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New York is a state in the northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.85 million residents in 2017,[4] it is the fourth most populous state. To differentiate from its city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State. The state's most populous city, New York City
New York City
makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island.[9] The state and city were both named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015,[9] New York City
New York City
is the most populous city in the United States
United States
and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States.[10][11][12] The New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous in the world.[13][14] New York City
New York City
is a global city,[15] home to the United Nations Headquarters[16] and has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital[17][18] of the world,[19][20][21] as well as the world's most economically powerful city.[22][21][23] The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont
Vermont
to the east. The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces
Canadian provinces
of Quebec
Quebec
to the north and Ontario
Ontario
to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and includes Long Island
Long Island
and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City
New York City
and the lower Hudson River
Hudson River
Valley. The large Upstate New York
Upstate New York
region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, and the Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley
Hudson River Valley
and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region
Great Lakes Region
and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries
Jesuit missionaries
arrived southward from Montreal
Montreal
for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
sailing for the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed. The Dutch soon also settled New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775–1783), a group of colonists of the Province of New York
Province of New York
attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
(shared with Ontario), and Grand Central Terminal.[24] New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States
United States
and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[25] In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,[26] social tolerance,[27] and environmental sustainability.[28][29] New York's higher education network comprises approximately 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University,the United States
United States
Military Academy, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.[30][31]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Native American history 1.2 16th century 1.3 17th century 1.4 18th century, the American Revolution, and statehood 1.5 19th century 1.6 Immigration 1.7 September 11, 2001 attacks 1.8 Hurricane Sandy, 2012

2 Geography

2.1 Water

2.1.1 Borders 2.1.2 Drainage

2.2 Climate 2.3 Ecology 2.4 Regions 2.5 State parks 2.6 National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks 2.7 Administrative divisions

3 Demographics

3.1 Population 3.2 Most populous counties 3.3 Major cities 3.4 Metropolitan areas 3.5 Race and ethnicity 3.6 Languages 3.7 Religion 3.8 LGBTQ

4 Economy

4.1 Wall Street 4.2 Silicon Alley 4.3 Tech Valley 4.4 Media and entertainment 4.5 Tourism 4.6 Exports

5 Education 6 Transportation 7 Government and politics

7.1 Government

7.1.1 Capital punishment 7.1.2 Federal representation

7.2 Politics

8 Sports 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of New York (state) Native American history[edit] The tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Iroquois
Iroquois
and Algonquin. Long Island
Long Island
was divided roughly in half between the Wampanoag
Wampanoag
and Lenape. The Lenape
Lenape
also controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor. North of the Lenape
Lenape
was a third Algonquin nation, the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian
Iroquoian
nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois
Iroquois
and the Petun. South of them, divided roughly along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock
Susquehannock
and the Erie.[32][33][34][35][36][37] Many of the Wampanoag
Wampanoag
and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England
New England
tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki
Abenaki
and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans
Mohicans
remained in the region until the 1800s, [38] however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia
Virginia
at an earlier time. They may have merged with the Shawnee. [39][40] The Mohawk and Susquehannock
Susquehannock
were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes. The Mohawk were also known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki
Abenaki
and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock
Susquehannock
briefly conquered the Lenape
Lenape
in the 1600s. The most devastating event of the century, however, was the Beaver
Beaver
Wars. From approximately 1640–1680, Iroquoian
Iroquoian
peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan
Michigan
to Virginia
Virginia
against Algonquin and Siouan tribes, as well as each other. The aim was to control more land for animal trapping, a career most natives had turned to in hopes of trading with whites first. Not only did this completely change the ethnography of the region, most large game was hunted out before whites ever fully explored the land. Still, afterward, the Iroquois Confederacy offered shelter to refugees of the Mascouten, Erie, Chonnonton, Tutelo, Saponi and Tuscarora nations. In the 1700s, they would also merge with the Mohawk during the French-Indian War
French-Indian War
and take in the remaining Susquehannock
Susquehannock
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
after they were decimated in war.[41] Most of these other groups blended in until they ceased to exist. Then, after the Revolution, a large group of them split off and returned to Ohio, becoming known as the Mingo
Mingo
Seneca. The current six tribes of the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy are the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Tuscarora and Mohawk. As the Iroquois
Iroquois
sided with the British during the Revolution, they soon after migrated to Canada.[42][43] Meanwhile, the Lenape
Lenape
formed a close relationship with William Penn. However, upon Penn's death, his sons managed to take over much of their lands and banish them to Ohio.[44] When the U.S. drafted the Indian Removal Act, the Lenape
Lenape
were further moved to Missouri, whereas their cousins, the Mohicans, were sent to Wisconsin. Also, in 1778, the United States
United States
relocated the Nanticoke from the Delmarva Peninsula to the former Iroquois
Iroquois
lands south of Lake Ontario, though they did not stay long. Mostly, they chose to migrate into Canada
Canada
and merge with the Iroquois, although some moved west and merged with the Lenape. [45] 16th century[edit] In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown, explored the Atlantic coast of North America
North America
between the Carolinas and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor
New York Harbor
and Narragansett Bay. On April 17, 1524, Verrazzano entered New York Bay, by way of the strait now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita, in honor of the King of France's sister. Verrazzano described it as "a vast coastline with a deep delta in which every kind of ship could pass" and he adds: "that it extends inland for a league and opens up to form a beautiful lake. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats". He landed on the tip of Manhattan
Manhattan
and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazzano's stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Martha's Vineyard.[46] In 1540, French traders from New France
France
built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany; it was abandoned the following year due to flooding. In 1614, the Dutch, under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, which they called Fort Nassau. Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse. Located on the Hudson River
Hudson River
flood plain, the rudimentary "fort" was washed away by flooding in 1617,[47] and abandoned for good after Fort Orange (New Netherland) was built nearby in 1623.[48] 17th century[edit] See also: Province of New York

New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660

Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area. Sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year.[49] Word of his findings encouraged Dutch merchants to explore the coast in search for profitable fur trading with local Native American tribes. During the 17th century, Dutch trading posts established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape, Iroquois, and other tribes were founded in the colony of New Netherland. The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau (1614, near present-day Albany); Fort Orange
Fort Orange
(1624, on the Hudson River
Hudson River
just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau), developing into settlement Beverwijck
Beverwijck
(1647), and into what became Albany; Fort Amsterdam
Fort Amsterdam
(1625, to develop into the town New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
which is present-day New York City); and Esopus, (1653, now Kingston). The success of the patroonship of Rensselaerswyck (1630), which surrounded Albany and lasted until the mid-19th century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony. The English captured the colony during the Second Anglo-Dutch War and governed it as the Province of New York. The city of New York was recaptured by the Dutch in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674) and renamed New Orange. It was returned to the English under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster a year later.[50] 18th century, the American Revolution, and statehood[edit]

New York and neighboring jurisdictions in 1777

The Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
were organized in New York City
New York City
during the 1760s, largely in response to the oppressive Stamp Act passed by the British Parliament in 1765. The Stamp Act Congress
Stamp Act Congress
met in the city on October 19 of that year, composed of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies who set the stage for the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
to follow. The Stamp Act Congress
Stamp Act Congress
resulted in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which was the first written expression by representatives of the Americans of many of the rights and complaints later expressed in the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence. This included the right to representative government. At the same time, given strong commercial, personal and sentimental links to Britain, many New York residents were Loyalists. The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
provided the cannon and gunpowder necessary to force a British withdrawal from the Siege of Boston
Siege of Boston
in 1775. New York was the only colony not to vote for independence, as the delegates were not authorized to do so. New York then endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776.[51] The New York State Constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at White Plains on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, terminated its labors at Kingston on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the new constitution drafted by John Jay
John Jay
was adopted with but one dissenting vote. It was not submitted to the people for ratification. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York
Governor of New York
at Kingston. About one-third of the battles of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
took place in New York; the first major battle after U.S. independence was declared – and the largest battle of the entire war – was fought in New York at the Battle of Long Island
Long Island
(a.k.a. Battle of Brooklyn) in August 1776. After their victory, the British occupied New York City, making it their military and political base of operations in North America
North America
for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the focus of General George Washington's intelligence network. On the notorious British prison ships of Wallabout Bay, more American combatants died of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war combined. Both sides of combatants lost more soldiers to disease than to outright wounds. The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army
Continental Army
at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, a success that influenced France
France
to ally with the revolutionaries.The state constitution was enacted in 1777. New York became the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788.

Preceded by Virginia List of U.S. states by date of statehood Ratified Constitution on July 26, 1788 (11th) Succeeded by North Carolina

British general John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne
surrenders at Saratoga in 1777.

In an attempt to retain their sovereignty and remain an independent nation positioned between the new United States
United States
and British North America, four of the Iroquois
Iroquois
Nations fought on the side of the British; only the Oneida and their dependents, the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the Americans.[52] In retaliation for attacks on the frontier led by Joseph Brant
Joseph Brant
and Loyalist
Loyalist
Mohawk forces, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 destroyed nearly 50 Iroquois
Iroquois
villages, adjacent croplands and winter stores, forcing many refugees to British-held Niagara.[53] As allies of the British, the Iroquois
Iroquois
were forced out of New York, although they had not been part of treaty negotiations. They resettled in Canada
Canada
after the war and were given land grants by the Crown. In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois
Iroquois
without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases have been subject to land claim suits since the late 20th century by the federally recognized tribes. New York put up more than 5 million acres (20,000 km2) of former Iroquois
Iroquois
territory for sale in the years after the Revolutionary War, leading to rapid development in upstate New York.[54] As per the Treaty of Paris, the last vestige of British authority in the former Thirteen Colonies – their troops in New York City – departed in 1783, which was long afterward celebrated as Evacuation Day.[55]

1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia

New York City
New York City
was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation
Confederation
and Perpetual Union, the first government. That organization was found to be insufficient, and prominent New Yorker Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
advocated a new government that would include an executive, national courts, and the power to tax. Hamilton led the Annapolis Convention (1786) that called for the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the United States
United States
Constitution, in which he also took part. The new government was to be a strong federal national government to replace the relatively weaker confederation of individual states. Following heated debate, which included the publication of the now quintessential constitutional interpretation – The Federalist Papers – as a series of installments in New York City
New York City
newspapers, New York was the 11th state to ratify the United States
United States
Constitution, on July 26, 1788.[56] New York remained the national capital under the new constitution until 1790, and was the site of the inauguration of President George Washington, the drafting of the United States
United States
Bill of Rights, and the first session of the United States
United States
Supreme Court. Hamilton's revival of the heavily indebted United States
United States
economy after the war and the creation of a national bank significantly contributed to New York City becoming the financial center of the new nation. Both the Dutch and the British imported African slaves as laborers to the city and colony; New York had the second-highest population of slaves after Charleston, South Carolina. Slavery was extensive in New York City
City
and some agricultural areas. The state passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery soon after the Revolutionary War, but the last slave in New York was not freed until 1827. 19th century[edit]

The Erie Canal
Erie Canal
at Lockport, New York
Lockport, New York
in 1839

Transportation in western New York was by expensive wagons on muddy roads before canals opened up the rich farm lands to long-distance traffic. Governor DeWitt Clinton
DeWitt Clinton
promoted the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
that connected New York City
New York City
to the Great Lakes, by the Hudson River, the new canal, and the rivers and lakes. Work commenced in 1817, and the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
opened in 1825. Packet boats pulled by horses on tow paths traveled slowly over the canal carrying passengers and freight.[57] Farm products came in from the Midwest, and finished manufactured moved west. It was an engineering marvel which opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. It enabled Great Lakes
Great Lakes
port cities such as Buffalo and Rochester to grow and prosper. It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City. Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York. After 1850, railroads largely replaced the canal.[58] New York City
New York City
was a major ocean port and had extensive traffic importing cotton from the South and exporting manufacturing goods. Nearly half of the state's exports were related to cotton. Southern cotton factors, planters and bankers visited so often that they had favorite hotels.[59] At the same time, activism for abolitionism was strong upstate, where some communities provided stops on the Underground Railroad. Upstate, and New York City, gave strong support for the American Civil War
American Civil War
In terms of finances, volunteer soldiers, and supplies. The state provided more than 370,000 soldiers to the Union armies. Over 53,000 New Yorkers died in service, roughly one of every seven who served. However, Irish draft riots in 1862 were a significant embarrassment.[60][61] Immigration[edit] Further information: Ellis Island

Ellis Island
Ellis Island
in 1905

Play media

Scenes at the Immigration
Immigration
Depot and a nearby dock on Ellis Island

Since the early 19th century, New York City
New York City
has been the largest port of entry for legal immigration into the United States. In the United States, the federal government did not assume direct jurisdiction for immigration until 1890. Prior to this time, the matter was delegated to the individual states, then via contract between the states and the federal government. Most immigrants to New York would disembark at the bustling docks along the Hudson and East Rivers, in the eventual Lower Manhattan. On May 4, 1847, the New York State Legislature
Legislature
created the Board of Commissioners of Immigration
Immigration
to regulate immigration.[62] The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in 1855 at Castle Garden, a converted War of 1812
War of 1812
era fort located within what is now Battery Park, at the tip of Lower Manhattan. The first immigrants to arrive at the new depot were aboard three ships that had just been released from quarantine. Castle Garden served as New York's immigrant depot until it closed on April 18, 1890, when the federal government assumed control over immigration. During that period, more than 8 million immigrants passed through its doors (two out of every three U.S. immigrants).[63] When the federal government assumed control, it established the Bureau of Immigration, which chose the three-acre Ellis Island
Ellis Island
in Upper New York Harbor for an entry depot. Already federally controlled, the island had served as an ammunition depot. It was chosen due its relative isolation with proximity to New York City
New York City
and the rail lines of Jersey City, New Jersey, via a short ferry ride. While the island was being developed and expanded via land reclamation, the federal government operated a temporary depot at the Barge Office at the Battery.[64] Ellis Island
Ellis Island
opened on January 1, 1892, and operated as a central immigration center until the National Origins Act was passed in 1924, reducing immigration. After that date, the only immigrants to pass through were displaced persons or war refugees. The island ceased all immigration processing on November 12, 1954, when the last person detained on the island, Norwegian seaman Arne Peterssen, was released. He had overstayed his shore leave and left on the 10:15 a.m. Manhattan-bound ferry to return to his ship. More than 12 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island
Ellis Island
between 1892 and 1954. More than 100 million Americans across the United States can trace their ancestry to these immigrants. Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was the subject of a contentious and long-running border and jurisdictional dispute between New York State and the State of New Jersey, as both claimed it. The issue was settled in 1998 by the U.S. Supreme Court which ruled that the original 3.3-acre (1.3 ha) island was New York State territory and that the balance of the 27.5 acres (11 ha) added after 1834 by landfill was in New Jersey.[65] The island was added to the National Park Service
National Park Service
system in May 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
and is still owned by the Federal government as part of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument. Ellis Island was opened to the public as a museum of immigration in 1990.[66] September 11, 2001 attacks[edit]

Flight 175
Flight 175
hit the original South Tower on September 11, 2001.

Main article: September 11 attacks On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, and the towers collapsed. 7 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center
also collapsed due to damage from fires. The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and demolished soon thereafter. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage and resulted in the deaths of 2,753 victims, including 147 aboard the two planes. Since September 11, most of Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
has been restored. In the years since, many rescue workers and residents of the area have developed several life-threatening illnesses, and some have died.[67] A memorial at the site, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, was opened to the public on September 11, 2011. A permanent museum later opened at the site on March 21, 2014. Upon its completion in 2014, the new One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
became the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere, at 1,776 feet (541 m).[68] Other skyscrapers are under construction at the site. Hurricane Sandy, 2012[edit] Main article: Effects of Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
in New York

Flooding on Avenue C in Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
caused by Hurricane Sandy

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
caused extensive destruction of the state's shorelines, ravaging portions of New York City
City
and Long Island
Long Island
with record-high storm surge, with severe flooding and high winds causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers, and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its profound effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of New York City
New York City
and Long Island to minimize the risk from another such future event. This is considered highly probable due to global warming and rise in sea levels.[69][70]

Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and Long Island
Long Island
Sound, New York City and Long Island
Long Island
alone are home to approximately 11 million residents conjointly.

The Adirondack High Peaks
Adirondack High Peaks
region.

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of New York

New York terrain.

Map of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers.

Skaneateles Lake, one of the eleven Finger Lakes, provides drinking water for the city of Syracuse and nearby areas in central New York.

New York covers 54,555 square miles (141,300 km2) and ranks as the 27th largest state by size.[3] The highest elevation in New York is Mount Marcy
Mount Marcy
in the Adirondacks, at 5,344 feet (1,629 meters) above sea level; while the state's lowest point is at sea level, on the Atlantic Ocean.[71] In contrast with New York City's urban landscape, the vast majority of the state's geographic area is dominated by meadows, forests, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes. Most of the southern part of the state rests on the Allegheny Plateau, which extends from the southeastern United States
United States
to the Catskill Mountains; the section in New York State is known as the Southern Tier. The rugged Adirondack Mountains, with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
Valley. The Great Appalachian Valley
Great Appalachian Valley
dominates eastern New York and contains the Lake Champlain Valley
Lake Champlain Valley
as its northern half and the Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
as its southern half within the state. The Tug Hill
Tug Hill
region arises as a cuesta east of Lake Ontario.[72] Upstate and downstate are often used informally to distinguish New York City
City
or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York State. The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention.[73] Unofficial and loosely defined regions of Upstate New York
Upstate New York
include the Southern Tier, which often includes the counties along the border with Pennsylvania,[74] and the North Country, which can mean anything from the strip along the Canada–US border to everything north of the Mohawk River.[75] New York contains a part of the Marcellus shale, which extends into Ohio
Ohio
and Pennsylvania.[76] Water[edit] Borders[edit] Of New York State's total area, 13.6% consists of water.[77] Much of New York's boundaries are in water, as is true for New York City: four of its five boroughs are situated on three islands at the mouth of the Hudson River: Manhattan
Manhattan
Island; Staten Island; and Long Island, which contains Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
at its western end. The state's borders include a water boundary in (clockwise from the west) two Great Lakes ( Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and Lake Ontario, which are connected by the Niagara River); the provinces of Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec
Quebec
in Canada, with New York and Ontario
Ontario
sharing the Thousand Islands
Thousand Islands
archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River, while most of its border with Quebec
Quebec
is on land; it shares Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
with the New England
New England
state of Vermont; the New England state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
has mostly a land border, while Connecticut
Connecticut
has land and sea borders; New York extends into Long Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing a water border with Rhode Island. Except for areas near the New York Harbor, New York has a mostly land border with two Mid-Atlantic states, New Jersey
New Jersey
and Pennsylvania. New York is the only state that includes within its borders parts of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the Atlantic Ocean. Drainage[edit] The Hudson River
Hudson River
begins near Lake Tear of the Clouds
Lake Tear of the Clouds
and flows south through the eastern part of the state, without draining Lakes George or Champlain. Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu River
Richelieu River
and then ultimately the Saint Lawrence River. The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River
Allegheny River
and rivers of the Susquehanna and Delaware River
Delaware River
systems. Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
is shared between New York and Ontario
Ontario
as it flows on the Niagara River from Lake Erie
Lake Erie
to Lake Ontario. The Delaware River
Delaware River
Basin Compact, signed in 1961 by New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the federal government, regulates the utilization of water of the Delaware
Delaware
system.[78] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of New York

Lake-effect snow
Lake-effect snow
is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill
Tug Hill
region.

In general, New York has a humid continental climate, though under the Köppen climate classification, New York City
New York City
has a humid subtropical climate.[79] Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest. Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather warm summers with some periods of high humidity and cold, damp winters which are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York
Upstate New York
due to downstate region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude. Upstate New York
Upstate New York
experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. Western New York, particularly the Tug Hill region, receives heavy lake-effect snows, especially during the earlier portions of winter, before the surface of Lake Ontario
Ontario
itself is covered by ice. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier. Summer daytime temperatures usually range from the upper 70s to mid-80s °F (25 to 30 °C), over much of the state. In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of −13 °F (−25 °C) or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and 5 °F (−15 °C) or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands of the Southern Tier. New York ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases generated per person. This relative efficient energy usage is primarily due to the dense, compact settlement in the New York City metropolitan area, and the state population's high rate of mass transit use in this area and between major cities.[80] Ecology[edit] Further information: List of taxa described from New York

Panoramas of New York

Panoramic view of the Manhattan
Manhattan
skyline taken from Weehawken, New Jersey in February 2017. 1. Time Warner Center, 2. 220 Central Park South S, 3. One57, 4. 432 Park Avenue, 5. Chrysler Building, 6. Bank of America Tower, 7. Conde Nast Building, 8. The New York Times Building, 9. Empire State
Empire State
Building, 10. Hudson Yards, 13. 30 Park Place, 14. Woolworth Building, 15. 40 Wall Street, 16. Three World Trade Center, 17. Four World Trade Center, 18. One World Trade Center.

Niagara Falls, in the Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
National Heritage Area, flows on the Niagara River
Niagara River
connecting Lake Ontario
Ontario
and Lake Erie, two of the five Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America.

View of the Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
from the 5,344-foot (1,629-meter) summit of Mount Marcy, New York's tallest peak.

Panorama of the state capital Albany and the Hudson River
Hudson River
from Rensselaer. At the left foreground is the System Administration Building of the State University of New York. The tallest skyscraper visible is one of several buildings in the Empire State
Empire State
Plaza governmental complex.

The Thousand Islands
Thousand Islands
constitute an archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River. Boldt Castle, on Heart Island, is seen at center.

The Great Peconic Bay, with the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
as its primary inflow, separates the North Fork and South Fork at the East End of Long Island.

Regions[edit] Main article: List of regions of the United States
United States
§ New York

Economic regions of New York

Due to its long history, New York has several overlapping and often conflicting definitions of regions within the state. The regions are also not fully definable due to colloquial use of regional labels. The New York State Department of Economic Development provides two distinct definitions of these regions; it divides the state into ten economic regions,[81] which approximately correspond to terminology used by residents:

Western New York Finger Lakes Southern Tier Central New York North Country Mohawk Valley Capital District Hudson Valley New York City Long Island

Tourism
Tourism
regions of New York

The department also groups the counties into eleven regions for tourism purposes:[82]

Chautauqua–Allegheny Niagara Frontier Finger Lakes Thousand Islands Central-Leatherstocking Region Adirondack Mountains Capital District Catskill Mountains Hudson Valley New York City Long Island

State parks[edit] See also: List of New York state parks
List of New York state parks
and New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation

Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park
Adirondack Park
(north) and the Catskill Park
Catskill Park
(south).

New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Niagara Falls State Park, established in 1885, is the oldest state park in the United States[83] and the first to be created via eminent domain.[84] In 1892, Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of Vermont
Vermont
and the largest state park in the United States,[85] was established and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. The park is larger than Yellowstone, Everglades, Glacier, and Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
national parks combined.[85] It is larger than the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Olympic National Parks combined.[86] The Catskill Park
Catskill Park
was protected in legislation passed in 1885,[87] which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of 700,000 acres (2,800 km2) of land,[87] the park is a habitat for deer, minks, and fishers. There are some 400 black bears living in the region.[88] The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over 300 miles (480 km) of multi-use trails in the Park. The 1797 Montauk Lighthouse, commissioned under President George Washington, is a major tourist attraction in Montauk State Park
Montauk State Park
at the easternmost tip of Long Island. Hither Hills State Park, also on the South Fork of Long Island, offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen.

National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks[edit]

The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
in New York Harbor
New York Harbor
is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[89]

African Burial Ground National Monument

General Shuyler's house at Saratoga National Historical Park.

The State of New York is well represented in the National Park System with 22 national parks, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. In addition, there are 4 National Heritage Areas, 27 National Natural Landmarks, 262 National Historic Landmarks, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places.

African Burial Ground National Monument
African Burial Ground National Monument
in Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
is the only National Monument dedicated to Americans of African ancestry. It preserves a site containing the remains of more than 400 Africans buried during the late 17th and 18th centuries in a portion of what was the largest colonial-era cemetery for people of African descent, both free and enslaved, with an estimated tens of thousands of remains interred. The site's excavation and study were called "the most important historic urban archeological project in the United States."[90] Fire Island National Seashore
Fire Island National Seashore
is a United States
United States
National Seashore that protects a 26-mile (42 km) section of Fire Island, an approximately 30-mile (48 km) long barrier island separated from the mainland of Long Island
Long Island
by the Great South Bay. The island is part of Suffolk County. Gateway National Recreation Area
Gateway National Recreation Area
is more than 26,000 acres (10,522 ha) of water, salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and shoreline at the entrance to New York Harbor, the majority of which lies within New York. Including areas on Long Island
Long Island
and in New Jersey, it covers more area than that of two Manhattan
Manhattan
Islands. General Grant National Memorial
General Grant National Memorial
is the final resting place of President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
and is the largest mausoleum in North America. Hamilton Grange National Memorial
Hamilton Grange National Memorial
preserves the home of Alexander Hamilton, Caribbean immigrant and orphan who rose to be a United States founding father and associate of George Washington. Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
National Historic Site, established in 1945, preserves the Springwood estate in Hyde Park, New York. Springwood was the birthplace, lifelong home, and burial place of the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
National Heritage Area
National Heritage Area
was designated by Congress in 2008; it stretches from the western boundary of Wheatfield, New York to the mouth of the Niagara River
Niagara River
on Lake Ontario, including the communities of Niagara Falls, Youngstown, and Lewiston. It includes Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
State Park and Colonial Niagara Historic District. It is managed in collaboration with the state. Saratoga National Historical Park
Saratoga National Historical Park
preserves the site of the Battles of Saratoga, the first significant American military victory of the American Revolutionary War. In 1777, American forces defeated a major British Army, which led France
France
to recognize the independence of the United States, and enter the war as a decisive military ally of the struggling Americans. Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument includes Ellis Island
Ellis Island
and the Statue of Liberty. The statue, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi, was a gift from France
France
to the United States
United States
to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence; it was dedicated in New York Harbor on October 28, 1886. It has since become an icon of the United States and the concepts of democracy and freedom. Stonewall National Monument, in the Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, is the first U.S. National Monument dedicated to LGBTQ rights, designated on June 24, 2016. The monument comprises the Stonewall Inn, commonly recognized to be the cradle of the gay liberation movement as the site of the 1969 Stonewall Riots; the adjacent Christopher Park; and surrounding streets and sidewalks.[91][92][93] Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site
Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site
is the birthplace and childhood home of President Theodore Roosevelt, the only US President born in New York City
New York City
before Donald Trump.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map of the counties in New York

Main article: Administrative divisions of New York New York is divided into 62 counties. Aside from the five counties of New York City, each of these counties is subdivided into towns and cities, incorporated under state law. Towns can contain incorporated villages or unincorporated hamlets. New York City
New York City
is divided into five boroughs, each coterminous with a county. Downstate New York
Downstate New York
(New York City, Long Island, and the southern portion of the Hudson Valley) can be considered to form the central core of the Northeast megalopolis, an urbanized region stretching from New Hampshire
New Hampshire
to Virginia. The major cities of the state developed along the key transportation and trade routes of the early 19th century, including the Erie Canal and railroads paralleling it. Today, the New York Thruway
New York Thruway
acts as a modern counterpart to commercial water routes.[94] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 340,120

1800 589,051

73.2%

1810 959,049

62.8%

1820 1,372,812

43.1%

1830 1,918,608

39.8%

1840 2,428,921

26.6%

1850 3,097,394

27.5%

1860 3,880,735

25.3%

1870 4,382,759

12.9%

1880 5,082,871

16.0%

1890 6,003,174

18.1%

1900 7,268,894

21.1%

1910 9,113,614

25.4%

1920 10,385,227

14.0%

1930 12,588,066

21.2%

1940 13,479,142

7.1%

1950 14,830,192

10.0%

1960 16,782,304

13.2%

1970 18,236,967

8.7%

1980 17,558,072

−3.7%

1990 17,990,455

2.5%

2000 18,976,457

5.5%

2010 19,378,102

2.1%

Est. 2017 19,849,399

2.4%

Sources: 1910–2010 1790–1900[95] 2017 Estimate[4][96]

Main article: Demographics of New York Population[edit]

New York population distribution map

The distribution of change in population growth is uneven in New York State; the New York City
New York City
metropolitan area is growing considerably, along with Saratoga County.[97] New York City
New York City
gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city.[98] Conversely, outside of the Ithaca area, population growth in much of Western New York
Western New York
is nearly stagnant.[97] According to immigration statistics, the state is a leading recipient of migrants from around the globe. Between 2000 and 2005, immigration failed to surpass emigration, a trend that has been reversing since 2006. New York State lost two House seats in the 2011 congressional reapportionment, secondary to relatively slow growth when compared to the rest of the United States. In 2000 and 2005, more people moved from New York to Florida
Florida
than from any one state to another, contributing to New York becoming the U.S.'s fourth most populous state in 2015, behind Florida, Texas, and California.[99] However, New York State has the second-largest international immigrant population in the country among the American states, at 4.2 million as of 2008[update]; most reside in and around New York City, due to its size, high profile, vibrant economy, and cosmopolitan culture. The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of New York was 19,795,791 on July 1, 2015, a 2.16% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[100] Despite the open land in the state, New York's population is very urban, with 92% of residents living in an urban area,[101] predominantly in the New York City
New York City
metropolitan area. Two-thirds of New York State's population resides in New York City Metropolitan Area. New York City
New York City
is the most populous city in the United States,[102] with an estimated record high population of 8,550,405 in 2015,[9] incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[103] At least twice as many people live in New York City
New York City
as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles),[104] and within a smaller area. Long Island alone accounted for a Census-estimated 7,838,722 residents in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's population.[9][105][106][107][108] 6.5% of New York's population were under five years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older. Females made up 51.8% of the state's population. Most populous counties[edit] Main article: List of counties in New York These are the ten counties with the largest populations as of 2010[update]:[109][110]

Kings County (Brooklyn): 2,504,700 Queens
Queens
County (Queens): 2,230,722 New York County (Manhattan): 1,585,873 Suffolk County: 1,493,350 Bronx
Bronx
County (the Bronx): 1,385,108 Nassau County: 1,339,532 Westchester County: 949,113 Erie County: 919,040 Monroe County: 744,344 Richmond County (Staten Island): 468,730

Major cities[edit] Main article: List of cities in New York Further information: List of towns in New York, List of villages in New York, and List of census-designated places in New York There are 62 cities in New York. The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States
United States
is New York City, which comprises five counties (each coextensive with a borough): Bronx, New York County (Manhattan), Queens, Kings County (Brooklyn), and Richmond County (Staten Island). New York City
New York City
is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. Albany, the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. The smallest city is Sherrill, New York, in Oneida County. Hempstead is the most populous town in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with over 700,000 residents.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in New York 2016 U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
Estimate [111]

Rank

County Pop.

New York City

Buffalo 1 New York City Kings, Queens, New York, Bronx, Richmond 8,537,673

Rochester

Yonkers

2 Buffalo Erie 256,902

3 Rochester Monroe 208,880

4 Yonkers Westchester 200,807

5 Syracuse Onondaga 143,378

6 Albany Albany 98,111

7 New Rochelle Westchester 79,557

8 Mount Vernon Westchester 68,344

9 Schenectady Schenectady 64,913

10 Utica Oneida 60,652

Metropolitan areas[edit] Main article: New York statistical areas The following are the top ten metropolitan areas in the state as of the 2010 Census:[112]

New York City, Long Island, and the Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
(19,567,410 in NY/NJ/PA, 13,038,826 in NY) Buffalo- Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
(1,135,509) Rochester (1,079,671) Albany and the Capital District (870,716) Syracuse (662,577) Utica-Rome (299,397) Binghamton (251,725) Kingston (182,493) Glens Falls (128,923) Watertown-Fort Drum (116,229)

Race and ethnicity[edit]

The Manhattan
Manhattan
Chinatown (紐約華埠), home to the highest concentration of Chinese people
Chinese people
in the Western Hemisphere,[113][114][115] at top, and one of several Chinatowns in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
(布魯克林華埠) below. Chinese in New York constitute the fastest-growing nationality in New York State and on Long Island,[11][12][116][117] with large-scale Chinese immigration continuing into New York.

The racial makeup of New York State as of the 2010 Census was:[118]

White: 65.7% (58.3% non-Hispanic) Black or African American: 15.9% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native: 0.6% Asian: 7.3% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander: approx. 0.0% Other race: 7.4% Two or more races: 3.0%

New York Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1950[119] 1970[119] 1990[119] 2000[120] 2010[118]

White 93.5% 86.8% 74.4% 67.9% 65.7%

Black or African American 6.2% 11.9% 15.9% 15.9% 15.9%

American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6%

Asian 0.2% 0.7% 3.9% 5.5% 7.3%

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander – – – 0.1% 0.0%

Other race – 0.4% 5.5% 7.1% 7.4%

Two or more races – – – 3.1% 3.0%

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.6% of the population in 2010: 2.4% were of Mexican, 5.5% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, and 9.4% other Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were Italian (13.0%), Irish (12.1%), German (10.3%), American (5.4%), and English (5.2%).[121]

New York population ethnicity map

The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white, has declined as a proportion of the state population from 94.6% in 1940 to 58.3% in 2010.[122][119] As of 2011[update], 55.6% of New York's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[123] New York's robustly increasing Jewish
Jewish
population, the largest outside of Israel,[124] was the highest among states both by percentage and absolute number in 2012.[125] It is driven by the high reproductive rate of Orthodox Jewish
Jewish
families,[126] particularly in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and communities of the Hudson Valley. New York is home to the second-largest African American population (after Georgia) and the second largest Asian-American population (after California) in the United States. New York's uniracial Black population increased by 2.0% between 2000 and 2010, to 3,073,800.[127] The Black population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa,[116] while established African Americans are migrating out of New York to the southern United States.[128] The New York City
New York City
neighborhood of Harlem
Harlem
has historically been a major cultural capital for African-Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
has the largest such population in the United States. Meanwhile, New York's uniracial Asian population increased by a notable 36% from 2000 to 2010, to 1,420,244.[127] Queens, in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian-American population and is the most ethnically diverse county in the United States; it is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[129][130] New York's growing uniracial Hispanic-or-Latino population numbered 3,416,922 in 2010,[131] a 19% increase from the 2,867,583 enumerated in 2000.[132] Queens
Queens
is home to the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States. In addition, New York has the largest Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Jamaican American
Jamaican American
populations in the continental United States. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown (曼哈頓華埠), in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
(布鲁克林華埠), and around Flushing, Queens
Queens
(法拉盛華埠), are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County (拿騷縣),[133] on Long Island (長島).[134] New York State has become the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into the state.[116][117][135][136][137] A new China City
City
of America is also planned in Sullivan County.[138] Long Island, including Queens and Nassau County, is also home to several Little Indias (लघु भारत) and a large Koreatown (롱 아일랜드 코리아타운), with large and growing attendant populations of Indian Americans and Korean Americans, respectively. Brooklyn
Brooklyn
has been a destination for West Indian immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants. In the 2000 Census, New York had the largest Italian American population, composing the largest self-identified ancestral group in Staten Island
Staten Island
and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans. Albany and the Mohawk Valley
Mohawk Valley
also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. In Buffalo and western New York, German Americans
German Americans
comprise the largest ancestry. In the North Country of New York, French Canadians
French Canadians
represent the leading ethnicity, given the area's proximity to Quebec. Americans of English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants. Languages[edit]

Most common non-English languages spoken in New York

Language Population (as of 2010)[139]

Spanish 14.44%

Chinese (incl. Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin) 2.61%

Russian 1.20%

Italian 1.18%

French Creole 0.79%

French 0.75%

Yiddish 0.67%

Korean 0.63%

Polish 0.53%

Bengali 0.43%

In 2010, the most common American English
American English
dialects spoken in New York, besides General American English, were the New York City
New York City
area dialect (including New York Latino English and North Jersey English), the Western New England
New England
accent around Albany, and Inland Northern American English in Buffalo and western New York State. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City,[140][141][142] making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[143] As of 2010[update], 70.72% (12,788,233) of New York residents aged five and older reported speaking only English at home, while 14.44% (2,611,903) spoke Spanish, 2.61% (472,955) Chinese (which includes Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin), 1.20% (216,468) Russian, 1.18% (213,785) Italian, 0.79% (142,169) French Creole, 0.75% (135,789) French, 0.67% (121,917) Yiddish, 0.63% (114,574) Korean, and Polish was spoken by 0.53% (95,413) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.28% (5,295,016) of New York's population aged five and older reported speaking a language other than English.[139] Religion[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2016)

In 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) reported that the largest denominations were the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 6,286,916; Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
with 588,500; Islam
Islam
with 392,953; and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 328,315 adherents.[144]

The landmark Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
St. Patrick's Cathedral, Midtown Manhattan.

Ultra-Orthodox Jewish
Jewish
(יהודי) residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn's rapidly expanding Jewish
Jewish
community is the largest in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.[145]

The Islamic Cultural Center of New York
Islamic Cultural Center of New York
(Arabic:المركز الثقافي الإسلامي في نيويورك) in Upper Manhattan.

Sri Maha Vallabha Ganapati
Ganapati
Devasthanam
Devasthanam
(Tamil: ஸ்ரீ மகா வல்லப கணபதி தேவஸ்தானம்), in Flushing, Queens, the oldest Hindu temple
Hindu temple
in the United States.

The Chuang Yen Monastery
Chuang Yen Monastery
(莊嚴寺), in Kent, Putnam County, houses the largest indoor statue of Buddha
Buddha
in the Western Hemisphere.[146]

A significant proportion of New Yorkers are atheists: Atheism
Atheism
promoted on an electronic billboard in Times Square.

Religious affiliation in New York (2014)[147]

Affiliation % of New York population

Christian 60 60  

Catholic 31 31  

Protestant 26 26  

Evangelical Protestant 10 10  

Mainline Protestant 11 11  

Black church 5 5  

Other Christian 3 3  

Unaffiliated 27 27  

Nothing in particular 17 17  

Agnostic 5 5  

Atheist 5 5  

Jewish 7 7  

Muslim 2 2  

Buddhist 1 1  

Hindu 1 1  

Other faiths 0.5 0.5  

Don't know/refused answer 1 1  

Total 100 100  

LGBTQ[edit] Further information: Same-sex marriage in New York
Same-sex marriage in New York
and LGBTQ culture in New York City

Gay pride
Gay pride
parade, Albany at top, and International Transgender
Transgender
Day of Visibility introduced by Manila-born Geena Rocero
Geena Rocero
in New York City below.

Roughly 3.8 percent of the state's adult population self-identifies as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. This constitutes a total LGBT adult population of 570,388 individuals.[148] In 2010, the number of same-sex couple households stood at roughly 48,932.[149] New York was the fifth state to license same-sex marriages, after New Hampshire. Michael Bloomberg, the Mayor of New York City, stated that "same-sex marriages in New York City
New York City
have generated an estimated $259 million in economic impact and $16 million in City
City
revenues" in the first year after the enactment of the Marriage Equality Act".[150] Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011, and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.[151] New York City
City
is also home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016.[152] The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, ending at Greenwich Village, and rivals the Sao Paulo Gay
Gay
Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.[153] In June 2017, plans were announced for the first official monument to LGBT individuals commissioned by the State of New York, in contrast to the Stonewall National Monument, which was commissioned by the U.S. federal government. The State monument is planned to be built in Hudson River
Hudson River
Park in Manhattan, near the waterfront Hudson River
Hudson River
piers which have served as historically significant symbols of New York's role as a meeting place and a safe haven for LGBT communities.[154] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of New York (state) See also: New York locations by per capita income

The New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies.[155]

Silicon Alley
Silicon Alley
has expanded well beyond its cradle in the Flatiron District of Manhattan.

Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
in New York City, the largest central business district in the world.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
on the North Shore of Long Island
Long Island
is an internationally renowned biomedical research facility and home to eight scientists awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Times Square
Times Square
in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections.

New York's gross state product in 2015 was $1.5 trillion.[156] If New York State were an independent nation, it would rank as the 12th or 13th largest economy in the world, depending upon international currency fluctuations. However, in 2013, the multi-state, New York City-centered Metropolitan Statistical Area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.4 trillion,[157] while in 2012, the corresponding Combined Statistical Area[158] generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only twelve nations and eleven nations, respectively.[159] Wall Street[edit] Main article: Wall Street Anchored by Wall Street
Wall Street
in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City
New York City
has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world.[21][22][160][161][162] Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
is the third-largest central business district in the United States
United States
and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, as measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[155][163] Investment banking fees on Wall Street
Wall Street
totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012,[164] while in 2013, senior New York City
New York City
bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually.[165] In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.[166] New York City
City
remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.[167]:31–32[168] New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan
Manhattan
are important participants in other global financial centers.[167]:34–35 New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.[169] Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan
Manhattan
contained approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m2) of office space in 2013,[170] making it the largest office market in the United States,[171] while Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
is the largest central business district in the nation.[172] Silicon Alley[edit] Main article: Silicon Alley Further information: Tech companies in New York and Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New York Silicon Alley, centered in New York City, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City
New York City
metropolitan region's high technology and entrepreneurship ecosystem; in 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment.[26] High tech industries including digital media, biotechnology, software development, game design, and other fields in information technology are growing, bolstered by New York City's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,[173] its intellectual capital, as well as its growing outdoor wireless connectivity.[174] In December 2014, New York State announced a $50 million venture-capital fund to encourage enterprises working in biotechnology and advanced materials; according to Governor Andrew Cuomo, the seed money would facilitate entrepreneurs in bringing their research into the marketplace.[175] On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University
Cornell University
and Technion- Israel
Israel
Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island
Roosevelt Island
in Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City
New York City
into the world's premier technology capital.[176][177] Tech Valley[edit] Main article: Tech Valley Albany,[178] Saratoga County,[179][180] Rensselaer County, and the Hudson Valley, collectively recognized as eastern New York's Tech Valley, have experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit manufacturing,[179] involving companies including IBM
IBM
and its Thomas J. Watson Research Center,[181] GlobalFoundries, Samsung, and Taiwan Semiconductor, among others.[178][182] The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the SUNY Polytechnic Institute.[178] In 2015, Tech Valley, straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway, generated over US$163 million in venture capital investment.[26] The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, similarly in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
and Cornell University.[183] Westchester County has developed a burgeoning biotechnology sector in the 21st century, with over US$1 billion in planned private investment as of 2016,[184][185] Media and entertainment[edit] Main article: Media in New York City Creative industries, which are concerned with generating and distributing knowledge and information, such as new media, digital media, film and television production, advertising, fashion, design, and architecture, account for a growing share of employment, with New York City
City
possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries.[186] As of 2014[update], New York State was offering tax incentives of up to $420 million annually for filmmaking within the state, the most generous such tax rebate among the U.S. states. New York has also attracted higher-wage visual-effects employment by further augmenting its tax credit to a maximum of 35% for performing post-film production work in Upstate New York.[187] The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City
New York City
economy alone as of 2015.[188]

The I Love New York
I Love New York
logo has been used by the state since 1977.

Tourism[edit] Main articles: Tourism
Tourism
in New York City, Niagara Falls, and Broadway theatre I Love New York
I Love New York
(stylized I ❤ NY) is a slogan, a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and has been used since 1977 to promote tourism in the state of New York,[189] including New York City.[190] The trademarked logo is owned by New York State Empire State Development.[191] The Broadway League
The Broadway League
reported that Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.[192] The I Love New York
I Love New York
song is the state song of New York.[193] Exports[edit] New York exports a wide variety of goods such as prepared foods, computers and electronics, cut diamonds, and other commodities. In 2007, the state exported a total of $71.1 billion worth of goods, with the five largest foreign export markets being Canada
Canada
(US$15 billion), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(US$6 billion), Switzerland
Switzerland
(US$5.9 billion), Israel
Israel
(US$4.9 billion), and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(US$3.4 billion). New York's largest imports are oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and lumber. The state also has a large manufacturing sector that includes printing and the production of garments, mainly in New York City; and furs, railroad equipment, automobile parts, and bus line vehicles, concentrated in Upstate regions. New York is the nation's third-largest grape producing state, and second-largest wine producer by volume, behind California. The southern Finger Lakes
Finger Lakes
hillsides, the Hudson Valley, the North Fork of Long Island, and the southern shore of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
are the primary grape- and wine-growing regions in New York, with many vineyards. In 2012, New York had 320 wineries and 37,000 grape bearing acres, generating full-time employment of nearly 25,000 and annual wages of over US$1.1 billion, and yielding US$4.8 billion in direct economic impact from New York grapes, grape juice, and wine and grape products.[194] New York is a major agricultural producer overall, ranking among the top five states for agricultural products including maple syrup, apples, cherries, cabbage, dairy products, onions, and potatoes. The state is the largest producer of cabbage in the U.S. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced $3.4 billion in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils and microclimate for many apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
and near Lake Champlain. A moderately sized saltwater commercial fishery is located along the Atlantic side of Long Island. The principal catches by value are clams, lobsters, squid, and flounder. Education[edit] Main article: Education in New York (state)

The New York State Education Department
New York State Education Department
Building, Albany

The University of the State of New York accredits and sets standards for primary, middle-level, and secondary education in the state, while the New York State Education Department
New York State Education Department
oversees public schools and controls their standardized tests. The New York City
New York City
Department of Education manages the New York City
New York City
Public Schools system. In 1894, reflecting general racial discrimination then, the state passed a law that allowed communities to set up separate schools for children of African-American descent. In 1900, the state passed another law requiring integrated schools.[195] At the level of post-secondary education, the statewide public university system is the State University of New York, commonly referred to as SUNY. New York City
New York City
also has its own City
City
University of New York system, which is funded by the city. The SUNY system consists of 64 community colleges, technical colleges, undergraduate colleges, and doctoral-granting institutions, including several universities. New York's largest public university is the State University of New York at Buffalo, which was founded by U.S. President and Vice President Millard Fillmore.[196][197] The four SUNY University Centers, offering a wide array of academic programs, are the University at Albany, Binghamton University, Stony Brook University, and the University at Buffalo. Notable large private universities include the Columbia University
Columbia University
in Upper Manhattan
Manhattan
and Cornell University
Cornell University
in Ithaca, both Ivy League institutions, as well as New York University
New York University
in Lower Manhattan, and Fordham University
Fordham University
in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Westchester County. Smaller notable private institutions of higher education include Rockefeller University, Mercy College, New York Institute of Technology, Yeshiva University, and Hofstra University. There are also a multitude of postgraduate-level schools in New York State, including Medical, Law, and Engineering
Engineering
schools. West Point, the service academy of the U.S. Army, is located just south of Newburgh, on the west bank of the Hudson River. During the fiscal 2013 year, New York spent more on public education per pupil than any other state, according to U.S. Census Bureau statistics.[198] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in New York

The Tappan Zee Bridge, linking Westchester and Rockland counties, is the second-longest bridge in the northeastern United States.

John F. Kennedy Airport
Airport
in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States.

The New York City
New York City
Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving a passenger ridership of over 5 million per average weekday.

New York has one of the most extensive and one of the oldest transportation infrastructures in the country. Engineering
Engineering
challenges posed by the complex terrain of the state and the unique infrastructural issues of New York City
New York City
brought on by urban crowding have had to be overcome perennially. Population expansion of the state has followed the path of the early waterways, first the Hudson River and Mohawk River, then the Erie Canal. In the 19th century, railroads were constructed along the river valleys, followed by the New York State Thruway in the 20th century. The New York State Department of Transportation
New York State Department of Transportation
(NYSDOT) is the department of the government of New York[199] responsible for the development and operation of highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways, and aviation facilities within New York State. The NYSDOT is headquartered at 50 Wolf Road in Colonie, Albany County. The Port
Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey
New Jersey
(PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the States of New York and New Jersey
New Jersey
and authorized by the US Congress, established in 1921 through an interstate compact, that oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port
Port
of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500 square mile (3,900 km²) port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument.[200] The Port
Port
Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center
4 World Trade Center
in Lower Manhattan. In addition to the well known New York City
New York City
Subway system – which is confined within New York City
New York City
– four suburban commuter railroad systems enter and leave the city: the Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, Port
Port
Authority Trans-Hudson, and five of New Jersey Transit's rail lines. The New York City
New York City
Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) is the agency of the government of New York City[201] responsible for the management of much of New York City's own transportation infrastructure. Other cities and towns in New York have urban and regional public transportation. In Buffalo, the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority runs the Buffalo Metro Rail light-rail system; in Rochester, the Rochester Subway
Rochester Subway
operated from 1927 until 1956, but fell into disuse as state and federal investment went to highways. The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles
New York State Department of Motor Vehicles
(NYSDMV or DMV) is the governmental agency responsible for registering and inspecting automobiles and other motor vehicles, as well as licensing drivers in the State of New York. As of 2008[update], the NYSDMV has 11,284,546 drivers licenses on file[202] and 10,697,644 vehicle registrations in force.[203] All gasoline-powered vehicles registered in New York State are required to have an emissions inspection every 12 months, in order to ensure that environmental quality controls are working to prevent air pollution. Diesel-powered vehicles with a gross weight rating over 8,500 lb that are registered in most Downstate New York
Downstate New York
counties must get an annual emissions inspection. All vehicles registered in New York State must get an annual safety inspection. Portions of the transportation system are intermodal, allowing travelers to switch easily from one mode of transportation to another. One of the most notable examples is AirTrain JFK
AirTrain JFK
which allows rail passengers to travel directly to terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport
Airport
as well as to the underground New York City Subway system. Government and politics[edit]

The New York State Capitol
New York State Capitol
in Albany

Government[edit] Main article: Government of New York (state)

Andrew Cuomo
Andrew Cuomo
(D), the 56th and current Governor of New York

The Government of New York embodies the governmental structure of the State of New York as established by the New York State Constitution. It is composed of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The Governor is the State's chief executive and is assisted by the Lieutenant Governor. Both are elected on the same ticket. Additional elected officers include the Attorney General, and the Comptroller. The Secretary of State, formerly an elected officer, is currently appointed by the Governor. The New York State Legislature
Legislature
is bicameral and consists of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. The Assembly consists of 150 members, while the Senate varies in its number of members, currently having 63. The Legislature
Legislature
is empowered to make laws, subject to the Governor's power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the Legislature
Legislature
if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House. The permanent laws of a general nature are codified in the Consolidated Laws of New York. The highest court of appeal in the Unified Court System is the Court of Appeals whereas the primary felony trial court is the County Court (or the Supreme Court in New York City). The Supreme Court also acts as the intermediate appellate court for many cases, and the local courts handle a variety of other matters including small claims, traffic ticket cases, and local zoning matters, and are the starting point for all criminal cases. The New York City
New York City
courts make up the largest local court system. The state is divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages, all of which are municipal corporations with respect to their own governments, as well as various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school districts, fire districts, and New York state public-benefit corporations, frequently known as authorities or development corporations. Each municipal corporation is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. The state also has 10 Indian reservations. Capital punishment[edit] Main article: Capital punishment in New York Capital punishment was reintroduced in 1995 under the Pataki administration, but the statute was declared unconstitutional in 2004, when the New York Court of Appeals
New York Court of Appeals
ruled in People v. LaValle
People v. LaValle
that it violated the state constitution. The remaining death sentence was commuted by the court to life imprisonment in 2007, in People v. John Taylor, and the death row was disestablished in 2008, under executive order from Governor Paterson. No execution has taken place in New York since 1963. Legislative efforts to amend the statute have failed, and death sentences are no longer sought at the state level, though certain crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of the federal government are subject to the federal death penalty.[204][205][206] Federal representation[edit] See also: Current United States
United States
congressional delegation from New York and New York's congressional districts

Charles Schumer
Charles Schumer
(D), New York's current senior U.S. Senator

Kirsten Gillibrand
Kirsten Gillibrand
(D), New York's current junior U.S. Senator

The United Nations Headquarters has been situated on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
since 1952.

The State of New York sends 27 members to the House of Representatives[207] in addition to its two United States
United States
Senators. As of the 2000 census and the redistricting for the 2002 elections, the state had 29 members in the House, but the representation was reduced to 27 in 2013 due to the state's slower overall population growth relative to the overall national population growth.[208] From 2016, New York will have 29 electoral votes in national presidential elections (a drop from its peak of 47 votes from 1933 to 1953). New York is represented by Chuck Schumer
Chuck Schumer
and Kirsten Gillibrand
Kirsten Gillibrand
in the United States
United States
Senate and has the nation's third equal highest number of congressional districts, equal with Florida
Florida
and behind California's 53 and Texas's 36. The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government. According to the Office of the New York State Comptroller, New York State received 91 cents in services for every $1 it sent in taxes to the U.S. federal government in the 2013 fiscal year; New York ranked in 46th place in the federal balance of payments to the state on a per capita basis.[209] Politics[edit]

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Main articles: Elections in New York, Political party strength in New York, Politics of New York (state), and Law of New York As of April 2016, Democrats represented a plurality of voters in New York State, constituting over twice as many registered voters as any other political party affiliation or lack thereof.[210] Since the second half of the 20th century, New York has generally supported candidates belonging to the Democratic Party in national elections. Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama
Barack Obama
won New York State by over 25 percentage points in both 2012 and 2008. New York City, as well as the state's other major urban locales, including Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, are significant Democratic strongholds, with liberal politics. Rural portions of upstate New York, however, are generally more conservative than the cities and tend to favor Republicans. Heavily populated suburban areas downstate, such as Westchester County
Westchester County
and Long Island, have swung between the major parties since the 1980s, but more often than not support Democrats. New York City
New York City
is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States
United States
for both major parties. Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2000 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Al Gore.[211] The state of New York has the distinction of being the home state for both major-party nominees in three Presidential elections. The 1904 presidential election saw former New York Governor
New York Governor
and incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
face Alton B. Parker, chief judge of the New York Court of Appeals. The 1944 presidential election had Franklin D. Roosevelt, following in his cousin Theodore's footsteps as former New York Governor
New York Governor
and incumbent president running for re-election against then-current New York Governor
New York Governor
Thomas E. Dewey. In the 2016 Presidential election, former United States
United States
Senator from New York Hillary Clinton, a resident of Chappaqua, was the Democratic Party nominee. The Republican Party nominee was businessman Donald Trump, a resident of Manhattan
Manhattan
and a native of Queens.[212] New York City
New York City
is an important center for international diplomacy.[213] The United Nations Headquarters has been situated on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
since 1952.

New York State Presidential Election Results

Year Democratic Republican

2016 59.00% 4,547,218 36.52% 2,814,346

2012 63.35% 4,485,877 35.17% 2,490,496

2008 62.88% 4,804,945 36.03% 2,752,771

2004 58.37% 4,314,280 40.08% 2,962,567

2000 60.21% 4,107,907 35.23% 2,403,374

1996 59.47% 3,756,177 30.61% 1,933,492

1992 49.73% 3,444,450 33.88% 2,346,649

1988 51.62% 3,347,882 47.52% 3,081,871

1984 45.83% 3,119,609 53.84% 3,664,763

1980 43.99% 2,728,372 46.66% 2,893,831

1976 51.95% 3,389,558 47.52% 3,100,791

1972 41.21% 2,951,084 58.54% 4,192,778

1968 49.76% 3,378,470 44.30% 3,007,932

1964 68.56% 4,913,156 31.31% 2,243,559

1960 52.53% 3,830,085 47.27% 3,446,419

New York registered voters as of April 1, 2016[210]

Party Number of Voters Percentage

Democratic 5,792,497 49.4%

Republican 2,731,688 23.29%

Unaffiliated 2,485,475 21.19%

Independence 475,566 4.06%

Conservative 159,355 1.36%

Working Families 48,344 0.41%

Green 26,271 0.22%

Women's Equality 1,283 0.01%

Reform 377 0.003%

Other 5,986 0.05%

Total 11,726,842 100%

Sports[edit]

The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
in Cooperstown
Cooperstown
draws about 300,000 visitors each year.

Belmont Park
Belmont Park
on Long Island
Long Island
hosts the Belmont Stakes, part of the horse racing Triple Crown

The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame
National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame
in Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County

Lake Champlain, at the base of the Adirondack Mountains, is popular with nature observers as well as water sportsmen.

Main article: Sports in New York (state) New York State is geographically home to one National Football League team, the Buffalo Bills, based in the Buffalo suburb of Orchard
Orchard
Park. Although the New York Giants
New York Giants
and New York Jets
New York Jets
represent the New York metropolitan area and were previously located in New York City, they play in MetLife Stadium, located in East Rutherford, New Jersey. New York also has two Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
teams, the New York Yankees (based in the Bronx) and the New York Mets
New York Mets
(based in Queens). Minor league baseball teams also play in the State of New York, including the Long Island
Long Island
Ducks, the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Cyclones, and the Staten Island Yankees downstate, and the Binghamton Rumble Ponies, the Syracuse Chiefs, and the Buffalo Bisons
Buffalo Bisons
upstate. New York is home to three National Hockey League
National Hockey League
franchises: the New York Rangers
New York Rangers
in Manhattan, the New York Islanders
New York Islanders
in Brooklyn, and the Buffalo Sabres
Buffalo Sabres
in Buffalo. New York has two National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
teams, the New York Knicks in Manhattan, and the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Nets in Brooklyn. New York is the home of a Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
franchise, New York City
New York City
FC, currently playing in the Bronx. Although the New York Red Bulls represent the New York metropolitan area, they play in Red Bull Arena in Harrison, New Jersey. New York hosted the 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics
1980 Winter Olympics
at Lake Placid. The 1980 Games are known for the USA–USSR ice hockey match dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", in which a group of American college students and amateurs defeated the heavily favored Soviet national ice hockey team 4–3 and went on to win the gold medal against Finland. Along with St. Moritz, Switzerland
Switzerland
and Innsbruck, Austria, Lake Placid is one of the three cities to have hosted the Winter Olympic Games twice. New York City
City
bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
but lost to London. Several U.S. national sports halls of fame are or have been situated in New York. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
is located in Cooperstown, Otsego County. The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, honors achievements in the sport of thoroughbred horse racing. The physical facility of the National Soccer Hall of Fame
National Soccer Hall of Fame
in Oneonta, also in Otsego County, closed in 2010, although the organization itself has continued inductions. The annual United States
United States
Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park
Flushing Meadows-Corona Park
in the New York City borough of Queens.[214]

New York State major league professional sports teams

Club Sport League

Buffalo Bills Football National Football League

Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Nets Basketball National Basketball Association

New York Knicks Basketball National Basketball Association

New York City
New York City
FC Soccer Major League Soccer

Buffalo Sabres Ice hockey National Hockey League

New York Islanders Ice hockey National Hockey League

New York Rangers Ice hockey National Hockey League

New York Mets Baseball Major League Baseball

New York Yankees Baseball Major League Baseball

New York Giants Football National Football League

New York Jets Football National Football League

New York Red Bulls Soccer Major League Soccer

See also[edit]

Index of New York-related articles Outline of New York
Outline of New York
– organized list of topics about New York

New York portal United States
United States
portal

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit] Main article: Bibliography of New York

French, John Homer (1860). Historical and statistical gazetteer of New York State. Syracuse, New York: R. Pearsall Smith. OCLC 224691273. (Full text via Google Books.) New York State Historical Association (1940). New York: A Guide to the Empire State. New York City: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-1-60354-031-5. OCLC 504264143. (Full text via Google Books.)

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New York State Guide, from the Library of Congress New York (state)
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146785329 LCCN: n80126293 ISNI: 0000 0001 2179 6907 GND: 4042012-7 SUDOC: 026581000 BNF: cb118801040 (data) NDL: 00628913

Coordinates: 43°N 75°W / 43°N 75°W / 43; -75

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