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NICOLE ORESME (French: ; c. 1320–1325 – July 11, 1382), also known as NICOLAS ORESME, NICHOLAS ORESME, or NICOLAS D\'ORESME, was a significant philosopher of the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. He wrote influential works on economics , mathematics , physics , astrology and astronomy , philosophy , and theology ; was Bishop of Lisieux
Lisieux
, a translator , a counselor of King Charles V of France
Charles V of France
, and probably one of the most original thinkers of 14th-century Europe.

CONTENTS

* 1 Oresme\'s life

* 2 Oresme\'s scientific work

* 2.1 Cosmology * 2.2 Critiques of astrology * 2.3 Sense perception * 2.4 Translations * 2.5 Mathematics
Mathematics
* 2.6 Economics
Economics

* 3 English translations * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

ORESME\'S LIFE

Nicole Oresme was born c. 1320–1325 in the village of Allemagne (today's Fleury-sur-Orne ) in the vicinity of Caen
Caen
, Normandy
Normandy
, in the diocese of Bayeux . Practically nothing is known concerning his family. The fact that Oresme attended the royally sponsored and subsidized College of Navarre , an institution for students too poor to pay their expenses while studying at the University of Paris
University of Paris
, makes it probable that he came from a peasant family.

Oresme studied the "arts" in Paris
Paris
, together with Jean Buridan (the so-called founder of the French school of natural philosophy), Albert of Saxony and perhaps Marsilius of Inghen , and there received the Magister Artium . He was already a regent master in arts by 1342, during the crisis over William of Ockham
William of Ockham
's natural philosophy .

In 1348, he was a student of theology in Paris. In 1356, he received his doctorate and in the same year he became grand master (_grand-maître_) of the College of Navarre . In 1364, he was appointed dean of the Cathedral
Cathedral
of Rouen
Rouen
. Around 1369, he began a series of translations of Aristotelian works at the request of Charles V , who granted him a pension in 1371 and, with royal support, was appointed bishop of Lisieux
Lisieux
in 1377. In 1382, he died in Lisieux.

ORESME\'S SCIENTIFIC WORK

COSMOLOGY

_ A page from Oresme's Livre du ciel et du monde_, 1377, showing the celestial spheres

In his _Livre du ciel et du monde_ Oresme discussed a range of evidence for and against the daily rotation of the Earth on its axis. From astronomical considerations, he maintained that if the Earth were moving and not the celestial spheres , all the movements that we see in the heavens that are computed by the astronomers would appear exactly the same as if the spheres were rotating around the Earth. He rejected the physical argument that if the Earth were moving the air would be left behind causing a great wind from east to west. In his view the Earth , Water , and Air would all share the same motion. As to the scriptural passage that speaks of the motion of the Sun, he concludes that "this passage conforms to the customary usage of popular speech" and is not to be taken literally. He also noted that it would be more economical for the small Earth to rotate on its axis than the immense sphere of the stars. Nonetheless, he concluded that none of these arguments were conclusive and "everyone maintains, and I think myself, that the heavens do move and not the Earth."

CRITIQUES OF ASTROLOGY

In his mathematical work, Oresme developed the notion of incommensurate fractions, fractions that could not be expressed as powers of one another, and made probabilistic, statistical arguments as to their relative frequency. From this, he argued that it was very probable that the length of the day and the year were incommensurate (irrational ), as indeed were the periods of the motions of the moon and the planets. From this, he noted that planetary conjunctions and oppositions would never recur in quite exactly the same way. Oresme maintained that this disproves the claims of astrologers who, thinking "they know with punctual exactness the motions, aspects , conjunctions and oppositions… rashly and erroneously about future events."

Oresme's critique of astrology in his _Livre de divinacions_ treats it as having six parts. The first, essentially astronomy, the movements of heavenly bodies, he considers good science but not precisely knowable. The second part deals with the influences of the heavenly bodies on earthly events at all scales. Oresme does not deny such influence, but states, in line with a commonly held opinion, that it could either be that arrangements of heavenly bodies signify events, purely symbolically , or that they actually cause such events, deterministically. Mediaevalist Chauncey Wood remarks that this major elision "makes it very difficult to determine who believed what about astrology." The third part concerns predictiveness, covering events at three different scales: great events such as plagues, famines, floods and wars; weather, winds and storms; and medicine, with influences on the humours , the four Aristotelian fluids of the body. Oresme criticizes all of these as misdirected, though he accepts that prediction is a legitimate area of study, and argues that the effect on the weather is less well known than the effect on great events. He observes that sailors and farmers are better at predicting weather than astrologers, and specifically attacks the astrological basis of prediction, noting correctly that the zodiac has moved relative to the fixed stars (because of precession of the equinoxes ) since the zodiac was first described in ancient times. These first three parts are what Oresme considers the physical influences of the stars and planets (including sun and moon) on the earth, and while he offers critiques of them, he accepts that effects exist. The last three parts are what Oresme considers to concern (good or bad) fortune. They are interrogations, meaning asking the stars when to do things such as business deals; elections, meaning choosing the best time to do things such as getting married or fighting a war; and nativities, meaning the natal astrology with birth charts that forms much of modern astrological practice. Oresme classifies interrogations and elections as "totally false" arts, but his critique of nativities is more measured. He denies that any path is predetermined by the heavenly bodies, because humans have free will , but he accepts that the heavenly bodies can influence behaviour and habitual mood, via the combination of humours in each person. Overall, Oresme's skepticism is strongly shaped by his understanding of the scope of astrology. He accepts things a modern skeptic would reject, and rejects some things — such as the knowability of planetary movements, and effects on weather — that are accepted by modern science.

SENSE PERCEPTION

In discussing the propagation of light and sound, Oresme adopted the common medieval doctrine of the multiplication of species, as it had been developed by optical writers such as Alhacen , Robert Grosseteste , Roger Bacon , John Pecham , and Witelo
Witelo
. Oresme maintained that these species were immaterial, but corporeal (i.e., three-dimensional), entities.

TRANSLATIONS

Like most of his scholarly contemporaries, Oresme wrote primarily in Latin
Latin
, but at the urging of King Charles V, he also wrote in French , providing French versions of his own works and of selected works by Aristotle
Aristotle
.

MATHEMATICS

Oresme's most important contributions to mathematics are contained in _Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum_. In a quality, or accidental form, such as heat, he distinguished the _intensio_ (the degree of heat at each point) and the _extensio_ (as the length of the heated rod). These two terms were often replaced by _latitudo_ and _longitudo_. For the sake of clarity, Oresme conceived the idea of visualizing these concepts by plane figures, approaching what we would now call rectangular co-ordinates . The intensity of the quality was represented by a length or _latitudo_ proportional to the intensity erected perpendicular to the base at a given point on the base line, which represents the _longitudo_. Oresme proposed that the geometrical form of such a figure could be regarded as corresponding to a characteristic of the quality itself. Oresme defined a uniform quality as that which is represented by a line parallel to the longitude, and any other quality as difform. Uniformly varying qualities are represented by a straight line inclined to the axis of the longitude, while he described many cases of nonuniformly varying qualities. Oresme extended this doctrine to figures of three dimensions. He considered this analysis applicable to many different qualities such as hotness, whiteness, and sweetness. Significantly for later developments, Oresme applied this concept to the analysis of local motion where the _latitudo_ or intensity represented the speed, the _longitudo_ represented the time, and the area of the figure represented the distance travelled.

He shows that his method of figuring the latitude of forms is applicable to the movement of a point, on condition that the time is taken as longitude and the speed as latitude; quantity is, then, the space covered in a given time. In virtue of this transposition, the theorem of the _latitudo uniformiter difformis_ became the law of the space traversed in case of uniformly varied motion; thus Oresme published what was taught over two centuries prior to Galileo
Galileo
's making it famous. Diagrams of the velocity of an accelerating object against time in _On the Latitude of Forms_ by Jacobus de Sancto Martino (sometimes attributed to Oresme) have been cited to credit Oresme with the discovery of "proto bar charts".

Significantly, Oresme developed the first proof of the divergence of the harmonic series , something that was only replicated in later centuries by the Bernoulli brothers . His proof, requiring less advanced mathematics than current "standard" tests for divergence (for example, the integral test ), begins by noting that for any n that is a power of 2, there are n/2 - 1 terms in the series between 1/(n/2) and 1/n. Each of these terms is at least 1/n, and since there are n/2 of them they sum to at least 1/2. For instance, there is one term 1/2, then two terms 1/3+1/4 that together sum to at least 1/2, then four terms 1/5+1/6+1/7+1/8 that also sum to at least 1/2, and so on. Thus the series must be greater than the series 1 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 + ..., which does not have a finite limit. This proves that the harmonic series must be divergent. This argument shows that the sum of the first n terms grows as ( 1 / 2 ) log 2 n {displaystyle (1/2)log _{2}n} , which is correct within a multiplicative constant.

Oresme was the first mathematician to prove this fact, and (after his proof was lost) it was not proven again until the 17th century by Pietro Mengoli .

He also worked on fractional powers, and the notion of probability over infinite sequences, ideas which would not be further developed for the next three and five centuries, respectively.

ECONOMICS

With his _Treatise on the origin, nature, law, and alterations of money_ (_De origine, natura, jure et mutationibus monetarum_), one of the earliest manuscripts devoted to an economic matter, Oresme brings an interesting insight on the medieval conception of money.

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS

* _Nicole Oresme's De visione stellarum (On seeing the stars): a critical edition of Oresme's treatise on optics and atmospheric refraction_, translated by Dan Burton, (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2007) * _ Nicole Oresme and The marvels of nature: a study of his De causis mirabilium_, translated by Bert Hansen, (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1985) * _Questiones super quatuor libros meteororum_, in SC McCluskey, ed, _ Nicole Oresme on Light, Color and the Rainbow: An Edition and Translation, with introduction and critical notes, of Part of Book Three of his_ Questiones super quatuor libros meteororum (PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1974) * _ Nicole Oresme and the kinematics of circular motion: Tractatus de commensurabilitate vel incommensurabilitate motuum celi_, translated by Edward Grant, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1971) * _ Nicole Oresme and the medieval geometry of qualities and motions: a treatise on the uniformity and difformity of intensities known as Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum_, translated by Marshall Clagett, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968) * _Le Livre du ciel et du monde_. A. D. Menut and A. J. Denomy, ed. and trans. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968. * _De proportionibus proportionum_ and _Ad pauca respicientes_. Edward Grant, ed. and trans. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966. * _The De moneta of N. Oresme, and English Mint documents_, translated by C. Johnson, (London, 1956)

SEE ALSO

* List of multiple discoveries * Science in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Oresme (crater) * List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics

NOTES

* ^ Hans Blumenberg , _The Genesis of the Copernican World_, MIT Press, 1987, p. 158. * ^ Marshall Clagett, _The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages_, Madison. 1959, p. 522. * ^ Marshall Clagett (ed.), _Critical Problems in the History of Science_, University of Wisconsin Press, 1969, p. 95: "hen one asks more specifically what, for example, Galileo
Galileo
or Descartes actually knew and what use they made of the dynamics of impetus or of fourteenth-century Oxford kinematics or of Oresme's graphical methods, the evidence becomes difficult and unsatisfactory." * ^ Dan Burton (ed.), _De Visione Stellarum_, BRILL, 2007, p. 19 n. 8. * ^ Léon Warnant (1987). _Dictionnaire de la prononciation française dans sa norme actuelle_ (in French) (3rd ed.). Gembloux: J. Duculot, S. A. ISBN 978-2-8011-0581-8 . * ^ Wallace, William A. (1981). _Prelude to Galileo: essays on medieval and sixteenth-century sources of Galileo\'s thought_. Springer Science & Business. ISBN 978-9027712158 . * ^ Edward Grant, ed., _De proportionibus proportionum and Ad pauca respicientes,_ (Madison: University of Wisconsin Pr., 1966), p. 4. * ^ William J. Courtenay, The Early Career of Nicole Oresme, _Isis_, Vol. 91, No.3 (Sept., 2000), pp 542–548. * ^ Edward Grant, ed., _De proportionibus proportionum and Ad pauca respicientes,_ (Madison: University of Wisconsin Pr., 1966), pp. 4–10. * ^ Edward Grant, _The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages_, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 114–16. * ^ Oresme, _Le Livre du ciel et du monde_, pp. 521–3 * ^ Oresme, _Le Livre du ciel et du monde_, p. 531 * ^ Oresme, _Le Livre du ciel et du monde_, p. 535 * ^ Oresme, _Le Livre du ciel et du monde_, p. 537 * ^ _A_ _B_ James Franklin, _The Science of Conjecture, Evidence and Probability before Pascal_ (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-8018-7109-3 (see chapter 6, pp.140 - 145) * ^ Oresme, _Ad pauca respicientes_, p. 383. * ^ Coopland, G. W. (1952). _ Nicole Oresme and the Astrologers: A Study of his Livre de Divinacions_. Harvard University Press; Liverpool University Press. pp. 53–57. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Wood, 1970. p. 9 * ^ Wood, 1970. pp. 8–11 * ^ Bert Hansen, _ Nicole Oresme and the Marvels of Nature_ (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1985), pp. 89-90. * ^ David C. Lindberg, _Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler_, (Chicago: University of Chicago Pr., 1976), pp. 78–80, 98, 113–16 * ^ Peter Marshall, " Nicole Oresme on the Nature, Reflection, and Speed of Light," _Isis_, 72 (1981): 357–374, pp. 360–2. * ^ Clagett, Marshall (1968), _ Nicole Oresme and the Medieval Geometry of Qualities and Motions; a treatise on the uniformity and difformity of intensities known as_ Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum, Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, pp. 164–211, ISBN 0-299-04880-2 * ^ _Catholic Encyclopedia_: "Nicole Oresme" * ^ Clagett, Marshall (1968), _ Nicole Oresme and the Medieval Geometry of Qualities and Motions; a treatise on the uniformity and difformity of intensities known as_ Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum, Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-04880-2 * ^ Clagett, Marshall (1968), _ Nicole Oresme and the Medieval Geometry of Qualities and Motions; a treatise on the uniformity and difformity of intensities known as_ Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum, Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, pp. 85–99, ISBN 0-299-04880-2 * ^ Beniger, James R. ; Robyn, Dorothy L. (1978), "Quantitative Graphics in Statistics: A Brief History", _The American Statistician_, Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 32 (1): 1–11, JSTOR 2683467 , doi :10.1080/00031305.1978.10479235 * ^ Der, Geoff; Everitt, Brian S. (2014). _A Handbook of Statistical Graphics Using SAS ODS_. Chapman and Hall - CRC. ISBN 1-584-88784-2 . * ^ Oresme, Nicole (c. 1360). _Quaestiones super Geometriam Euclidis_ . * ^ Pickover, Clifford A. (2009), _The Math Book: From Pythagoras to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones in the History of Mathematics_, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., p. 104, ISBN 9781402757969 , Nicole Oresme ... was the first to prove the divergence of the harmonic series (c. 1350). His results were lost for several centuries, and the result was proved again by Italian mathematician Pietro Mengoli in 1647 and by Swiss mathematician Johann Bernoulli in 1687.

REFERENCES

* Clagett, Marshall (1970). "Nicole Oresme" (PDF). In Gillispie, Charles. _ Dictionary of Scientific Biography _. 10. New York: Scribner & American Council of Learned Societies. pp. 223–240. ISBN 978-0-684-10114-9 . * Clagett, Marshall (1968). _ Nicole Oresme and the Medieval Geometry of Qualities and Motions: A Treatise on the Uniformity and Difformity of Intensities Known as_ Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum at motuum. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. * Grant, Edward (1971). _ Nicole Oresme and the Kinematics of Circular Motion_. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-05830-1 . * Hansen, Bert (1985). _ Nicole Oresme and the Marvels of Nature: A Study of his_ De causis mirabilium _with Critical Edition, Translation, and Commentary_. Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies. ISBN 0-88844-068-5 . * Mäkeler, Hendrik (2003). "Nicolas Oresme und Gabriel Biel: Zur Geldtheorie im späten Mittelalter". _Scripta Mercaturae: Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte_. 37 (1): 56–94. (covers Oresme's monetary theory). * Wood, Chauncey (1970). _Chaucer and the Country of the Stars: Poetical Uses of Astrological Imagery_. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-06172-6 . * Labellarte, Alberto (a cura di) (2016). _Nicola Oresme. Trattato sull'origine, la natura, il diritto e i cambiamenti del denaro. Testo latino a fronte_. Bari: Stilo Editrice. ISBN 978-88-6479-158-6 .

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