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The Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
("New Republic") was a small Boer republic
Boer republic
which existed from 1884 to 1888 in present-day South Africa. It was recognised only by the German Empire
German Empire
and the South African Republic. Its independence was proclaimed on August 16, 1884 with land donated by the Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
through a treaty. It covered 13,600 square kilometres (5,300 sq mi) and the capital was Vryheid
Vryheid
or Vrijheid ("Freedom" in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
or Dutch, respectively), both being alternative names of the state. The founder and president until it requested incorporation by Transvaal on 20 July 1888 was Lucas Johannes Meijer, while Daniel Johannes Esselen acted as Secretary of State during the same period. History[edit] After Boer[citation needed] farmers, who lived in the area, helped Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
defeat his rival Zibhebhu
Zibhebhu
for succession of the Zulu throne, land was given to them by way of session by the new Zulu king along the banks of the Mfolozi River. On August 5, 1884 the Boers
Boers
formed the Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(New Republic) with recognition by Germany, ZAR and Portugal with Vryheid
Vryheid
as its capital. The Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
was finally recognized by the British on October 22, 1886 but within a few months the British annexed a stretch of the coastline of the Niewe Republic and the Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
north of the river Thukela
Thukela
river (1887) in order to prevent the new Boer republic
Boer republic
from having access to the sea, which they needed for a harbor.[1] British annexation of the Zulu territory resulted in a revolt, led by Dinuzulu
Dinuzulu
(June 1888), who was defeated by the British. King Dinuzulu was tried for high treason in Eshowe
Eshowe
and sentenced. The annexation of Zululand did not leave much hope for security in the Nieuwe Republiek against British imperialism. On July 20, 1888 the New Republic
Republic
was incorporated with the Transvaal on its own request, although enjoying considerable autonomy. The relations between the Boers
Boers
and the Zulu remained stable until the outbreak of the Second Boer
Boer
War (1899-1902). In June 1900 the British forces entered Vryheid, the capital. AJ Shepstone, son of Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the former secretary of native affairs in Natal, was sent to the area and worked together with the official British military intelligence J. Roberts to conspire with some Zulus
Zulus
against the Boers, and had victory achieved over the Boers in Schurweberg, near Vryheid. In March 1901 he declared martial law in the region. After the Second Boer
Boer
War the territory was transferred to the British Colony of Natal
Colony of Natal
(1903). Gallery[edit]

Location of the Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
in Southern Africa

President Lucas Johannes Meijer

Postage stamp
Postage stamp
of the Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1886)

The original approved design of the New Republic
Republic
flag[2]

Nieuwe-Republiek Museum

Nieuwe-Republiek Jail

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer
Boer
States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Republic
Republic
of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Boer
Boer
Republics and Griqua States in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
1795–1902

Est. 1795–1830

Swellendam Graaff-Reinet Philippolis
Philippolis
/ Adam Kok's Land Waterboer's Land

Est. 1830–1840

Zoutpansberg Winburg Potchefstroom Winburg-Potchefstroom Natalia Republic

Est. 1840–1870

South African Republic Lydenburg Republic Orange Free State Utrecht Republic Griqualand East Griqualand West

Est. 1880–1902

Goshen Small Free State New Republic Stellaland United States of Stellaland Republic
Republic
of Upingtonia
Upingtonia
/ Lijdensrust

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer
Boer
Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

Category

References[edit]

^ "The New Republicans: A Centennial Reappraisal of the 'Nieuwe Republiek' (1884-1888)" (PDF).  ^ The original approved design of the New Republic
Republic
flag taken from the South African Flag Book (200

.