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The NIšAVA or NISHAVA (Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic : Нишава, Serbian pronunciation: ) is a river in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Serbia
Serbia
, a right tributary , and with a length of 218 km also the longest one, of the South Morava
South Morava
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* 2 Serbia
Serbia
* 3 Characteristics and importance * 4 Sićevo gorge * 5 References * 6 See also * 7 External links

BULGARIA

The Nišava
Nišava
originates in western Bulgaria, in the Stara Planina mountains (east of Kom Peak
Kom Peak
) near the village of Gintsi . Its source is close to the Serbian border. It enters Serbia
Serbia
after 67 km of flow through Bulgaria
Bulgaria
without receiving any major tributaries.

Because it flows through Gintsi, the upper course of the river is known as Ginska (Cyrillic: Гинска). It first flows to the south, then sharply turns west into the Godech Kettle, passing through Razboishte , after which it forms a gorge. Coming out of the gorge, it reaches Kalotina , a major border crossing on the Bulgarian-Serbian border (Kalotina-Gradina), and continues to the west into Serbia.

SERBIA

Flowing generally to the west for the remaining 151 km, it passes near Dimitrovgrad , Pirot , Bela Palanka , Niška Banja and Niš
Niš
, one of the largest cities in Serbia, 10 km after which the Nišava
Nišava
empties into the Južna Morava . However, with the rapid growth of Niš
Niš
in previous decades and its still fast growing suburbs, the banks of the Nišava
Nišava
are urbanized almost to its mouth.

After being divided into districts in 1992, the Nišava
Nišava
District (with Niš
Niš
as administrative center) is named after the river.

CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPORTANCE

The river belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin . Its own drainage area covers 3,950 km2 (1,237 km2 in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and 2,713 km2 in Serbia). The Nišava
Nišava
is not navigable. It is not only the longest tributary of the Južna Morava, but also the largest one in terms of discharge (36 km3/s). It has many smaller tributaries, the most important being the Temštica from the right, and the Jerma (or Sukovska reka), Crvena reka, Koritnička reka and Kutinska reka from the left.

The Nišava
Nišava
valley is part of a major natural route that from ancient times has connected Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
: the route follows the valleys of the Morava , Nišava
Nišava
and Maritsa
Maritsa
and onwards towards Constantinople
Constantinople
, present-day Istanbul
Istanbul
. Both the Belgrade
Belgrade
- Sofia
Sofia
- Istanbul
Istanbul
road and the railway follow this route.

Nishava Cove in Rugged Island in the South Shetland Islands , Antarctica
Antarctica
is named after Nishava.

SIćEVO GORGE

Main article: Sićevo Gorge

In its Serbian part, the Nišava
Nišava
carved a composite valley with several depressions (Dimitrovgrad, Pirot (or Basara; Cyrillic: Басара), Bela Palanka and Niš). However, the most prominent geological feature the river formed is the Sićevo gorge (Sićevačka klisura; Cyrillic: Сићевачка клисура) between Bela Palanka and Niška Banja. The river is quite powerful in the gorge, which is used for two power stations ('Sićevo' and 'Ostrovica') used for electricity production, irrigation and fishery. The gorge is 17 km long, 350–400 m deep, in some parts developing canyon like-structures (like inverse valley slopes at Gradiški kanjon; Cyrillic: Градишки кањон). The gorge itself carved through the Kunovica plateau between the southern slopes of the Mountains of Svrljig and the mountain of Suva Planina , and the surrounding areas are known for their high-quality vineyards. There is also a huge quarry in the gorge ('Ostrovica'), where six villages are located, the largest one being Sićevo that gives the name to the whole gorge.

REFERENCES

* Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition (1985); Prosveta; ISBN 86-07-00001-2 * Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije; Svjetlost-Sarajevo; ISBN 86-01-02651-6

SEE ALSO

* PIM "Ivan Milutinović", Belgrade, Serbia
Serbia
; Morava - Vardar (Axios) Navigation Route (About 1,200 km shorter route (three days shorter time of navigation) from Belgrade
Belgrade
to Port of Thessaloniki than across Danube
Danube
, Black Sea and Aegean Sea . Electric power production, improvement of water quality and regulation of flooding wave.) * Morava - Vardar (Axios) Navigation Route map * Hydropower and navigation system "Morava" (Concepts of regulation of rivers Great Morava and South Morava
South Morava
for navigation and hydropower production.)

Coordinates : 43°22′14″N 21°46′08″E / 43.37056°N 21.76889°E