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* Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta
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TEACHERS (Acharyas )
ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA
* Tantra * Shakta
* Kanada , Prashastapada
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* Bhagavat Gita * Agama (Hinduism)
------------------------- SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS
* Pramana Sutras
* v * t * e
According to his eponymous tradition, the Nimbārka Sampradāya ,
Śrī Nimbārkāchārya appeared in the year 3096 BCE, when the
Bhandarkar has placed him after Ramanuja, suggesting 1162 AD as the date of his demise. S.N.Dasgupta dated Nimbarka to around middle of 14th Century. On the other hand, S. A. A. Rizvi assigns a date of c.1130–1200 AD.
Current scholarship has pointed out that in Bhandarkar's own work it
is clearly stated that this was an approximation based on an extremely
flimsy calculation, yet most scholars chose to honour his suggested
date, even until modern times. The latest scholarship has demonstrated
with a high degree of clarity that
Nimbarka and his immediate disciple
Shrinivasa flourished well before
According to tradition, Nimbārka was born in Vaidūryapattanam, the
present-day Mungi Village,
Paithan in East
* 1 Philosophy
* 2 Five Sadhanas
* 2.1 Karma (ritual action) * 2.2 Vidya * 2.3 Upasana or dhyana (meditation) * 2.4 Prapatti (Surrender to the Lord/Devotion) * 2.5 Gurupasatti
* 3 The disciplic tradition today * 4 References * 5 External links
Nimbarka's philosophical position is known as Dvaitadvaita (duality and nonduality at the same time or dualistic non-dualism). The categories of existence, according to him, are three, i.e., cit, acit, and Isvara. Cit and acit are different from Isvara , in the sense that they have attributes and capacities, which are different from those of Isvara. Isvara is independent and exists by Himself, while cit and acit have existence dependent upon Him. At the same time cit and acit are not different from Isvara, because they cannot exist independently of Him. Difference means a kind of existence which is separate but dependent, (para-tantra-satta-bhava) while non-difference means impossibility of independent existence (svatantra-satta-bhava).
Nimbarka equally emphasises both difference and non-difference,
Thus, according to Nimbarka, there are three equally real and
co-eternal realities, viz. Brahman, the cit and the acit.
Nimbarka accepts parinamavada to explain the cause of animate and
inanimate world, which he says exist in a subtle form in the various
capacities (saktis) which belong to
Nimbarka the highest object of worship is
Sri Nimbarka refers to 5 methods to Salvation:
KARMA (RITUAL ACTION)
Performed conscientiously in a proper spirit, with one’s varna (caste) and asrama (phase of life) thereby giving rise to knowledge which is a means to salvation).
Not as a subordinate factor of karma but also not as an independent means for everyone; only for those inclined to spending vast lengths of time in scriptural study and reflection on deeper meanings.
UPASANA OR DHYANA (MEDITATION)
It is of three types. First is meditation on the Lord as one's self, i.e. meditation on the Lord as the Inner Controller of the sentient. Second is meditation on the Lord as the Inner Controller of the non-sentient. Final one is meditation on Lord Himself, as different from the sentient and non-sentient. This is again not an independent means to Salvation for all, as only those qualified to perform the upasana (with Yajnopavitam) can perform this Sadhana.
PRAPATTI (SURRENDER TO THE LORD/DEVOTION)
Devotion and self-surrender to God as Shri
Devotion and self-surrender to guru. Best realised as a part in Prapatti, and not as an independent means, although it can be so.
Sri Nimbarka made the "Bhasya" (commentary in which alle the words of the verses are used, in contradistinction to a tika, which is a more free commentary) of the Brahmasutra on his Dvaitadvaita Vedanta (Principle of Dualism-Nondualism) in his famous book " Vedanta Parijata Sourabha".
THE DISCIPLIC TRADITION TODAY
Upon reaching the leader Svāmī Harivyāsa Devacārya (c.1470-1540 CE), the 35th leader, the tradition was reformed. He anointed twelve of his senior disciples to lead missions throughout the land. The most famous are Svāmī Paraśurāma Devācārya (c.1525-1610 CE) and Svāmī Svabhūrāma Devācārya (fl. 16th century).
Svāmī Paraśurāma Devācārya was anointed as the leader of the
entire movement. He was given the śālagrāma deity known as Śrī
Sarveśvara that was handed down through time it is believed from
Nimbārka himself. The 48th and current leader of the entire Nimbārka
Sampradāya is H.D.H. Jagadguru Nimbārkācārya Svāmī Śrī
Rādhāsarveśvara Śaraṇa Devācārya, known in reverence as Śrī
Śrījī Māhārāja by his followers. He is based in Nimbārka
In his sub-lineage, there are many branches. Notable saints of this
sub-branch include the famous Saint Swami Chatur Chintamani Nagaji
Maharaj, who started the
Vraja Parikrama . This tradition has been
continuously maintained over 528 years by the Acharyas of the
Svabhurāma-Dwara (sub-lineage). In this same tradition Swami Sri
Ramdas Kathiababa came to Vrindavan and made his first monastery
there. This branch is currently led by SWAMI RAS BIHARI DAS KATHIA
BABA at Sri
Kathia Baba Ka Sthan, Sridham Vrindavan, India. This
ashram is known as the GURUGADI, or seat of the Guru, of this
sub-branch as a continuation of the lineage of Swami Ram Das Kathia
Baba, Swami Santadas Kathiababa and Swami Dhananjaya Das Kathia Babaji
Maharaj. Swami Dhananjaya Das Kathia Babaji built several ashrams. The
Acharya Swami Ras Bihari Dasji
Kathia Baba has constructed 20
new temples and monasteries in
The famous teacher and leader Svāmī Haripriyā Śaraṇa
Devācārya, founded the temple and monastery at Bihari Ji Ka
Bageecha, Vṛndāvana , sponsored by his disciple, the philanthropic
Shri Hargulal Beriwala and the Beriwala Trust in the 19th century. The
predecessor of the current successor was Svāmī Lalitā Śaraṇa
Devācārya, who died in July 2005 at the age of 103. One of his other
disciples is the world-renowned Svāmī Gopāla Śaraṇa Devācārya,
who has founded the Monastery and temple known as the Shri Golok Dham
Ashram in New Delhi and Vṛndāvana . He has also helped ordinary
Another of the famous leaders was Sri Radhavallabh Sharan Devacharya who presided at the Baijiraj Temple in Udaipur, Rajasthan. He is succeeded by Mahant Sri Mohansharan Ji. In Abu Road, Swami Shri Yugal Sharan Ji Brahmachari takes care of Shri Pat Narayan Dham, a wondrous centre worshipping an ancient deity of Lord Visnu . He provides top level Ayurvedic care and has thousands of patients visiting daily.
The Mithila Kunj Ashram is operated by disciples in the tradition of Swami Shri Mukund Devacharya (fl.16th century), another of Swami Shri Harivyas Devacharya's 12 main disciples. At Vamshi Vata, the site of austerities of Harivyasa's preceptor, Swami Shri Shribhatta, the branch of Swami Shri Uddhava Ghamanda Devacharyaji has its headquarters. Swami Uddhava Ghamanda Devacharya ji, another of the 12 disciples of Swami Shri Harivyasa Devacharya is of note for his establishment of the practise of Rasa Lila performances, which continue today and are performed by devotees initiated in other sects and even folk artists. His disciples are led by Swami Roop Kishor Devacharya based at Shri Chain Bihari Ji Kunj.
* ^ Prof. Roma Bose, Vedanta Parijata Saurabha of Nimbarka and Vedanta Kaustubha of Srinivasa (Commentaries on the Brahma-Sutras) – Doctrines of Nimbarka and his followers, vol.3, Munishram Manoharlal Publishers, Reprint 2004 * ^ Satyanand, J. Nimbārka: A Pre-Śaṅkara Vedāntin and his philosophy, Varanasi, 1997 * ^ R.G.Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism, Saivaism and minor Religious system (Indological Book House, Varanasi, India) page 62-63 * ^ A History of Indian Philosophy (Vol. 3) by Surendranath Dasgupta, (Cambridge: 1921) page 420 * ^ Saiyed A A Rizvi- A history of Sufism in India, Vol.1 (Munshi Ram Manoharlal Publishing Private Limited: 1978), page 355 * ^ Malkovsky, B. The Role of Divine Grace in the Soteriology of Śaṁkarācārya, Leiden: Brill, p.118 * ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 312. ISBN 0-8160-5458-4 . * ^ Ramnarace, V. Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa's Vedāntic Debut: Chronology and Rationalisation in the Nimbārka Sampradāya, doctoral thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2015, chapters 5-6
* Teachers and Pupils of the Nimbārka School, Surendranath Dasgupta, 1940 * http://sriharivyas.com * http://nimbarka.wordpress.com * http://www.dlshq.org/saints/nimbarka.htm