The Info List - Nikki Giovanni

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Yolande Cornelia "Nikki" Giovanni, Jr.[1][2] (born June 7, 1943) is an American poet, writer, commentator, activist, and educator. One of the world's most well-known African-American poets,[2] her work includes poetry anthologies, poetry recordings, and nonfiction essays, and covers topics ranging from race and social issues to children's literature. She has won numerous awards, including the Langston Hughes Medal and the NAACP Image Award. She has been nominated for a Grammy Award for her poetry album, The Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
Poetry Collection. Additionally, she has been named as one of Oprah Winfrey’s 25 "Living Legends".[2] Giovanni gained initial fame in the late 1960s as one of the foremost authors of the Black Arts Movement. Influenced by the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power Movement
Black Power Movement
of the period, her early work provides a strong, militant African-American perspective, leading one writer to dub her the "Poet of the Black Revolution."[2] During the 1970s, she began writing children's literature, and co-founded a publishing company, NikTom Ltd, to provide an outlet for other African-American women writers. Over subsequent decades, her works discussed social issues, human relationships, and hip-hop. Poems such as "Knoxville, Tennessee" and "Nikki-Rosa" have been frequently re-published in anthologies and other collections.[3] Giovanni has taught at Queens College, Rutgers, and Ohio State, and is currently a University Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech. Following the Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
shooting in 2007, she delivered a chant-poem at a memorial for the shooting victims.[4]


1 Life and work

1.1 Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech

2 Writing 3 Awards 4 Works

4.1 Poetry collections 4.2 Children's books 4.3 Discography 4.4 Other

5 References 6 External links

Life and work[edit] Yolande Cornelia "Nikki" Giovanni, Jr. was born in Knoxville, Tennessee,[4] to Yolande Cornelia, Sr. and Jones "Gus" Giovanni. Soon after her birth, the family moved to Cincinnati, Ohio where her parents worked at Glenview School. In 1948, the family moved to Wyoming, and sometime in those first three years, Giovanni’s sister, Gary, began calling her “Nikki.” In 1958, Giovanni moved to Knoxville, TN to live with her grandparents and attend Austin High School.[3] In 1960, she began her studies at her grandfather's alma mater, Fisk University
Fisk University
in Nashville, Tennessee
Nashville, Tennessee
as an “Early Entrant” which meant that she could enroll in college without having finished high school first.[5] She immediately clashed with the Dean of Women, Ann Cheatam, and was expelled after neglecting to obtain the required permission from the Dean to leave campus and travel home for Thanksgiving break. Giovanni moved back to Knoxville where she worked at a Walgreen’s Drug Store and helped care for her nephew, Christopher. In 1964, Giovanni spoke with the new Dean of Women at Fisk University, Blanche McConnell Cowan (“Jackie”), who urged Giovanni to return to Fisk that fall. While at Fisk, Giovanni edited a student literary journal (titled Èlan), reinstated the campus chapter of SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee), and published an essay in Negro Digest on gender questions in the Movement.[6] In 1967, she graduated with honors with a B.A. in History. Soon after graduation, she suffered the loss of her grandmother, Louvenia Watson, and turned to writing to cope with her death. These poems would later be included in her anthology, Black Feelings, Black Talk. In 1968, Giovanni attended a semester at University of Pennsylvania and then moved to New York City. She briefly attended Columbia University
Columbia University
and privately published Black Feeling, Black Talk.[7] In 1969, Giovanni began teaching at Livingston College of Rutgers University. She was an active member of the Black Arts Movement beginning in the late 1960s. In 1969, she gave birth to Thomas Watson Giovanni, her only child. In 1970, she began making regular appearances on the television program Soul!, an entertainment/variety/talk show which promoted black art and culture and allowed political expression. Soul! hosted important guests like Muhammad Ali, Jesse Jackson, Harry Belafonte, Sidney Poitier, Gladys Knight, Miriam Makeba, and Stevie Wonder. (In addition to being a "regular" on the show, Giovanni for several years helped design and produce episodes.) She published multiple poetry anthologies, children’s books, and released spoken word albums from 1973-1987.[6] Since 1987, she has taught writing and literature at Virginia Tech, where she is a University Distinguished Professor.[8] She has received the NAACP Image Award several times, received twenty honorary doctorates and various other awards, including the Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
and the Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes
Award for Distinguished Contributions to Arts and Letters.[4] She also holds the key to several different cities, including Dallas, Miami, New York City, and Los Angeles.[9] She is a member of the Order of the Eastern Star
Order of the Eastern Star
(PHA), she has received the Life Membership and Scroll from the National Council of Negro Women, and is an Honorary Member of Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta

Giovanni ca. 1980

Giovanni was diagnosed with lung cancer in the early 1990s, and underwent numerous surgeries. Her book Blues: For All the Changes: New Poems, published in 1999, contains poems about nature and her battle with cancer. In 2002, Giovanni spoke in front of NASA about the need for African Americans to pursue space travel and later published Quilting the Black-Eyed Pea: Poems and Not Quite Poems which dealt with similar themes.[7] She has also been honored for her life and career by the History Makers along with being the first person to receive the Rosa L. Parks Women of Courage Award. She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Honor from Dillard University in 2010.[6] In 2015, Giovanni was named one of the Library of Virginia's "Virginia Women in History" for her contributions to poetry, education, and society.[10] Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
shooting[edit] Seung-Hui Cho, the mass murderer who killed 32 people in the April 16, 2007 Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
shooting, was a student in one of Giovanni's poetry classes. Describing him as "mean" and "menacing", she approached the department chair to have Cho taken out of her class, and said she was willing to resign rather than continue teaching him.[11] She stated that, upon hearing of the shooting, she immediately suspected that Cho might be the shooter.[11] Giovanni was asked by Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
president Charles Steger
Charles Steger
to give a convocation speech at the April 17 memorial service for the shooting victims (she was asked by Steger at 5pm on the day of the shootings, giving her less than 24 hours to prepare the speech). She expressed that she usually feels very comfortable delivering speeches, but worried that her emotion would get the best of her.[12] On April 17, 2007, at the Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
commemorating the April 16 Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
massacre,[12] Giovanni closed the ceremony with a chant poem, intoning:

“ We know we did nothing to deserve it. But neither does a child in Africa dying of AIDS. Neither do the invisible children walking the night awake to avoid being captured by a rogue army. Neither does the baby elephant watching his community being devastated for ivory. Neither does the Mexican child looking for fresh water....We are Virginia Tech.... We will prevail.[13][14][15] ”

Her speech also sought to express the idea that really terrible things happen to good people: "I would call it, in terms of writing, in terms of poetry, it's a laundry list. Because all you're doing is: This is who we are, and this is what we think, and this is what we feel, and this is why - you know?... I just wanted to admit, you know, that we didn't deserve this, and nobody does. And so I wanted to link our tragedy, in every sense, you know - we're no different from anything else that has hurt...."[12] She thought that ending with a thrice-repeated "We will prevail" would be anticlimactic, and she wanted to connect back with the beginning, for balance. So, shortly before going onstage, she added a closing: "We are Virginia Tech." [12] Her performance produced a sense of unity and received a fifty-four second standing ovation from the over-capacity audience in Cassell Coliseum, including then-President George W. Bush.[16] Writing[edit]

Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni

The Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
and Black Power movements inspired her early poetry that was collected in Black Feeling, Black Talk
(1967), which sold over ten thousand copies in its first year, Black Judgement (1968), selling six thousand copies in three months, and Re: Creation (1970). All three of these early works aided in establishing Giovanni as a new voice for African Americans.(30) In "After Mecca”: Women Poets and the Black Arts Movement, Cheryl Clarke cites Giovanni as a woman poet who became a significant part of the Civil Rights and Black Power Movement.[17] Giovanni is commonly praised as one of the best African-American poets emerging from the 1960s Black Power and Black Arts Movements.[18] Her early poetry that was collected in the late 1960s and early 1970s are seen as radical as and more militant than her later work. Her poems are described as being "politically, spiritually, and socially aware".[18] Evie Shockley describes Giovanni as "epitomizing the defiant, unapologetically political, unabashedly Afrocentric, BAM ethos".[19] Her work is described as conveying "urgency in expressing the need for Black awareness, unity, [and] solidarity." Giovanni herself takes great pride in being a "Black American, a daughter, mother, and a Professor of English". (29) [18] She has since written more than two dozen books, including volumes of poetry, illustrated children's books, and three collections of essays. Her work is said to speak to all ages and she strives to make her work easily accessible and understood by both adults and children. (29) Her writing has been heavily inspired by African-American activists and artists.[20][21] Issues of race, gender, sexuality, and the African-American family also have influenced her work.[18] Her book Love Poems (1997) was written in memory of Tupac Shakur, and she has stated that she would "rather be with the thugs than the people who are complaining about them."[22] Additionally, in 2007 she wrote a children’s picture book titled Rosa, which centers on the life of Civil Rights leader Rosa Parks. In addition to this book reaching number three on the New York Best Seller list, it also received the Caldecott Honors Award along with its illustrator Brian Collier, receiving the Coretta Scott King award. (29) Giovanni is often interviewed regarding themes pertaining to her poetry such as gender and race. In an interview entitled "I am Black, Female, Polite", Peter Bailey questions her regarding the role of gender and race in the poetry she writes.[23] The interview looks specifically at the critically acclaimed poem, "Nikki-Rosa", and questions whether it is reflective of her own childhood experiences as well as the experiences in her community. In the interview, Giovanni stresses that she did not like constantly reading the trope of the black family as a tragedy and that "Nikki-Rosa" demonstrates the experiences that she witnessed in her communities.[23] Specifically the poem deals with black folk culture, and touches on such issues as alcoholism and domestic violence, and such issues as not having an indoor bathroom. (30) Giovanni's poetry in the late 1960s and early 1970s addressed black womanhood and black manhood amongst other themes. In a book she co-wrote with James Baldwin entitled A Dialogue, the two authors speak blatantly about the status of the black male in the household. Baldwin challenges Giovanni's opinion on the representation of black women as the “breadwinners” in the household. Baldwin states, “A man is not a woman. And whether he’s wrong or right.... Look, if we’re living in the same house and you’re my wife or my woman, I have to be responsible for that house.".[24] Conversely, Giovanni recognizes the black man’s strength, whether or not he is "responsible" for the home or economically advantaged. The interview makes it clear that regardless of who is "responsible" for the home, the black woman and black man should be dependent on one another. Such themes appeared throughout her early poetry which focused on race and gender dynamics in the black community.[24] Giovanni tours nationwide and frequently speaks out against hate-motivated violence.[25] At a 1999 Martin Luther King Day
Martin Luther King Day
event, she recalled the 1998 murders of James Byrd, Jr.
James Byrd, Jr.
and Matthew Shepard: "What's the difference between dragging a black man behind a truck in Jasper, Texas, and beating a white boy to death in Wyoming because he's gay?"[26] Those Who Ride the Night Winds (1983) acknowledged black figures. Giovanni collected her essays in the 1988 volume Sacred Cows ... and Other Edibles. Her more recent works include Acolytes, a collection of 80 new poems, and On My Journey Now. Acolytes is her first published volume since her 2003 Collected Poems. The work is a celebration of love and recollection directed at friends and loved ones and it recalls memories of nature, theater, and the glories of children. However, Giovanni's fiery persona still remains a constant undercurrent in Acolytes, as some of the most serious verse links her own life struggles (being a black woman and a cancer survivor) to the wider frame of African-American history and the continual fight for equality. Giovanni's collection Bicycles: Love Poems (2009) is a companion work to her 1997 Love Poems. They touch on the deaths of both her mother and her sister, as well as the massacre on the Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
campus. “Tragedy and trauma are the wheels” of the bicycle. The first poem ("Blacksburg Under Siege: 21 August 2006") and the last poem ("We Are Virginia Tech") reflect this. Giovanni chose the title of the collection as a metaphor for love itself, "because love requires trust and balance."[27] In Chasing Utopia: A Hybrid (2013), Giovanni describes falling off of a bike and her mother saying, "Come here, Nikki and I will pick you up." She has explained that it was comforting to hear her mother say this, and that "it took me the longest to realize – no, she made me get up myself."[28] Chasing Utopia continues as a hybrid (poetry and prose) work about food as a metaphor and as a connection to the memory of her mother, sister, and grandmother. The theme of the work is love relationships.[29] In 2004, Giovanni was nominated for the Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word Album at the 46th Annual Grammy Awards
46th Annual Grammy Awards
for her album The Nikki Giovanni Poetry Collection. This was a collection of poems that she read against the backdrop of gospel music.(29) She also featured on the track "Ego Trip by Nikki Giovanni" on Blackalicious's 2000 album Nia. In November 2008, a song cycle of her poems, Sounds That Shatter the Staleness in Lives by Adam Hill, was premiered as part of the Soundscapes Chamber Music
Chamber Music
Series in Taos, New Mexico. She was commissioned by National Public Radio's All Things Considered to create an inaugural poem for President Barack Obama.[30] Giovanni read poetry at the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
as a part of the bi-centennial celebration of Lincoln's birth on February 12, 2009.[31] Awards[edit] [32] [33] [34]

Keys to more than two dozen American cities, including New York, Miami, Los Angeles, and New Orleans State Historical markers in Knoxville, Tennessee, and Lincoln Heights, Ohio Seven NAACP Image Awards:

Love Poems (1998) Blues: For All the Changes (1999) Quilting the Black-Eyed Pea (2003) Acolytes (2008) Hip Hop Speaks to Children (2009) 100 Best African American Poems (2011) Bicycles (2010)

National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship (1968) Harlem Cultural Council (1969) Woman of the Year, Ebony Magazine (1970) Woman of the Year, Mademoiselle Magazine (1971) Woman of the Year, Ladies Home Journal (1972) National Association of Radio and Television Announcers Award for Best Spoken Word Album, for Truth Is on Its Way (1972) National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship (1968) Harlem Cultural Council (1969) National Association of Radio and Television Announcers Award for Best Spoken Word Album, for Truth Is on Its Way (1972) National Association of Radio and Television Announcers Award for Best Spoken Word Album National Book Award Nomination for Gemini (1973) Life Membership & Scroll, The National Council of Negro Women (1973) Woman of the Year, Cincinnati YWCA (1983) The Ohio Women's Hall of Fame
Ohio Women's Hall of Fame
(1985) Outstanding Woman of Tennessee (1985) Duncanson Artist in Residence, The Taft Museum (1986) The Post-Corbett Award (1986) The Post-Corbett Award (1986) The Children’s Reading Roundtable of Chicago Award for Vacation Time (1988) The Ohioana Library Award for Sacred Cows (1988) The Children’s Reading Roundtable of Chicago Award for Vacation Time (1988) The Ohioana Library Award for Sacred Cows (1988) The Cecil H. and Ida Green Honors Chair, Texas Christian University (1991) The Hill Visiting Professor, University of Minnesota (1993) Tennessee Writer's Award, The Nashville Banner (1994) The Tennessee Governor's Award in the Humanities (1996) The Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes
Award for Distinguished Contributions to Arts and Letters (1996) Parents' Choice Award for The Sun Is So Quiet (1996) Artist-in-Residence. The Philadelphia Clef Club of Jazz and Performing Arts (1996) Contributor’s Arts Award, The Gwendolyn Brooks Center for Black Literature and Creative Writing (1996) Living Legacy Award, Juneteenth Festival of Columbus, Ohio (1998) Distinguished Visiting Professor, Johnson & Wales University (1998) The Appalachian Medallion Award (1998) Cincinnati Bi-Centennial Honoree (1998) The Tennessee Governor's Award in the Arts (1998) National Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African Descent, the Gwendolyn Brooks Center of Chicago State University (1998) Inducted into The Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African Descent (1999) United States
United States
Senate Certificate of Commendation (2000) 2000 Council of Ideas, The Gihon Foundation (2000) Virginia Governor's Award for the Arts (2000) The Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Women of Courage Award, first recipient (2001 and again in 2002) The SHero Award for Lifetime Achievement (2002) American Library Association's Black Caucus Award for Non-fiction for (2003) Inducted into Phi Beta Kappa, Delta of Tennessee chapter, Fisk University (2003) Named a History Maker (2003) The East Tennessee Writers Hall of Fame Award (2004) Finalist, Best Spoken Word Grammy (2004) A species of bat named in her honor (Micronycteris giovanniae) (2004) Named one of Oprah Winfrey’s 25 Living Legends (2005) Poet-In-Residence, Walt Whitman Birthplace Association Award (2005) Child Magazine Best Children's Book of the Year (2005) John Henry "Pop" Lloyd Humanitarian Award (2005) ALC Lifetime Achievement Award (2005) Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta
Sorority (Honorary Member) (2006) Caldecott Honor Book Award (2006) Carl Sandburg Literary Award (2007) The National Council of Negro Women
National Council of Negro Women
Appreciation Award (2007) The Legacy Award, National Alumni Council United Negro College Fund (2007) Legends and Legacies Award (2007) Women of Power Legacy Award (2008) National Parenting Publications Gold Award (2008) Sankofa Freedom Award (2008) American Book Award honoring outstanding literary achievement from the diverse spectrum of the American literary community (2008) Literary Excellence Award (2008) Excellence in Leadership Award from Dominion Power (2008) Ann Fralin Award (2009) Moonbeam Children’s Book Award (2009) Martin Luther King Jr. Award for Dedication and Commitment to Service (2009) Art Sanctuary’s Lifetime Achievement Award (2010) Presidential Medal of Honor, Dillard University (2010) Affrilachian Award (2011) Library of Virginia’s Literary Lifetime Achievement Award (2016)


Poetry collections[edit]

Black Feeling, Black Talk
(1967) Black Judgement (1968) Re: Creation (1970) Black Feeling, Black Talk/ Black Judgement (contains Black Feeling, Black Talk, and Black Judgement (1970) My House (1972) The Women and The Men (1975) Cotton Candy on a Rainy Day (1978) Woman (1978) Those Who Ride The Night Winds (1983) Knoxville, Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
(1994) The Selected Poems of Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
(1996) Love Poems (1997) Blues: For All the Changes (1999) Quilting the Black-Eyed Pea: Poems and Not Quite Poems (2002) The Prosaic Soul of Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
(2003) The Collected Poetry of Nikki Giovanni: 1968-1998 (2003) Acolytes (2007) Bicycles: Love Poems (2009) (William Morrow) 100 Best African American Poems (2010) [editor] (Sourcebooks MediaFusion) Chasing Utopia: A Hybrid (2013) (HarperCollins)

Children's books[edit]

Spin a Soft Black Song (1971) Ego-Tripping and Other Poems For Young People (1973) Vacation Time: Poems for Children (1980) Ego-Tripping and Other Poems for Young People Revised Edition (1993)

The Genie in The Jar (1996)

The Sun Is So Quiet (1996) The Girls in the Circle (Just for You!) (2004) Rosa* (2005) Poetry Speaks to Children: A Celebration of Poetry with a Beat (2005) [advisory editor] (Sourcebooks) Lincoln and Douglass: An American Friendship (2008) Hip Hop Speaks to Children: A Celebration of Poetry with a Beat (2008) (Sourcebooks) The Grasshopper's Song: An Aesop's Fable (2008) I Am Loved (2018)


Truth Is On Its Way (Right On Records, 1976) The Reason I Like Chocolate (Folkways Records, 1976) Legacies: The Poetry of Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
(Folkways, 1976) Cotton Candy on a Rainy Day (Folkways, 1978) Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
and the New York Community Choir* (Collectibles, 1993) Every Tone A Testimony (Smithsonian Folkways, 2001) The Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
Poetry Collection (2002)


(Editor) Night Comes Softly: An Anthology of Black Female Voices, Medic Press (1970) Gemini: An Extended Autobiographical Statement on My First Twenty-five Years of Being a Black Poet* (1971) A Dialogue with James Baldwin* (1973) (With Margaret Walker) A Poetic Equation: Conversations between Nikki Giovanni and Margaret Walker* (1974) (Author of introduction) Adele Sebastian: Intro to Fine (poems), Woman in the Moon (1985) Sacred Cows ... and Other Edibles (essays)* (1988) (Editor, with C. Dennison) Appalachian Elders: A Warm Hearth Sampler* (1991) (Author of foreword) The Abandoned Baobob: The Autobiography of a Woman* (1991) Racism 101* (essays, 1994) (Editor) Grand Mothers: Poems, Reminiscences, and Short Stories about the Keepers of Our Traditions* (1994) (Editor) Shimmy Shimmy Shimmy Like My Sister Kate: Looking at the Harlem Renaissance through Poems* (1995)[18] (Editor) 100 Best African American Poems (2010) (Afterword) Continuum: New and Selected Poems by Mari Evans (2012) (Foreward) Heav'nly Tidings From the Afric Muse: The Grace and Genius of Phillis Wheatley by Richard Kigel (2017)(Foreward) (Featured Artist) Artemis 2017 (Academic Journal of southwest Virginia) (2017) (Foreward) Black Ink: Literary Legends on the Peril, Power, and Pleasure of Reading and Writing (2018)


^ "Nikki Giovanni", Biography.com. ^ a b c d Jane M. Barstow, Yolanda Williams Page (eds), "Nikki Giovanni", Encyclopedia of African American Women Writers (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), p. 213. ^ a b Margaret D. Binnicker, "Yolande Cornelia 'Nikki' Giovanni", Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved October 17, 2014. ^ a b c Poetry Foundation Center Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
Biography ^ "Nikki Giovanni-The Real Deal", Dallas
News. ^ a b c Giovanni, Nikki. "Chronology". Nikki Giovanni. Retrieved 2018-02-11.  ^ a b " Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
facts, information, pictures". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2018-02-11.  ^ "Nikki Giovanni, University Distinguished Professor". Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.  ^ Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
News Virginia Tech's Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
Nominated for Spoken Word GRAMMY ^ "Virginia Women in History: Nikki Giovanni". Library of Virginia. Retrieved March 4, 2015.  ^ a b "Killer's manifesto: 'You forced me into a corner'". cnn.com. Retrieved 25 April 2016.  ^ a b c d Bowers, Mathew. " Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
professor Nikki Giovanni reflects on tragedy and deep horror". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 22, 2013.  ^ "Transcript of Nikki Giovanni's Convocation
address".  ^ Nikki Giovanni, "We Are Virginia Tech", The Tennessean, April 17, 2007. ^ Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
(April 17, 2007). "We Are Virginia Tech". Daily Kos.  ^ Robin Bernstein, 'Utopian Movements: Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
and the Convocation
Following the Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
Massacre,' African American Review 45.3 (2012): 341-353. ^ Clarke, Cheryl, “After Mecca”: Women Poets and the Black Arts Movement, New Brunswick: Rutgers University
Rutgers University
Press, 2005. ^ a b c d e "Nikki Giovanni". Poetry Foundation. 2010. ^ Shockley, Evie, Renegade Poetics: Black Aesthetics and Formal Innovation in African- American Poetry. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press, 2011. ^ " Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
- Spotlight - Interview", Ebony, December 2003. ^ "Poet, Tupac capture beauty beneath pain", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (April 5, 1997). ^ Barnes and Noble, Meet the Authors audio ^ a b Bailey, Peter. "I am Black, Female, Polite". Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
and Virginia C. Fowler, Conversations with Nikki Giovanni, Jackson: University of Mississippi, 1992. 31- 38. ^ a b Baldwin, James and Nikki Giovanni. “Excerpt from A Dialogue.” Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
and Virginia C. Fowler, Conversations with Nikki Giovanni, Jackson: University of Mississippi, 1992. 70-79. ^ "Poetry, Fiction, and Drama - Poetry". aavw.org. Retrieved 25 April 2016.  ^ "Giovanni tells students to 'sail on'", University of Michigan's The University Record, January 25, 1999. ^ Interview with Bill Moyers, February 13, 2009. ^ Sara Kugler, " Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
reflects on 'Chasing Utopia,' and other struggles", Melissa Harris-Perry, MSNBC, December 16, 2013. ^ "Writer Nikki Giovanni", Tavis Smiley, PBS, November 18, 2013. ^ "Yes We Can, Yes We Can, Yes We Can!". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. January 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-19.  ^ Wheeler, Linda. "Washington's Official Lincoln Celebration To Begin Feb. 12". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-02-19.  ^ "Nikki Giovanni". Black Writers of PA: In Pursuit of Social Justice, Recognizing Pennsylvania Black Artists.  ^ "Awards, Honors, Citations". Howard University Library System.  ^ "Nikki Giovanni". American Influences Wikispaces.com. Welcome to Crestwood's Honors English 9 Wiki Project!. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nikki Giovanni.

Virginia portal Biography portal

Giovanni's website Profile at Lavin Works by or about Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
in libraries ( WorldCat
catalog) Profile and poems of Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
at the Poetry Foundation. Giovanni Discography at Smithsonian Folkways Poems, Essays and Biography for Nikki Giovanni "Interview with poet Nikki Giovanni" for the WGBH series Say Brother Appearances on C-SPAN

Booknotes interview with Giovanni on The Collected Poetry of Nikki Giovanni: 1968-1998, February 8, 2004.

Pin His Ear to the Wisdom Post Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
named the first Coretta Scott King Fellow, video, April 3, 2009 "We are Virginia Tech" - convocation poem read by Giovanni

MSNBC video MP3 Audio

Amy Goodman sits down with activist, poet and scholar Nikki Giovanni at Virginia Tech, October 3, 2012 on Democracy Now! Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
on 1 Year Since Newtown: Where is the Political Leadership on Gun Control?, December 16, 2013 on Democracy Now! Nikki Giovanni
Nikki Giovanni
on Poetry, Grief and Her New Book, "Chasing Utopia: A Hybrid", December 16, 2013 on Democracy Now!

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Ohio Women's Hall of Fame



Allen, FlorenceFlorence Allen Black, Helen ChatfieldHelen Chatfield Black Bolton, FrancesFrances Bolton Boyer, ElizabethElizabeth Boyer Bracken, HarrietHarriet Bracken Cooper, Martha KinneyMartha Kinney Cooper Donahey, GertrudeGertrude Donahey Hunter, Jane EdnaJane Edna Hunter Kline, ConsolataConsolata Kline Kunkle, VirginiaVirginia Kunkle Mahoney, MargaretMargaret Mahoney McClelland, Helen GraceHelen Grace McClelland Merritt, AgnesAgnes Merritt Papier, RoseRose Papier Randolph, LottieLottie Randolph Stewart, Ella P.Ella P. Stewart Valiquette, MarigeneMarigene Valiquette Walker, Ann B.Ann B. Walker Walsh, StellaStella Walsh Wells, MarionMarion Wells


Akeley, Mary JobeMary Jobe Akeley Bickerdyke, Mary AnnMary Ann Bickerdyke Cleveland, BeatriceBeatrice Cleveland Earley, Charity EdnaCharity Edna Earley Jammal, EleanorEleanor Jammal Kochan, BerniceBernice Kochan Leedy, EmilyEmily Leedy Lyons, RuthRuth Lyons Mock, JerrieJerrie Mock Phaler, EmmaEmma Phaler Redinger, RachelRachel Redinger Sterne, BobbieBobbie Sterne Swanbeck, EthelEthel Swanbeck Weisenborn, ClaraClara Weisenborn Whiteman, MarjorieMarjorie Whiteman



Berlin, GraceGrace Berlin Bombeck, ErmaErma Bombeck Byrne, Patricia M.Patricia M. Byrne Crawford, RuthRuth Crawford Fast, LouisaLouisa Fast Fuldheim, DorothyDorothy Fuldheim Gish, LillianLillian Gish Greisheimer, EstherEsther Greisheimer Keller, EdithEdith Keller Kitchen, TellaTella Kitchen Krupansky, BlancheBlanche Krupansky Larlham, HattieHattie Larlham Nemeth, Mary LouiseMary Louise Nemeth Oakley, AnnieAnnie Oakley Weber, DorisDoris Weber


Bayer, MildredMildred Bayer Bischoff Lovin, TinaTina Bischoff Lovin Cornelius, DorothyDorothy Cornelius Day, DorisDoris Day Diller, PhyllisPhyllis Diller Hunkins, EusebiaEusebia Hunkins Norton, AndreAndre Norton Untermeyer, Jean StarrJean Starr Untermeyer Upton, Harriet TaylorHarriet Taylor Upton Wilson, NancyNancy Wilson


Boyd, A. MargaretA. Margaret Boyd Eriksson, AnnAnn Eriksson Foley, BerniceBernice Foley George, Zelma WatsonZelma Watson George Izant, Grace GoulderGrace Goulder Izant Morrison, ToniToni Morrison Sewell, PhyllisPhyllis Sewell Spain, JayneJayne Spain Zelkowitz, HelenHelen Zelkowitz


Anderson, Harriet J.Harriet J. Anderson Biggs, IoneIone Biggs Bingham, EulaEula Bingham Boyle, Mary O.Mary O. Boyle Heath, MariwynMariwyn Heath Irwin, JosephineJosephine Irwin Janis, BarbaraBarbara Janis Player, MinnieMinnie Player Steinem, GloriaGloria Steinem Winning, FredaFreda Winning Young, Mary E. MillerMary E. Miller Young


Cooper, SallySally Cooper Harris, Sarah E.Sarah E. Harris Hauserman, Cindy NobleCindy Noble Hauserman Kaptur, MarcyMarcy Kaptur Nussbaum, KarenKaren Nussbaum Oakar, Mary RoseMary Rose Oakar Pinkerton, CatherineCatherine Pinkerton Player, WillaWilla Player Resnik, JudithJudith Resnik Santmyer, Helen HoovenHelen Hooven Santmyer Trimble, MarianMarian Trimble Wollenberg, JoyceJoyce Wollenberg


Cook, Lois Anna BarrLois Anna Barr Cook Cotner, MercedesMercedes Cotner Draz, ZellZell Draz Easterling, BarbaraBarbara Easterling Giovanni, NikkiNikki Giovanni Gonzalez, AuroraAurora Gonzalez Lazarus, MaryMary Lazarus Mandel, BarbaraBarbara Mandel Marcere, NormaNorma Marcere Mulholland, HelenHelen Mulholland Schimmoler, LaurettaLauretta Schimmoler Schott, MargeMarge Schott Steinbrenner, Mary JenMary Jen Steinbrenner


Andrew, MargaretMargaret Andrew Barber, KathleenKathleen Barber Biles, FayFay Biles Blackwell, ElizabethElizabeth Blackwell Clarke, MarieMarie Clarke Crosby, Eva MaeEva Mae Crosby Dee, RubyRuby Dee Drennan, CynthiaCynthia Drennan Glendinning, HookerHooker Glendinning Herring, LouiseLouise Herring LeVeque, KatherineKatherine LeVeque Miller, Ruth RatnerRuth Ratner Miller Nava, AmeliaAmelia Nava Pratt, Arline WebbArline Webb Pratt Przelomski, Anastasia AnnAnastasia Ann Przelomski Purdy, VirginiaVirginia Purdy Walker, Selma LoisSelma Lois Walker Walsh, JuliaJulia Walsh Wattleton, FayeFaye Wattleton Withrow, Mary EllenMary Ellen Withrow


Biggins, AnnaAnna Biggins Clonch, PatriciaPatricia Clonch Craden, NormaNorma Craden Graham, Jewel FreemanJewel Freeman Graham Guisewite, CathyCathy Guisewite Jackson, Rebecca D.Rebecca D. Jackson Jenkins, Carol HeissCarol Heiss Jenkins Kane, CarolCarol Kane Larsen, BeaBea Larsen Lev, Alice RafulAlice Raful Lev Rocker Sogg, LindaLinda Rocker Sogg Smeal, EleanorEleanor Smeal Utz, CarolynCarolyn Utz Ward, Anita SmithAnita Smith Ward


Brown, Jeanette GrasselliJeanette Grasselli Brown Carnahan, MaxineMaxine Carnahan Chapman, TracyTracy Chapman Cowles, Betsy MixBetsy Mix Cowles Gazelle, AnnAnn Gazelle Graves, MichelleMichelle Graves Harshman, FlorenceFlorence Harshman Hutt, JuneJune Hutt Jensen, GeraldineGeraldine Jensen Mahoney, CarolynCarolyn Mahoney Myers, LindaLinda Myers Porter, JennieJennie Porter Poulton, DianeDiane Poulton Powell, ReneeRenee Powell Spretnak, CharleneCharlene Spretnak Ventura, CharleneCharlene Ventura



Gaston, MarilynMarilyn Gaston Jackson, DorothyDorothy Jackson Jackson, Luella TalmadgeLuella Talmadge Jackson Kalven, JanetJanet Kalven Kanter, RosabethRosabeth Kanter Kuhn, MaggieMaggie Kuhn Lamson, JoanJoan Lamson Lin, MayaMaya Lin Macko, Anne VarianoAnne Variano Macko Mott, AliciaAlicia Mott Sauvageot, LudelLudel Sauvageot Shur, Fanchon bat-LillianFanchon bat-Lillian Shur Sutliff, Phebe TemperancePhebe Temperance Sutliff Williams, GrayceGrayce Williams


Abbott, BereniceBerenice Abbott Badger, EarladeenEarladeen Badger Brown, HallieHallie Brown Davidson, JoAnnJoAnn Davidson Diaz-Sprague, RaquelRaquel Diaz-Sprague Dove, RitaRita Dove Gavin, Mary IgnatiaMary Ignatia Gavin Harper, SaraSara Harper Hawk, DonnaDonna Hawk Holley, JuneJune Holley Moore, Martha C.Martha C. Moore Owens, DarleneDarlene Owens Peterson, Helen H.Helen H. Peterson Pituch, MarthaMartha Pituch Pointer, YvonneYvonne Pointer Ruehlmann, VirginiaVirginia Ruehlmann Schwarz, JosephineJosephine Schwarz Timken, SuzanneSuzanne Timken Bieniek, Nancy VertroneNancy Vertrone Bieniek Zannoni, Stella MarieStella Marie Zannoni


Beaumont, Mary of the AnnunciationMary of the Annunciation Beaumont Eaton, AntoinetteAntoinette Eaton McCullough, RubieRubie McCullough Oakley, NancyNancy Oakley Parker, HarrietHarriet Parker Porter, SusanSusan Porter Rice, Helen SteinerHelen Steiner Rice Schille, AliceAlice Schille Thompson, LouellaLouella Thompson


Benson, MildredMildred Benson Bingham, AmeliaAmelia Bingham Coffey, VirginiaVirginia Coffey Colombi, Viola FamianoViola Famiano Colombi Gunter, IvyIvy Gunter Hamilton, VirginiaVirginia Hamilton Hayes, Lucy WebbLucy Webb Hayes Hintz, Joy AliceJoy Alice Hintz Macelwane, GeraldineGeraldine Macelwane McCormick, Anne O'HareAnne O'Hare McCormick Olshansky, RenaRena Olshansky Pincham, EdnaEdna Pincham Plummer, MaxineMaxine Plummer Reilly, JeanJean Reilly Riel, PaulinePauline Riel


Cook, Christine M.Christine M. Cook Coulton, ClaudiaClaudia Coulton Craig-Jones, Ellen WalkerEllen Walker Craig-Jones Ferrall, NanetteNanette Ferrall Griesse, Jill HarmsJill Harms Griesse Griffith, GeorgiaGeorgia Griffith Melton, FlorenceFlorence Melton Nussdorfer, LucilleLucille Nussdorfer Reece, JaneJane Reece Reynolds, Emma AnnEmma Ann Reynolds Scott, CarolCarol Scott Spence, PaulaPaula Spence Tribe, DeannaDeanna Tribe Wald, LillianLillian Wald


Beckwith, SandraSandra Beckwith Beveridge, Daeida Hartell WilcoxDaeida Hartell Wilcox Beveridge Blackmon, Patricia AnnPatricia Ann Blackmon Bowermaster, MaryMary Bowermaster Brennan, ChristineChristine Brennan Cauffman, Joy GarrisonJoy Garrison Cauffman Clark, BunnyBunny Clark Drake, GraceGrace Drake Evans, NaomiNaomi Evans Gage, Frances DanaFrances Dana Gage Kirkham, JaneJane Kirkham Lewis, SylviaSylvia Lewis Longaberger, TamiTami Longaberger Moon, DonnaDonna Moon Murphy, GratiaGratia Murphy Resnick, Alice RobieAlice Robie Resnick Siebert, MurielMuriel Siebert


Cartwright, CarolCarol Cartwright Evans, ElizabethElizabeth Evans Goodall, Rae NatalieRae Natalie Goodall Hauser, ElizabethElizabeth Hauser Healy, BernadineBernadine Healy Kelly, CarolCarol Kelly Lewis, FannieFannie Lewis Montgomery, BettyBetty Montgomery Taft, HopeHope Taft


Ball, CarolCarol Ball Byers, MarilynMarilyn Byers Capers, Jean MurrellJean Murrell Capers Dorsey, MarthaMartha Dorsey Heidelberg, JoanJoan Heidelberg Herbert, ClariceClarice Herbert Lampkin, BeatriceBeatrice Lampkin Mayer Townsend, JacquelynJacquelyn Mayer Townsend O'Rourke, AnnAnn O'Rourke Rothschild, BerylBeryl Rothschild Shackelford, TheklaThekla Shackelford


Campbell, Marianne BoggsMarianne Boggs Campbell Garrison, CaroleCarole Garrison Hollister, NancyNancy Hollister Jones, Stephanie J.Stephanie J. Jones Kay, Bettye RuthBettye Ruth Kay Ross-Lee, BarbaraBarbara Ross-Lee Mackiewicz, AudreyAudrey Mackiewicz Palasics, KathyKathy Palasics Quinn, Margaret DianeMargaret Diane Quinn Seiberling, HenriettaHenrietta Seiberling Taylor, Mary EmilyMary Emily Taylor Varga, VirginiaVirginia Varga Woods, JacquelineJacqueline Woods Zimpher, Nancy LuskNancy Lusk Zimpher


Behrensmeyer, MaryJoMaryJo Behrensmeyer Costilla, AlvinaAlvina Costilla Deal, SarahSarah Deal Doren, ElectraElectra Doren Flowers, DaisyDaisy Flowers Glenn, AnnieAnnie Glenn Hamilton, AnnAnn Hamilton Hoover, CaroleCarole Hoover Horn, Cheryl HanCheryl Han Horn Latham, CarolCarol Latham Linenkugel, NancyNancy Linenkugel Marsh, Marie BarrettMarie Barrett Marsh Parham, MarjorieMarjorie Parham Regula, MaryMary Regula Rubin, Lee LenoreLee Lenore Rubin Stowe, Harriet BeecherHarriet Beecher Stowe Thornton, Jerry SueJerry Sue Thornton Voinovich, JanetJanet Voinovich



Ashbaugh, PaigePaige Ashbaugh Collins, Maude CharlesMaude Charles Collins Dambrot, FayeFaye Dambrot de Leon, MargaritaMargarita de Leon Fletcher, Patricia LouisePatricia Louise Fletcher Harrington, Jean PatriceJean Patrice Harrington Hoffman, ShirleyShirley Hoffman Kazel, DorothyDorothy Kazel Majidzadeh, FarahFarah Majidzadeh Martin, AdaAda Martin Porter, LorleLorle Porter Samaniego, LannaLanna Samaniego Taylor, YvonneYvonne Taylor Wong, MargaretMargaret Wong Zane, BettyBetty Zane


Boreczky, RebeccaRebecca Boreczky Casement, Frances JenningsFrances Jennings Casement Davis, Ruth L.Ruth L. Davis Ford, LucilleLucille Ford Gray, Susan F.Susan F. Gray Harrison, KathleenKathleen Harrison Hughes, Adella PrentissAdella Prentiss Hughes Jackson, Janet E.Janet E. Jackson Kamenshek, Dottie KammieDottie Kammie Kamenshek Levin, MaxineMaxine Levin Long, IreneIrene Long MacDonell, MarthaMartha MacDonell Matesich, Mary AndrewMary Andrew Matesich Powell, ElizabethElizabeth Powell Pryce, DeborahDeborah Pryce Sexton, MariaMaria Sexton Walters, FarahFarah Walters Washington, Georgeta BlebeaGeorgeta Blebea Washington


Barker, JudyJudy Barker Buchholzer, Frances SeiberlingFrances Seiberling Buchholzer Campbell, Joan BrownJoan Brown Campbell Frankenberg, NancyNancy Frankenberg Hart-Deming, ZellZell Hart-Deming Helsel, ElsieElsie Helsel Horstman, Katie T.Katie T. Horstman Hwang, JennieJennie Hwang Lewis, Cathy MonroeCathy Monroe Lewis Robertson, Viola StartzmanViola Startzman Robertson Spielman, StefanieStefanie Spielman Sullivan, KathrynKathryn Sullivan


Bailey, SheilaSheila Bailey Blunden, Jeraldyne KilbornJeraldyne Kilborn Blunden Carter, ShannonShannon Carter Fleming, LuceilleLuceille Fleming Gonzalez-Sanabria, OlgaOlga Gonzalez-Sanabria Janis, ElsieElsie Janis Lenski, LoisLois Lenski Mosley-Thompson, EllenEllen Mosley-Thompson Nelson, CathyCathy Nelson Scott, Evlyn GrayEvlyn Gray Scott Williams, YvonneYvonne Williams


Brugler, Rogers MargaretRogers Margaret Brugler Chatfield, JuliaJulia Chatfield Hastings, LucilleLucille Hastings Howard, LillieLillie Howard Jorgenson, Mary AnnMary Ann Jorgenson Mahaney, JoyceJoyce Mahaney Schlotfeldt, RozellaRozella Schlotfeldt Smith, Katherine MayKatherine May Smith Wang, FlorenceFlorence Wang


Baunach, DorothyDorothy Baunach Black, CarrieCarrie Black Bosca, CaroCaro Bosca Brown, Yvette McGeeYvette McGee Brown Crane, LoannLoann Crane Durgin, JoanJoan Durgin Gibbs, CarolCarol Gibbs Johnson, BillieBillie Johnson Lei, JihJih Lei Magee, ElizabethElizabeth Magee Rajadhyaksha, KasturiKasturi Rajadhyaksha Salamon, JulieJulie Salamon Wheatly, MicheleMichele Wheatly


Collins, GailGail Collins Davis, Pamela B.Pamela B. Davis de Groh, KimKim de Groh Gray, Beverly J.Beverly J. Gray Howard, SharonSharon Howard Kuhre, CarolCarol Kuhre Manning, VirginiaVirginia Manning Moss, HelenHelen Moss Rycus, JudithJudith Rycus Sandusky, Mary AdelaideMary Adelaide Sandusky Watson, GlennaGlenna Watson Williams, BernettBernett Williams Williamson, CeliaCelia Williamson



Alvarene, OwensOwens Alvarene Channing, Tenenbaum GayleTenenbaum Gayle Channing Chapman, Dorothy McAlpin MaguireDorothy McAlpin Maguire Chapman Fergus, BarbaraBarbara Fergus Kearns, Merle GraceMerle Grace Kearns Lee, Rebecca J.Rebecca J. Lee McClelland, NinaNina McClelland Moresky, LanaLana Moresky Otto, Martha PotterMartha Potter Otto Ruppert, ElizabethElizabeth Ruppert Singh, RitaRita Singh


Boyce, Cheryl A.Cheryl A. Boyce Flick, Elizabeth H.Elizabeth H. Flick Harper, FrancesFrances Harper Hollis, Brenda J.Brenda J. Hollis Juhas, Mary C.Mary C. Juhas Luckner, Kleia R.Kleia R. Luckner Lyons, Valerie J.Valerie J. Lyons Noelker, Linda S.Linda S. Noelker Vonderhaar, CarrieCarrie Vonderhaar

Authority control

Identities VIAF: 12321760 LCCN: n80014902 ISNI: 0000 0001 1467 8830 GND: 120928906 SUDOC: 028412281 BNF: cb120252269 (data) BIBSYS: 90187671 MusicBrainz: 7e820444-47d7-4e81-8018-60353e1b8458 NDL: 00440984 SNAC: w6fr04x6

v t e

Virginia Women in History



Agnew, Ella GrahamElla Graham Agnew Baldwin, Mary JuliaMary Julia Baldwin Brent, MargaretMargaret Brent Cather, WillaWilla Cather Dean, JennieJennie Dean Fain, Sarah LeeSarah Lee Fain Glasgow, EllenEllen Glasgow Madison, DolleyDolley Madison , PocahontasPocahontas Rind, ClementinaClementina Rind Valentine, Lila MeadeLila Meade Valentine Walker, Maggie L.Maggie L. Walker


Bowser, Rosa DixonRosa Dixon Bowser Campbell, ElizabethElizabeth Campbell Jordan, ThomasinaThomasina Jordan Keckley, ElizabethElizabeth Keckley Pollak, TheresaTheresa Pollak Tompkins, Sally LouisaSally Louisa Tompkins Van Lew, ElizabethElizabeth Van Lew Wilson, EdithEdith Wilson


Adamson, RebeccaRebecca Adamson Barrett, Janie PorterJanie Porter Barrett Cline, PatsyPatsy Cline Corbin, Hannah LeeHannah Lee Corbin Darden, ChristineChristine Darden McDaniel, Lillian WardLillian Ward McDaniel Munford, Mary-Cooke BranchMary-Cooke Branch Munford Rattley, Jessie M.Jessie M. Rattley


Astor, NancyNancy Astor Bailey, PearlPearl Bailey Bodeker, Anna WhiteheadAnna Whitehead Bodeker Mary Ann ElliottMary Ann Elliott Jenkins, Annabelle Ravenscroft GibsonAnnabelle Ravenscroft Gibson Jenkins Johnston, Frances BenjaminFrances Benjamin Johnston Peebles, Anne DobieAnne Dobie Peebles Spencer, Annie BannisterAnnie Bannister Spencer


Arents, GraceGrace Arents , CockacoeskeCockacoeske Couric, KatieKatie Couric Holden, Anne MakemieAnne Makemie Holden Ingles, Mary DraperMary Draper Ingles Jones, Sarah Garland BoydSarah Garland Boyd Jones Snyder, AnnieAnnie Snyder Washington, MarthaMartha Washington


Adams-Ender, Clara LeachClara Leach Adams-Ender Day, CaitlynCaitlyn Day Griffin, Bessie BlountBessie Blount Griffin Johnston, MaryMary Johnston Powell, Barbara JohnsBarbara Johns Powell Smith, LeeLee Smith Wade, Mary BelvinMary Belvin Wade


Barrett, Kate WallerKate Waller Barrett Berg, Marie MajellaMarie Majella Berg Bowman, John-Geline MacDonaldJohn-Geline MacDonald Bowman Fitzgerald-Brown, BenitaBenita Fitzgerald-Brown Hopper, GraceGrace Hopper McClenahan, Mary Tyler Freeman CheekMary Tyler Freeman Cheek McClenahan Richardson, G. AnneG. Anne Richardson Terhune, Mary VirginiaMary Virginia Terhune


Byrd, Mary WillingMary Willing Byrd Carter, MaybelleMaybelle Carter Copenhaver, Laura Lu SchererLaura Lu Scherer Copenhaver Futrell, Mary Alice Franklin HatwoodMary Alice Franklin Hatwood Futrell Galt, Mary JefferyMary Jeffery Galt Johnson, Sheila CrumpSheila Crump Johnson , OpossunoquonuskeOpossunoquonuske Williams, CamillaCamilla Williams


Berkeley, Frances CulpeperFrances Culpeper Berkeley Brooks, Lucy GoodeLucy Goode Brooks Gonzalez, Providencia VelazquezProvidencia Velazquez Gonzalez Lacy, Elizabeth B.Elizabeth B. Lacy McCrumb, SharynSharyn McCrumb Moss, P. BuckleyP. Buckley Moss Rogers, Isabel WoodIsabel Wood Rogers Turner, EdithEdith Turner


Adams, PaulinePauline Adams Cook, Caroline BradbyCaroline Bradby Cook Emerson, ClaudiaClaudia Emerson Faust, Drew GilpinDrew Gilpin Faust Grayson, Joann HessJoann Hess Grayson Randolph, MaryMary Randolph Randolph, VirginiaVirginia Randolph Terry, Mary SueMary Sue Terry



Adams, Mollie HolmesMollie Holmes Adams Furman, EthelEthel Furman Harrison, Edythe C.Edythe C. Harrison Martin, JanisJanis Martin Rowland, Kate MasonKate Mason Rowland Skipwith, Jean MillerJean Miller Skipwith Stovall, QueenaQueena Stovall Van Landingham, MarianMarian Van Landingham


Addison, LucyLucy Addison Bontecou, EleanorEleanor Bontecou Fleming, Emily WhiteEmily White Fleming Fu, PearlPearl Fu Lincoln, LillianLillian Lincoln Marshall, Bessie NiemeyerBessie Niemeyer Marshall Rogan, Felicia WarburgFelicia Warburg Rogan Russell, Elizabeth Henry CampbellElizabeth Henry Campbell Russell


Ames, Susie MaySusie May Ames Beltran, MonicaMonica Beltran Campbell, Christiana BurdettChristiana Burdett Campbell Christian, Betty SamsBetty Sams Christian McIntosh, Elizabeth PeetElizabeth Peet McIntosh Puckett, Orelena HawksOrelena Hawks Puckett Shatin, JudithJudith Shatin Stuart, Alice JacksonAlice Jackson Stuart


Alexander, Mary C.Mary C. Alexander Archer, LouiseLouise Archer Carrington, Elizabeth Ambler BrentElizabeth Ambler Brent Carrington Compton, AnnAnn Compton Falletta, JoAnnJoAnn Falletta Powell, CleoCleo Powell Pruitt, InezInez Pruitt Scott, Eva Mae FlemingEva Mae Fleming Scott


Blackford, Mary Berkeley MinorMary Berkeley Minor Blackford Cohn, Naomi SilvermanNaomi Silverman Cohn Duke, Elizabeth AshburnElizabeth Ashburn Duke Findlay, RachelRachel Findlay Kendall, Christine HerterChristine Herter Kendall Loving, MildredMildred Loving Ryan, DebbieDebbie Ryan Winslett, StonerStoner Winslett


Caldwell, Nancy MelvinaNancy Melvina Caldwell Giovanni, NikkiNikki Giovanni Harris, Ruth ColesRuth Coles Harris McDiarmid, Dorothy ShoemakerDorothy Shoemaker McDiarmid Peterkin, Rebekah DulaneyRebekah Dulaney Peterkin Pinn, VivianVivian Pinn Stith, Elizabeth Bray Allen SmithElizabeth Bray Allen Smith Stith Wood, KarenneKarenne Wood


Crittenden, Flora D.Flora D. Crittenden Day, Elizabeth NottinghamElizabeth Nottingham Day Gray, Sarah A.Sarah A. Gray Isaac, Edwilda AllenEdwilda Allen Isaac Johnson, KatherineKatherine Johnson King, Ana Ines BarraganAna Ines Barragan King Masters, BettyBetty Masters Oberndorf, MeyeraMeyera Oberndorf


Crouse-Mays, DorisDoris Crouse-Mays Foley, Corazon SandovalCorazon Sandoval Foley Houston, NoraNora Houston Hudson, Cynthia EppesCynthia Eppes Hudson Jones, Mary VirginiaMary Virginia Jones McCraw, Louise HarrisonLouise Harrison McCraw Moore, Undine SmithUndine Smith Moore Rollins, MarthaMartha Rollins


Adegbalola, Gaye ToddGaye Todd Adegbalola Dove, RitaRita Dove Gibbons, IsabellaIsabella Gibbons Hasegawa, Marii KyogokuMarii Kyogoku Hasegawa James, Kay ColesKay Coles James Kingsolver, BarbaraBarbara Kingsolver Marshall, Mary Aydelotte RiceMary Aydelotte Rice Marshall , Temperance Flowerdew YeardleyTemperance