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Nicosia
Nicosia
(/ˌnɪkəˈsiːə/ NIK-ə-SEE-ə; Greek: Λευκωσία [lefkoˈsi.a]; Turkish: Lefkoşa [lefˈkoʃa]) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus. It is located near the centre of the Mesaoria plain, on the banks of the River Pedieos. Nicosia
Nicosia
is the capital and seat of government of Cyprus, and as such is the farthest southeast of all EU member states' capitals. It has been continuously inhabited for over 4,500 years and has been the capital of Cyprus
Cyprus
since the 10th century. The Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
and Turkish Cypriot communities of Nicosia
Nicosia
segregated into the south and north of the city respectively in 1963, following the crisis from 1955–64 that broke out in the city. This division became a militarized border between the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Northern Cyprus after Turkey
Turkey
invaded the island of Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1974, occupying the north of the island, including northern Nicosia. Today North Nicosia
North Nicosia
is the capital of Northern Cyprus, a state recognized only by Turkey, that is considered to be occupied Cypriot territory by the international community. Apart from its legislative and administrative functions, Nicosia
Nicosia
has established itself as the island's financial capital and its main international business centre.[3] In 2015, Nicosia
Nicosia
was the 6th richest city in the world in relative purchasing power.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient times 1.2 Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
times 1.3 Medieval times 1.4 Ottoman rule 1.5 British administration 1.6 Independence and division

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Cityscape

3.1 South of the Green Line 3.2 North of the Green Line

4 Politics and administration

4.1 Governance of the metropolitan area 4.2 Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipality 4.3 Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality 4.4 Other municipalities in Greater Nicosia 4.5 Administrative divisions and demographics

5 Culture 6 Education 7 Economy 8 Transport 9 Sports 10 Famous Nicosians 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12 Gallery 13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Nicosia Ancient times[edit] Nicosia
Nicosia
has been in continuous habitation since the beginning of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
2500 years BC, when the first inhabitants settled in the fertile plain of Mesaoria.[5] Nicosia
Nicosia
later became a city-state known as Ledra
Ledra
or Ledrae, one of the twelve kingdoms of ancient Cyprus
Cyprus
built by Achaeans after the end of the Trojan War.[citation needed] Remains of old Ledra
Ledra
today can be found in the Ayia Paraskevi hill in the south east of the city. Only one king of Ledra
Ledra
is known: Onasagoras. The kingdom of Ledra
Ledra
was destroyed early. Under Assyrian rule of Cyprus, Onasagoras was recorded as paying tribute to Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
of Assyria
Assyria
in 672 BC. By 330 BC, Ledra
Ledra
was recorded to be a small unimportant town.[6] According to tradition, the city was rebuilt by "Leucus", claimed to be the son of Ptolemy I Soter, around 300 BC or 200 BC, and named after him as "Leucoton" or "Lefkotheon".[7][8][9] The main activity of the town inhabitants was farming. During this era, Ledra
Ledra
did not have the huge growth that the other Cypriot coastal towns had, which was primarily based on trade.[10] Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
times[edit] In Byzantine
Byzantine
times, the town was also referred to as Λευκωσία (Lefkosia) or as Καλληνίκησις (Kallenikesis). In the 4th century AD, the town became the seat of bishopric, with bishop Saint Tryphillius (Trifillios), a student of Saint Spyridon.[11] After the destruction of Salamis, the existing capital of Cyprus, by Arab raids in 647, Nicosia
Nicosia
became the capital of the island around 965, when Cyprus
Cyprus
rejoined the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. The Byzantines moved the island's administration seat to Nicosia
Nicosia
primarily for security reasons as coastal towns were often suffering from raids. From that point on it has remained as the capital of Cyprus. Nicosia
Nicosia
acquired a castle and was the seat of the Byzantine
Byzantine
governor of Cyprus; the last Byzantine
Byzantine
governor was Isaac Komnenos, who declared himself emperor of the island and ruled the island from 1183 to 1191.[12] Medieval times[edit]

St. Sophia Cathedral, Nicosia, which was built during rule by the House of Lusignan
House of Lusignan
and later converted to a mosque, exemplifies the Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
in Nicosia.

Venetian walls of Nicosia

On his way to the Holy Land
Holy Land
during the Third Crusade
Third Crusade
in 1187, Richard I of England's fleet was plagued by storms. He himself stopped first at Crete
Crete
and then at Rhodes. Three ships continued on, one of which was carrying Joan of England, Queen of Sicily
Joan of England, Queen of Sicily
and Berengaria of Navarre, Richard's bride-to-be. Two of the ships were wrecked off Cyprus, but the ship bearing Joan and Berengaria made it safely to Limassol. Joan refused to come ashore, fearing she would be captured and held hostage by Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus, who hated all Franks. Her ship sat at anchor for a full week before Richard finally arrived on 8 May. Outraged at the treatment of his sister and his future bride, Richard invaded.[13][citation needed] Richard laid siege to Nicosia, finally met and defeated Isaac Komnenos at Tremetousia and became ruler of the island, but sold it to the Knights Templar. The Frankish rule of Cyprus
Cyprus
started from 1192 and lasted until 1489. During this time, Nicosia
Nicosia
was the capital of the medieval Kingdom of Cyprus, the seat of Lusignan
Lusignan
kings, the Latin Church and the Frankish administration of the island. During the Frankish rule, the walls of the city were built along with many other palaces and buildings, including the gothic St. Sophia Cathedral. The tombs of the Lusignan kings can be found there. The exonym Nicosia
Nicosia
appeared with the arrival of the Lusignans. The French-speaking Crusaders either could not, or did not care to, pronounce the name Lefkosia, and tended to say "Nicosie" translated into Italian and then internationally known as "Nicosia".[citation needed]

Map of Nicosia
Nicosia
in Cyprus, created in 1597

Famagusta Gate
Famagusta Gate
built in 1567

In 1374 Nicosia
Nicosia
was occupied and ravaged by the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
and in 1426 from the Mamluk Sultanate.[citation needed] In 1489, when Cyprus
Cyprus
came under the rule of the Republic of Venice, Nicosia
Nicosia
became their administrative centre and the seat of the Republic. The Venetian Governors saw it as a necessity for all the cities of Cyprus
Cyprus
to be fortified due to the Ottoman threat.[14] In 1567 Venetians built the new fortifications of Nicosia, which are well-preserved until today, demolishing the old walls built by the Franks
Franks
as well as other important buildings of the Frankish era including the King's Palace, other private palaces and churches and monasteries of both Orthodox and Latin Christians.[15] The new walls took the shape of a star with eleven bastions. The design of the bastion is more suitable for artillery and a better control for the defenders. The walls have three gates, to the North Kyrenia
Kyrenia
Gate, to the west Paphos
Paphos
Gate and to the east Famagusta
Famagusta
Gate.[15] The river Pedieos
Pedieos
used to flow through the Venetian walled city. In 1567 it was later diverted outside onto the newly built moat for strategic reasons, due to the expected Ottoman attack.[16] Ottoman rule[edit]

The Nicosia
Nicosia
aqueduct

View of Nicosia
Nicosia
in 1878

On 1 July 1570, the Ottomans invaded the island. On 22 July, Piyale Pasha
Pasha
having captured Paphos, Limassol
Limassol
and Larnaca
Larnaca
marched his army towards Nicosia
Nicosia
and laid siege to the city.[17] The city managed to last 40 days under siege until its fall on 9 September 1570. Some 20,000 residents died during the siege and every church, public building, and palace was looted.[18] The main Latin churches were converted into mosques, such as the conversion of the Saint Sophia Cathedral. Nicosia
Nicosia
was the seat of the Pasha, the Greek Archbishop, the Dragoman and the Qadi. The Palazzo del Governo of Venetian times became the seat of the Pasha, the governor of Cyprus, and the building was renamed as the Konak or Seraglio (Saray). The square outside was known as Seraglio Square or Sarayonu (literally front of the Saray), as it is known to the present day. The saray was demolished in 1904 and the present block of Government Offices built on the site.[19] When the newly settled Turkish population arrived they generally lived in the north of the old riverbed. Greek Cypriots remained concentrated in the south, where the Archbishopric
Archbishopric
of the Orthodox Church was built. Other ethnic minority groups such as the Armenians and Latins came to be settled near the western entry into the city at Paphos Gate.[20] The names of the 12 quarters into which Nicosia
Nicosia
was originally divided at the time of the Ottoman Conquest are said to be derived from the 12 generals in command of divisions of the Ottoman army at the time. Each general being posted to a quarter, that quarter (with two exceptions) was known by his name as follows:

General Ibrahim Pasha. General Mahmoud Pasha. General Ak Kavuk Pasha. (This is a nickname meaning "white cap.") General Koukoud Effendi. General Arab Ahmed Pasha. General Abdi Pasha, known as Chavush (Sergeant) from which rank he was probably promoted. General Haydar Pasha. General Karamanzade (son of a Caramanian, other names not given). General Yahya Pasha
Pasha
(now known as the Phaneromeni Quarter). General Daniel Pasha
Pasha
(name of quarter changed subsequently to Omerie in honour of the Caliph Omar who stayed there for a night when in Cyprus). Tophane (Artillery Barracks) Nebetkhane, meaning police station or quarters of the patrol.[19]

The names of the generals in command of the last two quarters have been lost: Later the number of neighbourhoods was increased to 24. Each neighbourhood was organised around a mosque or a church, where mainly the respective Moslem and Christian communities lived.[21] British administration[edit]

Hoisting the British flag in Nicosia

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1881 11,536 —    

1891 12,515 +8.5%

1901 14,481 +15.7%

1911 16,052 +10.8%

1921 11,831 −26.3%

1931 23,324 +97.1%

1946 34,485 +47.9%

1960 45,629 +32.3%

Source for 1881–1960.[22]

Nicosia
Nicosia
came under the rule of Great Britain on 5 July 1878.[23] The old Ottoman administrative headquarters (the Saray) was replaced in 1904 by a new building containing Law Courts, the Land Registry, and the Forestry, Customs, and Nicosia
Nicosia
Commissioner's Offices.[19] Adjacent was the Nicosia
Nicosia
Police headquarters, while opposite were the General Post Office and the Telegraph Office.[24] A Venetian Column, previously in a fenced courtyard near the Saray,[25] was restored on a new site in the summer of 1915 in the middle of Saray Square. The Nicosia
Nicosia
column was presumably erected in compliment to the reigning Doge Francesco Donati about the year 1550.[19] Just after the British Occupation a Municipal Council was constituted in Nicosia
Nicosia
in 1882 for the general administration of public affairs within the city and for a certain area without the walls, under the presidency of a Mayor.[19] The first municipal offices were in Municipality Square (now the central municipal market), but in 1944 the offices were transferred temporarily to the d'Avila bastion and in 1952 this was made permanent with a decision to renovate the building.[26]

Extensions to the Nicosia
Nicosia
municipal area

View of Nicosia
Nicosia
in 1914

In 1923 the municipal limits were extended further (see map) and this new area was divided among several of the existing intramural Neighbourhoods.[27] In 1938 the boundary was extended to the present limits in the west and to the boundaries of Ayii Omoloyites, Palouriotissa, Kaimakli
Kaimakli
and Omorfita.[28] In 1944 the village authority of Ayii Omoloyites was absorbed, then, shortly after independence, Palouriotissa, Kaimakli
Kaimakli
and Omorfita
Omorfita
were annexed to the city in 1968.[29] In 1955 an armed struggle against the British rule began aiming to unite the island with Greece, Enosis. The struggle was led by EOKA, a Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
nationalist military resistance organisation,[30][31] and supported by the vast majority of Greek Cypriots. The unification with Greece
Greece
failed and instead the independence of Cyprus
Cyprus
was declared in 1960. During the period of the struggle, Nicosia
Nicosia
was the scene of violent protests against the British rule.[citation needed] Independence and division[edit] See also: Modern history of Cyprus

The reopening of the Ledra Street
Ledra Street
crossing in 2008

Scheme for new pedestrianized streets in old Nicosia
Nicosia
implemented after 2004

In 1960 Nicosia
Nicosia
became the capital of the Republic of Cyprus, a state established by the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. In 1963, the Greek Cypriot side proposed amendments to the constitution, which were rejected by the Turkish Cypriot community.[32] During the aftermath of this crisis, on 21 December 1963, intercommunal violence broke out between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Nicosia
Nicosia
was divided into Greek and Turkish Cypriot quarters with the Green Line, named after the colour of the pen used by the United Nations
United Nations
officer to draw the line on a map of the city.[33] This resulted in Turkish Cypriots withdrawing from the government, and following more intercommunal violence in 1964, a number of Turkish Cypriots moved to the Turkish quarter of Nicosia, causing serious overcrowding.[34] On 15 July 1974, there was an attempted coup d'état led by the Greek military junta to unite the island with Greece. The coup ousted president Makarios III
Makarios III
and replaced him with pro-enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson.[35] On 20 July 1974, the coup d'état precipitated the invasion of the island by the Turkish army.[36] The operation included two phases. The second phase of the Turkish invasion was performed on 14 August 1974, where the Turkish army advanced their positions, eventually capturing a total of 37% of Cypriot territory including the northern part of Nicosia. The fighting left the island with a massive refugee problem on both sides.[37] On 13 February 1975 the Turkish Cypriot community declared the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus
Cyprus
in the area occupied by Turkish forces.[38] On 15 November 1983, Turkish Cypriots proclaimed their independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. On 23 April 2003, the Ledra
Ledra
Palace crossing was opened through the Green Line, the first time that crossing was allowed since 1974.[39] This was followed by the opening of Ayios Dometios/Metehan crossing point on 9 May 2003.[40] On 3 April 2008, the Ledra Street
Ledra Street
crossing was also reopened.[41] From 30 October 2016 onwards, Nicosia
Nicosia
became the only capital city in the world to have two time zones, after the parliament of the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
abolished standard time and decided that Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
remains at UTC+03:00 year-round, following Turkey's example.[42][43] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Nicosia
Nicosia
has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) due to its low annual precipitation totals and annual temperature range.[44] The city experiences long, hot, muggy and dry summers, and cool to mild winters, with most of the rainfall occurring in winter. Winter precipitation is occasionally accompanied by sleet but rarely by snow. The accumulation of snow is particularly rare (last events occurred in 1950,1974 and 1997). There is occasionally light frost during the winter nights. At the Lefkopa weather station in Nicosia, the temperature reached 44.7°C on 2nd July 2017.[45]

Climate data for Athalassa, Nicosia, elevation: 162 m (1991–2005) (Satellite view)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.2 (72) 22.9 (73.2) 30.5 (86.9) 36.7 (98.1) 44.5 (112.1) 44.6 (112.3) 44.7 (112.5) 45.6 (114.1) 41.1 (106) 38.0 (100.4) 30.8 (87.4) 23.8 (74.8) 45.6 (114.1)

Average high °C (°F) 15.5 (59.9) 15.9 (60.6) 19.2 (66.6) 24.3 (75.7) 29.7 (85.5) 34.3 (93.7) 37.2 (99) 36.9 (98.4) 33.5 (92.3) 29.0 (84.2) 22.1 (71.8) 17.0 (62.6) 26.2 (79.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 10.6 (51.1) 13.1 (55.6) 17.1 (62.8) 22.3 (72.1) 26.9 (80.4) 29.7 (85.5) 29.4 (84.9) 26.2 (79.2) 22.3 (72.1) 16.3 (61.3) 12.0 (53.6) 19.7 (67.5)

Average low °C (°F) 5.7 (42.3) 5.2 (41.4) 7.0 (44.6) 10.2 (50.4) 14.8 (58.6) 19.4 (66.9) 22.2 (72) 21.9 (71.4) 18.8 (65.8) 15.6 (60.1) 10.4 (50.7) 7.1 (44.8) 13.2 (55.8)

Record low °C (°F) −4.4 (24.1) −5.7 (21.7) −2.0 (28.4) −1.9 (28.6) 4.5 (40.1) 8.1 (46.6) 12.0 (53.6) 13.6 (56.5) 10.0 (50) 1.5 (34.7) −3.5 (25.7) −4.0 (24.8) −5.7 (21.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.7 (2.154) 41.6 (1.638) 28.3 (1.114) 19.9 (0.783) 23.5 (0.925) 17.6 (0.693) 5.8 (0.228) 1.3 (0.051) 11.7 (0.461) 17.4 (0.685) 54.6 (2.15) 65.8 (2.591) 342.2 (13.472)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7.3 6.5 5.4 3.5 2.7 1.3 0.5 0.1 0.6 2.8 4.7 7.7 43.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 182.9 200.1 238.7 267.0 331.7 369.0 387.5 365.8 312.0 275.9 213.0 170.5 3,314.1

Source: Meteorological Service (Cyprus)[46]

Cityscape[edit]

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South of the Green Line[edit]

View of Nicosia
Nicosia
from Shacolas Tower

Verandas in old Nicosia, on the right Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia

Ledra
Ledra
Street

Archbishop's Palace

Ledra Street
Ledra Street
is in the middle of the walled city. The street has historically been the busiest shopping street of the capital and adjacent streets lead to the most lively part of the old city with narrow streets, boutiques, bars and art-cafés. The street today is a historic monument on its own. It is about 1 km (0.6 mi) long and connects the south and north parts of the old city. During the EOKA
EOKA
struggle that ran from 1955–1959, the street acquired the informal nickname The Murder Mile in reference to the frequent targeting of the British colonialists by nationalist fighters along its course.[47][48] In 1963, during the outbreak of hostilities between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities, following the announcement of amendments to the Cypriot Constitution, Turkish Cypriots withdrew to the northern part of Nicosia
Nicosia
which became one of the many Turkish Cypriot enclaves
Turkish Cypriot enclaves
which existed throughout the island. Various streets which ran between the northern and southern part of the city, including Ledra
Ledra
Street, were blockaded. During the Turkish army invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1974, Turkish troops occupied northern Nicosia
Nicosia
(as well as the northern part of Cyprus). A buffer zone was established across the island along the ceasefire line to separate the northern Turkish controlled part of the island, and the south. The buffer zone runs through Ledra
Ledra
Street. After many failed attempts on reaching agreement between the two communities, Ledra Street
Ledra Street
was reopened on 3 April 2008. To the east of Ledra
Ledra
Street, Faneromeni Square
Faneromeni Square
was the centre of Nicosia
Nicosia
before 1974. It hosts a number of historical buildings and monuments including Faneromeni Church, Faneromeni School, Faneromeni Library and the Marble Mausoleum. Faneromeni Church, is a church built in 1872 in the stead of another church located at the same site, constructed with the remains of La Cava castle and a convent. There rest the archbishop and the other bishops who were executed by the Ottomans in the Saray Square during the 1821 revolt. The Palace of the Archbishop can be found at Archbishop Kyprianos
Archbishop Kyprianos
Square. Although it seems very old, it is a wonderful imitation of typical Venetian style, built in 1956. Next to the palace is the late Gothic Saint John cathedral (1665) with picturesque frescos. The square leads to Onasagorou Street, another busy shopping street in the historical centre. The walls surrounding the old city have three gates. In The Kyrenia Gate which was responsible to the transport to the north, and especially Kyrenia, the Famagusta Gate
Famagusta Gate
which was responsible for the transport from Famagusta, Larnaca
Larnaca
and Limassol
Limassol
and Karpasia, and the Paphos
Paphos
Gate for transport to the west and especially Paphos. All three gates are well-preserved.[49]

Pedieos
Pedieos
river linear park.

The historical centre is clearly present inside the walls, but the modern city has grown beyond. Presently, the main square of the city is Eleftheria (Freedom) Square, with the city hall, the post office and the library. The square which is currently under renovation, connects the old city with the new city where one can find the main shopping streets such as the prestigious Stasikratous Street, Themistokli Dervi Avenue
Themistokli Dervi Avenue
and Makarios Avenue. Nicosia
Nicosia
is also known for its fine museums. The Archbishop's Palace contains a Byzantine
Byzantine
museum containing the largest collection of religious icons on the island. Leventis Municipal Museum is the only historical museum of Nicosia
Nicosia
and revives the old ways of life in the capital from ancient times up to our days. Other interesting museums include the Folk Art Museum, National Struggle Museum (witnessing the rebellion against the British administration in the 1950s), Cyprus Ethnological Museum (House of Dragoman
Dragoman
Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios, 18th century) and the Handicrafts Centre. Nicosia
Nicosia
also hosts an Armenian archbishopric, a small Buddhist temple, a Maronite archbishopric, and a Roman Catholic church. North of the Green Line[edit] Main article: North Nicosia
North Nicosia
§ Cityscape

Sarayönü Square

The historical Samanbahçe neighborhood

A view from the Dereboyu Avenue

At the center of the walled city lies the Sarayönü Square. The square has been dubbed as "the heart of Nicosia" and historically has been the cultural center of the Turkish Cypriot community.[50] In the middle of the square stands the Venetian Column, known simply as "the Obelisk" ("Dikiltaş") to the locals and symbolic of the country's government.[50] The column was brought from the ancient city of Salamis by the Venetians in 1550.[51] The Girne Avenue connects Sarayönü to the Kyrenia Gate
Kyrenia Gate
and the İnönü Square in front of it. The avenue has been described as "the symbol of the walled city", and is filled with numerous shops and restaurants.[52] Next to the Ledra Street
Ledra Street
checkpoint is the Arasta area. The area was pedestrianized in 2013 and is home to a network of historic shopping streets, reflecting an eastern shopping tradition with food and traditional items.[53] Nearby Büyük Han, the largest caravanserai in the island and considered to be one of the finest buildings in Cyprus, was built in 1572 by the Ottomans and currently functions as a cultural center.[54][55] To the west of the Girne Avenue lies the Samanbahçe neighborhood, built in the 19th century by the government, considered to be the first example of social housing in the island. Still a residential area, the neighborhood is considered to be one of the best representations of the Cypriot culture.[56] Another central point in the walled city is the Selimiye Mosque, originally built as the St. Sophia Cathedral. The mosque is the chief religious center in Northern Cyprus. It was built between 1209 and 1228 by the Latin Church of Cyprus, in a Gothic style resembling French cathedrals.[57] Next to the mosque is the Bedesten, a large Greek church in the Byzantine
Byzantine
and Gothic styles, built in the 14th century. It was used as a marketplace in the Ottoman era. Today, it is used as a cultural center where various cultural activities such as concerts and festivals take place.[58][59] The quarters of Nicosia
Nicosia
outside the walled city are more spacious than the walled city, with wider roads and junctions. These areas are characterized by multi-floor concrete buildings. In the outskirts of the city, a number large and imposing villas have been built that belong to the middle and upper-classes.[60] The Dereboyu Avenue
Dereboyu Avenue
serves as the modern heart of the northern part and is its center of entertainment. Politics and administration[edit] Governance of the metropolitan area[edit]

Presidential Palace in Strovolos
Strovolos
area.

Greater Nicosia

Greater Nicosia
Nicosia
is administered by several municipalities. In the centre is the city municipality of Nicosia
Nicosia
itself (see below). Other municipalities are Strovolos, Lakatamia, Latsia, Aglandjia, Engomi, Agios Dhometios
Agios Dhometios
and the newly formed (as of 2011[update]) Yeri & Tseri. The population of the conurbation is 300,000 (2011 census, plus Turkish Cypriot administered census of 2006) of which 100,000 live within the Nicosia
Nicosia
municipal area. Because Nicosia
Nicosia
municipality has separate communal municipal administrations, the population of Strovolos
Strovolos
(67,904 (2011 Census)) is actually the largest of all the local authorities in Greater Nicosia. Within Nicosia
Nicosia
municipality, most of the population resides in the more recently annexed outlying areas of Kaimakli, Pallouriotissa, Omorfita
Omorfita
and Ayii Omoloyites. There is no metropolitan authority as such for Greater Nicosia
Nicosia
and various roles, responsibilities and functions for the wider area are undertaken by the Nicosia District
Nicosia District
administration, bodies such as the Nicosia
Nicosia
Water Board and, to some extent, Nicosia
Nicosia
municipality. The Nicosia
Nicosia
Water Board supplies water to the following municipalities: Nicosia, Strovolos, Aglandjia, Engomi, Ay. Dometios, Latsia, Geri and Tseri. The board consists of three persons nominated by the Council of each municipality, plus three members appointed by the government, who are usually the District Officer of Nicosia District, who chairs the Board, the Accountant General and the Director of the Water Department. The board also supply Anthoupolis and Ergates, for whom the government provide representatives. Thus the board is in the majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia
Nicosia
in providing this vital local government service.[61] The Nicosia
Nicosia
Sewerage Board, is likewise majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia. It is chaired ex officio by the Mayor of Nicosia
Nicosia
and consists of members chosen by the municipalities of Nicosia
Nicosia
(6 members), Strovolos
Strovolos
(5 members), Aglandjia
Aglandjia
(2 members), Lakatamia
Lakatamia
(2 members), Ay. Dometios (2 members), Engomi
Engomi
(2 members), Latsia
Latsia
(1 member). The sewage treatment plant is at Mia Milia. The Nicosia
Nicosia
Sewerage System serves a population of approximately 140,000 and an area of 20 km2 (8 sq mi). Approximately 30% of the influent is contributed by the Turkish Cypriot Side.[62] Public transport is not controlled by the local authorities, but comes under the Nicosia District
Nicosia District
administration, which is an arm of the Ministry of the Interior. Transport services (primarily bus and taxi) are provided by an agency of the Nicosia District
Nicosia District
(OSEL) or private companies.[63] Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipality[edit] See also: List of mayors of Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipality

Nicosia Municipality
Nicosia Municipality
building at Eleftheria Square

The Nicosia Municipality
Nicosia Municipality
is responsible for all the municipal duties within the walled city and the immediately adjacent areas. The Constitution states that various main government buildings and headquarters must be situated within the Nicosia
Nicosia
municipal boundaries.[64] However separate municipalities are prescribed by the constitution for in the five largest towns, including Nicosia,[65] and in the case of Nicosia
Nicosia
the separate administration was established in 1958. The Turkish Municipal Committees (Temporary Provisions) Law, 1959[66] established a municipal authority run by a "Turkish Municipal Committee", defined as "the body of persons set up on or after the first day of July, 1958, in the towns of Nicosia, Limassol, Famagusta, Larnaca
Larnaca
and Paphos
Paphos
by the Turkish inhabitants thereof for the purpose of performing municipal functions within the municipal limits of such towns".The Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality, founded in 1958, carries out municipal duties in the northern and north-western part of city.[67] The remaining areas, in the south and east of the city, are administered by Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipality. Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality[edit]

Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipal building

The first attempt to establish a Nicosia Turkish Municipality
Nicosia Turkish Municipality
was made in 1958. In October 1959, the British Colonial Administration passed the Turkish Municipality Committees law. In 1960 with the declaration of independence of Cyprus, the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus gave Turkish Cypriots the right to establish their own municipality.[68][69][70] As negotiations between the two sides to establish separate municipalities failed in 1962, implementing legislation was never passed.[71][72] Since the complete division of Nicosia
Nicosia
following the Turkish Invasion in 1974, the Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality has become the de facto local authority of northern Nicosia. The Nicosia Turkish Municipality
Nicosia Turkish Municipality
is a member the Union of Cyprus
Cyprus
Turkish Municipalities.[73] The current mayor is Mehmet Harmancı from the Communal Democracy Party. Other municipalities in Greater Nicosia[edit] Until 1986 there were no suburban municipalities. Then, following the procedures in the Municipal Law 111/1985, Strovolos, Engomi, Ay. Dometios, Aglandjia, Latsia
Latsia
and Lakatamia
Lakatamia
were erected into municipalities.[74] Each municipal council has the number of members described in the Municipal Law 111/1985 depending on the population figures. All members of the council are elected directly by the people for a period of 5 years. Administrative divisions and demographics[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Nicosia

Administrative Divisions (2011 Census)

Nicosia
Nicosia
within the city limits is divided into 29 administrative units, according to the latest census. This unit is termed in English as quarter, neighbourhood, parish, enoria or mahalla. These units are: Ayios Andreas (Tophane), Trypiotis, Nebethane, Tabakhane, Phaneromeni, Ayios Savvas, Omerie, Ayios Antonios (St. Anthony), St. John, Taht-el-kale, Chrysaliniotissa, Ayios Kassianos (Kafesli), Kaïmakli, Panayia, St Constantine & Helen, Ayioi Omoloyites, Arab Ahmet, Yeni Jami, Omorfita, Ibrahim Pasha, Mahmut Pasha, Abu Kavouk, St. Luke, Abdi Chavush, Iplik Pazar and Korkut Effendi, Ayia Sophia, Haydar Pasha, Karamanzade,[75] and Yenişehir/Neapolis.[76] The municipality of Strovolos, established in 1986, is the second largest municipal authority in Cyprus
Cyprus
in terms of population after Limassol
Limassol
and encompasses the southern suburbs of the capital immediately adjacent to Nicosia
Nicosia
municipality.[77] Lakatamia, Latsia, Geri and Aglandjia
Aglandjia
are other separate municipalities in the Nicosia metropolitan area. The town of Gönyeli
Gönyeli
is now conurbated with the northern suburbs. Previously a village authority, it now functions as a municipality[78] within the same area[79] The suburbs immediately to the north of the city have not been erected into municipalities. The village authority of Hamitköy
Hamitköy
(also known as Hamid Mandres) was heavily urbanized[80] and was included within the borders of Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality[81] as a Nicosia
Nicosia
neighbourhood headed by a muhtar.[82] Ortakeuy Village authority[83] has similarly been redefined as a neighbourhood of Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality. Culture[edit]

Cypriot Archeological Museum

The World of Cyprus, an acrylic painting with a total length of 17.5 meters by Adamantios Diamantis in Leventis Gallery

The Cyprus
Cyprus
Museum in Nicosia
Nicosia
is the largest and oldest archaeological museum in Cyprus. In old Nicosia, the Ethnological Museum (Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion) is the most important example of urban architecture of the last century of Ottoman domination which survives in old Nicosia. Today, the mansion which was awarded the Europa Nostra prize for its exemplary renovation work, functions as a museum where a collection of artifacts from the Byzantine, Medieval and Ottoman periods are displayed. Other museums in Nicosia
Nicosia
include the Cyprus
Cyprus
Museum of Natural History and the Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia
Nicosia
and Von World Pens Hall in the south. In the north, the Dervish Pasha
Pasha
Mansion, similar in architecture to the Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion, serves as an ethnological museum, displaying Ottoman and archaeological artifacts.[84] Other museums include the Lusignan
Lusignan
House,[85] the Mevlevi Tekke Museum, associated with the sect of the Whirling Dervishes,[86] and the Lapidary Museum.[87] Art galleries in Nicosia
Nicosia
include the Leventis Gallery, which hosts over 800 paintings from Cypriot, Greek or European artists. Nicosia
Nicosia
offers a wide variety of musical and theatrical events, organized either by the municipality or independent organizations. Halls and theatres used for this purpose include:

The Cyprus
Cyprus
National Theatre, which contains two performance spaces:[88]

the 550-seat Lyric Theater with a bold exterior but an intimate theatrical environment. Its design minimizes the distance from actor to audience; the 150-seat New Theater, which is an open-ended workshop space, with simple galleries around the room. The stage can be set in the center, at the ends, or to one side of the room, and the space can be opened to the private garden beyond.

The Pallas Cinema-Theatre which was renovated from a near derelict state in 2008.[89] Theatro Ena[90] Maskarini Theatre[91][92] Dionysos Theatre[93][94] Melina Mercouri Hall[95]

Nicosia's universities also boast an impressive array of facilities, and many churches and outdoor spaces are used to host cultural events.[citation needed] The Near East University
Near East University
hosts the Atatürk Cultural and Conference Centre, with 700 seats.[96] Nicosia
Nicosia
hosted the Miss Universe 2000
Miss Universe 2000
pageant.[97] In June 2011, Nicosia
Nicosia
launched a failed campaign to become the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2017.[98]

Section of the modern buildings of the University of Cyprus
Cyprus
(UCY)

Education[edit] Nicosia
Nicosia
has a large student community as it is the seat of eight universities, the University of Cyprus
Cyprus
(UCY), the University of Nicosia, the European University Cyprus, the Open University of Cyprus, Frederick University, Near East University, the University of Mediterranean Karpasia, Cyprus
Cyprus
International University. Economy[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2017)

Central Bank of Cyprus

View of Nicosia
Nicosia
Financial quarter at sunset

Nicosia
Nicosia
is the financial and business heart of Cyprus. The city hosts the headquarters of all Cypriot banks namely the former Cyprus
Cyprus
Popular Bank (also known as Laiki Bank), Bank of Cyprus, the Hellenic Bank. Further, the Central Bank of Cyprus
Cyprus
is located in the Acropolis area of the Cypriot capital. A number of international businesses base their Cypriot headquarters in Nicosia, such as the big four audit firms PWC, Deloitte, KPMG
KPMG
and Ernst & Young. International technology companies such as NCR and TSYS
TSYS
have their regional headquarters in Nicosia. The city is also home to local financial newspapers such as the Financial Mirror and Stockwatch. Cyprus
Cyprus
Airways had its head offices in the entrance of Makariou Avenue.[99] According to a recent UBS
UBS
survey in August 2011, Nicosia
Nicosia
is the wealthiest per capita city of the Eastern Mediterranean and the tenth richest city in the world by purchasing power in 2011.[100] Transport[edit]

Public buses in Solomos Square

Roundabout on the A1 highway in Nicosia

Nicosia
Nicosia
is linked with other major cities in Cyprus
Cyprus
via a modern motorway network. The A1 connects Nicosia
Nicosia
with Limassol
Limassol
in the south with the A6 going from Limassol
Limassol
onto Paphos. The A2 links Nicosia
Nicosia
with the south eastern city of Larnaca
Larnaca
with the A3 going from Larnaca
Larnaca
to Ayia Napa. The A9 connects Nicosia
Nicosia
to the west Nicosia
Nicosia
district villages and the Troodos mountains. The capital is also linked to the 2 international airports: Larnaca
Larnaca
International Airport and Paphos International Airport. Public transport within the city is currently served by a new and reliable bus service. Bus services in Nicosia
Nicosia
are run by OSEL.[101] In the northern part, the company of LETTAŞ provides this service.[102] Many taxi companies operate in Nicosia. Fares are regulated by law and taxi drivers are obliged to use a taximeter. In 2010, as part of the Nicosia
Nicosia
Integrated Mobility Plan, a pre-feasibility study for a proposed tram network has taken place and sponsored by the Ministry of Communications and Works. The study compared two scenarios, with and without the operation of a tramway in terms of emitted polluting loads.[103] In 2011, the Nicosia Municipality
Nicosia Municipality
introduced the Bike in Action scheme, a bicycle sharing system which covers the Greater Nicosia area. The scheme is run by the Inter-Municipal Bicycle Company of Nicosia
Nicosia
(DEPL).[104] There is currently no train network in Cyprus
Cyprus
however plans for the creation of an intercity railway are currently under way. The first railway line on the island was the Cyprus
Cyprus
Government Railway which operated from 1905 to 1951. It was closed down due to financial reasons.[105]

Start of Quantum Nicosia Marathon
Quantum Nicosia Marathon
2010

Sports[edit]

Field club tennis courts

Football is the most popular sport in Cyprus, and Nicosia
Nicosia
is home of three major teams of the island; APOEL, Omonia and Olympiakos. APOEL and Omonia are dominant in Cypriot football. There are also many other football clubs in Nicosia
Nicosia
and the suburbs. The city also hosts Çetinkaya, Yenicami, Küçük Kaymaklı and Gönyeli, four of the major Turkish Cypriot clubs. Nicosia
Nicosia
is also home to Ararat FC, the island's only Armenian FC. Nicosia
Nicosia
is also the home for many clubs for basketball, handball and other sports. APOEL and Omonia have basketball and volleyball sections and Keravnos
Keravnos
is one of the major basketball teams of the island. The Gymnastic Club Pancypria (GSP), the owner of the Neo GSP Stadium, is one of the major athletics clubs of the island. Also, all teams in the Futsal
Futsal
First Division are from Nicosia. In Addition, European University and SPE Strovolou are the two best handball teams in Cyprus and they are both located in Nicosia. Nicosia
Nicosia
has some of the biggest venues in the island; the Neo GSP Stadium, with capacity of 23,400, is the home for the national team, APOEL, Olympiakos and Omonia. Makario Stadium has a capacity of 16,000. In the north, the Nicosia Atatürk Stadium
Nicosia Atatürk Stadium
has a capacity of 28,000.[106] The Eleftheria Indoor Hall is the biggest basketball stadium in Cyprus, with capacity of 6,500 seats and is the home for the national team, APOEL and Omonia. The Lefkotheo indoor arena is the volleyball stadium for APOEL and Omonia. In Nicosia
Nicosia
in 2010. and 2012. took place Nicosia
Nicosia
Marathon, organized by Athanasios Ktorides Foundation, and attracted more than 7,000 participants.[107][108] Nicosia
Nicosia
hosted the 2000 ISSF World Cup Final shooting events for the shotgun. Also the city hosted two basketball events; the European Saporta Cup in 1997 and the 2005 FIBA
FIBA
Europe All Star Game in the Eleftheria Indoor Hall. Another event which was hosted in Nicosia
Nicosia
were the Games of the Small States of Europe
Games of the Small States of Europe
in 1989 and 2009. Famous Nicosians[edit]

Christopher A. Pissarides, Nobel Prize winner in Economics

Peter I of Cyprus
Cyprus
(1328–1369), King of Cyprus Kıbrıslı Mehmed Kamil Pasha
Pasha
(1833–1913), Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire Fazıl Küçük
Fazıl Küçük
(1906–1984), former Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
(1960–1963) Glafkos Klerides
Glafkos Klerides
(1919–2013), former President of the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
(1993–2003) Tassos Papadopoulos
Tassos Papadopoulos
(1934–2008), former President of the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
(2003–2008) Marios Garoyian, former President of the House of Representatives of Cyprus
Cyprus
(2008–2011) Benon Sevan, Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations (1992–2005) and the Head of the Oil for Food program
Oil for Food program
(1996–2005) Nicos Tornaritis, politician and jurist, member of the House of Representatives and Consultant of the Republic of Cyprus Neoklis Kyriazis
Neoklis Kyriazis
(1877–1956), historian and member of the National Council of Cyprus Alparslan Türkeş
Alparslan Türkeş
(1917–1997), Turkish nationalist politician, founder and former president of the Nationalist Movement Party
Nationalist Movement Party
in Turkey Kutlu Adalı (1935–1996), journalist, poet and socio-political researcher and peace advocate Christopher A. Pissarides, Nobel Prize winner in Economics Mustafa Camgöz, professor of cancer biology at Imperial College London
London
and chairman of the College of Medicine's Science Council Manoug Parikian (1920–1987), a top-ranking world-class concert violinist and violin professor in the United Kingdom, with numerous concerts and recordings Mike Brant
Mike Brant
(1947–1975), Israeli pop star Mick Karn
Mick Karn
(1958–2011), musician, bassist of the art rock/new wave band Japan
Japan
(1974–1982) Michalis Hatzigiannis, singer Alkinoos Ioannidis, singer Diam's, French rap singer Hazar Ergüçlü, actress on the Turkish drama Medcezir Suat Günsel, entrepreneur, businessman and founder of the Near East University Sevgül Uludağ, journalist, activist Aleksandar Vezenkov, basketball player Michael Bisping, MMA fighter

International relations[edit] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Twinnings:[109]

Athens, Greece
Greece
– since 1974 Bucharest, Romania
Romania
– since 1988 Doha, Qatar Odessa, Ukraine
Ukraine
– since 1996 Schwerin, Germany
Germany
– since 1998 Shanghai, China
China
– since 1999 Shiraz, Iran
Iran
– since 2000 Damascus, Syria
Syria
– since 2001 Helsinki, Finland
Finland
– since 2003 Moscow, Russia
Russia
– since 2004 Naples, Italy
Italy
– since 2004 Valletta, Malta
Malta
– since 2007 Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia
– since 2007

Gallery[edit]

Makariou Avenue

Faneromeni School

Faneromeni Square

Old mansions in Nicosia
Nicosia
old city

Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipal Gardens.

National Bank of Greece
Greece
Building – Lyssiotis Mansion in Makariou Avenue

Alsos Forest

Leventio Museum

Old quarter in Nicosia
Nicosia
city center with Medieval architecture

Cyprus
Cyprus
Municipal Theatre.

Themistokli Dervi Avenue

Downtown Nicosia

Athalassa Park

Interior of the "Mall of Cyprus"

Kykkos Monastery exterior

Kykkos Monastery interior

Faneromeni church

Church next to Pedieos
Pedieos
river linear park

Laiki Geitonia

Old Nicosia
Nicosia
with Tower 25
Tower 25
in the background

See also[edit]

Cyprus
Cyprus
portal

North Nicosia List of divided cities United Nations
United Nations
Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus Nicosia
Nicosia
Music Society

References[edit]

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Cyprus
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Cyprus
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Mail. 29 October 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2016.  ^ Map ^ "Ogimet daily weather summary".  ^ "Meteorological Service – CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA, Athalassa 1991 – 2005" (PDF). August 2011.  ^ "The First Move". Time Magazine. 27 August 1956. Retrieved 20 March 2008.  ^ "War and Politics-Cyprus". Britains-smallwars.com. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2012.  ^ Keshishian, Kevork K. (1978). Nicosia: Capital of Cyprus
Cyprus
Then and Now, p. 78-83, The Mouflon Book and Art Centre. ^ a b "İki paradan bir milyona... Saraçoğlu'ndan Ecevit'e..." kibris.net. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ "Venedik Sütunu". Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ "Girne Caddesi'nin dokusu değişecek". Kıbrıs Postası. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ "Arasta". LTB. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Arasta boş, Büyük Han
Büyük Han
kaynıyor!". Kıbrıs Postası. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Büyük Han". LTB. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Samanbahçe Evleri". Nicosia
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Turkish Municipality. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Selimiye Cami". LTB. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Trio Arion oda müziği konserler dizisi yarın başlıyor". Kıbrıs Postası. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ Dreghorn, William. "The Antiquities of Turkish Nicosia". stwing.upenn.edu. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Urbanization in Cyprus". Eastern Geography Review. Retrieved 6 January 2015.  ^ Official web site of the Nicosia
Nicosia
Water Board (extract 20/5/13) ^ Official web site of the Nicosia
Nicosia
Sewerage Board (extract 20/5/13) ^ Official web site of Organisation for Communications of Nicosia District ^ e.g. Constitution of Cyprus
Cyprus
Article 153, s2 – "The seat of the High Court shall be in the capital of the Republic." ^ Constitution of Cyprus
Cyprus
Article 173 – "Separate municipalities shall be created in the five largest towns of the Republic, that is to say, Nicosia, Limassol, Famagusta, Larnaca
Larnaca
and Paphos
Paphos
by the Turkish inhabitants thereof" ^ Law 1959 c3 ^ Phoebe Koundouri, Water Resources Allocation: Policy and Socioeconomic Issues in Cyprus, p. 70. ^ Phoebe Koundouri, Water Resources Allocation: Policy and Socioeconomic Issues in Cyprus, Springer, 2010, p. 70. ^ The Middle East: a survey and directory of the countries of the Middle East, Europa Publications., 1966, p. 171. ^ "The Constitution – Appendix D: Part 12 – Miscellaneous Provisions" (in Greek). Cyprus.gov.cy. Retrieved 10 March 2012.  ^ "The Issue of Separate Municipalities and the Birth of the New Republic: Cyprus
Cyprus
1957–1963 (University of Minnesota Press, 2000)". Cyprus-conflict.net. Retrieved 10 March 2012.  ^ "The Library of Congress – Country Studies: Cyprus
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– Ch. 4 – 1960 Constitution". Lcweb2.loc.gov. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2012.  ^ Reddick, Christopher G. (2010-08-19). Comparative E-Government. ISBN 1-4419-6535-1.  ^ Official web site of Engomi
Engomi
municipality, history section (Greek version) ^ Census of Cyprus
Cyprus
(available from Statistical Service, Nicosia). Document: Population – Place of Residence, 2011, Table C. Municipality/Community, Quarter and Street Index published by Ministry of Information (CILIS_streets_022011) ^ Official Gazette of the Republic No. 4341 and dated 25.01.2010 ^ Official web site of Strovolos
Strovolos
municipality, history section (English version) ^ Gonyeli Municipal web site August 2013 ^ The authority has the population, economic viability and consent of the (original) inhabitants prescribed in the Municipalities Law (see Law 11/1985), without having been formally recognised as a municipality under that law. See also www.prio-cyprus-displacement.net/default_print.asp?id=300 retrieved August 2013 ^ "PRIO". Prio-cyprus-displacement.net. Retrieved 2017-03-29.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.  (retrieved August 2013) ^ retrieved August 2013 Archived 18 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "PRIO". Prio-cyprus-displacement.net. Retrieved 2017-03-29.  ^ "Dervish Pasha
Pasha
Mansion". TRNC Department of Antiquities. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ " Lusignan
Lusignan
House". TRNC Department of Antiquities. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ "Mevlevi Tekke Museum". TRNC Department of Antiquities. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ "Lapidary Museum". TRNC Department of Antiquities. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ The Cyprus
Cyprus
National Theatre at nicosia.org.cy Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ Pallas Cinema-Theatre at nicosia.org.cy Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ Theatro Ena at nicosia.org.cy Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ Maskarini Theatre ay maskarini.com Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ Maskarini Theatre at nicosia.org.cy Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ Dionysos Theatre at theatrodionysos.org Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ Dionysos Theatre at nicosia.org.cy Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ Melina Mercouri Hall at nicosia.org.cy Accessed 2 February 2017 ^ "Atatürk Kültür ve Kongre Merkezi". Near East University. Retrieved 24 October 2017.  ^ " Cyprus
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Airways ^ "The most expensive and richest cities in the world – A report by UBS". Citymayors.com. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2012.  ^ "Οργανισμός Συγκοινωνιών Επαρχίας Λευκωσίας". Osel.com.cy. Retrieved 21 July 2012.  ^ "Kurban bayramı yarın başlıyor". Star Kıbrıs. 19 December 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2012.  ^ (in Greek) THE NICOSIA INTEGRATED MOBILITY MASTER PLAN REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS – Ministry of Communications and Works ^ "Ποδηλατο Εν Δρασει / Home". Podilatoendrasi.com.cy. Retrieved 21 July 2012.  ^ "Study underway for Cyprus
Cyprus
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Famagusta
Gazette. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2012.  ^ [1] ^ Nicosia
Nicosia
Marathon ^ SPORTS: Voyiatzis wins Nicosia
Nicosia
marathon, Financial Mirror 10 December, 2012 ^ "Twinnings". Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipality. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 

Nicosia Municipality
Nicosia Municipality
(south) website Nicosia Municipality
Nicosia Municipality
(north) website Nicosia Municipality
Nicosia Municipality
website – Transportation Cyprus
Cyprus
Island – Nicosia The World of Cyprus
Cyprus
bilingual information portal with background on folk culture and Byzantine
Byzantine
influences

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Nicosia

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicosia.

English-language website for Municipality of Nicosia (Λευκωσια) Nicosia
Nicosia
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Nicosia
Nicosia
District

Settlements

Agia Agia Eirini Agia Marina Agia Marina (Gürpınar) Agia Varvara Agioi Trimithias Agios Dometios Agios Epifanios Agios Georgios Agios Georgios Lefkas Agios Ioannis (Pyrgos) Agios Ioannis Malountas Agios Nikolaos Lefkas Agios Sozomenos Agios Theodoros Agios Vasileios Aglantzia Agrokipia Agroladou Akaki Alampra Alevga Alithinou Alona Ampelikou Analiontas Anageia Angolemi Aphania Apliki Arediou Argaki Askas Astromeritis Avlona Beikioi Challeri Chrysida Chrysiliou Dali Deneia Dyo Potamoi Elia Engomi Epicho Episkopeio Ergates Evrychou Exometochi Farmakas Fikardou Filani Fterikoudi Fyllia Galata Galini Gerakies Geri Gerolakkos Gönyeli Gourri Kaimakli Kakopetria Kaliana Kalo Chorio Kalo Chorio (Çamlıköy) Kalopanagiotis Kalyvakia Kampi Kampia Kampos Kapouti Kanli Kannavia Kapedes Kapoura Karavostasi Kataliontas Kato Deftera Kato Flasou Katokopia Kato Koutrafas Kato Lakatamia Kato Moni Kato Pyrgos Kato Zodhia Katydata Kazivera Klirou Kokkina Kokkinotrimithia Korakou Kotsiatis Kourou Monastiri Kyra Kythrea Lagoudera Latsia Lazanias Lefka Limnitis Linou Livadia Louroujina Loutros Lympia Lythrodontas Malounta Mammari Mandres Mansoura Margi Masari Mathiatis Meniko Mia Milia Mylikouri Mitsero Mora Morphou Mosfileri Moutoullas Neo Chorio Nicosia Nikitari Nikitas Nisou Oikos Orounta Ortakioi Pachyammos Palaichori Palaikythro Palaiometocho Pano Deftera Pano Flasou Pano Koutrafas Pano Lakatamia Pano Pyrgos Pano Zodhia Pedoulas Pentageia Pera Pera Chorio Peristerona Peristeronari Petra Petra tou Digeni Pigenia Platanistasa Politiko Polystypos Potami Potamia Potamos tou Kampou Prastio Psimolofou Pyrogi Saranti Selladi tou Appi Selemani Sia Sinaoros Skouriotissa Skylloura Spilia Strovolos Syrianochori Temvria Trachoni Trachonas Tsakistra Tseri Tymvou Variseia Voni Vroisha Vyzakia Xerovounos Xyliatos Zodeia

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

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Municipalities of Cyprus

Nicosia
Nicosia
District

Aglantzia Ayios Dhometios Dali Engomi Kythrea Lakatamia Latsia Lefka Morphou Nicosia Strovolos Tseri Yeri

Limassol
Limassol
District

Ayios Athanasios Ipsonas Kato Polemidia Limassol Mesa Yitonia Yermasoyia

Larnaca
Larnaca
District

Athienou Aradippou Dromolaxia-Meneou Larnaca Livadia Lefkara

Famagusta
Famagusta
District

Ayia Napa Akanthou Dherynia Famagusta Lefkoniko Lysi Paralimni Sotira

Paphos
Paphos
District

Geroskipou Paphos Peyia Polis Chrysochous

Kyrenia
Kyrenia
District

Karavas Kyrenia Lapithos

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Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140913972 LCCN: n79058425 GND: 4075406-6 BNF:

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