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The New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), also known as Hooker's sea lion, and whakahao in Māori, is a species of sea lion that primarily breeds on New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland and Campbell islands and to some extent around the coast of New Zealand's South and Stewart islands. The New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion numbers around 10,000 and is perhaps the world's rarest sea lion species.[2] They are the only species of the genus Phocarctos.

Contents

1 Physiology & behaviour 2 Distribution 3 Diet & predation 4 Status 5 Threats

5.1 Subsistence hunting & commercial sealing 5.2 Commercial fishery bycatch

5.2.1 Sea lion
Sea lion
exclusion devices

5.3 Food limitation 5.4 Disease 5.5 Mainland threats

6 References 7 External links

Physiology & behaviour[edit] See also: Pleistocene New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions are one of the largest New Zealand
New Zealand
animals. Like all otariids, they have marked sexual dimorphism; adult males are 240–350 cm long and weigh 320–450 kg and adult females are 180–200 cm long and weigh 90–165 kg. At birth, pups are 70–100 cm long and weigh 7–8 kg; the natal pelage is a thick coat of dark brown hair that becomes dark gray with cream markings on the top of the head, nose, tail and at the base of the flippers. Adult females' coats vary from buff to creamy grey with darker pigmentation around the muzzle and the flippers. Adult males are blackish-brown with a well-developed black mane of coarse hair reaching the shoulders.[3] New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions are strongly philopatric. Distribution[edit] The main breeding populations are at the Auckland and Campbell Islands in the NZ Subantarctic, where approximately 99% of the species' annual pup production occurs. There are currently three functioning breeding rookeries on the Auckland Islands.[4] Most sea lions are born on Dundas Island. A smaller rookery exists at Sandy Bay on Enderby Island and the smallest rookery is on Figure of Eight Island. An even smaller rookery at South East Point on Auckland Island appears to now have been abandoned. The other major breeding area is the Campbell Islands. For the first time in 150 years, sea lions began breeding again on the South Island coast in 1994, on the Otago Peninsula. Other small populations of breeding sea lions have recently begun to establish in various parts of the Stewart Island
Stewart Island
coastline and have been observed on the Catlins coast south of the Clutha River.[5] Recent DNA information indicates the New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion is a lineage previously restricted to subantarctic regions. Somewhere between 1300 and 1500 AD, a genetically distinct mainland lineage was wiped out by the first Maori settlers,[6] and the subantarctic lineage has since then gradually filled the ecological niche.[7][7] It has been inferred from middens and ancient DNA that a third lineage was made extinct at the Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands
due to predation by the Moriori people.[8][9] Diet & predation[edit] New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions are known to predate on a wide range of prey species including fish (e.g. hoki and red cod), cephalopods (e.g. New Zealand arrow squid and yellow octopus), crustaceans, seabirds and other marine mammals.[10] Studies indicate a strong location effect on diet, with almost no overlap in prey species comparing sea lions at Otago Peninsula
Otago Peninsula
and Campbell Island, at the north and south extents of the species' breeding range.[11][12] New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions are in turn predated on by great white sharks, with 27% showing evidence of scarring from near-miss shark attacks in an opportunistic study of adult NZ sea lions at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island.[13] Status[edit]

One of colonies on Enderby Island

New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions are considered the most threatened sea lion in the world.[14] The species' status is largely driven by the main breeding population at the Auckland Islands, which declined by ~50% between 2000 and 2015.[15] The 2013 sea lion pup production count on the Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands
showed the number of pups born on the islands has risen to 1931, from the 2012 figure of 1684 (dead pups are also counted, since the annual pup count is used to assess the population of breeding females, but not future births when the counted pups mature). The 2013 number was the highest in five years.[16][17] The Campbell Island population 'appears to be increasing slowly' and births here comprise ~30% of the species' total.[18] The Otago and Stewart Island
Stewart Island
sea lion populations are currently small, though increasing. Population estimates for the whole species declined from ~15,000 in the mid-1990s to 9,000 in 2008 (based on the number of pups born). In 2010, the Department of Conservation—responsible for marine mammal conservation—changed the New Zealand
New Zealand
Threat Classification System ranking from Nationally Endangered to Nationally Critical.[19] The Department of Conservation estimates that Auckland Islands' sea lions, nearly 80% of the total, could be functionally extinct by 2035.[20][21] However, the New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry for Primary Industries considers research on which this prediction is based is low quality and ‘should not be used in management decisions’.[22] In 2015, the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) changed the classification of this species to "Endangered", based on low overall population size, the small number of breeding populations and the projected trend of the Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands
breeding population.[1]

Sea lions on Aramoana
Aramoana
in the Otago Harbour

With kayakers in Karitane
Karitane
Harbour

Threats[edit] Subsistence hunting & commercial sealing[edit] Subsistence hunting and commercial harvest of sea lions greatly reduced the breeding range and population size of New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions between the 13th and 19th Centuries. In 1893, sealing for both New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions and New Zealand
New Zealand
fur seals was prohibited by law in New Zealand.[23] Commercial fishery bycatch[edit] In the 1990s, as the volume of squid fishing around the Auckland Islands increased, numbers of sea lions were captured as bycatch and drowned in the squid trawl nets. The government uses a modelling system to set a fishing-related mortality limit (FRML) each year. If the limit is predicted to be exceeded, the Minister of Primary Industries may close the fishery. The last time the FRML was exceeded was in 2000, though a number of closures occurred in the 1990s.[22] The estimated (as different from reported) captures in the 2014 season were 11.58% of the FRML.[24] The proportion of vessels in the Auckland Island squid fishery with government observers has increased over the years, providing independent reports of bycatch based on observation rather than computer model estimates. In the 2014 season, the observers' coverage was of 84% of tows.[24] In late February 2013, the first observed sea lion mortalities in the Auckland Island squid fleet in three years occurred. Juvenile sea lions slipped through the grid at the opening of the net into its cod end.[25] The 23-cm grid aperture is designed to hold adult sea lions in the SLED and yet still allow squid to pass into the net.[22] In 2013, one adult female was taken as incidental bycatch.[26] In the concluded 2014 season, two sea lions were reportedly captured in the fishery.[24] In August 2013, the seasonal southern blue whiting fleet captured 21 male sea lions in fishing grounds more than 100 km off the Campbell Islands. Four were released alive. No captures were reported by government observers the year before. The government responded to the captures by requesting the vessels try sea lion exclusion devices (SLEDs) to reduce this bycatch. Sea lion
Sea lion
exclusion devices[edit] In 2001, the sea lion exclusion device (SLED) was introduced into the Auckland Island squid fishery to reduce sea lion bycatch.[27] Conservation advocates have supported SLED use to protect other marine animals or sharks. [28][29] Since 2007, all vessels in the Auckland Islands fishery have been equipped with SLEDs.[22] Some scientists still do not believe sea lions survive the interaction with a SLED,[30][31] though the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) believes the direct effect of fishing-related mortality on the sea lion population is minimal. MPI has concluded that a sea lion has an 85% chance of escaping the SLED and a 97 per cent probability of surviving a SLED escape, though it says this estimate may be 'mildly pessimistic'.[22] Food limitation[edit] Food availability is a well-known, major cause of population change in pinniped species.[32] The Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands
population has displayed numerous indicators of food limitation during the recent decline in breeder numbers, including: poor maternal condition, delayed maturation, years with very low pupping rate, low survival of pups born and long-term shifts in diet composition.[33][34][35] Starvation was provisionally identified as cause of mortality for 62% of pups necropsied at Campbell Island in 2015, when 58% of all pups born were estimated to have died in the first month of life.[36] Disease[edit] Though the Auckland Island sea lion pup production is highly variable, a decline trend for some years followed the outbreak of an introduced bacterial disease caused by a Campylobacter
Campylobacter
species in 1998 which killed an estimated 53% of newborn pups and 20% of adult females. In 2002, another probably introduced bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
killed 32% of pups, and in 2003 another 21% of the pups.[37] Since 2002, K. pneumoniae bacteria have caused significant mortality in the sea lion pups at Enderby Island. Infected pups have meningitis, as well as septicemia.[38] On 12 March 2014, the Conservation Minister Nick Smith was quoted as saying an "excessive focus on fishing bycatch" existed and 300 pups had died this summer from an as yet unidentified disease.[39] Mainland threats[edit] The mainland population was estimated to reach 1000 animals by 2044, leading to issues of ‘marine protected areas, local fishing quotas and numbers management’.[40] References[edit]

^ a b Chilvers, BL. (2015). "Phocarctos hookeri". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T17026A1306343. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T17026A1306343.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ "Facts about sea lion". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 8 May 2013.  ^ Perrin, William. Encyclopedia of marine mammals.  ^ "DoC: 7 March 2013, CSP Technical Working Group".  ^ "Hungry for Answers". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research.  ^ Wishart S.. Newcomers. The New Zealand
New Zealand
Geographic ^ a b "Research reveals New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion is a relative newcomer". Otago University. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.  ^ McFadgen, B.G. (March 1994). "Archaeology and Holocene sand dune stratigraphy on Chatham Island". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Royal Society of New Zealand. 24 (1): 17–44. doi:10.1080/03014223.1994.9517454.  ^ Rawlence, N. (2016). "Human-mediated extirpation of the unique Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands
sea lion and implications for the conservation management of remaining New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion populations". Molecular Biology. 25: 3950–3961. doi:10.1111/mec.13726.  ^ Childerhouse, S; Dix, B; Gales, N (2001). "Diet of New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion Phocarctos hookeri at the Auckland Islands". Wildlife Research. 26: 839–846. doi:10.1071/wr98079.  ^ Auge, A; Lalas, C; Davis, L; Chilvers, BL (2011). "Autumn diet of recolonising female New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions based at Otago Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand". New Zealand
New Zealand
Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 46: 97–110. doi:10.1080/00288330.2011.606326.  ^ Roberts, J; Lalas, C (2015). "Diet of New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at their southern breeding limits". Polar Biology. 38: 1483–1491. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1710-3.  ^ Robertson, Bruce C. "The population decline of the New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion" (PDF). Mammal
Mammal
Society: 2011.  ^ " New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion". NZ Department of Conservation. Retrieved 2009-01-27.  ^ " New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion research at the Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands
2014/15" (PDF). Department of Conservation. 2015-07-02. Retrieved 2015-09-24.  ^ "DoC: 7 March 2013m CSP Technical Working Group".  ^ "Seafood NZ: Auckland Island Sea Lion
Lion
Pup Count Up For Second Year".  ^ Childerhouse, S (2015). Final Report: NZ sea lion research at Campbell Island-Motu Ihupuku, 2014/15 (Report). Blue Planet Marine.  ^ "Zero quota urged for sea lion". Radio New Zealand. 19 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ " New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion". WWF. Retrieved 25 November 2012.  ^ "NZ sea lions facing extinction in 24 years—study". nzherald.co.nz. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.  ^ a b c d e "SQUID (SQU6T) – FINAL ADVICE PAP" (PDF). New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries. Retrieved 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Childerhouse, S; Gales, N (1998). "Historical and modern distribution and abundance of the New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion Phocarctos hookeri". New Zealand
New Zealand
Journal of Zoology. 25: 1–16. doi:10.1080/03014223.1998.9518131.  ^ a b c Ministry for Primary Industries, SQU6T Weekly Report for week ending 29 June ^ "Accidental Sea Lion
Lion
Captures Regretable". Ministry for Primary Industries.  ^ Ministry for Primary Industries, SQU6T Weekly Report for week ending 26 May ^ " Sea lion
Sea lion
bycatch in New Zealand
New Zealand
trawl fisheries". Dragonfly Limited. Retrieved 12 February 2013.  ^ Davidson, Issac (26 Feb 2013). "Plan to save feared predator delves into murky waters". NZ Herald.  ^ "Shock over accidental catch rates". 3 News. 13 Feb 2013.  ^ "Plan to end sea lion kill limit criticised". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 22 February 2013.  ^ "Forest & Bird condemns 40% rise in sea lion quota". Forest & Bird. 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2009-01-27.  ^ Trites, A; Donnely, C (2003). "The decline of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska: a review of the nutritional stress hypothesis". Mammal
Mammal
Rev. 33: 3–28. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2907.2003.00009.x.  ^ Auge, A (2010). Foraging ecology of recolonising female New Zealand sea lions around the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand
New Zealand
(Ph.D. thesis). University of Otago.  ^ Roberts, J; Doonan, I (2014). NZ sea lion: demographic assessment of the causes of decline at the Auckland Islands—Part 2 correlative assessment (Report). Prepared by NIWA for the NZ Department of Conservation.  ^ Stewart-Sinclair, P (2013). The role of long-term diet change in the decline of the New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion population (M.Sc. thesis). Massey University.  ^ Childerhouse, S (2015). Final Report: NZ sea lion research at Campbell Island-Motu Ihupuku, 2014/15 (Report). Blue Planet Marine.  ^ Kate Mulcahy & Raewyn Peart (2012). Wonders of the Sea – the protection of New Zealand’s marine mammals. New Zealand Environmental Defence Society. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-9876660-1-7.  ^ "Staff Profile; Dr Wendi Roe". Massey University.  ^ Fox, Rebecca (12 March 2014). "300 sea lion pup deaths prompts search for answers". Otago Daily Times.  ^ Augé, A.A; A.B. Moore; B.L. Chilvers (2012). "Predicting interactions between recolonizing marine mammals and fisheries: defining precautionary management". Fisheries Management and Ecology. 19: 426–433. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2400.2012.00861.x. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phocarctos hookeri.

New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion at the Department of Conservation Encyclopedia of New Zealand
New Zealand
- New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion ARKive—images and movies of the Hooker's sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri)

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand
New Zealand
sea lion (P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q432513 ADW: Phocarctos ARKive: phocarctos-hookeri EoL: 328613 Fossilworks: 72199 GBIF: 2433467 iNaturalist: 41763 ITIS: 180617 IUCN: 17026 MSW: 14001017 NCBI: 3

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