NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYME (/ˈnjuːˌkɑːsəl ʌndər ˈlaɪm/ ) is a market town in Staffordshire , England, and is the principal settlement in the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme . It is part of North Staffordshire . In the 2011 census the town had a population of 75,125.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 12th-19th century * 1.3 20th century * 1.4 Economy * 1.5 Politics * 1.6 Transport
* 2 Geography and climate * 3 Demography * 4 Transport * 5 Education
* 6 Sites and attractions
* 6.1 Parks and gardens * 6.2 Traditional market * 6.3 The Guildhall * 6.4 The Barracks * 6.5 Pubs and clubs
* 7 Culture * 8 Sport * 9 Religion * 10 International network
* 11 Notable people
* 11.1 early times to 1700 * 11.2 1700 to 1850 * 11.3 1850 to 1890 * 11.4 1890 to 1950 * 11.5 1950 to modern times * 11.6 Notables in Sport
* 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links
The "Newcastle" part of the name derives from being the location of a new castle in the 12th century. The "Lyme" section could refer to the Lyme Brook or the extensive Forest of Lyme that covered the area with lime trees in the Middle Ages . The well-known Berlin street Unter den Linden is a cognate of 'under-Lyme'
Newcastle is not mentioned in the
In 1235 Henry III constituted it a free borough, granting a guild
merchant and other privileges. In 1251 he leased it at fee-farm to
the burgesses. In 1265 Newcastle was granted by the Crown to Simon de
Montfort , and subsequently to
Newcastle did not feature much in the English Civil War , save a Royalist plundering . However, it was the hometown of Major General Thomas Harrison a Cromwellian army officer and leader of the Fifth Monarchy Men .
The governing charter in 1835 which created the Newcastle-under-Lyme Municipal Borough absorbed the previous borough created through the charters of 1590 and 1664, under which the title of the corporation, was the "mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Newcastle-under-Lyme."
Newcastle sent two members to parliament from 1355 to 1885, when it lost one representative. Nelson Place and view up King Street, from a postcard, c. 1900
Stoke-on-Trent was formed by the 1910 amalgamation of the "six
towns" (Stoke , Hanley , Fenton , Longton ,
Burslem and Tunstall )
Newcastle remained separate. Despite its close proximity, it was not
directly involved in the pottery industry, and it strongly opposed
attempts to add it in 1930 with a postcard poll showing residents
Stoke-on-Trent Extension Bill by a majority of 97.4%.
Although passed by the House of Commons , the Bill was rejected by the
House of Lords
Following the Local Government Act 1972 it became the principal settlement of the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme.
Like neighbouring Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle's early economy was based around the hatting trade, silk and cotton mills . Later coal mining , brick manufacture, iron casting and engineering rose to prominence. Very fine red earthenware and also soft-paste porcelain tableware (the first such production in Staffordshire) was produced in Newcastle at Samuel Bell's factory in Lower Street between 1724 and 1754 when all production ceased. With the exception of a failed enterprise between 1790 and 1797, which then switched to brewing , there was no further commercial production of pottery within the town of Newcastle. Production of earthenware tiles however continued at several locations within the borough. Manufacture of fine bone china was re-established in the borough in 1963 by Mayfair Pottery at Chesterton .
The manufacture in the borough of clay tobacco smoking pipes started
about 1637 and grew rapidly and was second only to hatting within the
borough. Nationally, the town was ranked with
In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries the town had a flourishing felt hat manufacturing industry, which was probably at its peak locally in the 1820s when a third of the town's population were involved in the industry in over 20 factories but by 1892 there was only one manufacturer still in production in the town.
In 1944, the Rolls-Royce Derwent engine for the Gloster Meteor fighter was made in the borough.
Newcastle's 20th century industries include: iron working, construction materials, clothing (especially military, police and transport uniforms), computers, publishing, electric motors and machinery.
Near the turn of the 20th to the 21st century, the town received a major redevelopment to incorporate a new street (Castle Walk) into the town centre, providing Newcastle with a new bus station and bringing in more companies. Various business centres in the town provide offices for companies that operate in the service sector.
A dwindling number of pubs, clubs and bars provides Newcastle with a relatively strong nightlife, with students' night being on Thursdays; this aspect of Newcastle has arguably eclipsed the shopping and market town it once was.
The town has been the birthplace of several notable politicians and activists. Fanny Deakin was a campaigner for better nourishment for babies and young children and better maternity care for mothers. The former chairwoman of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament ( CND ), Janet Bloomfield (née Hood) is a peace and disarmament campaigner. Vera Brittain writer, feminist (and mother of Liberal Democrat Shirley Williams ) was born in the town.
There have been two particularly notable Members of Parliament (MPs).
The current MP is Paul Farrelly .
Dismantled Railway between Alsager height:16;">Average max. temperature °C (°F ) 6.5 (43.7) 6.9 (44.4) 9.5 (49.1) 12.0 (56) 15.7 (60.3) 18.4 (65.1) 21.1 (70.0) 20.8 (69.4) 17.5 (63.5) 13.5 (56.3) 9.5 (49.1) 7.4 (45.3) 13.3 (55.9)
Average min. temperature °C (°F) 1.0 (33.8) 1.0 (33.8) 2.5 (36.5) 3.5 (38.3) 6.2 (43.2) 8.9 (48.0) 11.1 (52.0) 10.9 (51.6) 9.0 (48.2) 6.4 (43.5) 3.3 (37.9) 1.8 (35.2) 5.5 (41.9)
Rainfall mm (inches) 62.7 (2.46) 44.4 (1.75) 51.2 (2.02) 48.5 (1.91) 52.7 (2.07) 59.3 (2.33) 46.7 (1.84) 57.7 (2.27) 63.6 (2.50) 60.5 (2.38) 62.0 (2.44) 66.8 (2.63) 676.0 (22.61)
Sunshine (hours per month) 45.3 59.0 89.9 129.9 179.5 160.8 183.5 168.6 122.1 94.6 58.5 38.4 1330.1
Source: Met Office
Further information: Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme for district wide demographic details
COMPARATIVE CENSUS INFORMATION
2001 UK CENSUS NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYME BOROUGH ENGLAND
Total population 73,944 122,030 49,138,831
White 97.8% 98% 91%
Asian 0.6% 0.6% 4.6%
Black 0.2% 0.2% 2.3%
Christian 78.2% 78.5% 72%
Muslim 0.7% 0.5% 3.1%
Hindu 0.2% 0.2% 1.1%
No religion 14% 13.1% 15%
Unemployed 2.3% 2% 3.3%
Of the 73,944 residents recorded in the 2001 census, 51.7% (38,210)
were female and 48.3% (35,734) male. 78.2% (57,819) stated their
62.2% (21,586) of the population work full-time and 19.4% (6,746) part-time . The largest employment types are manufacturing with 7,058 (21.5%), wholesale and retail 6,157 (18.7%), health and social work 4,097 (12.5%) and financial , real estate "> The A34 London Road
Newcastle does not have a railway station within the town, but Stoke-on-Trent railway station is between the town centre of Newcastle and city centre of Stoke-on-Trent and serves the Potteries as a whole.
Most of the bus network is run by First Potteries Limited and D"> Queen's Gardens
Newcastle excels in the
Royal Horticultural Society
Grosvenor Gardens in the centre of one of the town's roundabouts, hidden away below road level. Queen Elizabeth Garden is located outside the town centre and is to undergo refurbishment using National Lottery Heritage Fund money.
To the north west of the town centre is Brampton Park, home to the museum and art gallery.
Dating back to 1173 Newcastle's market , known as the Stones, operates on the High Street. The market was originally held on Sunday; in the reign of John it was changed to Saturday; by the charter of Elizabeth it was fixed on Monday. Grants of fairs were given by Edward I , Edward III and Henry VI . Today the market is open six days a week, and there are over 80 stalls. Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays see a general market, on Tuesdays there is an antiques market and Thursdays are for the sale of bric-a-brac. A cattle and livestock market was held on Mondays until the early 1990s; the site of the cattle market is now a branch of Morrison's supermarket. The Guildhall
The current Guildhall was built in 1713 and has undergone a number of changes. Originally the ground floor was open and was used for markets, until the Market Hall was built in 1854. In 1860, in order to provide more space, the ground floor arches were bricked up and clock tower with four clocks were added. The top rooms in the Guildhall were used for meetings by the Borough council and its committees, until 1860. It is now a grade II listed building.
The Italian styled Militia Barracks were built in 1855 from red brick. The Barracks were the headquarters of the 3rd King's Own Staffordshire Rifle Regiment until 1880. In 1882 W.H. Dalton bought the Barracks and settled them in trust for use by the Rifle Volunteers of Newcastle, which became the Territorial Force in 1907. In 2002 the Barracks were let to contained small businesses.
PUBS AND CLUBS
There are at least four Working Men's Club in Newcastle - in Bradwell, at Cross Heath, in Silverdale and Wolstanton.
The New Vic Theatre was Europe's first purpose-built theatre in the round . It is just outside the town centre and offers a full programme of entertainment, including modern or classic plays and concert performances.
The Borough Museum and Art Gallery (Brampton Museum) depicts the civic history of the Borough of Newcastle under Lyme and an authentic, life-size Victorian street-scene whilst the art gallery hosts work by local and national artists as well as 'travelling' exhibitions.
Until 2005, there was an annual carnival held on the Spring Bank Holiday but this has been cancelled due to rising policing costs.
Notable residents who contributed to the arts and entertainment
Philip Astley , founder of the 'modern' circus. Jackie Trent
, the singer and songwriter, was born in the town.
E S Turner , the social commentator, was educated in the town.
Newcastle was also home to Dr. Philip Willoughby-Higson (1933 - 2012),
poet, translator and historian and author of 33 books. He was the
founder and president (1974 - 1992) of the
Historically, the town had a strong tradition of festivities marking the start of a new municipal year .
The town is home to a wide range of sports clubs and associations. Newcastle Town F.C. , an association football club currently play in the Northern Premier League First Division South. The Lyme Valley area is home to Newcastle "> Newcastle Golf Club
Newcastle Athletic Club is based at the Ashfield Road track, next
to Newcastle College. It was built in 1964 and is an ash track. The
club competes in North Staffs XC League, Local, National and Heart of
The town is also home to one of the largest and most successful
volleyball clubs in England,
Newcastle (Staffs) Volleyball Club ,
which was established in 1980 and has teams playing in the National
Volleyball League, producing numerous
There are golf courses at Kidsgrove, Wolstanton, Keele and at the Westlands.
St Giles' Church,
The town has a long religious history. It was the birthplace of John
James Blunt , a divine and
The town itself has a large number of Anglican churches, including St. Giles' Church, the mediaeval parish church dating from 1290. There are also several Catholic churches, most notably Holy Trinity, whose style is Gothic in blue engineering bricks, described as ..."the finest modern specimen of ornamental brickwork in the kingdom" at the time.
In the 18th century
Of interest also is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), located across from the Brampton Park, which serves as the 'Stake Centre ' for the church in the region and has an on-site Family History Centre where the public can research their ancestry for little or no charge.
The town is part of a world-wide network of towns and cities with the
name Newcastle . These include more well-known Newcastle upon Tyne
(also in England),
Neuburg an der Donau (Germany), Neuchâtel
(Switzerland), Neufchâteau (France),
New Castle, Indiana
This small international network of just eight towns, formed in 1998,
is designed to encourage friendship and co-operation between the towns
and to this end a school in the
South African town benefited in 2004
from gifts of computing equipment surplus to Newcastle-under-Lyme's
needs. The annual Newcastles of the World Summit was held in
EARLY TIMES TO 1700
* Richard Smith (c.1516–1581), English politician and mayor of
1700 TO 1850
Philip Astley , (1742 – 1814) equestrian, circus owner, inventor
and father of the modern circus
Silvester Harding (1745 – 1809) English artist and publisher, at
the age of 14 he ran away and joined a company of actors
Walter Sneyd (1752–1829) of
Keele Hall MP for
1850 TO 1890
Oliver Lodge , (1851 – 1940) physicist, inventor and writer
Enoch Edwards (1852 in Talke – 1912) British trade unionist,
coal miner, member of
Staffordshire County Council , Lib-Lab MP for
Hanley from 1906 to 1909 then Labour MP from 1909 to 1912.
* Douglas Harry Coghill (1855 – 1928) MP for Newcastle-under-Lyme
from 1886 to 1892 and then
Stoke-upon-Trent from 1895 to 1906. He was
Liberal Unionist , then became a Conservative.
* Arthur Howard Heath TD (1856 – 1930) industrialist, cricketer,
Rugby Union international and Conservative Party politician.
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia , (1861 - 1929) lived in
Keele Hall from 1900 to 1909
1890 TO 1950
Vera Brittain , (1893 – 1970) author, reformer and pacifist and
1950 TO MODERN TIMES
* Judith Ann Bentinck (born Newcastle-Under-Lyme 1952), wife of
NOTABLES IN SPORT
* Jimmy Jones (1876 – unknown) English footballer who played for
Dick Ray (1876 – 1952) professional footballer and manager,
played for Port Vale and
* ^ The county name is no longer required for postcoded mail and
the suffix "-under-Lyme" is not part of the official