Treehouse, is composed of around eighty staff, who are responsible for translating text from Japanese to English, creating videos and marketing plans, and ensuring that Nintendo's games release in a polished state.

Nintendo
Nintendo
Of Europe

Nintendo's European subsidiary was established in June 1990, based in Großostheim , close to Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Germany. The company handles operations in Europe
Europe
and South Africa
South Africa
. Nintendo
Nintendo
of Europe's United Kingdom branch handles operations in that country and in Ireland
Ireland
from its headquarters in Windsor , Berkshire
Berkshire
. In June 2014, NOE initiated a reduction and consolidation process, yielding a combined 130 layoffs: the closing of its office and warehouse, and termination of all employment, in Großostheim; and the consolidation of all of those operations into, and terminating some employment at, its Frankfurt location.

Nintendo
Nintendo
Australia

Main article: Nintendo Australia

Nintendo's Australian subsidiary is based in Melbourne, Victoria . It handles the publishing, distribution, sales and marketing of Nintendo products in Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, and Oceania ( Cook Islands
Cook Islands
, Fiji , New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, Samoa
Samoa
, and Vanuatu
Vanuatu
). It also manufactures some Wii
Wii
games locally. Nintendo Australia is also a third-party distributor of some titles from Rising Star Games , Bandai Namco Entertainment , Atlus , The Tetris
Tetris
Company , Sega
Sega
, Koei Tecmo , and Capcom .

iQue

Main article: iQue

A Chinese joint venture between its founder, Wei Yen , and Nintendo, manufactures and distributes official Nintendo
Nintendo
consoles and games for the mainland Chinese market, under the iQue brand. The product lineup for the Chinese market is considerably different from that for other markets. For example, Nintendo's only console in China is the iQue Player , a modified version of the Nintendo
Nintendo
64. The company has not released its more modern GameCube
GameCube
or Wii
Wii
to the market, although a version of the Nintendo 3DS XL was released in 2012. As of 2013, it is a 100% Nintendo-owned subsidiary.

Nintendo
Nintendo
Of Korea

Nintendo's South Korean subsidiary was established on 7 July 2006. In March 2016, the subsidiary was heavily downsized due to a corporate restructuring decision after analyzing shifts in the current market, laying off 80% of its employees, leaving only ten people at its helm, including CEO Hiroyuki Fukuda. However, this did not affect any game titles being scheduled for release in South Korea at the time, and Nintendo
Nintendo
continued operations there as usual.

SUBSIDIARIES

Although most of the Research & Development is being done in Japan
Japan
, there are some R&D facilities in the United States
United States
and Europe
Europe
that are focused on developing software and hardware technologies used in Nintendo
Nintendo
products. Although they all are subsidiaries of Nintendo
Nintendo
(and therefore first party), they are often referred to as external resources when being involved in joint development processes with Nintendo's internal developers by the Japanese personal involved. This can be seen in a variety of "Iwata asks..." interviews. Nintendo Software
Software
Technology (NST) and Nintendo Technology Development (NTD) are located in Redmond, Washington , United States
United States
, while Nintendo European Research & Development (_NERD_) is located in Paris
Paris
, France , and Nintendo Network Service Database (NSD) is located in Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan
.

Most external first-party software development is done in Japan
Japan
, since the only overseas subsidiary is Retro Studios in the United States. Although these studios are all subsidiaries of Nintendo, they are often referred to as external resources when being involved in joint development processes with Nintendo's internal developers by the Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment Planning width:107px;line-height:1.3em;padding:2px 6px 1px 6px;margin:0px;border:none;border-width:0px">1889–1950

1950–1960

1960–1965

1965–1970

1967–1975

1968–1975

1970–1975

1972

1975–2006

2006–2016

2016–present

POLICY

CONTENT GUIDELINES

For many years, Nintendo
Nintendo
had a policy of strict content guidelines for video games published on its consoles. Although Nintendo
Nintendo
allowed graphic violence in its video games released in Japan, nudity and sexuality were strictly prohibited. Former Nintendo
Nintendo
president Hiroshi Yamauchi believed that if the company allowed the licensing of pornographic games, the company's image would be forever tarnished. Nintendo of America
Nintendo of America
went further in that games released for Nintendo consoles could not feature nudity, sexuality, profanity (including racism , sexism or slurs ), blood, graphic or domestic violence , drugs , political messages or religious symbols (with the exception of widely unpracticed religions, such as the Greek Pantheon ). The Japanese parent company was concerned that it may be viewed as a "Japanese Invasion" by forcing Japanese community standards on North American and European children. Despite the strict guidelines, some exceptions have occurred: _Bionic Commando _ (though swastikas were eliminated in the US version), _ Smash TV _ and _Golgo 13: Top Secret Episode _ contained human violence, the latter also containing implied sexuality and tobacco use ; _ River City Ransom _ and _Taboo: The Sixth Sense _ contained nudity, and the latter also contained religious images, as did _ Castlevania II _ and _III _.

A known side effect of this policy was the Genesis version of _Mortal Kombat _ selling over double the number of the Super NES
NES
version, mainly because Nintendo
Nintendo
had forced publisher Acclaim to recolor the red blood to look like white sweat and replace some of the more gory graphics in its release of the game, making it less violent. By contrast, Sega
Sega
allowed blood and gore to remain in the Genesis version (though a code was required to unlock the gore). Nintendo
Nintendo
allowed the Super NES
NES
version of _ Mortal Kombat II _ to ship uncensored the following year with a content warning on the packaging.

In 1994 and 2003, when the ESRB and PEGI (respectively) video game ratings systems were introduced, Nintendo
Nintendo
chose to abolish most of these policies in favor of consumers making their own choices about the content of the games they played. Today, changes to the content of games are done primarily by the game's developer or, occasionally, at the request of Nintendo. The only clear-set rule is that ESRB AO-rated games will not be licensed on Nintendo
Nintendo
consoles in North America, a practice which is also enforced by Sony
Sony
and Microsoft
Microsoft
, its two greatest competitors in the present market. Nintendo
Nintendo
has since allowed several mature-content games to be published on its consoles, including: _ Perfect Dark _, _Conker\'s Bad Fur Day _, _Doom _ and _ Doom 64 _, _ BMX XXX _, the _ Resident Evil _ series, _ Killer7
Killer7
_, the _ Mortal Kombat _ series, _Eternal Darkness: Sanity\'s Requiem _, _ BloodRayne _, _Geist _, _Dementium: The Ward _, _ Bayonetta 2
Bayonetta 2
_, _Devil\'s Third _ and _Fatal Frame: Maiden of Black Water _. Certain games have continued to be modified, however. For example, Konami was forced to remove all references to cigarettes in the 2000 Game Boy Color game _ Metal Gear Solid _ (although the previous NES
NES
version of _ Metal Gear _ and the subsequent GameCube
GameCube
game _ Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes _ both included such references, as did Wii
Wii
title _ MadWorld _), and maiming and blood were removed from the Nintendo
Nintendo
64 port of _Cruis\'n USA _. Another example is in the Game Boy Advance game _ Mega Man Zero 3 _, in which one of the bosses, called Hellbat Schilt in the Japanese and European releases, was renamed Devilbat Schilt in the North American localization . In North America releases of the _ Mega Man Zero _ games, enemies and bosses killed with a saber attack would not gush blood as they did in the Japanese versions. However, the release of the Wii
Wii
has been accompanied by a number of even more controversial mature titles, such as _ Manhunt 2 _, _No More Heroes _, _The House of the Dead: Overkill _ and _ MadWorld _, the latter three of which are published exclusively for the console. The Nintendo DS also has violent games, such as _Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars _, _Dementium: The Ward _ and its sequel , _Ultimate Mortal Kombat _, and _Resident Evil: Deadly Silence _.

LICENSE GUIDELINES

Nintendo of America
Nintendo of America
also had guidelines before 1993 that had to be followed by its licensees to make games for the Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System , in addition to the above content guidelines. Guidelines were enforced through the 10 NES
NES
lockout chip.

* Licensees were not permitted to release the same game for a competing console until two years had passed. * Nintendo
Nintendo
would decide how many cartridges would be supplied to the licensee. * Nintendo
Nintendo
would decide how much space would be dedicated for articles, advertising, etc. in the _ Nintendo Power
Nintendo Power
_ magazine. * There was a minimum number of cartridges that had to be ordered by the licensee from Nintendo. * There was a yearly limit of five games that a licensee may produce for a Nintendo
Nintendo
console. This rule was created to prevent market over-saturation, which had contributed to the North American video game crash of 1983 .

The last rule was circumvented in a number of ways; for example, Konami, wanting to produce more games for Nintendo's consoles, formed Ultra Games and later Palcom to produce more games as a technically different publisher. This disadvantaged smaller or emerging companies, as they could not afford to start additional companies. In another side effect, Square Co (now Square Enix
Square Enix
) executives have suggested that the price of publishing games on the Nintendo 64 along with the degree of censorship and control that Nintendo
Nintendo
enforced over its games, most notably _ Final Fantasy VI _, were factors in switching its focus towards Sony
Sony
's PlayStation
PlayStation
console.

In 1993, a class action suit was taken against Nintendo
Nintendo
under allegations that their lockout chip enabled unfair business practices . The case was settled, with the condition that California
California
consumers were entitled to a $3 discount coupon for a game of Nintendo's choice.

EMULATION

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (October 2014)_

Nintendo
Nintendo
is opposed to any third-party emulation of its video games and consoles, stating that it is the single largest threat to the intellectual property rights of video game developers. However, emulators have been used by Nintendo
Nintendo
and licensed third party companies as a means to re-release older games (through the Virtual Console ).

SEAL OF QUALITY

Nintendo
Nintendo
Seal of Quality Seal in NTSC
NTSC
regions Seal of Quality in PAL
PAL
regions

The gold sunburst seal was first used by Nintendo of America
Nintendo of America
, and later Nintendo
Nintendo
of Europe. It is displayed on any game, system, or accessory licensed for use on one of its video game consoles , denoting the game has been properly approved by Nintendo. The seal is also displayed on any Nintendo-licensed merchandise, such as trading cards, game guides, or apparel, albeit with the words "Official Nintendo
Nintendo
Licensed Product".

In 2008, game designer Sid Meier cited the Seal of Quality as one of the three most important innovations in video game history, as it helped set a standard for game quality that protected consumers from shovelware .

NTSC
NTSC
Regions

In NTSC
NTSC
regions, this seal is an elliptical starburst titled "Official Nintendo
Nintendo
Seal." Originally, for NTSC
NTSC
countries, the seal was a large, black and gold circular starburst. The seal read as follows: "This seal is your assurance that NINTENDO has approved and guaranteed the quality of this product." This seal was later altered in 1988: "approved and guaranteed" was changed to "evaluated and approved." In 1989, the seal became gold and white, as it currently appears, with a shortened phrase, "Official Nintendo
Nintendo
Seal of Quality." It was changed in 2003 to read "Official Nintendo
Nintendo
Seal."

The seal currently reads:

The official seal is your assurance that this product is licensed or manufactured by Nintendo. Always look for this seal when buying video game systems, accessories, games and related products.

PAL
PAL
Regions

In PAL
PAL
regions, the seal is a circular starburst titled, "Original Nintendo
Nintendo
Seal of Quality." Text near the seal in the Australian Wii manual states:

This seal is your assurance that Nintendo
Nintendo
has reviewed this product and that it has met our standards for excellence in workmanship, reliability and entertainment value. Always look for this seal when buying games and accessories to ensure complete compatibility with your Nintendo
Nintendo
product.

CHARITABLE PROJECTS

Since 1992 Nintendo
Nintendo
has teamed with the Starlight Children\'s Foundation to build Starlight Fun Center mobile entertainment units and install them in hospitals. 1,000 Starlight Nintendo
Nintendo
Fun Center units were installed by the end of 1995. These units combine several forms of multimedia entertainment, including gaming, and serve as a distraction to brighten moods and boost kids' morale during hospital stays.

ENVIRONMENTAL RECORD

Nintendo
Nintendo
has consistently been ranked last in Greenpeace 's "Guide to Greener Electronics" due to Nintendo's failure to publish information. Similarly, they are ranked last in the Enough Project 's "Conflict Minerals Company Rankings" due to Nintendo's refusal to respond to multiple requests for information.

Like many other electronics companies, Nintendo
Nintendo
does offer a take-back recycling program which allows customers to mail in old products they no longer use; Nintendo of America
Nintendo of America
claimed that it took in 548 tons of returned products in 2011, 98% of which was either reused or recycled.

TRADEMARK

During the peak of Nintendo's success in the video game industry in the 1990s, their name was ubiquitously used to refer to any video game console, regardless of the manufacturer. To prevent their trademark from becoming generic , Nintendo
Nintendo
pushed usage of the term "game console", and succeeded in preserving their trademark.

SEE ALSO

* List of Nintendo development teams * Lists of Nintendo characters * Lists of Nintendo games * _ Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. v. Nintendo of America, Inc. _ * _ Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo Co., Ltd. _

NOTES

* ^ _Nintendō kabushikigaisha_ (Japanese : 任天堂株式会社) * ^ 34°59′30.03″N 135°45′58.66″E / 34.9916750°N 135.7662944°E / 34.9916750; 135.7662944 * ^ 34°58′29.00″N 135°46′10.48″E / 34.9747222°N 135.7695778°E / 34.9747222; 135.7695778 * ^ 34°58′11.89″N 135°45′22.33″E / 34.9699694°N 135.7562028°E / 34.9699694; 135.7562028

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Kent, Steven L. (2001). _The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World_. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4 . OCLC 47254175 .

FURTHER READING

* Sloan, Daniel (2011). _Playing to Wiin: Nintendo
Nintendo
and the Video Game Industry\'s Greatest Comeback_. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-82512-9 . OCLC
OCLC
707935885 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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DIVISIONS

* Entertainment Planning & Development * European

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