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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

NICE (/ˈniːs/ , French pronunciation: ​ ; Niçard Occitan
Occitan
: _Niça_, classical norm, or _Nissa_, nonstandard, pronounced ; Italian : _Nizza_ ; Greek : Νίκαια; Latin : _Nicaea_) is the fifth most populous city in France
France
and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes_département_. The urban area of Nice
Nice
extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2 (278 sq mi). Located in the French Riviera
French Riviera
, on the south east coast of France
France
on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, at the foot of the Alps
Alps
, Nice
Nice
is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur region after Marseille
Marseille
. Nice
Nice
is about 13 kilometres (8 miles) from the principality of Monaco
Monaco
, and its airport is a gateway to the principality as well.

The city is nicknamed _ Nice
Nice
la Belle_ (_ Nissa La Bella_ in Niçard ), which means _ Nice
Nice
the Beautiful_, which is also the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondellyin 1912.

The area of today's Nice
Nice
contains Terra Amata , an archaeological site which displays evidence of a very early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks
Greeks
of Marseille
Marseille
founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after _Nike _, the goddess of victory. Through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port significantly contributed to its maritime strength. For centuries it was a dominion of Savoy
Savoy
, and was then part of France
France
between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to Piedmont-Sardiniauntil its re-annexation by France
France
in 1860.

The natural beauty of the Nice
Nice
area and its mild Mediterranean climate came to the attention of the English upper classes in the second half of the 18th century, when an increasing number of aristocratic families took to spending their winters there. The city's main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais
Promenade des Anglais
("Walkway of the English') owes its name to visitors to the resort. For decades now, the picturesque Nicean surroundings have attracted not only those in search of relaxation, but also those seeking inspiration. The clear air and soft light have particularly appealed to some of Western culture's most outstanding painters, such as Marc Chagall
Marc Chagall
, Henri Matisse
Matisse
, Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle
and Arman
Arman
. Their work is commemorated in many of the city's museums, including _Musée Marc Chagall_, Musée Matisse
Matisse
and Musée des Beaux-Arts . Nice
Nice
has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it is one of its most visited cities, receiving 4 million tourists every year. It also has the third busiest airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones. It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice
County of Nice
(_Comté de Nice_).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Foundation * 1.2 Early development * 1.3 Defences * 1.4 Nice
Nice
and Savoy
Savoy
* 1.5 French Nice
Nice

* 2 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
* 3 Administration * 4 Climate * 5 Vegetation and geography * 6 Economy and tourism * 7 Transport

* 8 Sights

* 8.1 Squares

* 8.1.1 Place Masséna * 8.1.2 Place Garibaldi * 8.1.3 Place Rossetti * 8.1.4 Cours Saleya * 8.1.5 Place du Palais

* 8.2 Religious * 8.3 Sports and entertainment

* 9 Sport * 10 Population * 11 Observatory * 12 Culture * 13 Cuisine * 14 Education

* 15 International relations

* 15.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 16 Notable people * 17 See also * 18 References * 19 Further reading * 20 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Nice

FOUNDATION

Main article: Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul
Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul
Nice
Nice
in the time of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
.

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice
Nice
area date back about 400,000 years; the _Terra Amata _ archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around 230,000 years ago. Nice
Nice
(Nicaea) was probably founded around 350 BC by the Greeks
Greeks
of Massalia ( Marseille
Marseille
), and was given the name of _Nikaia_ (Νίκαια) in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians ; Nike (Νίκη) was the Greek goddess of victory. The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions. The ruins of Cemenelumare in Cimiez, now a district of Nice.

EARLY DEVELOPMENT

See also: Roman Catholic Diocese of Nice The Tower of St François

In the 7th century, Nice
Nice
joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria
Liguria
. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens
Saracens
; but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens
Saracens
pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country.

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Nice
Nice
participated in the wars and history of Italy
Italy
. As an ally of Pisa
Pisa
it was the enemy of Genoa
Genoa
, and both the King of France
France
and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa. Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
(red) and other independent Italian states in 1494.

DEFENCES

The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.

The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill . Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was also defended by walls.

Under Monoprix
Monoprix
in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin
Turin
.

NICE AND SAVOY

See also: Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
Nice
Nice
in 1624 Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia(blue) and other independent Italian states in 1843.

In 1388 the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy
Savoy
. Nice
Nice
participated – directly or indirectly – in the history of Savoy
Savoy
until 1860.

The maritime strength of Nice
Nice
now rapidly increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
; the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
Savoy
abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language
Italian language
as the official language of government affairs in Nice.

During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence
Provence
; pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. In 1538, in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubet, through the mediation of Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
, the two monarchs concluded a ten years\' truce .

In 1543, Nice
Nice
was attacked by the united Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha , in the Siege of Nice
Siege of Nice
; though the inhabitants repulsed the assault which followed the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed to pillage the city and to carry off 2,500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580.

In 1600, Nice
Nice
was briefly taken by the Duke of Guise . By opening the ports of the county to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade (1626), the commerce of the city was given great stimulus, the noble families taking part in its mercantile enterprises.

Captured by Nicolas Catinatin 1691, Nice
Nice
was restored to Savoy
Savoy
in 1696; but it was again besieged by the French in 1705 , and in the following year its citadel and ramparts were demolished.

The Treaty of Utrecht (1713)once more gave the city back to the Duke of Savoy, who was on that same occasion recognised as King of Sicily. In the peaceful years which followed, the "new town" was built. From 1744 until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In 1775 the king, who in 1718 had swapped his sovereignty of Sicily for the Kingdom of Sardinia, destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune . Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the First French Republic
First French Republic
, the County of Nice
County of Nice
continued to be part of France
France
until 1814; but after that date it reverted to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.

FRENCH NICE

After the Treaty of Turin
Turin
was signed in 1860 between the Sardinian king and Napoleon III
Napoleon III
, the County was again and definitively ceded to France
France
as a territorial reward for French assistance in the Second Italian War of Independence against Austria
Austria
, which saw Lombardy united with Piedmont-Sardinia. The cession was ratified by a regional referendum : over 25,000 electors out of a total of 30,700 were in favour of the attachment to France
France
. Savoy
Savoy
was also transferred to the French crown by similar means. Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
, born in Nice, opposed the cession to France, arguing that the ballot was rigged by the French. Italian irredentists considered the acquisition of Nice
Nice
to be one of their main nationalist goals, along with Istria
Istria
, Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Corsica
Corsica
and Trentino
Trentino
. In 1942–1943 the city was occupied and administered by Italy.

The 20th century saw the arrival of modern transportation. In 1900, the Tramway de Nice
Nice
electrified its horse-drawn streetcars and spread its network to the entire _département_ from Menton
Menton
to Cagnes-sur-Mer . By the 1930s more bus connections were added in the area. In the 1930s Nice
Nice
hosted international car racing in the Formula Libre (predecessor to Formula One
Formula One
) on the so-called Circuit Nice
Nice
. The circuit started along the waterfront just south of the Jardin Albert I, then headed westward along the Promenade des Anglais
Promenade des Anglais
followed by a hairpin turn at the Hotel Negrescoto come back eastward and around the Jardin Albert I before heading again east along the beach on the Quai des Etats-Unis.

As war broke out in September 1939, Nice
Nice
became a city of refuge for many displaced foreigners, notably Jews fleeing the Nazi progression into Eastern Europe. From Nice
Nice
many sought further shelter in the French colonies , Morocco and North and South America. After July 1940 and the establishment of the Vichy Regime , antisemitic aggressions accelerated the exodus, starting in July 1941 and continuing through 1942. On 26 August 1942, 655 Jews of foreign origin were rounded up by the Laval government and interned in the Auvarebarracks. Of these, 560 were deported to Drancy internment campon 31 August 1942. Due to the activity of the Jewish banker Angelo Donatiand of the Capuchin friar Père Marie-Benoîtthe local authorities hindered the application of anti-Jewish Vichy laws.

The first _résistants_ to the new regime were a group of High School seniors of the Lycée de Nice, now Lycée Masséna, in September 1940, later arrested and executed in 1944 near Castellane . The first public demonstrations occurred on 14 July 1942 when several hundred protesters took to the streets along the Avenue de la Victoire and in the Place Masséna. In November 1942 German troops moved into most of unoccupied France, but Italian troops moved into a smaller zone including Nice. A certain ambivalence remained among the population, many of whom were recent immigrants of Italian ancestry. However, the resistance gained momentum after the Italian surrender in 1943 when the German army occupied the former Italian zone. Reprisals intensified between December 1943 and July 1944, when many partisans were tortured and executed by the local Gestapo
Gestapo
and the French Milice . Nice
Nice
was also heavily bombarded by American aircraft in preparation for the Allied landing in Provence
Provence
(1000 dead or wounded and more than 5600 people homeless) and famine ensued during summer 1944. American paratroopers entered the city on 30 August 1944 and Nice
Nice
was finally liberated. The consequences of the war were heavy: the population decreased by 15% and economic life was totally disrupted. The waterfall on the Colline du Château (Castle Hill)

In the second half of the 20th century, Nice
Nice
enjoyed an economic boom primarily driven by tourism and construction. Two men dominated this period: Jean Médecin, mayor for 33 years from 1928 to 1943 and from 1947 to 1965, and his son Jacques , mayor for 24 years from 1966 to 1990. Under their leadership, there was extensive urban renewal, including many new constructions. These included the convention centre, theatres, new thoroughfares and expressways. The arrival of the Pieds-Noirs , refugees from Algeria
Algeria
after 1962 independence, also gave the city a boost and somewhat changed the make-up of its population and traditional views. By the late 1980s, rumors of political corruption in the city government surfaced; and eventually formal accusations against Jacques Médecinforced him to flee France in 1990. Later arrested in Uruguay
Uruguay
in 1993, he was extradited back to France
France
in 1994, convicted of several counts of corruption and associated crimes and sentenced to imprisonment.

On 16 October 1979, a landslide and an undersea slide caused two tsunamis that hit the western coast of Nice; these events killed between 8 and 23 people.

In February 2001, European leaders met in Nice
Nice
to negotiate and sign what is now the Treaty of Nice, amending the institutions of the European Union.

In 2003, local Chief Prosecutor
Prosecutor
Éric de Montgolfieralleged that some judicial cases involving local personalities had been suspiciously derailed by the local judiciary, which he suspected of having unhealthy contacts through Masonic lodges with the defendants. A controversial official report stated later that Montgolfier had made unwarranted accusations.

On 14 July 2016, a truck was deliberately driven into a crowd of people by Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlelon the Promenade des Anglais
Promenade des Anglais
. The crowd was watching a fireworks display in celebration of Bastille Day . Eighty-seven people were killed, including the perpetrator, who was shot dead by police. Another 202 were injured, with 52 in critical care and 25 in intensive care, according to the Paris
Paris
prosecutor.

COAT OF ARMS

Arms of the County of Nice
County of Nice

The coat of arms of Nice
Nice
appeared for the first time in a copy of the _Regulations_ of Amadeus VIII , probably written around 1430. The Nice
Nice
is symbolised by a red eagle on white background, placed on three mountains, which can be described in French heraldic language as "d'argent à une aigle de gueule posée sur trois coupeaux". ("Upon argent a red eagle is displayed, posed upon three mounds.") The arms have only undergone minor changes: the eagle has become more and more stylised, it now "wears" a coronet for the County of Nice
County of Nice
, and the three mountains are now surrounded by a stylised sea.

The presence of the eagle, an imperial emblem, shows that these arms are related to the power of the House of Savoy
Savoy
. The eagle standing over the three hills is a depiction of Savoy, referring to its domination over the country around Nice. The combination of white and red (argent and gules) is a reference to the colours of the flag of Savoy
Savoy
. The three mountains symbolise a territorial honour, without concern for geographic realism.

ADMINISTRATION

The Palais de Justice

Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur region , Nice
Nice
is a commune and the prefecture (administrative capital) of the Alpes-Maritimesdépartement. However, it is also the largest city in France
France
that is not a regional capital; the much larger Marseille
Marseille
is its regional capital. Christian Estrosi
Christian Estrosi
was elected as mayor in 2008. He was reelected for a second term in April 2014 ( that will end in 2020). He is a member of the Republicans (formerly the Union for a Popular Movement ), the party supporting former President Nicolas Sarkozy . He resigned in June 2016. Philippe Pradal replaced him as mayor on 13 June 2016. On 16 May 2017, he became mayor again after resigning from his seat as president of the regional council.

The city is divided over 9 cantons : Nice-1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 and 9 .

CLIMATE

Nice
Nice
has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen : _Csa_), enjoying mild winters with moderate rainfall. It is one of the warmest Mediterranean climates for its latitude. Summers are warm to hot, dry, and sunny. Rainfall is rare in this season, and a typical July month only records one or two days with measurable rainfall. The temperature is typically above 20 °C (68 °F) and frequently reaches 30 °C (86 °F). The climate data is recorded from the airport, located just metres from the sea. Summer temperatures, therefore, are often higher in the city. The average maximum temperature in the warmest months of July and August is about 27 °C (81 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) on 1 August 2006. Autumn generally starts sunny in September and becomes more cloudy and rainy towards October, while temperatures usually remain above 20 °C (68 °F) until November where days start to cool down to around 17 °C (63 °F). Winters are characterised by mild days (11 to 17 °C (52 to 63 °F)), cool nights (4 to 9 °C (39 to 48 °F)) and variable weather. Days can be either sunny and dry or damp and rainy. Frost is unusual and snowfalls are so extremely rare that they are remembered by inhabitants as special events. The average minimum temperature in January is around 5 °C (41 °F). Spring starts mild and rainy in late March, and is increasingly warm and sunny towards June.

CLIMATE DATA FOR NICE (1981–2010 AVERAGES)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 22.5 (72.5) 25.8 (78.4) 26.1 (79) 26.0 (78.8) 30.3 (86.5) 36.8 (98.2) 36.3 (97.3) 37.7 (99.9) 33.9 (93) 29.9 (85.8) 25.4 (77.7) 22.0 (71.6) 37.7 (99.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 13.1 (55.6) 13.4 (56.1) 15.2 (59.4) 17 (63) 20.7 (69.3) 24.3 (75.7) 27.3 (81.1) 27.7 (81.9) 24.6 (76.3) 21.0 (69.8) 16.6 (61.9) 13.8 (56.8) 19.56 (67.24)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 5.3 (41.5) 5.9 (42.6) 7.9 (46.2) 10.2 (50.4) 14.1 (57.4) 17.5 (63.5) 20.3 (68.5) 20.5 (68.9) 17.3 (63.1) 13.7 (56.7) 9.2 (48.6) 6.3 (43.3) 12.35 (54.23)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −7.2 (19) −5.8 (21.6) −5.0 (23) 2.9 (37.2) 3.7 (38.7) 8.1 (46.6) 11.7 (53.1) 11.4 (52.5) 7.6 (45.7) 4.2 (39.6) 0.1 (32.2) −2.7 (27.1) −7.2 (19)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 69.0 (2.717) 44.7 (1.76) 38.7 (1.524) 69.3 (2.728) 44.6 (1.756) 34.3 (1.35) 12.1 (0.476) 17.8 (0.701) 73.1 (2.878) 132.8 (5.228) 103.9 (4.091) 92.7 (3.65) 733 (28.859)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 6 5 5 7 5 4 2 2 5 7 7 6 61

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 158 171 217 224 267 306 348 316 242 187 149 139 2,724

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 54 58 59 56 58 66 74 73 65 55 51 50 59.9

Source #1: Météo- France
France

Source #2: Climatebase.ru

CLIMATE DATA FOR NICE

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE SEA TEMPERATURE °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 13.0 (55.4) 13.4 (56.1) 14.6 (58.3) 18.0 (64.4) 21.8 (71.2) 23.1 (73.6) 23.6 (74.5) 22.2 (72.0) 19.6 (67.3) 17.4 (63.3) 14.9 (58.8) 17.9 (64.3)

MEAN DAILY DAYLIGHT HOURS 9.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2

AVERAGE ULTRAVIOLET INDEX 1 2 4 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 2 1 4.4

SOURCE: WEATHER ATLAS

Nice
Nice
seen from Spot Satellite

VEGETATION AND GEOGRAPHY

The natural vegetation of Nice
Nice
is typical for a Mediterranean landscape, with a heavy representation of broadleaf evergreen shrubs. Trees tend to be scattered but form dense forests in some areas. Large native tree species include evergreens such as holm oak , stone pine and arbutus . Many introduced species grow in parks and gardens. Palms , eucalyptus and citrus fruits are among the trees which give Nice
Nice
a subtropical appearance. But there are also species familiar to temperate areas around the world; examples include horse chestnut , linden and even Norway spruce
Norway spruce
.

Geographically, Nice
Nice
consists of two large bays. Villefranche-sur-Mer sits on an enclosed bay, while the main expanse of the city lies between the old port city and the Aeroport de Côte d'Azur, across a gently curving bay. The city rises from the flat beach into gentle rising hills, then is bounded by surrounding mountains that represent the Southern and nearly the Western extent of the Ligurian Alps
Alps
range.

ECONOMY AND TOURISM

View of the old town

Nice
Nice
is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d\'industrie Nice Côte d\'Azur . It manages the Nice
Nice
- Côte d\'Azur Airport and the Cannes - Mandelieu Airport, as well as the Port of Nice. Investors from France
France
and abroad can benefit from the assistance of the Côte d'Azur Economic Development Agency Team Côte d\'Azur .

Among tourists, Nice
Nice
is the second most popular French city after Paris, a fact which, combined with the difficulties of land travel at long distance (partly because of the Alps
Alps
), allows it to have the third busiest airport in France
France
in terms of passenger numbers (close to 10,000,000 passengers in 2005). It is easily accessible, being less than 6 hours from Paris
Paris
by train, and the airport is located just minutes away from the city.

Nice
Nice
has one conference centre: the Palais des Congrès Acropolis. The city also has several business parks, including l\'Arenas , Nice the Plain , Nice
Nice
Méridia , Saint Isidore , and the Northern Forum.

In addition, the city features several shopping centres such as Nicetoile, Nice
Nice
TNL, Nice
Nice
Lingostière, Northern Forum, St-Isidore, the Trinity (around the Auchan
Auchan
hypermarket ) and Cap3000 in Saint-Laurent-du-Var.

Sophia Antipolisis a technology park northwest of Antibes. Much of the park is within the commune of Valbonne. Established between 1970 and 1984, it primarily houses companies in the fields of computing, electronics, pharmacology and biotechnology. Several institutions of higher learning are also located here, along with the European headquarters of W3C. The park is named after Sophie Glikman-Toumarkine, the wife of French Senator Pierre Laffitte, founder of the park, and incidentally, Sophia, the goddess of wisdom. The second half of the park's name is derived from Antipolis, the ancient Greek name of Antibes.

The Nice
Nice
metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $47.7 billion , and $34,480 per capita, slightly lower than the French average.

TRANSPORT

Port The port of Nice
Nice

The port of Nice
Nice
is also known as Lympia port. This name comes from the Lympia spring which fed a small lake in a marshy zone where work on the port was started in 1745. Today this is the principal harbour installation of Nice
Nice
– there is also a small port in the Carras district. The port is the first port cement manufacturer in France, linked to the treatment plants of the rollers of the valley of Paillon. Fishing activities remain but the number of professional fishermen is now less than 10. Nice, being the point of continental France
France
nearest to Corsica
Corsica
, has ferry connections with the island developed with the arrival of NGV (_navires à grande vitesse_) or high-speed craft . Two companies provide the connections: SNCM
SNCM
, a partially public company and Corsica
Corsica
Ferries – Sardinia Ferries, an entirely private company. Located in front of the port, the Place Cassini has been renamed Place of Corsica. Nice Côte d'Azur Airport

Nice
Nice
Côte d\'Azur Airport is the third most important airport in France
France
after Charles de Gaulle Airport
Charles de Gaulle Airport
and Orly Airport, both in Paris. It is on the Promenade des Anglais
Promenade des Anglais
, near l'Arénas and has two terminals . Due to its proximity to the Principality of Monaco
Monaco
, it also serves as that city–state's airport. A helicopter service provided by Heli Air Monaco
Monaco
and Monacairlinks the city and airport; it averages 39 flights a day. It is run by the Chamber of Commerce and the Nice
Nice
Côte d'Azur industry. Its director is Hervé de Place, director of the Côte d'Azur airports, which includes Cannes
Cannes
- Mandelieu Airport . In 2009, 9,830,987 passengers travelled through the airport. Rail

The main railway station is Nice-Ville , served both by high speed TGV
TGV
trains connecting Paris
Paris
and Nice
Nice
in less than 6 hours and by local commuter TER services. Marseille
Marseille
is reached in 2.5 hours. Nice
Nice
also has international connections to Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, and Russia. Nice
Nice
is also served by several suburban stations including Nice
Nice
St-Augustin, Nice
Nice
St-Roch and Nice
Nice
Riquier.

Nice
Nice
is also the southern terminus of the independently run Chemins de Fer de Provence
Provence
railway line which connects the city with Digne
Digne
in approximatively 4 hours. A metro-like suburban service is also provided on the southern part of the line. Tram

Tramway de Nice
Nice
began operating horse-drawn trams in 1879. Electrified in 1900, the combined length of the network reached 144 km (89.48 mi) by 1930. The replacement of trams with trolleybuses began in 1948 and was completed in 1953. In 2007, the new Tramway de Nice linked the northern and eastern suburbs via the city centre. Two other lines are currently in the planning stage. The second line will run east-west from Place Masséna to the Nice
Nice
Côte d\'Azur Airport , extending to Cagnes-sur-Merand Le Port, while the third line will provide a connection to the future TGV
TGV
Nice
Nice
Saint-Augustin Lingostière rail station. Road

The A8 autoroute
A8 autoroute
and the Route nationale 7pass through the Nice agglomeration, linking Marseille
Marseille
with Italy.

SIGHTS

Panorama of the town (including many main sights, like Hotel Negresco) and the beach Panorama of Nice
Nice
from Colline du Château Hotel Negresco Seafront of the city

The Promenade des Anglais
Promenade des Anglais
("Promenade of the English") is a promenade along the Baie des Anges ("Bay of the Angels"), which is a bay of the Mediterranean , in Nice. Before Nice
Nice
was urbanised, the coastline at Nice
Nice
was just bordered by a deserted stretch of beach covered with large pebbles. The first houses were located on higher ground well away from the sea, as wealthy tourists visiting Nice
Nice
in the 18th century did not come for the beach, but for the gentle winter weather. The areas close to the water were home to Nice's dockworkers and fishermen.

In the second half of the 18th century, many wealthy English people took to spending the winter in Nice, enjoying the panorama along the coast. When a particularly harsh winter up north brought an influx of beggars to Nice, some of the rich Englishmen proposed a useful project for them: the construction of a walkway (_chemin de promenade_) along the sea.

The city of Nice, intrigued by the prospect of a pleasant promenade, greatly increased the scope of the work. The Promenade was first called the _Camin dei Anglès_ (the English Way) by the Niçois in their native dialect, Nissart . After the annexation of Nice
Nice
by France in 1860 it was rechristened _La Promenade des Anglais_, replacing the former Nissart name with its French translation.

The Hotel Negrescoon the Promenade des Anglais
Promenade des Anglais
was named after Henri Negresco (1868–1920) who had the palatial hotel constructed in 1912. In keeping with the conventions of the time, when the Negresco first opened in 1913 its front opened on the side opposite the Mediterranean.

Another place worth mentioning is the small street parallel to the Promenade des Anglais, leading from Nice's downtown, beginning at Place Masséna and running parallel to the promenade in the direction of the airport for a short distance of about 4 blocks. This section of the city is referred to as the "Zone Pietonne", or "Pedestrian Zone". Cars are not allowed (with exception to delivery trucks), making this avenue a popular walkway. Here, tourists can find a fine selection of restaurants, specializing in various types of cuisine, including Niçoise, French, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Spanish and Italian. There is also a large selection of cafés where one can sit and enjoy an apéritif, as well as several bakeries with coffee, cake, and a terrace. There are also plenty of small shops selling clothing, shoes, and souvenirs.

Old Nice
Nice
is also home to the Opéra de Nice. It was constructed at the end of the 19th century under the design of François Aune, to replace King Charles Félix's Maccarani Theater. Today, it is open to the public and provides a regular program of performances.

Other sights include:

* Château * _Monument aux morts_ * The port * _Cours Saleya_ * _ Jardin botanique de la Ville de Nice_ (botanical garden) * _Musee Massena_ * _Marché aux fleurs_ * Old Nice * _Grand Hôtel Impérial_ * Fort of Mont Alban

SQUARES

Place Masséna

_ View of the Place Masséna Place Masséna by night, 2012

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The _Place Masséna_ is the main square of the city. Before the PaillonRiver was covered over, the Pont-Neuf was the only practicable way between the old town and the modern one. The square was thus divided into two parts (North and South) in 1824. With the demolition of the Masséna Casino in 1979, the Place Masséna became more spacious and less dense and is now bordered by red ochre buildings of Italian architecture.

The recent rebuilding of the tramline gave the square back to the pedestrians, restoring its status as a real Mediterranean square. It is lined with palm trees and stone pines, instead of being the rectangular roundabout of sorts it had become over the years. Since its construction, the Place Masséna has always been the spot for great public events. It is used for concerts, and particularly during the summer festivals, the _Corso carnavalesque _ (carnival parade) in February, the military procession of 14 July (Bastille Day) or other traditional celebrations and banquets.

The Place Masséna is a two-minute walk from the Promenade des Anglais , old town, town centre, and Albert I Garden (_Jardin Albert Ier_). It is also a large crossroads between several of the main streets of the city: _avenue Jean Médecin_, _avenue Félix Faure_, _boulevard Jean Jaurès_, _avenue de Verdun_ and _rue Gioffredo_.

Place Garibaldi

Garibaldi's monument, Place Garibaldi

The _Place Garibaldi_ also stands out for its architecture and history. It is named after Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
, hero of the Italian unification (born in Nice
Nice
in 1807 when Nice
Nice
was part of the Napoleonic Empire, before reverting to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia). The square was built at the end of the 18th century and served as the entry gate to the city and end of the road to Turin. It took several names between 1780 and 1870 (Plaça Pairoulièra, Place de la République, Place Napoléon, Place d'Armes, Place Saint-Augustin, Piazza Vittorio) and finally Place Garibaldi in September 1870.

A statue of Garibaldi, who was fiercely in favour of the union of Nice
Nice
with Italy, stands in the centre of the square. The recent rebuilding of the area to accommodate the new tramway line gave mostly the entire square to pedestrians. The architecture is in line with the Turin
Turin
model, which was the norm of urban renewal throughout the entire realm of the House of Savoy. Place Garibaldi, pedestrian since the introduction of the Nice
Nice
tramway.

It is a crossroads between the _Vieux Nice_ (old town) and the town centre. Place Garibaldi is close to the eastern districts of Nice, _Port Lympia_ (Lympia Harbour), and the TNL commercial centre. This square is also a junction of several important streets: the _boulevard Jean-Jaurès_, the _avenue de la République_, the _rue Cassini_ and the _rue Catherine-Ségurane_.

Place Rossetti

The Cathedral

Entirely enclosed and pedestrianised, this square is located in the heart of the old town. With typical buildings in red and yellow ochres surrounding the square, the _cathédrale Sainte-Réparate_ and the fountain in the centre, _place Rossetti_ is a must-see spot in the old town. By day, the place is invaded by the terraces of traditional restaurants and the finest ice-cream makers. By night, the environment changes radically, with tourists and youths flocking to the square, where music reverberates on the walls of the small square. The square's lighting at night gives it a magical aspect.

Place Rossetti is in the centre of the old town, streets _Jesus_, _Rossetti_, _Mascoïnat_ and the _Pont-vieux_ (old bridge)

Cours Saleya

Saleya Course (2007)

The Cours Saleya is situated parallel to the _Quai des États-Unis_. In the past, it belonged to the upper classes. It is probably the most traditional square of the town, with its daily flower market. The _Cours Saleya_ also opens on the _Palais des Rois Sardes_ (Palace of the Kings of Sardinia). In the present, the _court_ is mostly a place of entertainment.

Place Du Palais

Place du Palais view of the Rusca palace

As its name indicates, the _Place du Palais_ is where the _Palais de la Justice_ (Law courts) of Nice
Nice
is located. On this square, there also is the _Palais Rusca_, which also belongs to the justice department (home of the _tribunal de grande instance_).

The square is also notable due to the presence of the city clock. Today, the _Place du Palais_ is alive day and night. Often, groups of youths will hangout on the steps leading to the _Palais de la Justice_. Concerts, films, and other major public events frequently occur in this space.

It is situated halfway between the _Cours Saleya_ and _Place Masséna_.

RELIGIOUS

The church of St. Martin in Nice
Nice

* Sainte-Réparate Cathedral , 17th century * Russian Orthodox Cathedral * Notre-Dame de Nice * Sainte Jeanne d\'Arc Church , 20th century

SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT

* Stade du Ray * Allianz Riviera * Stade Charles-Ehrmann * Palais Nikaia * Nice Jazz Festival

SPORT

* The city's major football club is OGC Nice
OGC Nice
. They play in Ligue 1 (the top division in France). * The Olympic Niceswimming club (French : _ Olympic NiceNatation_) is also notable; Camille Muffatand Yannick Agnelused to train there for example. * Nice
Nice
hosts the finish of the annual cycling race Paris–Nice
Paris–Nice
.

POPULATION

_ This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2017)_

POPULATION CHANGE (See database)

1793 1800 1806 1821 1836 1846 1856 1861 1866

24,117 18,475 19,783 25,231 33,811 39,000 44,091 48,273 50,180

1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896 1901 1906 1911

52,377 53,397 66,279 77,478 88,273 93,760 105,109 134,232 142,940

1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954 1962 1968 1975

155,839 184,441 219,549 241,916 211,165 244,360 292,958 322,442 344,481

1982 1990 1999 2006 2009 - - - -

337,085 342,439 343,123 347,900 340,735 - - - -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE
INSEE
database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

The metropolitan area of Nice, defined by INSEE, is home to 888,784 inhabitants (fifth most populous in France) and its urban area totals 933,080 inhabitants, which makes it the sixth largest in France. Nice
Nice
residents of Vietnamese descent stand in front of one of the many Vietnamese restaurants of the city.

Roughly 10% of the population has foreign citizenship.

The six largest immigrant groups are from:

* Tunisia * Italy * Morocco * Algeria * Portugal * Spain

The city saw a big demographic rise in the second half of the 19th century, a period when the population more than doubled, mainly due to French immigration. At the beginning of the 20th century, this rise intensified with the arrival of internal immigrants from the County of Nice
Nice
itself.

After the First World War, the city had a strong increase in population. Immigration was again the reason of this growth. The hotel industry and that of the construction industry, in full strength in the 1920s, attracted the world more and more and thus made it possible for Nice
Nice
to become a town of national importance. In 1921, Nice
Nice
then became the eleventh most populous town of France, then in 1931, the eighth, before being ranked sixth in 1946; thereafter the city reached its current demographic level due to the arrival of sixty thousand people including French citizens from Algeria
Algeria
.

Since the 1970s, the number of inhabitants has not changed significantly; the relatively high migration to Nice
Nice
is compensated by a natural negative growth of the population. Nice
Nice
has a high proportion of elderly people., and as such has one of the highest median ages in France.

Currently, the population of the city is growing again, the most likely reason of which is a preference for the climate. Nice
Nice
was projected to have 360,000 citizens in 2008, and will have 370,000 by 2012.

OBSERVATORY

View of the Bischoffsheim cupola, main cupola of Nice Observatory

The _Observatoire de Nice_ ( Nice Observatory) is located on the summit of Mont Gros. The observatory was established in 1879 by the banker Raphaël Bischoffsheim. The architect was Charles Garnier , and Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
designed the main dome.

The 76-cm (30-inch) refractor telescope that became operational in 1888 was at that time the world's largest telescope. It was outperformed one year later by the 36-inch (91-cm) refractor at the Lick Observatory
Lick Observatory
at University of California, Santa Cruz
University of California, Santa Cruz
.

As a scientific institution, the Nice Observatorywas merged with CERGA in 1988 to form the Observatoire de la Côte d\'Azur . Many scientific activities still take place on the Nice Observatorysite on Mount Gross above the city including gravity-wave and high-energy astrophysics, astrometric and interferometric astronomy and planetary science. The city is the namesake for the Nice model
Nice model
, which was developed at the observatory in 2005.

CULTURE

Nice
Nice
is one of the oldest human settlements in the world. Terra-Amata, an archaeological site dating from the Lower Palaeolithic age, is situated near Nice. Nice
Nice
itself was established by the ancient Greeks
Greeks
. There was also an independent Roman city, Cemenelum, near Nice, where the hill of Cimiezis located. It is an archaeological site with treasures, of which only a small part has been excavated. The excavated site includes thermal baths, arenas and Roman road.

Since the 2nd century AD, the light of the city has attracted many famous painters and sculptors such as Chagall
Chagall
, Matisse
Matisse
, Niki de Saint Phalle , Klein , Arman
Arman
and Sosno . Nice
Nice
inspired many composers and intellectuals in different countries e.g. Berlioz , Rossini
Rossini
, Nietzsche etc.

Nice
Nice
also has numerous museums of all kinds: Musée Marc Chagall
Marc Chagall
, Musée Matisse
Matisse
(arenas of Cimiezcontaining Roman ruins), Musée des Beaux-Arts , Musée international d\'Art naïf Anatole Jakovsky , Musée Terra-Amata, Museum of Asian Art, Musée d\'art moderne et d\'art contemporain which devotes much space to the well-known _École of Nice_ ”), Museum of Natural History, Musée Masséna, Naval Museum and _Galerie des Ponchettes_.

Being a vacation resort, Nice
Nice
hosts many festivals throughout the year, such as the Carnaval de Nice
Nice
and the Nice
Nice
Jazz Festival.

Nice
Nice
has a distinct culture due to its unique history. The local language _ Niçard(Nissart)_ is an Occitan
Occitan
dialect (but some Italian scholars argue that it is a Ligurian dialect). It is still spoken by a substantial minority. Strong Italian and (to a lesser extent) Corsican influences make it more intelligible to Italians than other extant Provençal dialects.

In the past, Nice
Nice
welcomed many immigrants from Italy
Italy
(who continue to make up a large proportion of the population), as well as Spanish and Portuguese immigrants. However, in the past few decades immigration has been opened to include immigrants from all over the world, particularly those from former Northern and Western African colonies, as well as southeast Asia. Traditions are still alive, especially in folk music and dances. The most famous dance is the farandole .

Since 1860 a cannon (based at the Château east of Old Nice) is shot at twelve o'clock sharp. The detonation can be heard almost all over the city. This tradition goes back to Sir Thomas Coventry, who intended to remind the citizens of having lunch on time.

CUISINE

The cuisine of Nice
Nice
is especially close to those of Provence
Provence
but also Liguria
Liguria
and Piedmont
Piedmont
and uses local ingredients (olive oil , anchovies , fruit and vegetables) but also those from more remote regions, in particular from Northern Europe, because ships which came to pick up olive oil arrived full of food products, such as dried haddock .

Nice
Nice
has a few local dishes. There is a local tart made with onions and anchovies (or anchovy paste), named " Pissaladière". _ Socca_ is a type of pancake made from chickpea flour. _Farcis niçois _ is a dish made from vegetables stuffed with a mixture of breadcrumbs, meat (generally sausage and ground beef), and herbs; and _salade niçoise _ is a tomato salad with green peppers of the "Corne" variety, baked eggs, tuna or anchovies, and olives.

Local meat comes from neighbouring valleys, such as the sheep of Sisteron
Sisteron
. Local fish, such as mullets, bream, sea urchins, and anchovies (alevins) are used to a great extent, so much so that it has given birth to a proverb: "fish are born in the sea and die in oil".

Examples of Niçois specialties include:

* _Beignets de fleurs de courgettes _ * _ Ratatouille
Ratatouille
_ * _Pichade _ * _ Pissaladière_ * _ Pan-bagnat_ * _ Socca_ * _Soupe au pistou _ * _Tourte de blettes _ * _ Daube_ * _Farcis _ * _ Salade niçoise_

EDUCATION

* University of Nice
Nice
Sophia Antipolis * Institut Eurécom * École des hautes études commerciales du nord * École pour l\'informatique et les nouvelles technologies * Villa Arson * ESRA film school * Institut supérieur européen de formation par l\'action * Supinfo * Skema Business School

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
France

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Nice
Nice
is twinned with:

* Astana
Astana
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Alicante
Alicante
, Spain * Antananarivo
Antananarivo
, Madagascar * Cape Town
Cape Town
, South Africa * Cartagena, Colombia
Colombia
* Cuneo, Italy * Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland, UK * Gdańsk
Gdańsk
, Poland * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, China * Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas
, United States * Kamakura , Japan * Laval, Quebec
Laval, Quebec
, Canada * Libreville, Gabon * Louisiana
Louisiana
(state) , United States * Manila
Manila
, Philippines * Miami, Florida
Miami, Florida
, United States * Netanya
Netanya
, Israel
Israel
* Nouméa
Nouméa
, New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, Germany * Phuket , Thailand * Xiamen
Xiamen
, China * Can Tho, Vietnam * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Brazil * Saint-Denis , France * Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia * Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
, Spain * Sorrento
Sorrento
, Italy * Szeged
Szeged
, Hungary * Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, Greece
Greece
* Yalta
Yalta
, Ukraine
Ukraine
or Russia
Russia
(disputed) * Yerevan
Yerevan
, Armenia
Armenia

NOTABLE PEOPLE

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* Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
– Italian general, politician and patriot * Albert Calmette– French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist * Simone Veil
Simone Veil
– French lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Health, President of the European Parliament and member of the Constitutional Council of France; survivor of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp * Joann Sfar– French comics artist, comic book creator and film director * Jean-Pierre Mocky– French film director, actor, screenwriter and producer * Alexis Kossenko– French classical flautist and conductor * Mickael Abbate– French film director, producer, lives in Nice * J. M. G. Le Clézio– French author and professor, was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Literature * René Cassin– French jurist, law professor and judge, former student of Nice's Lycée Massena, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1968 * André Masséna
André Masséna
– 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling, one of the original eighteen Marshals of the Empire, French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, his nickname was l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire ("the Dear Child of Victory") * Henry Cavendish
Henry Cavendish
– British scientist noted for his discovery of hydrogen * Auguste Renoir
Auguste Renoir
, had his studio in Nice
Nice
from 1911 to 1919 at the corner of the Rue Alfred Mortier and the Quai St Jean Baptiste. A commemorative plaque is affixed to it. * Surya Bonaly– figure skater * Jules Bianchi
Jules Bianchi
(1989–2015) – Formula 1 Driver * Dominic Howard– drummer for Muse currently lives in Nice * Hugo Lloris
Hugo Lloris
– footballer * Georges Lautner
Georges Lautner
– director born in Nice, buried in the cemetery of the Castle * Dick Rivers– born Hervé Forneri, rock singer, born in Nice
Nice
in 1945 * René Goscinny
René Goscinny
– Asterix creator buried in Nice * Christian Estrosi
Christian Estrosi
– born in Nice
Nice
in 1955 * Léon Gambetta(1838–1881) – buried in Nice * Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani
lived for a few months in Nice
Nice
with his companion Jeanne Hébuterne; she gave birth to their daughter Giovanna in 1918. * Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
– Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, stayed many winters in Nice * Eric Ciotti– born in Nice
Nice
in 1965 * Jean Behra(1921–1959) – racing driver, born in Nice * Elton John
Elton John
– singer, owned a house in Mont Boron on the hills of Nice * Dominique Jean-Zéphirin– footballer * Mohammed VI
Mohammed VI
, king of Morocco, obtained the title of Doctor of Law at the University of Nice
Nice
Sophia Antipolis * Gilles Simon– tennis player * Alizé Cornet– tennis player * Freda Betti– opera singer * Henri Betti– composer and pianist * Priscilla Betti– singer and actress * Alexy Bosetti– footballer * Michel Siffre– adventurer and scientist * Robert W. Service– poet and writer of the Klondike Gold Rush lived in Nice
Nice
during the summers from 1916 to 1940 * Aimé Teisseire(1914–2008) – French Army officer, lived in Nice
Nice
after his retirement from the military until his death at the age of 93 * Valérie Zenatti(born 1970) – writer * Pino Presti– Italian bassist, arranger, composer, conductor and record producer, has lived in Nice
Nice
since 2004

SEE ALSO

* France
France
portal

* Albert Spaggiari * Cimetière du Château * European Institute of High International Studies * Le Méridien * Paris–Nice
Paris–Nice
* Rugby Nice
Nice
Côte d\'Azur Université-Racing * 37th G8 summit
37th G8 summit

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Demographia: World Urban Areas, April 2016 * ^ INSEE
INSEE
– Résultats du recensement de la population de 2008 – Aire urbaine de Nice
Nice
INSEE
INSEE
, 2008 * ^ Ruggiero, Alain, ed. (2006). _Nouvelle histoire de Nice_. Toulouse: Privat. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-2-7089-8335-9 . * ^ Alain Ruggiero, op. cit., p. 137 * ^ "Nice, France
France
travel. Comprehensive guide to Nice". Europe-cities.com. Retrieved 3 April 2011. * ^ Un savoir-faire et un équipement complet en matière d\'accueil, Urban community of Nice
Nice
Côte d\'Azur website Archived 24 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. * ^ Les chiffres clés du tourisme à Nice, site municipal Archived 17 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. * ^ "Union des aéroports français – Résultats d\'activité des aéroports français 2007 – Trafic passagers 2007 classement – page 8" (PDF). Retrieved 3 April 2011. * ^ "Le Nouveau venu" (in French). Musée de Paléontologie Humaine de Terra Amata. Retrieved 5 March 2009. * ^ A. G. Wintle; M. J: Aitken (July 1997). "Thermoluminescence dating of burnt flint: application to a Lower Paleolithic site, Terra Amata". _ Archaeometry_. 19 (2): 111–130. doi :10.1111/j.1475-4754.1977.tb00189.x . * ^ "The Chsteau of Villeneuve-Loubet". Villeneuve-LoubetGuide and Hotels. Retrieved 30 September 2009. * ^ Léon Poliakov, _La conditions des Juifs sous l'occupation italienne_, Paris, CDJC, 1946 and bibliographies of Angelo Donatiand Père Marie-Benoît * ^ Almasy, Steve. " Nice
Nice
mayor: \'Tens of dead\' when truck runs into crowd". CNN. Retrieved 14 July 2016. * ^ " Nice
Nice
truck attack claims 86th victim". _ Star Tribune
Star Tribune
_. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016. * ^ " Nice
Nice
attack: At least 84 killed during Bastille Day celebrations". _BBC News_. Retrieved 15 July 2016. * ^ Calamur, Krishnadev; Serhan, Yasmeen; Vasilogambros, Matt; Ford, Matt; Phippen, J. Weston (16 July 2016). "Attack in Nice: What We Know". _The Atlantic_. Retrieved 16 July 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Ralph Schor (Edited by), _Dictionnaire historique et biographique du comté de Nice_(_Historical and biographical dictionary of the County of Nice_), Nice, Serre, 2002, ISBN 978-2-86410-366-0 , pp.22–23 (in French) * ^ "L\'interview de Philippe Pradal, le nouveau maire de Nice" (in French). France
France
3 Côte d\'Azur . 13 June 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016. * ^ " Christian Estrosi
Christian Estrosi
réélu maire de Nice: les réactions outrées de l\'opposition". _ Nice-Matin_. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017. * ^ "1981–2010 Data". July 2012. * ^ "Nice, France". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 10 July 2015. * ^ "Nice, France
France
– Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 15 April 2017. * ^ "Global city GDP 2011". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 4 March 2013. * ^ 2009 traffic details from Nice
Nice
airport website * ^ " French Riviera
French Riviera
train for Russia". BBC News. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010. * ^ "Line 2 tram expected to be finished in 2017". Attika International. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2014. * ^ "Dates et chiffres clés / La ligne 1 / Accueil – Tramway de la Communauté Urbaine Nice
Nice
Côte d\'Azur" (in French). Tramway.nice.fr. Retrieved 15 September 2011. * ^ " Olympic NiceNatation homepage" (in French). Olympic Nice Natation. * ^ Nice
Nice
– French Riviera: Noon on the Dot from _francemonthly.com_. Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Jack, Albert (2010). _What Caesar Did For My Salad: The Secret Meanings of our Favourite Dishes_. London: Penguin UK. ISBN 9780141929927 . * ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013. * ^ " Astana
Astana
and