The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Assembly being the lower house. It has 63 members each elected to two-year terms.[1] There are no limits on the number of terms one may serve. The New York Constitution provides for a varying number of members in the Senate,[2] elected from single-member constituencies equal in population. The current format for apportionment has followed the Supreme Court decision in Baker v. Carr, decided in 1964.

Recent State Senate history

2008 elections and power struggle

Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 General Election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades.[3][4] Previously, the Republicans had held the chamber for all but one year from 1939 to 2008, even as New York turned almost solidly Democratic at all levels.

However, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators—Rubén Díaz Sr. (Bronx), Carl Kruger (Brooklyn), Pedro Espada, Jr. (Bronx), and Hiram Monserrate (Queens)—immediately refused to caucus with their party.[5] The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith (Queens) as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions.[6] Monserrate soon reached an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee.[7] The remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week,[8] but was ultimately resolved[9] with Smith becoming majority leader[10] until early June 2009, when two Democrats joined with Republicans to elect a new leadership for the New York State Senate, reaching a power-sharing deal under which Republicans became, again, technically the majority party.

Republican reclamation and ensuing dispute

Though there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate, on June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.—who were part of what was described by the Associated Press as a "parliamentary coup"—allegedly voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senator Dean Skelos (R-Rockville Centre) as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Malcolm Smith.[11][12]

The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein (Bronx) unilaterally moved to recess, and Smith had the lights and Internet cut off. However, they were unable to stop the session. All 30 Republicans plus two Democrats, Monserrate and Espada, voted in favor of the resolution. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader.[13] Both Monserrate and Espada were members of the original "Gang of Four" (the other two being Díaz, Sr. and Kruger), a group of Democratic senators that threatened to defect to the Republican caucus to prevent Smith from taking control of the chamber in January 2009. Monserrate had backed out of the Gang at the time, being the first of the four to back Smith.

The apparent Republican seizure of power was tenuous in any event. Smith claimed the vote was illegal because of Klein's motion to adjourn; parliamentary procedure stipulates that a vote to adjourn takes precedence over all other business. However, Smith, Klein, and most of the Democrats walked out before an actual vote to adjourn could be taken. Smith has also claimed that it is illegal to oust the majority leader in the middle of a two-year term, and as such, leaders can only be replaced at the beginning of a term, except in the case of death or resignation. Smith still asserted he was majority leader and would challenge the vote in court. He locked the doors of the state senate chambers in an effort to prevent any further legislative action.[14] The Espada-Skelos coalition majority, which also courted as many as ten more Democrats,[15] announced plans to hold sessions in the "Well" of the legislative office building until chamber doors are reopened.[16] By the time of the scheduled session on June 10 at 3:00 p.m., at the request of Governor David Paterson, the keys to the senate chamber were turned over to the coalition;[17] Smith has claimed that the coalition stole the key.[15] The scheduled session was eventually postponed.[15]

Both Monserrate and Espada faced accusations of unethical or criminal conduct. Monserrate was indicted for felony assault in March and would have automatically lost his seat if convicted. New York, like most states, has a provision in its state constitution which bars convicted felons from holding office.[14] (Monseratte would be acquitted of the felonies, but was convicted on misdemeanors.) Espada was the target of a state investigation into whether he funded his campaign with money siphoned from a nonprofit health care agency he controls. The Bronx County District Attorney's office was also investigating charges that Espada actually resided in Mamaroneck, Westchester County rather than the north Bronx district he represented.[18]

As a result of the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson (D-Brooklyn) to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. This led Monserrate to declare that he would once again caucus with the Democrats, which led to a 31–31 split.[19]

On July 9, 2009, a source stated that Espada would be rejoining the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal to have Smith be pro tem president until a "transition period" during which Senator Sampson would ascend to the Senate's Temporary Presidency.[20] The term expired with Smith still as Temporary President. Democrats orchestrated the removal of both Espada and Monserrate from their ranks; the Senate voted to expel Monserrate, while Espada was defeated in a primary election that had the state party back his primary opponent, Gustavo Rivera.


The Republicans regained control of the Senate with a 32-30 majority after the 2010 elections. Just before the new chamber convened in January 2011, four Democrats, led by former Democratic whip Klein, broke away from the main Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Klein said that he and his three colleagues could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson.[21]

Following the 2010 census, New York redistricted the Senate, expanding it from 62 to 63 seats effective in January 2013. When all election night results were tabulated on November 6, 2012, Democrats held a total of 33 seats for a three-seat majority--just their third Senate majority since World War II. However, on December 4, 2012, it was announced that Senate Republicans had reached a power-sharing deal with the four-member Independent Democratic Conference (IDC); the IDC had previously defected from the Democratic leadership. Under the agreement, Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos and Senate IDC Leader Jeff Klein would alternate daily in the role of Temporary President of the Senate. Together, the Senate Republicans and the IDC held enough seats to form a governing majority; that majority was augmented when freshman Sen. Simcha Felder of Brooklyn, who was elected on the Republican, Conservative and Democratic Party lines[22], chose to join the Senate Republican Conference.[23] Also, former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith joined the Independent Democrats,[24] only to be expelled from the conference in April 2013 due to a scandal in which Smith attempted to bribe the Republican Party chairs in New York City for a Wilson Pakula to run in the upcoming New York City mayoral election.[25] (The previous Senate Minority Leader, Sen. John L. Sampson, was expelled from his conference on May 6, 2013 following his arrest on corruption charges.)

Senate District 46 was embroiled in a recount when the new Senate was sworn in and the then-leading candidate, Republican George Amedore, became a New York state senator. After the recount was completed, Amedore lost by 18 votes to Democrat Cecilia Tkaczyk, making him the shortest-serving senator in modern New York history and the loser of the state's second-closest Senate race.[26][27] Amedore would eventually win a rematch with Tkaczyk in 2014.

In 2014, the Independent Democratic Conference announced that they would end their political alliance with the Republicans and create a new one with the Senate Democratic Conference, citing a need "to fight for the core Democratic policies that are left undone."[28] In the 2014 elections, Senate Republicans retook an outright majority in the Senate,[29] and the IDC reneged on its deal with the Democrats and remained allied with the Senate Republican Conference.[30]

On May 4, 2015, Attorney for the Southern District of New York Preet Bharara, announced the arrest of Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos, along with his son, and Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver.[31] Within days, Skelos announced that he was stepping down as leader of the Republican Caucus and as Majority Leader. Senator John Flanagan, of Suffolk County, became the new Majority Leader, and the first Majority Leader from Suffolk County.[32] After Skelos was convicted in December 2015, his seat was declared vacant, with a special election to be held on the presidential primary of 2016.[33][34] The special election was won by Democrat Todd Kaminsky, resulting in the Democratic Party having a numerical 32-31 advantage over the Republicans in the State Senate. Despite this, Senator Felder and the members of the IDC chose to remain in coalition with the Republican majority.

Late in 2016, Senator Jesse Hamilton announced his intention to join the IDC if re-elected.[35] Hamilton, in his first election in 2014, was aided by the Independent Democrats, which had resulted in speculation he would eventually join the caucus.[36]

2016 elections and beyond

After all 2016 election results were announced, Senate Republicans lost one seat on Long Island and gained an upstate seat in Buffalo. On Long Island, freshman Sen. Michael Venditto was defeated in a close race by Democrat John Brooks.[37] In Buffalo, the open seat vacated by Democratic Sen. Mark Panepinto (who did not seek re-election) was won by Republican Erie County Clerk Chris Jacobs. Sen. Simcha Felder, who tied for most conservative member of the Senate according to the Conservative Party in 2016[38], announced that he would continue to caucus with the GOP, ensuring that the Republicans would retain control of the Senate by a margin of 32-31.[39]

Liberal groups in New York State, including the Working Families Party, called on the governor to intervene and pressure Sen. Felder, the IDC, and the Senate Democratic Conference to unite to make New York a united one-party government in opposition to President-elect Donald Trump's incoming administration. Klein criticized those groups along with Minority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins for lack of outreach as well as for calling on the governor to intervene in a separate branch of government. On January 2, 2017, Senate Majority Leader Flanagan and Senate IDC Leader Klein announced the continuation of their coalition; together, the two conferences held 38 Senate seats. Klein, in his statement to the press, stated that the coalition allows for bipartisan legislation getting passed and pragmatic progressive ideas to be brought to the table.[40] The Republicans retained control with 32 votes including every Senator elected as a Republican and the IDC.[41]

In late January 2017, Senator Jose Peralta announced he was joining the IDC. [42]

On April 4, 2018, a deal was announced to dissolve the IDC and have its members rejoin the Democratic Caucus with Stewart-Cousins as Democratic Leader and Klein as Deputy leader. This brought the power distribution to 32 Republicans (including support from Democratic Simcha Felder), 29 Democrats and two vacant seats. [43]

Partisan composition

The Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Since World War II, the Democrats have only controlled the upper house twice. The first time came in 1965, after the 1964 Presidential Election only for them to lose it in special elections that year. The second time again came to power following the 2008 elections on the coattails of the victory of President Barack Obama. In mid-2009, dissatisfaction by some Democrats in the State Senate along with billionaire Tom Golisano, over the leadership of Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith resulted in 2 Democratic Senators joining with the entire Republican caucus to install Senator Dean Skelos as Majority Leader and Temporary President. Over the month of June and July the Senate was mired in a leadership crisis that ended with the breakaway Democrats rejoining the caucus in late July. The Democrats maintained their majority throughout the remainder of the 2009–2010 session. Following state elections in 2010, Republicans were able to gain the two seats necessary to again reclaim the majority.

The Senate's apportionment has traditionally favored Upstate due to the state constitution's original method of giving each county, even sparsely populated ones, at least one senator (a practice that mirrored the United States Senate's approach to give each state the same number of senators).[44] This changed with Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a "one man, one vote" system of state legislative apportionment is constitutionally required. Since then, in redistricting, the Senate has traditionally overrepresented upstate in exchange for the Assembly overrepresenting downstate (each legislative district is allowed up to 5% deviation from the average district population; the state legislature systemically uses this leeway to create less populous Senate districts upstate and more populous ones downstate, and vice versa in the Assembly).

State Senate seats in New York City are typically held by Democrats, while Senate seats outside New York City are typically held by Republicans. As of the start of the 2018 session, enrolled Republicans held only two seats in New York City: District 22 (Sen. Marty Golden, R-Brooklyn) and District 24 (Sen. Andrew Lanza, R-Staten Island). However, enrolled Democrats held only three seats north of Westchester County: Districts 44 (Sen. Neil Breslin), 53 (Sen. David Valesky), and 63 (Sen. Tim Kennedy). Furthermore, enrolled Democrats held only two of the nine Long Island Senate seats: District 8 (Sen. John Brooks) and District 9 (Sen. Todd Kaminsky). Eight of the enrolled Democrats were members of the Independent Democratic Conference, and another (Sen. Simcha Felder, D-Brooklyn) caucused with the Republicans after being elected on the Republican Party line[45].

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Democratic Republican
Mainline Caucus IDC SF Vacant
Begin 2013 session 28 4 1 30 63 0
Begin 2015 session[46][47] 24 1 5 1 32 63 0
July 1, 2016[48][49] 25 31 62 1
Begin 2017 session 24 7 1 31 63 0
January 25, 2017[50] 23 8
February 15, 2017[51] 22 62 1
May 23, 2017[52] 23 63 0
Aug. 9, 2017[53] 22 62 1
Nov. 7, 2017[54] 23 63 0
January 1, 2018[55] 21 61 2
April 4, 2018[56] 29
Latest voting share 47.54% 52.46%


The Senate is headed by its President, a post held ex officio by the Lieutenant Governor. The Senate President has a casting vote in the event of a tie, but otherwise may not vote. More often, the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President, a post which is normally also held by the Majority Leader. After the 2008 elections, the Senate had a Democratic majority for the first time since 1965. They lost that majority on November 2, 2010, when Republican Jack Martins defeated Democratic Senator Craig Johnson and former Senator, now Republican Congressman Lee Zeldin, defeated Democrat Brian Foley. Following the defections of Jeffrey Klein, David Valesky and Diane Savino from the Democratic caucus, the trio joined freshman David Carlucci in a newly formed Independent Conference; this conference serves as "crossbenchers" separate from the Democratic and Republican conferences.[57]

The Senate has one additional officer outside those who are elected by the people: the Secretary of the Senate is a post that is chosen by a majority vote of the senators, and does not have voting power (he/she is allowed, though officially discouraged, from discussing and negotiating legislative matters). The Secretary of the Senate is responsible for administering the Senate's office space, overseeing the handling of bills and the oversight of the sergeants-at-arms and the stenographer. The position is currently held by Frank Patience, who was elected to a two-year position in January 2011.[58]

Position Name Party District
President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor Kathy C. Hochul Dem
Temporary President John J. Flanagan Rep 2
Republican Conference leader John J. Flanagan Rep 2
Democratic Conference leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins Dem 35
Independent Democratic Conference leader Jeffrey Klein[59] IDC 34

Majority leadership

  • Temporary President: Sen. John Flanagan
  • Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John Flanagan
  • Deputy Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John DeFrancisco

Republican Conference Leadership

  • John J. Flanagan, Temporary President and Majority Leader
  • John A. DeFrancisco, Deputy Majority Leader for Legislative Operations
  • Catharine M. Young, Chair, Senate Finance Committee
  • Kenneth P. LaValle, Chairman, Senate Majority Conference
  • James L. Seward, Chair Majority Program Development Committee
  • Kemp Hannon, Assistant Majority Leader on Conference Operations
  • William J. Larkin Jr., Assistant Majority Leader for House Operations
  • Carl L. Marcellino, Majority Whip
  • John J. Bonacic, Deputy Majority Leader for State/Federal Relations
  • Martin J. Golden, Vice Chair, Majority Conference
  • Josesph E. Robach, Secretary of the Senate Majority Conference
  • Elizabeth Little, Chair, Majority Steering Committee
  • Joseph Griffo, Deputy Majority Whip
  • Andrew J. Lanza, Assistant Majority Whip
  • Michael H. Ranzenhofer, Deputy Majority Leader for Economic Development
  • Patrick M. Gallivan, Liaison to the Executive Branch
  • Patricia Ritchie, Deputy Majority Leader for Senate/Assembly Relations*


Independent Democratic Conference

  • Jeffrey D. Klein, Independent Democratic Conference Leader & Majority Coalition Leader
  • David J. Valesky, Deputy Independent Democratic Conference Leader for Legislative Operations
  • David Carlucci, Independent Democratic Conference Whip
  • Diane J. Savino, Independent Democratic Conference Liaison to the Executive Branch
  • Tony Avella, Assistant Conference Leader for Policy and Administration

Full Minority leadership

  • Andrea Stewart-Cousins, Democratic Conference Leader
  • Michael Gianaris, Deputy Democratic Conference Leader
  • Liz Krueger, Ranking Democratic Member of Senate Finance Committee
  • José M. Serrano, Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Martin Malave Dilan, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Policy and Administration
  • Timothy M. Kennedy, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Conference Operations
  • Neil D. Breslin, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Floor Operations
  • Kevin S. Parker, Vice Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Toby Ann Stavisky, Vice Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Velmanette Montgomery, Secretary of the Senate Democratic Conference
  • Bill Perkins, Deputy Democratic Conference Whip
  • Daniel Squadron, Assistant Democratic Conference Whip
  • Brad Hoylman, Deputy Democratic Conference Floor Leader
  • Gustavo Rivera, Chair of Democratic Conference Program Development


Current members

District Senator Party First elected Counties Represented
1 LaValle, Kenneth P.Kenneth P. LaValle Republican 1976 Suffolk
2 Flanagan, John J.John J. Flanagan Republican 2002 Suffolk
3 Croci, ThomasThomas Croci Republican 2014 Suffolk
4 Boyle, Philip M.Philip M. Boyle Republican 2012 Suffolk
5 Marcellino, Carl L.Carl L. Marcellino Republican 1995* Nassau, Suffolk
6 Hannon, KempKemp Hannon Republican 1989* Nassau
7 Phillips, ElaineElaine Phillips Republican 2016 Nassau
8 Brooks, JohnJohn Brooks Democratic 2016 Nassau, Suffolk
9 Kaminsky, ToddTodd Kaminsky Democratic 2016* Nassau
10 Sanders, Jr., JamesJames Sanders, Jr. Democratic 2012 Queens
11 Avella, TonyTony Avella Democratic 2010 Queens
12 Gianaris, Michael N.Michael N. Gianaris Democratic 2010 Queens
13 Peralta, JoseJose Peralta Democratic 2010* Queens
14 Comrie, LeroyLeroy Comrie Democratic 2014 Queens
15 Addabbo, Jr., JosephJoseph Addabbo, Jr. Democratic 2008 Queens
16 Stavisky, Toby AnnToby Ann Stavisky Democratic 1999* Queens
17 Felder, SimchaSimcha Felder Democratic[61] 2012 Kings (Brooklyn)
18 Dilan, Martin MalaveMartin Malave Dilan Democratic 2002 Kings
19 Persaud, RoxanneRoxanne Persaud Democratic 2015* Kings
20 Hamilton, JesseJesse Hamilton Democratic 2014 Kings
21 Parker, Kevin S.Kevin S. Parker Democratic 2002 Kings
22 Golden, Martin J.Martin J. Golden Republican 2002 Kings
23 Savino, DianeDiane Savino Democratic 2004 Kings, Richmond (Staten Island)
24 Lanza, Andrew J.Andrew J. Lanza Republican 2006 Richmond
25 Montgomery, VelmanetteVelmanette Montgomery Democratic 1984 Kings
26 Kavanagh, BrianBrian Kavanagh Democratic 2017* Kings, New York (Manhattan)
27 Hoylman, BradBrad Hoylman Democratic 2012 New York
28 Krueger, LizLiz Krueger Democratic 2002* New York
29 Serrano, Jose M.Jose M. Serrano Democratic 2004 New York, Bronx
30 Benjamin, BrianBrian Benjamin Democratic 2017* New York
31 Alcantara, MarisolMarisol Alcantara Democratic 2016 New York
32 Vacant Bronx
33 Rivera, GustavoGustavo Rivera Democratic 2010 Bronx
34 Klein, Jeffrey D.Jeffrey D. Klein Democratic 2004 Bronx, Westchester
35 Stewart-Cousins, AndreaAndrea Stewart-Cousins Democratic 2006 Westchester
36 Bailey, JamaalJamaal Bailey Democratic 2016 Bronx, Westchester
37 Vacant Westchester
38 Carlucci, DavidDavid Carlucci Democratic 2010 Rockland, Westchester
39 Larkin, Jr., William J.William J. Larkin, Jr. Republican 1990 Orange, Rockland, Ulster
40 Murphy, Terrence P.Terrence P. Murphy Republican 2014 Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester
41 Serino, Susan J.Susan J. Serino Republican 2014 Dutchess, Putnam
42 Bonacic, John J.John J. Bonacic Republican 1998 Delaware, Orange, Sullivan, Ulster
43 Marchione, Kathleen A.Kathleen A. Marchione Republican 2012 Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington
44 Breslin, NeilNeil Breslin Democratic 1996 Albany, Rensselaer
45 Little, BettyBetty Little Republican 2002 Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Saint Lawrence, Warren, Washington
46 Amedore, Jr., George A.George A. Amedore, Jr. Republican 2014 Albany, Greene, Montgomery, Schenectady, Ulster
47 Griffo, JosephJoseph Griffo Republican 2006 Lewis, Oneida, St. Lawrence
48 Ritchie, PattyPatty Ritchie Republican 2010 Jefferson, Oswego, St. Lawrence
49 Tedisco, JimJim Tedisco Republican 2016 Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Saratoga, Schenectady
50 DeFrancisco, JohnJohn DeFrancisco Republican 1992 Cayuga, Onondaga
51 Seward, JamesJames Seward Republican 1986 Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Herkimer, Otsego, Schoharie, Tompkins, Ulster
52 Akshar, FredFred Akshar Republican 2015* Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Tioga
53 Valesky, DavidDavid Valesky Democratic 2004 Madison, Oneida, Onondaga
54 Helming, PamPam Helming Republican 2016 Cayuga, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Tompkins, Wayne
55 Funke, RichardRichard Funke Republican 2014 Monroe, Ontario
56 Robach, JosephJoseph Robach Republican 2002 Monroe
57 Young, CatharineCatharine Young Republican 2005* Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Livingston
58 O'Mara, TomTom O'Mara Republican 2010 Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tompkins, Yates
59 Gallivan, PatrickPatrick Gallivan Republican 2010 Erie, Livingston, Monroe, Wyoming
60 Jacobs, ChrisChris Jacobs Republican 2016 Erie
61 Ranzenhofer, Michael H.Michael H. Ranzenhofer Republican 2008 Erie, Genesee, Monroe
62 Ortt, Robert G.Robert G. Ortt Republican 2014 Monroe, Niagara, Orleans
63 Kennedy, Timothy M.Timothy M. Kennedy Democratic 2010 Erie

* Elected in a special election

Committee leadership

As of January 2018, the State Senate committee chairs were as follows (committee chairs are Republican unless otherwise noted):

District map

  Democratic Party
  Republican Party
  Independent Democratic Conference
  Democrat caucusing with Republicans

Past composition of the Senate

See also


  1. ^ "Branches of Government in New York State". New York State Senate, A Guide to New York State's Government. New York State Senate. 1988. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2009. 
  2. ^ McKinley, Jesse (February 24, 2014). "What Is a Majority Vote in the State Senate? The Answer Goes Beyond Simple Math". The New York Times. 
  3. ^ 2008 Election Results, New York State Board of Elections.
  4. ^ 2008–09 (Post-Election) Partisan Composition of State Legislatures[permanent dead link] National Conference of State Legislatures
  5. ^ New York Times. "Democrats Take State Senate." nytimes.com. November 5, 2008.
  6. ^ Peters, Jeremy W.Democrats Likely to Keep Control of State Senate, The New York Times, November 6, 2008.
  7. ^ Benjamin, Elizabeth. Monserrate Makes A Democratic Deal Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Politics. The Daily News November 8, 2008
  8. ^ Lanza, Michael. Smith Balks After ‘Gang of Three’ Talks Archived December 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The Queens Tribune December 11, 2008.
  9. ^ Hakim, Danny (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Reach Pact to Lead New York State Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018 – via NYTimes.com. 
  10. ^ Peters, Jeremy W. (February 8, 2018). "Democrats Take Control of New York State Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018 – via NYTimes.com. 
  11. ^ "GOP, 2 Dems flip power balance in NY Senate", The Washington Post, June 8, 2009[dead link]
  12. ^ Odato, James. "Two Democrats join Republicans to topple Smith as Senate leader", Albany Times Union, June 8, 2009 Archived June 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ a b Peters, Jeremy, and Danny Hakim.Republicans Seize Control of State Senate. The New York Times, June 9, 2009
  15. ^ a b c Bauman, Valerie. Senate stalls: Coalition says it's still strong. Associated Press. Retrieved June 11, 2009
  16. ^ Benjamin, Elizabeth. Coalition government, Day One Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. New York Daily News "Daily Politics" blog. June 9, 2009.
  17. ^ "Maverick coalition: We have keys to New York state Senate". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  18. ^ Salonstall, David. Sen. Pedro Espada hounded by questions on ethics and residency. New York Daily News, June 10, 2009
  19. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (June 15, 2009) State Senate standoff means even bigger mess with Sen. Hiram Monserrate's change of heart. New York Daily News Retrieved June 15, 2009
  20. ^ Deadlock-Ending Deal Near? Espada To Return To The Democrats Archived July 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. New York Daily News Retrieved July 9, 2009
  21. ^ Thomas Kaplan; Nicholas Confessore (January 4, 2011). "4 Democrats in State Senate Break With Leaders". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ "NYC Board of Elections General Election Results 2016". 
  23. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (November 13, 2012). "Newly Elected State Senator, Simcha Felder, Defects to G.O.P." Retrieved February 8, 2018 – via NYTimes.com. 
  24. ^ Kaplan, Thomas Coalition Is to Control State Senate as Dissident Democrats Join With the G.O.P., The New York Times, December 4, 2012.
  25. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (April 15, 2013). NYS Senate Independent Democratic Conference To Busted Malcolm Smith: Stay Away. New York Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  26. ^ United Press International (UPI), " Dem. squeaks into N.Y. Senate by 18 votes," January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 18, 2013
  27. ^ Vielkind, Jimmy "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes," Times Union, January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 19, 2013
  28. ^ Bain, Glenn. "Senate's Independent Democratic Conference announces end to alliance with Republicans – UPDATED". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2015. 
  29. ^ "GOP wins N.Y. Senate, puts Women's Equality Act in flux". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  30. ^ "Klein, diminished but still desired, sides with power". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  31. ^ Craig, Susanne (May 4, 2015). "New York Senate Leader and Son Are Arrested on Corruption Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  32. ^ Kaplan, Thomas; Craig, Susanne (May 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, New York Senate Leader, Vacates Post". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  33. ^ Rashbaum, William K.; Craig, Susanne (December 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, Ex-New York Senate Leader, and His Son Are Convicted of Corruption". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  34. ^ Rojas, Rick (January 30, 2016). "Special Election Is Set for April to Fill Seats Left Vacant in Albany". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  35. ^ "Brooklyn senator joins breakaway Democrats". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  36. ^ "Jesse Hamilton promises to join Senate's IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  37. ^ "Republic state Sen. Venditto concedes race to Democratic challenger". News 12 Long Island. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  38. ^ "New York Conservative Party". 
  39. ^ Yee, Vivian (November 21, 2016). "Simcha Felder, Rogue Democratic Senator, Will Remain Loyal to G.O.P." The New York Times. p. A25. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  40. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (January 2, 2017). "LOVETT: Breakaway Senate Dems will side with GOP". Daily News. New York. Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  41. ^ "NY Senate Legislative Session 1-4-17". Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  42. ^ "Sen. Jose Peralta blasts 'failed' state Democratic leadership". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  43. ^ http://www.nystateofpolitics.com/2018/04/idc-agrees-to-dissolve/%7Ctitle=IDC agrees to dissolveaccessdate=April 4, 2018}}
  44. ^ "new york state constitution - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  45. ^ "NYC Board of Elections 2016 results" (PDF). 
  46. ^ Hamilton, Matthew; Karlin, Rick (January 8, 2015). "Session begins, lacking drama". Times Union. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  47. ^ "FBI: Senator embezzled, lied". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  48. ^ "Todd Kaminsky Win of Skelos' Seat May Not Be Enough to Shift State Senate Control to Democrats". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  49. ^ "Senator Hassell-Thompson joins Cuomo administration in NYS State Homes and Community Renewal". Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  50. ^ Sen. Jose Peralta (D-13) joins the Independent Democratic Conference."Sen. Jose Peralta defects to IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 
  51. ^ Sen. Bill Perkins (D-30) resigns after being elected to the New York City Council"State Sen. Bill Perkins wins old City Council seat". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 
  52. ^ Democrat Brian Benjamin elected to succeed Sen. Bill Perkins (D-30) "Brian Benjamin Wins Special Election for Upper Manhattan State Senate Seat". NY1. Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017. 
  53. ^ Sen. Dan Squadron (D-26) resigns [2]
  54. ^ Democrat Brian Kavanagh elected to succeed Sen. Dan Squadron (D-26) [3]
  55. ^ Democrats Rubén Díaz Sr. (District 32) and George Latimer (District 37) resigned their seats to take other positions.[4]
  56. ^ On April 4, 2018 the eight members of the IDC agreed to reunite with the Democratic caucus. Simcha Felder will continue caucusing with the Republicans.[5]
  57. ^ The New Amigos Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  58. ^ Patience Is The New Aponte Archived July 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  59. ^ "Breakaway Senate Dems form caucus (video added)". January 5, 2011. Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  60. ^ a b "Senate Leadership". October 4, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2018. 
  61. ^ Sen. Felder has been elected on the Democratic, Republican and Conservative Party lines (as of the 2016 election) and has caucused with the Republicans since his first election, but he is a registered Democrat.

External links