Ningbo (Chinese: 宁波; Mandarin pronunciation:
[nǐŋ pwó] ( listen)), formerly written Ningpo, is
a sub-provincial city in northeast
Zhejiang province in China. It
comprises the urban districts of
Ningbo proper, three satellite
cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou
Bay and the East
China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations,
is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a
separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire
administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with
3.5 million in the six urban districts of
Ningbo proper. To the
Hangzhou Bay separates
Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies
Zhoushan in the East
China Sea; on the west and south,
Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
2.1 Tang and Song dynasty
2.2 Ming dynasty
2.3 Qing dynasty
2.4 Republican era
4 Administrative structure
5.1 Foreign investment
5.2 Economic and technological development zones
Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone
Ningbo Daxie Development Zone
Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Ningbo Free Trade Zone
5.2.5 Nordic Industrial Park
Ningbo Advertising Park
8 Notable people
9.6 Rapid transit
12.1 Universities and colleges
12.2 Secondary and primary education
12.3 International education
13 See also
15 External links
The first character in the city's name ning (宁 or 寧) means
"serene", while its second character bo (波) translates to "waves".
The city is abbreviated Yǒng (甬), after the Yong Hill (甬山), a
prominent coastal hill near the city, like the
Yong River that flows
through Ningbo. (The abbreviation Ning is used more commonly for
It was once named Míngzhōu (明州). The character ming (明) was
composed by two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall:
Sun Lake (日湖) and Moon Lake (月湖). Only Moon Lake remains.
Main article: History of Ningbo
Ningbo is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating to the
Hemudu culture in 4800 BC.
Ningbo was known as a trade city on the
silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port,
Guangzhou in the Tang Dynasty; thereafter, the
major ports for foreign trade in the Song Dynasty.
Tang and Song dynasty
Tianfeng Tower, originally built in Tang Dynasty, is the symbol of old
A rock garden inside Tianyi Chamber
Ningbo has been an important commercial port.
Arab traders lived in
Ningbo during the
Song dynasty when it was known
as Mingzhou, as the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over
land trade during this time. Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo
was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with
the foreign world. These merchants did not intermingle with native
Chinese, practicing their own customs and religion and they inhabited
ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to Chinese. Jews
also lived in Ningbo, as evidenced by the fact that, after a major
Torah scrolls in Kaifeng, a replacement was sent to
Kaifeng Jews by the
Ningbo Jewish community.
The city of
Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name
of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard
Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although
Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the
more correct Nimpó. The spelling Liampó is also attested in
the Peregrination (Peregrinação) by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a
(so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during the 16th
century. For the mid-16th-century Portuguese, the nearby promontory,
which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious
city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia. The
Portuguese began trading in
Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the
Portuguese had a sizable community in
Ningbo (or, more likely, on
nearby small islands like Shuangyu). Portuguese activities from their
Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port
Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people
during their raids. The Portuguese were ousted from the Ningbo
area in 1548.
Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty
Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the
First Opium War
First Opium War between
Britain and China. During the war, British forces took possession of
the walled city of
Ningbo briefly after storming the fortified town of
Zhenhai at the mouth of the
Yong River on October 10, 1841. The
British repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of
Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1864, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion
held the town for six months. In March 1885, during the Sino-French
War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese
warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defences.
Ningbo was also once famed for traditional Chinese furniture
During the Qing dynasty, western encyclopedias described
Ningbo as a
center of craftsmanship and industry.
During the late Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the
Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese
pirates who raided
Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was
"successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being
dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted
that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese,
and that the Portuguese authorities at
Macau should have reined in the
During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian
Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo
Church. The Ningpo College was managed by Rev. Robert F. Fitch.
The four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai
rank. Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to
China by the Church of England Missionary Society, and arrived at
Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February 1858. He then began a mission
station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been
chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo
World War II
World War II in 1940, Japan bombed
Ningbo with ceramic bombs
full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague. According to Daniel
Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a
special screening by
Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes
loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over
Ningbo in 1940.
"It has been said of the
Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the
world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and
for centuries past no people have made so little further
Yuehu Mosque of Ningbo
The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was built between 1872 and
1876, was closed by the government in 1963, and was reopened and
renamed in 1980. It was recognized as a national heritage site in
Ningbo ranges in latitude from 28° 51' to 30° 33' N and in longitude
from 120° 55' to 122° 16' E, bounded on the east by the East China
Zhoushan Archipelago, on the north by
Hangzhou Bay, across
which it faces
Jiaxing and Shanghai, on the west by Shaoxing, and on
the south by Taizhou. Its land area is 9,816 square kilometres
(3,790 sq mi), while oceanic territory amounts to
9,758 km2 (3,768 sq mi); there is a total 1,562 km
(971 mi) of coastline including 788 km (490 mi) of
mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline,
together accounting for one-third of the entire provincial coastline.
There are 531 islands accounting for 524 km2
(202 sq mi) under the city's administration.
The city proper of
Ningbo is sandwiched between the ocean and
low-lying mountains to the southwest, with coastal plain and valleys
in between. Important peninsulas include the Chuanshan Peninsula
(穿山半岛), located in
Beilun District and containing mainland
Zhejiang's easternmost point, and the Xiangshan Peninsula
(象山半岛) in Xiangshan County. The Siming Mountains (四明山)
run north from Mount Tiantai and within
Ningbo City, traverse Yuyao
City, Haishu District, and
Fenghua District, reaching a height of
979 m (3,212 ft).
Ningbo has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four
distinctive seasons, characterised by hot, humid summers and chilly,
cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual
temperature is 16.53 °C (61.8 °F), with monthly daily
averages ranging from 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) in January to
28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged
from −8.8 °C (16 °F) on 12 January 1955 to 42.1 °C
(108 °F) on 8 August 2013. The city receives an average
annual rainfall of 1,440 millimetres (56.7 in) and is affected by
the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative
humidity also peaks. From August to October,
Ningbo experiences the
effects of typhoons, and is affected by an average 1.8 storms
annually, though the city is not often struck directly by these
systems. A 2012 OECD study lists
Ningbo among the top 20 cities
worldwide most at risk of flooding due to anthropogenic climate
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Weather (temperatures, precipitation) 
Ningbo Climate Studies (humidity, sunshine)
The mayor of
Ningbo is Liu Qi.
Wang Huizhong is the secretary of CPC
in Ningbo, who is first-in-charge of the city. The Communist Party
Secretary is always the highest official in cities in
outranks all other officials.
Ningbo Local Government Offices
Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office
Ningbo Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau
The sub-provincial city of
Ningbo is as whole a group urban with one
central group, one northern group, and one southern group. It has
direct jurisdiction over six districts (central group), two
county-level cities (northern group) and two counties (southern
Primary urban core & affiliated rural (Tri-river Area)
Secondary urban cores & affiliated rural
Defunct: Jiangdong District
The bustling downtown of
Ningbo City with the nationwide famous
shopping complex Tianyi Square, named after the Tianyi Ge (Chamber),
the oldest private library in China.
Ningbo along rivers
Ningbo is an important port city located 220 kilometres (140 mi)
south of Shanghai. The city's export industry dates back to the 7th
Ningbo is a major exporter of electrical products,
textiles, food, and industrial tools. The private economy of the city
is especially well-developed, contributing 80 percent of total GDP in
Ningbo was geographically isolated from other major
cities. In 2007 the
Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built, cutting highway
transit time between
Shanghai to two and a half hours from
four. The city now serves as the economic center for the southern
Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta and has been ranked among the most competitive
cities in China.
In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached USD 60.8 billion, down
10.4% from 2008. The exports totaled USD 38.65 billion, down 16.6%
from the previous year. In addition,
Ningbo imported USD 22.16 billion
of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.
Ningbo's economy grew 9.26 percent in 2013 to 712.89 billion yuan
(US$115.12 billion). In 2009, the city's per capita output was
US$10,833, about three times the national average.
Ningbo is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower. Used for dyeing
cloth, 2008 exports were responsible for 3% of the
With several important development zones established in or around
Ningbo, the city has received considerable foreign investment.
Over 60 domestic and foreign-invested financial institutions have
established operations in the city, which has also attracted more than
10,000 foreigners. The municipal government offers preferential
policies designed to encourage investment in international trade, new
strategic industries, manufacturing, information services, and
Economic and technological development zones
Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone
Located in the north-east of Ningbo, behind Beilun Port, NETD is
27 km (17 mi) away from the city center. With more than 20
years of great effort, NETD has already formed the general framework
for large scale construction and development, and established perfect
investment environment. It is situated close to the
Ningbo Port and
Ningbo Lishe International Airport. Major Investors include Exxon
Mobile, Dupont and Dow Chemical.
Ningbo Daxie Development Zone
Ningbo Daxie Development Zone was approved in 1993 and covers an
area of 5.92 km2 (2.29 sq mi). Over more than ten years
of development and construction, industrial and logistical foundations
have been established in the zone for the transshipment of energy,
liquid chemicals and containers.
Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in
1999 and was upgraded to a national level zone in January 2007. It is
10 km (6.2 mi) from
Ningbo International Airport and
18 km (11 mi) away from
Ningbo Port. The zone serves as the
important technical innovation base of Yangtze River Delta. Industries
encouraged include chemicals production and processing, biotechnology
and pharmaceuticals, raw material processing, Research and
Ningbo Free Trade Zone
Ningbo Free Trade Zone is one of the 15 free trade zones authorized by
the State Council of China, and is the only free trade zone in
Zhejiang Province. It was established by State Council in 1992,
covering the area of 2.3 km2 (0.89 sq mi). It lies in
the middle of the coastline of Mainland China, at the south of Yangtze
River Delta. In 2008, its industrial output value was RMB 53.33
billion and grew at 19.8% as compared to 2007.
Nordic Industrial Park
The Nordic Industrial Park Co. Ltd. (NIP) is one of the first wholly
foreign-owned industrial parks in
China located in Ningbo, Zhejiang
Province. NIP is managed and operated by a Scandinavian management
Ningbo Advertising Park
Ningbo Advertising Park is a national level pilot park aimed
located in the
Ningbo Southern Business District. The financial
incentives have attracted over 300 relevant firms to establish
Main article: Port of Ningbo
Ningbo is not just an ordinary city—it has the same authority as
provincial governments for economic administration—and has a port
second only to
Shanghai around the world in terms of annual cargo
throughput. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deep-water and capable of
handling 300,000 tonne vessels. The port is located mainly in Beilun
district and Zhenhai district. In 2006,
Ningbo Port started its
expansion to the neighbouring island City of
Zhoushan for the purpose
of building an even larger port with higher capacity to compete with
neighbouring ports in the region, such as Shanghai's Yangshan
Deep-Water Port. The statistics in 2010 showed that total cargo
throughput was 627,000,000 tonnes and container throughput 13,144,000
TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and
massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments,
yet win the race with
Shanghai as port of choice for servicing the
Chinese east coast.
The Zunjing Hall (尊经阁) located within the Tianyi Chamber
King Ashoka Temple
The monument to victory in the Battle of Zhenhai (Sino-French War)
Statue of Dante in Ningbo
Tianyi Pavilion (Tianyi Ge), one of Ningbo's most popular tourist
attractions, is in the vicinity of Moon Lake (Yuehu). Built in 1516
and said to be the oldest surviving library in China, it was founded
by Ming official Fan Qin, whose collection went back to the 11th
century and included woodblock and handwritten copies of the Confucian
classics, rare local histories and lists of the candidates successful
in imperial examinations. Today you can visit the library's garden and
outhouses, some of which contain small displays of old books and
Baoguo Temple, the oldest intact wooden structure in eastern China, is
located in Jiangbei District, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Ningbo
Qita Temple, a Zen Buddhist temple complex first consecrated during
the Tang Dynasty.
Tianhou Temple, a former temple of Mazu as the "Empress of Heaven"
once used by Fujianese merchants as their guild hall (Qing'an
Huiguan). In the 19th century, it was accounted by S. Wells Williams
as the most beautiful place in
Ningbo and by John Thomson as one of
the most beautiful temples in China, but that structure was destroyed
during the Chinese Civil War. It has been reconstructed with many of
its original works of art, however, to form the East
Affairs and Folk Customs Museum.
Mount Phoenix Theme Park
Main article: List of people from Ningbo
Many well known Chinese came from
Ningbo or their ancestral home was
People in mainland China
Zhang Jianhong, freelance writer, playwright, poet, and also a
Pan Tianshou, artist in Chinese painting
Zhou Xinfang, artist in Peking Opera
Sha Menghai, the Master Calligrapher
Tu Youyou, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine achieved
People in Hong Kong
Run Run Shaw
Tung Chee Hwa
Tung Chao Yung
Chen Din Hwa
People in Taiwan
Chiang Kai-shek, political and military leader of 20th century China
Shien Biau Woo
Yo Yo Ma
Ningbo Lishe International Airport
Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo
Ningbo New Railway Station was reopened in December 2013 after years
of on-site restoration to accommodate high speed rails and increasing
As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial
to build bridges to improve the efficiency of transport network in
Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong
District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by
German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on
the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction.
Hangzhou Bay Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and
Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008.
This bridge connects the municipalities of
Shanghai and Ningbo, and is
considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the
world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway
in Louisiana, United States.
The Jintang Bridge, linking Jintang Island of
Zhoushan and the Zhenhai
district, is a 27 km (17 mi) long, 4 lane sea crossing
bridge which opened on December 26, 2009.
Xiangshan Harbor Bridge
Xiangshan Harbor Bridge opened to traffic on December 29, 2012,
Ningbo with Xiangshan. The 47 km long project includes
22 km as the main body of the bridge plus an 8-kilometre-long
The port of
Ningbo is one of the world's busiest ports. It was ranked
number 7 in total Cargo Volume and number 6 in total container traffic
Ningbo Lishe International Airport
Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects
Ningbo by air to the rest
of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights.
In 2009, new air routes between
Taiwan were opened. Jetstar
Asia launched a new route between
Ningbo and Singapore in September
2011. Tiger Air planned to begin flying this route from 26 December
Three railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan–
(Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou, the
Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to
Wenzhou, and the Hangzhou–
Ningbo High-Speed Railway, which runs
parallel to the Xiaoyong Line providing high-speed railway service.
With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a
conventional railway built in the 1950s, cannot meet the demand for
railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction
of a new high-speed railway line between
in 2009. The new railway line was finished by 2013 and reduced travel
Hangzhou to 50 minutes.
Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that
opened in September 2009. It connects
Ningbo with cities along the
coast to the south to
Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line
operate at speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph).
Ningbo re-opened the
Ningbo Railway Station after three years of
construction on December 28, 2013. With a construction area of more
than 120,000 m2, it is one of the largest railway stations in
Seven expressways connect
Ningbo with its surrounding cities:
The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects
Ningbo, now part of
Hangzhou Bay ring expressway (G9211).
The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects
Taizhou and Wenzhou.
The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects
Ningbo and Jinhua.
The Huyong expressway (G15) connects
Shanghai via the
Hangzhou Bay bridge.
Yongzhou expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge.
Ningbo Ring Expressway
The G15W2 Ningbo–
Ningbo Rail Transit
Line 1 train leaving Xujiacao
Ningbo has two metro lines in service consisting of Line 1, which is
46.2 kilometers in length and has 29 stations, and Line 2, which is
28.4 kilometers in length and has 22 stations. More lines are under
construction. Line 3 is scheduled to be finished in the year 2019 and
Line 4 in 2020. Future plans are for 7 metro lines serving Ningbo.
Ningbo is the headquarters of the
East Sea Fleet
East Sea Fleet of the Chinese
People's Liberation Army Navy. Its responsibility includes projecting
force in the region around the Republic of
China (Taiwan), which the
People's Republic of
China views as a renegade province.
As a city with giant ports,
Ningbo influenced many countries near
China, such as Japan.
Ningbo speech is a dialect of
Wu Chinese that has preserved many
aspects of ancient Chinese phonology. Its original wording mode can be
found in classical reference books. It can be found that the
trisyllable and tetrasyllable phrases or proverbs in
make it most unusual and dynamic. Moreover, the onomatopoeia,
assonance words, collocations, inversions, and other language
Ningbo dialect all add spice to people's[who?]
life. After port-opening, the western culture gradually permeated
Ningbo, thus the prefix "洋yang" before the nouns of imported goods
is a special language phenomenon of
Ningbo is known for
Ningbo Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are
boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can
also be mixed with pork. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice
powder. Even more so,
Ningbo is famous throughout
China for its
seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of
fish, crabs/lobsters/shrimp, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other
invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from
"still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked.
Ningbo has many traditional Han Chinese festivals same as other
provinces in China. However, the date of Mid-Autumn Festival is
different with others. Han Chinese will have Mid-Autumn Festival on
Lunar Calendar August 15th, but
Ningbo will have on August 16th. The
most creditable history is long long ago, whole city waited for Shi
Hao, a prime minister.
By the end of 2013, there were 2,097 schools of all levels in total,
with 1,334,000 students. Among them there are 16 colleges and
universities, with 153,000 students; 81 secondary schools, with 97,000
students; 55 vocational schools, with 78,000 students; 216 junior
schools, with 189,000 students; 465 primary schools, with 487,000
students; 1,254 kindergartens, with 276,000 children. Besides, there
are 2,500 international students in universities in Ningbo, up 56%
from last year. All talents in
Ningbo increased by 112,000 people
(8.6%) in 2013, and the total amount came to 1,413,000.
By the end of 2014, there were 2,082 schools of all levels in total,
with 1,320,700 students. Among them there are 14 colleges and
universities, with 150,900 students; 83 secondary schools, with 90,300
students; 52 vocational schools, with 72,8000 students; 209 junior
schools, with 189,8000 students; 457 primary schools, with 482,600
students; 1,254 kindergartens, with 278,400 children.
Universities and colleges
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Ningbo has 16 colleges and universities. University of Nottingham
China is China's very first Sino-Foreign University – a joint
venture between the
University of Nottingham
University of Nottingham and the Wanli Education
Group. UNNC has built a very high reputation in
China for the quality
of its undergraduate education and graduated its first PhD students in
2013. Toward the north of the city is
Ningbo University, while the
Ningbo Higher Education Zone (Yinzhou district) is home to Zhejiang
Wanli University, affiliated to
Zhejiang University, which was ranked as the eleventh
best of independent colleges in
China in 2011, is also in this
Secondary and primary education
Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the
ages 6 to 15. Students are catered for in a variety of state and
private schools. Studying for the gaokao (university entrance test) is
Several schools are permitted to operate educational programmes
instead of the Chinese National curriculum and accept international
students into their schools.
Access International Academy Ningbo
Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) offers a US curriculum with
the College Boarrd
Advanced Placement examinations.
School International is an
IB World School
IB World School and offers an international
curriculum through the IB Diploma Programme,
School offers the South Australian Curriculum Standards and
Accountability framework (SACSA) for the toddler grades up to and
including grade 5 and provides accredited Cambridge International
University programmes for grades 6–12 inclusive. Huamao
Multicultural Education Academy is an
IB World School
IB World School and offers
an international curriculum through the
IB Primary Years Programme for
students ages 3–12 and the
IB Diploma Programme
IB Diploma Programme for students ages
List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Ningbo
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