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The Niger Delta
Niger Delta
is the delta of the Niger River
Niger River
sitting directly on the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in Nigeria.[1] It is typically considered to be located within nine coastal southern Nigerian states, which include: all six states from the South South geopolitical zone, one state (Ondo) from South West geopolitical zone and two states (Abia and Imo) from South East geopolitical zone. Of all the states that the region covers, only Cross River is not an oil-producing state. Niger Delta
Niger Delta
is a very densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers
Rivers
because it was once a major producer of palm oil. The area was the British Oil Rivers Protectorate
Oil Rivers Protectorate
from 1885 until 1893, when it was expanded and became the Niger Coast Protectorate. The delta is a petroleum-rich region, and has been the centre of international controversy over pollution.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Colonial period 2.2 Post-colonial period 2.3 Nigerian Civil War 2.4 Non-violent resistance 2.5 Recent armed conflict

3 Sub-regions

3.1 Western Niger Delta 3.2 Central Niger Delta 3.3 Eastern Niger Delta

4 Nigerian oil

4.1 Oil revenue derivation

5 Media 6 Environmental issues 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Geography[edit] The Niger Delta, as now defined officially by the Nigerian government, extends over about 70,000 km2 (27,000 sq mi) and makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's land mass. Historically and cartographically, it consists of present-day Bayelsa, Delta, and Rivers
Rivers
States. In 2000, however, Obasanjo's regime included Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Cross River State, Edo, Imo and Ondo States in the region. Some 31 million people[2] of more than 40 ethnic groups including the Bini, Efik, Esan, Ibibio, Igbo, Annang, Yoruba, Oron, Ijaw, Ikwerre, Itsekiri, Isoko, Urhobo, Ukwuani, Kalabari, Okrika
Okrika
and Ogoni, are among the inhabitants of the political Niger Delta, speaking about 250 different dialects. The Niger Delta, and the South South geopolitical zone (which contains six of the states in Niger Delta) are two different entities. The Niger Delta
Niger Delta
separates the Bight of Benin
Bight of Benin
from the Bight of Bonny within the larger Gulf of Guinea. History[edit] Colonial period[edit] The area was the British Oil Rivers Protectorate
Oil Rivers Protectorate
from 1885 until 1893, when it was expanded and became the Niger Coast Protectorate. The core Niger Delta
Niger Delta
later became a part of the eastern region of Nigeria, which came into being in 1951 (one of the three regions, and later one of the four regions). The majority of the people were those from the colonial Calabar and Ogoja
Ogoja
divisions, the present-day Ogoja, Annang, Ibibio, Oron, Efik, and Ijaw peoples. The National Council of Nigeria
Nigeria
and Cameroon (NCNC) was the ruling political party of the region. The NCNC later became the National Convention of Nigerian Citizens, after western Cameroon decided to separate from Nigeria. The ruling party of eastern Nigeria
Nigeria
did not seek to preclude the separation and even encouraged it. The then Eastern Region had the third, fourth and fifth largest indigenous ethnic groups in the country including Igbo, Efik-Ibibio and Ijaw. In 1953, the old eastern region had a major crisis due to the expulsion of professor Eyo Ita from office by the majority Igbo tribe of the old eastern region. Ita, an Efik man from Calabar, was one of the pioneer nationalists for Nigerian independence. The minorities in the region, the Ibibio, Annang, Efik, Ijaw and Ogoja, were situated along the southeastern coast and in the delta region and demanded a state of their own, the Calabar-Ogoja- Rivers
Rivers
(COR) state. The struggle for the creation of the COR state continued and was a major issue concerning the status of minorities in Nigeria
Nigeria
during debates in Europe on Nigerian independence. As a result of this crisis, Professor Eyo Ita left the NCNC to form a new political party called the National Independence Party (NIP) which was one of the five Nigerian political parties represented at the conferences on Nigerian Constitution and Independence. Post-colonial period[edit] In 1961, another major crisis occurred when the then eastern region of Nigeria
Nigeria
allowed present-day Southwestern Cameroon to separate from Nigeria
Nigeria
(from the region of what is now Akwa Ibom
Akwa Ibom
and Cross River states) through a plebiscite while the leadership of the then Northern Region took the necessary steps to keep Northwestern Cameroon in Nigeria, in present-day Adamawa and Taraba states. The aftermath of the 1961 plebiscite has led to a dispute between Cameroon and Nigeria over the small territory of Bakassi. A new phase of the struggle saw the declaration of an Independent Niger Delta
Niger Delta
Republic by Isaac Adaka Boro during Nigerian president Ironsi's administration, just before the Nigerian Civil War. Also just before the Nigerian civil war, Southeastern State of Nigeria was created (also known as Southeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
or Coastal Southeastern Nigeria), which had the colonial Calabar division, and colonial Ogoja
Ogoja
division. Rivers State
Rivers State
was also created. Southeastern state and River state became two states for the minorities of the old eastern region, and the majority Igbo of the old eastern region had a state called East Central state. Southeastern state was renamed Cross River state and was later split into Cross River state and Akwa Ibom state. Rivers state
Rivers state
was later divided into Rivers state
Rivers state
and Bayelsa state. Nigerian Civil War[edit]

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The people of the eastern region suffered heavily and sustained many deaths during the 1967–1970 Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War, in which the eastern region declared an independent state named Biafra that was eventually defeated, thereby preserving the sovereignty and indivisibility of the Nigerian state, which led to the loss of many souls. Non-violent resistance[edit] See also: Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni
Ogoni
People During the next phase of resistance in the Niger Delta, local communities demanded environmental and social justice from the federal government, with Ken Saro Wiwa
Ken Saro Wiwa
as the lead figure for this phase of the struggle. Cohesive oil protests became most pronounced in 1990 with the publication of the Ogoni
Ogoni
Bill of Rights. The indigents protested against the lack of economic development, e.g. schools and hospitals, in the region, despite all the oil wealth created. They also complained about environmental pollution and destruction of their land and rivers by foreign oil companies. Ken Saro Wiwa
Ken Saro Wiwa
and other oil activists from Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
(MOSOP) were arrest and killed under Sani Abacha in 1995. Although protests have never been as strong as they were under Saro-Wiwa, there is still an oil reform movement based on peaceful protests today.[3] Recent armed conflict[edit] Main article: Conflict in the Niger Delta Unfortunately, the struggle got out of control, and the present phase has become militant. When long-held concerns about loss of control over resources to the oil companies were voiced by the Ijaw people
Ijaw people
in the Kaiama Declaration in 1998, the Nigerian government sent troops to occupy the Bayelsa
Bayelsa
and Delta states. Soldiers opened fire with rifles, machine guns, and tear gas, killing at least three protesters and arresting twenty-five more.[4] Since then, local indigenous activity against commercial oil refineries and pipelines in the region have increased in frequency and militancy. Recently foreign employees of Shell, the primary corporation operating in the region, were taken hostage by outraged local people. Such activities have also resulted in greater governmental intervention in the area, and the mobilisation of the Nigerian army
Nigerian army
and State Security Service into the region, resulting in violence and human rights abuses. In April, 2006, a bomb exploded near an oil refinery in the Niger Delta region, a warning against Chinese expansion in the region. MEND stated: "We wish to warn the Chinese government and its oil companies to steer well clear of the Niger Delta. The Chinese government, by investing in stolen crude, places its citizens in our line of fire."[5] Government and private initiatives to develop the Niger Delta
Niger Delta
region have been introduced recently. These include the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC), a government initiative, and the Development Initiative (DEVIN), a community development non-governmental organization (NGO) based in Port Harcourt in the Niger Delta. Uz and Uz Transnational, a company with strong commitment to the Niger Delta, has introduced ways of developing the poor in the Niger Delta, especially in Rivers
Rivers
State. In September 2008, MEND released a statement proclaiming that their militants had launched an "oil war" throughout the Niger Delta
Niger Delta
against both, pipelines and oil-production facilities, and the Nigerian soldiers that protect them. Both MEND and the Nigerian Government claim to have inflicted heavy casualties on one another.[6] In August 2009, the Nigerian government granted amnesty to the militants; many militants subsequently surrendered their weapons in exchange for a presidential pardon, rehabilitation programme, and education. Sub-regions[edit] Western Niger Delta[edit] Western Niger Delta
Niger Delta
consists of the western section of the coastal South-South Nigeria
Nigeria
which includes Delta, and the southernmost parts of Edo, and Ondo States. The western (or Northern) Niger Delta
Niger Delta
is an heterogeneous society with several ethnic groups including the Urhobo, Isoko, Itsekiri, Ijaw (or Izon) and Ukwuani
Ukwuani
groups in Delta State; the Bini, Esan,Auchi,Esako,oral,igara and Afenmai in Edo State; and the Yoruba (Ilaje) in Ondo State. Their livelihoods are primarily based on fishing and farming. History has it that the Western Niger was controlled by chiefs of the four primary ethnic groups the Itsekiri, Isoko, Ijaw and Urhobo with whom the British government had to sign separate "Treaties of Protection" in their formation of "Protectorates" that later became southern Nigeria. Central Niger Delta[edit] Central Niger Delta
Niger Delta
consists of the central section of the coastal South-South Nigeria
Nigeria
which includes Bayelsa
Bayelsa
and Rivers
Rivers
States. The Central Niger Delta
Niger Delta
region has the Ijaw (including the Nembe-Brass, Ogbia, Kalabari people, Ibani of Opobo & Bonny, Okrika, Engenni and Andoni clans). The Ogoni
Ogoni
and other groups which consist of Igbo, Etche, Ogba, Ikwerre, Ndoni, Ekpeye,Engenni and Ndoki in Rivers
Rivers
State. Eastern Niger Delta[edit] Eastern Niger Delta
Niger Delta
consists of Cross River State
Cross River State
and Akwa Ibom
Akwa Ibom
State. Nigerian oil[edit] Main article: Petroleum industry
Petroleum industry
in Nigeria Nigeria
Nigeria
has become West Africa's biggest producer of petroleum. Some 2 million barrels (320,000 m3) a day are extracted in the Niger Delta. It is estimated that 38 billion barrels of crude oil still reside under the delta as of early 2012.[7] The first oil operations in the region began in the 1950s and were undertaken by multinational corporations, which provided Nigeria
Nigeria
with necessary technological and financial resources to extract oil.[8] Since 1975, the region has accounted for more than 75% of Nigeria's export earnings.[citation needed] Together oil and natural gas extraction comprise "97 per cent of Nigeria's foreign exchange revenues".[9] Much of the natural gas extracted in oil wells in the Delta is immediately burned, or flared, into the air at a rate of approximately 70 million m³per day. This is equivalent to 41% of African natural gas consumption, and forms the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions on the planet.[citation needed] In 2003, about 99% of excess gas was flared in the Niger Delta,[10] although this value has fallen to 11% in 2010.[11] (See also gas flaring volumes). The biggest gas flaring company is the Shell Petroleum
Petroleum
Development Company of Nigeria
Nigeria
Ltd, a joint venture that is majority owned by the Nigerian government. In Nigeria, "...despite regulations introduced 20 years ago to outlaw the practice, most associated gas is flared, causing local pollution and contributing to climate change."[12] The environmental devastation associated with the industry and the lack of distribution of oil wealth have been the source and/or key aggravating factors of numerous environmental movements and inter-ethnic conflicts in the region, including recent guerrilla activity by the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta
Niger Delta
(MEND). In September 2012 Eland Oil & Gas purchased a 45% interest in OML 40, with its partner Starcrest Energy Nigeria
Nigeria
Limited, from the Shell Group. They intend to recommission the existing infrastructure and restart existing wells to re-commence production at an initial gross rate of 2,500 bopd with a target to grow gross production to 50,000 bopd within four years. Oil revenue derivation[edit] Oil revenue allocation has been the subject of much contention well before Nigeria
Nigeria
gained its independence. Allocations have varied from as much as 50%, owing to the First Republic's high degree of regional autonomy, and as low as 10% during the military dictatorships. This is the table below.

Oil revenue sharing formula

Year Federal State* Local Special
Special
Projects Derivation Formula**

1958 40% 60% 0% 0% 50%

1968 80% 20% 0% 0% 10%

1977 75% 22% 3% 0% 10%

1982 55% 32.5% 10% 2.5% 10%

1989 50% 24% 15% 11% 10%

1995 48.5% 24% 20% 7.5% 13%

2001 48.5% 24% 20% 7.5% 13%

* State allocations are based on 5 criteria: equality (equal shares per state), population, social development, land mass, and revenue generation. **The derivation formula refers to the percentage of the revenue oil-producing states retain from taxes on oil and other natural resources produced in the state. World Bank Report Media[edit] The documentary film Sweet Crude, which premiered April 2009 at the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival, tells the story of Nigeria's Niger Delta. Environmental issues[edit] Main article: Environmental issues in the Niger Delta The effects of oil in the fragile Niger Delta
Niger Delta
communities and environment have been enormous. Local indigenous people have seen little if any improvement in their standard of living while suffering serious damage to their natural environment. According to Nigerian federal government figures, there were more than 7,000 oil spills between 1970 and 2000.[13] It has been estimated that a clean-up of the region, including full restoration of swamps, creeks, fishing grounds and mangroves, could take 25 years.[14] See also[edit]

Annang Efik Ibibio Ijaw Isoko Oron (state) Ogoni Itsekiri Urhobo Ukwuani Niger Delta
Niger Delta
conflicts Nigerian Oil Crisis Niger Delta
Niger Delta
Development Commission (NDDC) Petroleum industry
Petroleum industry
in Nigeria Igbo Yoruba Biafra War

References[edit]

^ C. Michael Hogan, "Niger River", in M. McGinley (ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth, Washington, DC: National Council for Science and Environment, 2013. ^ CRS Report for Congress, Nigeria: Current Issues. Updated 30 January 2008. ^ Strutton, Laine (2015). The New Mobilization from Below: Women's Oil Protests in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Ph.D.). New York University. ^ "State of Emergency Declared in the Niger Delta". Human Rights Watch. 1998-12-30. Retrieved 2018-01-19.  ^ Ian Taylor, "China's environmental footprint in Africa", China Dialogue, 2 February 2007. ^ " Nigeria
Nigeria
militants warn of oil war", BBC News, 14 September 2008. ^ Isumonah, V. Adelfemi (2013). "Armed Society in the Niger Delta". Armed Forces & Society. 39 (2): 331–358. doi:10.1177/0095327x12446925.  ^ Pearson, Scott R. (1970). Petroleum
Petroleum
and the Nigerian Economy. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-8047-0749-9.  ^ Nigeria: Petroleum
Petroleum
Pollution and Poverty in the Niger Delta. United Kingdom: Amnesty International Publications International Secretariat, 2009, p. 10. ^ "Nigeria's First National Communication Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" (PDF). UNFCC. Nov 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2009.  ^ Global Gas Flaring reduction, The World Bank, "Estimated Flared Volumes from Satellite Data, 2006–2010." ^ "Gas Flaring in Nigeria" (PDF). Friends of the Earth. October 2004. Retrieved 24 January 2009.  ^ John Vidal, "Nigeria's agony dwarfs the Gulf oil spill. The US and Europe ignore it", The Observer, 30 May 2010. ^ Vidal, John (1 June 2016). "Niger delta oil spill clean-up launched – but could take quarter of a century". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2018. 

Sources[edit]

Niger Delta-Archive of News,Interviews, Articles, Analysis from 1999 to Present Proceedings of the Ibibio Union 1928–1937. Edited by Monday Efiong Noah. Modern Business Press Ltd, Uyo. Urhobo Historical Society (4 August 2003). Urhobo Historical Society Responds to Itsekiri Claims on Wari City and Western Niger Dealta. "Nigeria's agony dwarfs the Gulf oil spill. The US and Europe ignore it"

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Niger Delta.

National Geographic Magazine: "Curse of the Black Gold, Hope and betrayal on the Niger Delta" — February 2007 issue. Nigerdeltaforum.com: forum on the Niger Delta
Niger Delta
and its people Niger-Delta Development Commission, Niger Delta: A Brief History American Association for the Advancement of Science, Niger Delta Environmental Rights Action News on the Niger Delta

Coordinates: 05°19′34″N 06°28′15″E / 5.32611°N 6.47083°E / 5.32611; 6.47083

v t e

Niger River

Countries

Guinea Mali Niger Benin Nigeria

Sections

Source of the Niger Middle Niger Inner Niger Delta Lower Niger Niger Delta

Tributaries (list) and distributaries

Tinkisso River Sankarani River Milo River Bani River Mekrou River Alibori River Sola River Sokoto River Sota River Kaduna River Benue River Anambra River Forcados River Nun River Brass River

Cities

Siguiri Bamako Segou Mopti Timbuktu Gao Niamey Lokoja Onitsha

Lakes

Kainji Lake Lac Debo

Dams and bridges

King Fahd Bridge Martyrs Bridge Markala
Markala
Dam Gao
Gao
Bridge Kennedy Bridge Kainji Dam Jebba Dam River Niger Bridge (Onitsha)

Protected Areas

Niger Basin Authority National Park of Upper Niger W National Park Kainji National Park

v t e

Petroleum
Petroleum
industry

Petroleum Primary energy

Benchmarks

Argus Sour Bonny Light Brent Dubai Indian Basket Indonesian Isthmus-34 Light Japan Cocktail OPEC
OPEC
Reference Basket Tapis Urals West Texas Intermediate Western Canadian Select

Data

Natural gas

Consumption Production Reserves Imports Exports Price

Petroleum

Consumption Production Reserves Imports Exports Price (of gasoline and diesel)

Exploration

Core sampling Geophysics Integrated asset modelling Petroleum
Petroleum
engineering

Reservoir simulation Seismic to simulation

Petroleum
Petroleum
geology Petrophysics Reflection seismology (Seismic inversion) Seismic source

Drilling

Blowout Completion (Squeeze job) Differential sticking Directional drilling (Geosteering) Drilling engineering Drilling fluid (invasion) Drill stem test Lost circulation Measurement Tracers Underbalanced drilling Well logging

Production

Petroleum
Petroleum
fiscal regime

Concessions Production sharing agreements

Artificial lift

Pumpjack Submersible pump
Submersible pump
(ESP) Gas lift

Downstream Enhanced oil recovery
Enhanced oil recovery
(EOR)

Steam injection Gas reinjection

Midstream Petroleum
Petroleum
product Pipeline transport Refining Upstream Water injection Well intervention XT

History

1967 Oil Embargo 1973 oil crisis 1979 energy crisis 1980s oil glut 1990 oil price shock 2000s energy crisis 2010s oil glut Founders History of the petroleum industry Nationalization OPEC GECF Seven Sisters Standard Oil Oil market timelines

Provinces and fields

List of natural gas fields List of oil fields East Midlands Oil Province East Texas Gulf of Mexico Niger Delta North Sea Permian Basin Persian Gulf Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Russia Venezuela Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

Other topics

Acronyms Oil shale
Oil shale
gas Peak oil

mitigation timing

People Petrocurrency Petrodollar recycling Shale band Shale gas Swing producer Unconventional oil

heavy crude oil sands oil shale

Companies and organisations

Major petroleum companies

Supermajors

BP Chevron Eni ExxonMobil Royal Dutch Shell Total

National oil companies

ADNOC (UAE) CNOOC (China) CNPC (China) Ecopetrol
Ecopetrol
(Colombia) Gazprom
Gazprom
(Russia) Iraq National Oil Company Indian Oil Corporation KazMunayGas
KazMunayGas
(Kazakhstan) Kuwait Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation Lotos (Poland) Nigerian National Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation NIOC (Iran) NISOC (Iran) OGDCL (Pakistan) ONGC (India) PDVSA
PDVSA
(Venezuela) PKN Orlen
PKN Orlen
(Poland) Pemex
Pemex
(Mexico) Pertamina
Pertamina
(Indonesia) PetroBangla (Bangladesh) Petrobras
Petrobras
(Brazil) PetroChina Petronas
Petronas
(Malaysia) Petrovietnam PTT (Thailand) Qatar Petroleum Rosneft
Rosneft
(Russia) Saudi Aramco
Saudi Aramco
(Saudi Arabia) Sinopec
Sinopec
(China) SOCAR
SOCAR
(Azerbaijan) Sonangol (Angola) Sonatrach
Sonatrach
(Algeria) Statoil
Statoil
(Norway) TPAO (Turkey) YPF
YPF
(Argentina)

Energy trading

Glencore Gunvor Mercuria Naftiran Intertrade Trafigura Vitol

Other

Anadarko Apache BG Group Cenovus Energy Compañía Española de Petróleos ConocoPhillips Devon Galp Energia Hess Husky Energy Imperial Oil JXTG Holdings Lukoil Marathon Oil Occidental OMV Port Harcourt Refining Company Reliance Industries Repsol Suncor Energy Surgutneftegas TNK-BP Tullow Oil Tüpraş

Major services companies

Amec Foster Wheeler Baker Hughes Cameron CGG CH2M Hill Chicago Bridge & Iron Company China Oilfield Services Enbridge Ensco GE Oil & Gas Halliburton Nabors Industries Naftiran Intertrade National Oilwell Varco Petrofac Saipem Schlumberger Snam Subsea 7 TransCanada Transocean Weatherford Wood Group

Other

International Association of Oil & Gas Producers International Energy Agency International Petroleum
Petroleum
Exchange OPEC Society of Petroleum
Petroleum
Engineers World Petroleum
Petroleum
Council

Category  Commons

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountai

.