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NINEVEH PLAINS (Syriac : ܦܩܥܬܐ ܕܢܝܢܘܐ‎, translit. Pqatā d'Ninwe, and Modern Syriac : ܕܫܬܐ ܕܢܝܢܘܐ‎, translit. Daštā d'Ninwe; Arabic : سهل نينوى‎, translit. Sahl Naynawā‎; Kurdish : Deşta Neynewa‎) is a region in Iraq
Iraq
's Nineveh Governorate
Nineveh Governorate
to the north and east of the city Mosul
Mosul
, from which it is also known as the PLAIN OF MOSUL. It was formerly known as the PLAIN OF SANJAR or SINJAR from its major medieval settlement . It was the location of al-Khwārizmī 's determination of a degree during the reign of the caliph al-Mamun .

The area also includes the ruins of the ancient Assyrian cities of Nineveh
Nineveh
, Nimrud
Nimrud
, and Dur-Sharrukin as well as numerous ancient religious sites such as Mar Mattai Monastery , Rabban Hormizd Monastery , the Tomb of Nahum , and Lalish
Lalish
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Attacks on Christians * 2.2 Creation of an Assyrian autonomous province

* 3 Population * 4 Economy * 5 Main towns in Nineveh
Nineveh
plains * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References

GEOGRAPHY

Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains lie to the east, northeast of the city of Mosul
Mosul
in the Iraqi Ninawa Province . The ancient city of Nineveh
Nineveh
stood where the eastern outskirts of Mosul
Mosul
are today, on the bank of the Tigris river. The villages on the eastern part of the plains are inhabited by minority religious groups that are non-Muslim. Most of these inhabitants are Assyrian Christians.

The Nineveh
Nineveh
plains are not only the historical homeland of the Assyrian people
Assyrian people
and a crucible of pre-Arab and Kurd pre-Islamic Mesopotamian civilisation, but it is a province where a majority of the population is currently drawn from the minorities, around half of whom are Assyrians.

HISTORY

Singara
Singara
in a detail from Peutinger\'s map , a medieval copy of a 4th-century Roman original. A map of the "Jazira" 's provinces in medieval times.

Peutinger\'s map of the inhabited world known to the Roman geographers depicts Singara
Singara
as located west of the Trogoditi. Persi. (Latin : Troglodytae Persiae, "Persian troglodytes ") who inhabited the territory around Mount Sinjar . By the medieval Arabs, most of the plain was reckoned as part of the province of Diyār Rabīʿa
Diyār Rabīʿa
, the "abode of the Rabīʿa " tribe . The plain was the site of the determination of the degree by al-Khwārizmī and other astronomers during the reign of the caliph al-Mamun . Sinjar also boasted a famous Assyrian cathedral in the 8th century.

ATTACKS ON CHRISTIANS

Main article: 2008 attacks on Christians in Mosul
Mosul

Following the concerted attacks on Assyrian Christians in Iraq, especially highlighted by the Sunday, August 1, 2004 simultaneous bombing of six Churches ( Baghdad
Baghdad
and Mosul) and subsequent bombing of nearly thirty other churches throughout the country, Assyrian leadership, internally and externally, began to regard the Nineveh Plain
Plain
as the location where security for Christians may be possible. Schools especially received much attention in this area and in Kurdish areas where Assyrian concentrated population lives. In addition, agriculture and medical clinics received financial help from the Assyrian diaspora .

As attacks on Christians increased in Basra
Basra
, Baghdad
Baghdad
, Ramadi and smaller towns. more families turned northward to the extended family holdings in the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain. This place of refuge remains underfunded and gravely lacking in infrastructure to aid the ever-increasing internally displaced people population.

In February 2010, the attacks against Assyrians in Mosul
Mosul
forced 4,300 Assyrians to flee to the Nineveh
Nineveh
plains where there is an Assyrian-majority population. From 2012, it also began receiving influxes of Assyrians from Syria
Syria
owing to the civil war there.

In August 2014 nearly all of the non-Sunni inhabitants of the southern regions of the Plains were driven out by the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant during the 2014 Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive .

CREATION OF AN ASSYRIAN AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE

Main article: Proposals for Assyrian autonomy in Iraq
Iraq

The Assyrian-inhabited towns and villages on the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain
Plain
form a concentration of those belonging to Syriac Christian traditions, and since this area is the ancient home of the Assyrian empire through which the Assyrian people
Assyrian people
trace their cultural heritage, the Nineveh Plain
Plain
is the area on which an effort to form an autonomous Assyrian entity has become concentrated. There have been calls by some politicians inside and outside Iraq
Iraq
to create an autonomous region for Assyrian Christians in this area.

In the Transitional Administrative Law adopted in March 2004 in Baghdad, not only were provisions made for the preservation of Assyrian culture through education and media, but a provision for an administrative unit also was accepted. Article 125 in Iraq's Constitution states that: "This Constitution shall guarantee the administrative, political, cultural, and educational rights of the various nationalities, such as Turkomen, Chaldeans, Assyrians, and all other constituents, and this shall be regulated by law." Since the towns and villages on the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain
Plain
form a concentration of those belonging to Syriac Christian traditions, and since this area is the ancient home of the Assyrian empire through which these people trace their cultural heritage, the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain
Plain
is the area on which the effort to form an autonomous Assyrian entity have become concentrated. The same article has been used to proclaim an autonomous province for the Yezidi people.

On January 21, 2014, the Iraqi government had declared that Nineveh Plains would become a new province, which would serve as a safe haven for Assyrians.

After the liberation of the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain
Plain
from ISIL between 2016/17, all Assyrian political parties called on the European Union
European Union
and UN Security Council for the creation of an Assyrian self-administered province in the Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain.

Between the 28th-30th of June, 2017, a conference was held in Brussels
Brussels
dubbed, The Future for Christians in Iraq. The conference was organised by the European People\'s Party and had participants extending from Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac organizations, including representatives from the Iraqi government and the KRG. The conference was boycotted by the Assyrian Democratic Movement , Sons of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, Assyrian Patriotic Party
Assyrian Patriotic Party
, Chaldean Catholic Church and Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
. A position paper was signed by the remaining political organizations involved.

POPULATION

The Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains is the only region in Iraq
Iraq
where a plurality of inhabitants follow Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
. Before ISIS invaded Nineveh, Assyrians made up around 40% of the population within the plains. The five patriarchal churches represented are:

* Ancient Church of the East * Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
* Chaldean Catholic Church * Syriac Catholic Church * Syriac Orthodox Church

The area is considered by its Assyrian inhabitants as being the original Assyrian heartland. Other inhabitants are the Yazidis
Yazidis
, Shabaks , Turkmens and Kurds .

ECONOMY

The Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain
Plain
appears to hold under its rich agricultural lands an extension of the petroleum fields tapped in 2006 by the Kurdish Regional Government in direct contract with foreign oil exploration companies. It is believed that this added incentive for absorption by the KRG of the region may lead to economic conflict with Sunni Arab tribes in the Mosul
Mosul
region itself. Assyrians claim that without Nineveh
Nineveh
Plain
Plain
autonomous administration, the indigenous Assyrian presence in its ancient homeland could well disappear. There are some oil reserves in Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains.

MAIN TOWNS IN NINEVEH PLAINS

* Ba\'adra * Tel Kepe * Bakhdida * Ba\'ashiqah/ Bahzani * Bartella
Bartella
* Khatarah * Alqosh
Alqosh
* Karemlesh * Ain Sifni * Tesqopa * Batnaya
Batnaya
* Baqofah
Baqofah
* Sharafiya
Sharafiya
* Merki

SEE ALSO

* Assyrians portal

* Assyrians in Iraq
Iraq
* Assyrian independence movement * Assyrian homeland
Assyrian homeland
* Proposals for Assyrian autonomy in Iraq
Iraq
* Barwari * Nahla plains * Urmia Plain
Plain
* Ezidkhan

NOTES

* ^ http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/iraq-hangs-26-convicted-terror-charges-21606806 * ^ Mardean Isaac (2010-12-30). "The desperate plight of Iraq\'s Assyrians and other minorities Mardean Isaac Comment is free guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-08-17. * ^ Abul Fazl-i-Ạllámí (1894), "Description of the Earth", The Áin I Akbarí, Vol. III, Translated by H.S. Jarrett, Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press for the Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 25–27 . * ^ A short history of Syriac literature. Retrieved 23 December 2014. * ^ UN report. * ^ http://www.assyrianaidiraq.org/relief_projects * ^ http://www.assyrianaid.org/Refugees2012.html * ^ Chulov, Martin; Hawramy, Fazel (9 August 2014). "\'Isis has shattered the ancient ties that bound Iraq\'s minorities\'". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 August 2014. * ^ Iraqi Christians hold critical meeting, The Kurdish Globe * ^ Dutch MP calls for autonomous Assyrian Christian region in north Iraq, AKI * ^ http://www.assyrianamericancoalition.org/documents/policy/AtTheTippingPoint-NPProvinceSolutionFull.pdf * ^ " Iraq
Iraq
Sustainable Democracy Project". Iraqdemocracyproject.org. 2008-02-19. Retrieved 2012-08-17. * ^ "Shengal Constituent Assembly Our People Demand To Govern Themselves" ANF - English http://anfenglish.com/kurdistan/shengal-constituent-assembly-our-people-demand-to-govern-themselves * ^ BetBasoo, Peter; Nuri Kino (22 January 2014). "Will a Province for Assyrians Stop Their Exodus From Iraq?". Assyrian International News Agency . Retrieved 6 December 2016. * ^ http://europeanpost.co/iraqi-christians-ask-eu-to-support-the-creation-of-a-nineveh-plain-province/ * ^ https://www.nineveh.eu/ * ^ https://www.scribd.com/document/352513487/The-Future-of-the-Nineveh-Plain * ^ http://rudaw.net/english/middleeast/iraq/24012014 * ^ http://yonoforiraq.com/AboutMosul.pdf * ^ http://www.religiousfreedomcoalition.org/2011/02/21/christian-leaders-unhappy-with-lack-of-action-on-nineveh-plain/ * ^ https://iwpr.net/global-voices/kurdistans-gushing-crude-spawns-conflict

REFERENCES

* Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains Geographical Information * Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains Needs

Coordinates : 36°37′N 43°7′E / 36.617°N 43.117°E / 36.617; 43.117

* v * t * e

Nineveh
Nineveh
plains in Nineveh Governorate
Nineveh Governorate
, northern Iraq
Iraq

MAIN SETTLEMENTS

AL-HAMDANIYA DISTRICT

* Bakhdida * Bartella
Bartella
* Karemlesh * Bashiqa * Bahzani

TEL KEPPE DISTRICT

* Tel Keppe
Tel Keppe
* Alqosh
Alqosh
* Batnaya
Batnaya
* Tesqopa * Baqofa * Sharafiya
Sharafiya
* Bozan * Khatarah

SHEKHAN DISTRICT

* Ain Sifni * Dashqotan * Qasrok * Ba\'adra

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

* Balawat * Shibaniba * Nimrud
Nimrud
* Dur-Sharrukin * Tell Arpachiyah * Tepe Gawra

RELIGIOUS SITES

SYRIAC CATHOLIC CHURCH

* Mar Behnam Monastery (4th century)

CHALDEAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

* Rabban Hormizd Monastery (640) * Mar Oraha Monastery (6th century) * Tomb of Prophet Nahum

SYRIAC ORTHODOX CHURCH

*