The Info List - New York City Council

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The New York City
New York City
Council is the lawmaking body of the City of New York. It has 51 members from 51 council districts throughout the five boroughs. The Council serves as a check against the mayor in a "strong" mayor-council government model. The Council monitors the performance of city agencies and makes land use decisions as well as legislating on a variety of other issues. The City Council also has sole responsibility for approving the city budget. Members elected in or after the year 2010 are limited to two consecutive terms in office, but may run again after a four-year respite; however, Members elected prior to 2010 may seek third consecutive terms. The head of the City Council is called the Speaker. The current Speaker is Corey Johnson, a Democrat. The Speaker sets the agenda and presides at meetings of the City Council. Proposed legislation is submitted through the Speaker's Office. There are 47 Democratic council members led by Majority Leader Jimmy Van Bramer. The three Republican council members are led by Minority Leader Steven Matteo. There is one vacancy. The Council has 35 committees with oversight of various functions of the city government. Each council member sits on at least three standing, select or subcommittees (listed below). The standing committees meet at least once per month. The Speaker of the Council, the Majority Leader, and the Minority Leader are all ex officio members of every committee. Council members are elected every four years, except for two consecutive two year terms every twenty years to allow for redistricting between the terms due to the national census (starting in 2001 and 2003 for the 2000 Census and again in 2021 and 2023 for the 2020 Census).[1]


1 Composition 2 Salary 3 Law 4 History

4.1 Term limits

5 Presiding officers since 1898

5.1 Notes

6 Standing committees 7 Caucuses 8 See also 9 References 10 External links


District Member Party Residence Borough Elected Term Limited

1 Margaret Chin Democratic Financial District Manhattan 2009 2021

2 Carlina Rivera Democratic Lower East Side Manhattan 2017 2025

3 Corey Johnson Democratic Chelsea Manhattan 2013 2021

4 Keith Powers Democratic Murray Hill Manhattan 2017 2025

5 Ben Kallos Democratic Upper East Side Manhattan 2013 2021

6 Helen Rosenthal Democratic Upper West Side Manhattan 2013 2021

7 Mark D. Levine Democratic Washington Heights Manhattan 2013 2021

8 Diana Ayala Democratic East Harlem The Bronx, Manhattan 2017 2025

9 Bill Perkins Democratic Central Harlem Manhattan 2017* 2025

10 Ydanis Rodriguez Democratic Inwood Manhattan 2009 2021

11 Andrew Cohen Democratic Riverdale The Bronx 2013 2021

12 Andy King Democratic Wakefield The Bronx 2012* 2021

13 Mark Gjonaj Democratic Eastchester The Bronx 2017 2025

14 Fernando Cabrera Democratic Kingsbridge The Bronx 2009 2021

15 Ritchie Torres Democratic Bronx Park The Bronx 2013 2021

16 Vanessa Gibson Democratic Morris Heights The Bronx 2013 2021

17 Rafael Salamanca Democratic Longwood The Bronx 2016* 2025

18 Ruben Diaz, Sr. Democratic Parkchester The Bronx 2017 2025

19 Paul Vallone Democratic Bayside Queens 2013 2021

20 Peter Koo Democratic Flushing Queens 2009 2021

21 Francisco Moya Democratic Corona Queens 2017 2025

22 Costa Constantinides Democratic Astoria Queens 2013 2021

23 Barry Grodenchik Democratic Hollis Hills Queens 2015* 2025

24 Rory Lancman Democratic Fresh Meadows Queens 2013 2021

25 Danny Dromm Democratic Jackson Heights Queens 2009 2021

26 Jimmy Van Bramer Democratic Sunnyside Gardens Queens 2009 2021

27 Daneek Miller Democratic Queens
Village Queens 2013 2021

28 Adrienne Adams Democratic Jamaica Queens 2017* 2025

29 Karen Koslowitz Democratic Forest Hills Queens 2009 2021

30 Robert Holden Republican[2] Middle Village Queens 2017 2025

31 Donovan Richards Democratic Far Rockaway Queens 2013* 2021

32 Eric Ulrich Republican Ozone Park Queens 2009* 2021

33 Stephen Levin Democratic Greenpoint Brooklyn 2009 2021

34 Antonio Reynoso Democratic Williamsburg Brooklyn, Queens 2013 2021

35 Laurie Cumbo Democratic Clinton Hill Brooklyn 2013 2021

36 Robert Cornegy Democratic Bedford Stuyvesant Brooklyn 2013 2021

37 Rafael Espinal Democratic Cypress Hills Brooklyn 2013 2021

38 Carlos Menchaca Democratic Red Hook Brooklyn 2013 2021

39 Brad Lander Democratic Park Slope Brooklyn 2009 2021

40 Mathieu Eugene Democratic Flatbush Brooklyn 2007* 2021

41 Alicka Ampry-Samuel Democratic Brownsville Brooklyn 2017 2025

42 Inez Barron Democratic East New York Brooklyn 2013 2021

43 Justin Brannan Democratic Bay Ridge Brooklyn 2017 2025

44 Kalman Yeger Democratic Borough Park Brooklyn 2017 2025

45 Jumaane Williams Democratic Flatbush Brooklyn 2009 2021

46 Alan Maisel Democratic Canarsie Brooklyn 2013 2021

47 Mark Treyger Democratic Bensonhurst Brooklyn 2013 2021

48 Chaim Deutsch Democratic Midwood Brooklyn 2013 2021

49 Debi Rose Democratic Mariners Harbor Staten Island 2009 2021

50 Steven Matteo Republican Castleton Corners Staten Island 2013 2021

51 Joseph Borelli Republican Annadale Staten Island 2015* 2025

Main article: Membership of the New York City
New York City

Partisan makeup

Affiliation Members








Borough Population in 2000[3] Total Democratic Republican

Brooklyn 2,465,326 16 16 0

Queens 2,229,379 14 12 2

Manhattan 1,537,195 10 10 0

Bronx !The Bronx 1,332,650 8 8 0

Staten Island 443,728 3 1 2

Total 8,008,278 51 47 4

Council leaders

Position Name Party Borough

Speaker Corey Johnson Democratic Manhattan

Majority Leader Laurie Cumbo Democratic Brooklyn

Minority Leader Steven Matteo Republican Staten Island

Salary[edit] Council Members currently receive $148,500 a year in base salary, which the council increased from $112,500 in early 2016.[4] Members receive no additional compensation for serving as a committee chairperson or other officer under the new salary raise. Law[edit] Further information: Law of New York The New York City
New York City
Charter is the fundamental law of the government of New York City
New York City
including the Council. The New York City
New York City
Administrative Code is the codification of the laws promulgated by the Council and is composed of 29 titles.[5][6] The regulations promulgated by city agencies pursuant to law are contained in the Rules of the City of New York in 71 titles.[7] A local law has a status equivalent with a law enacted by the Legislature (subject to certain exceptions and restrictions), and is superior to the older forms of municipal legislation such as ordinances, resolutions, rules and regulations.[8] Each local government must designate a newspaper of notice to publish or describe its laws.[9] The Secretary of State is responsible for publishing local laws as a supplement to the Laws of New York
Laws of New York
(the "session laws" of the state), but they have not done so in recent years.[9] The New York City Charter, the New York City
New York City
Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York are published online by the New York Legal Publishing Corp. under contract with the New York City
New York City
Law Department.[10] History[edit]

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (September 2013)

The history of the New York City
New York City
Council can be traced to Dutch Colonial times when New York City
New York City
was known as New Amsterdam. On February 2, 1653, the town of New Amsterdam, founded on the southern tip of Manhattan
Island in 1625, was incorporated as a city under a charter issued by the Dutch West India Company. A Council of Legislators sat as the local lawmaking body and as a court of inferior jurisdiction. During the 18th and 19th centuries the local legislature was called the Common Council and then the Board of Aldermen. In 1898 the amalgamation charter of the City of Greater New York
City of Greater New York
renamed and revamped the Council and added a New York City
New York City
Board of Estimate with certain administrative and financial powers. After a number of changes through the ensuing years, the present Council was born in 1938 under a new charter which instituted the Council as the sole legislative body and the New York City
New York City
Board of Estimate as the chief administrative body. Certain functions of the Council, however, remained subject to the approval of the Board. A system of proportional representation known as Single Transferable Vote seated a 26-member Council in 1938 to serve two-year terms. The term was extended to four years in 1945 to coincide with the term of the mayor. Proportional representation
Proportional representation
was abolished in 1947, largely from pressure from Democrats, who played on fears of Communist council members being elected (two already had).[11] It was replaced by a system of electing one Council Member from each New York State Senate district within the city. The Charter also provided for the election of two Council Members-at-large from each of the five boroughs. In June 1983, however, a federal court ruled that the 10 at-large seats violated the United States
United States
Constitution's one-person, one-vote mandate.[12] In 1989, the Supreme Court ruled that the Board of Estimate also violated the one-person, one-vote mandate. In response, the new Charter abolished the Board of Estimate and provided for the redrawing of the Council district lines to increase minority representation on the Council. It also increased the number of Council Members from 35 to 51. The Council was then granted full power over the municipal budget, as well as authority over zoning, land use and franchises. In 1993 the New York City
New York City
Council voted to rename the position of President of the City Council to the Public Advocate. As the presiding officer, the Public Advocate was an ex officio member of all committees in the Council, and in that capacity had the right to introduce and co-sponsor legislation.[citation needed] However the city charter revision of 2002 transferred the duties of presiding officer from the Public Advocate to the Council Speaker; the Public Advocate remains a non-voting member of the Council.[13] Term limits[edit] A two-term limit was imposed on City Council members and citywide elected officials in a 1993 referendum. The movement to introduce term limits was led by Ronald Lauder, a cosmetics heir. In 1996, voters turned down a Council proposal to extend term limits. Lauder spent $4 million on the two referenda. However, in 2008, under pressure from Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
(who, like many Council members, was facing the end of his two-term limit at that time), the Council voted 29–22 to extend the limit to three terms; the Council also defeated (by a vote of 22–28, with one abstention) a proposal to submit the issue to public referendum.[14] Legal challenges to the extension of term limits failed in federal court. The original decision by Judge Charles Sifton of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (Long Island, Brooklyn, Queens
and Staten Island) was upheld by a three-judge panel of the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (Vermont, Connecticut and New York), and a proposal in the New York State Legislature to override the extension was not passed.[15][16][17] Voters voted to reinstate the two-term limit law in another referendum in 2010.[18] However, according to The New York Times, incumbent Members of the City Council who were elected prior to the 2010 referendum “will still be allowed to run for a third term. The two-term limit will only apply to those elected this year and beyond.”[19] Presiding officers since 1898[edit] Through several changes in title and duties, this person has been, together with the Mayor and City Comptroller, one of the three municipal officers directly elected by all of the City's voters, and also the person who—when the elected Mayor resigns, dies, or otherwise loses the ability to serve—becomes Acting Mayor until the next special or regular election.[20] Until 1989, these three officers, together with the five borough presidents, constituted the New York City
New York City
Board of Estimate. Political campaigns have traditionally tried to balance their candidates for these three offices to appeal as wide a range of the city's political, geographical, social, ethnic and religious constituencies as possible (and, when possible, to both genders).

Name Start and End Dates as Presiding Officer Party Reason for End of Term

As President of the Board of Aldermen

Randolph Guggenheimer[21] January 1, 1898[22][23] – December 31, 1901 Democratic

did not run for re-election[24]

Charles V. Fornes[25] January 1, 1902[26] – December 31, 1903 Fusion (first term)

elected to two two-year terms[25]

January 1, 1904 – December 27, 1905 Democratic (second term)

did not run for re-election after his second term

Patrick F. McGowan[27] December 27, 1905[28] – December 31, 1909 Democratic

did not run for re-election, was appointed to several committees on the New York City
New York City
Board of Education[29]

John Purroy Mitchel[30] b, c January 1, 1910[31] – June 7, 1913[32] Fusion

resigned to become Collector of the Port of New York

Ardolph L. Kline[33] a, d June 9, 1913[34] – December 31, 1913 Republican

did not run for election as aldermanic president, but was re-elected to his aldermanic seat[35]

George McAneny[36] January 1, 1914[37] – February 1, 1916[38] Fusion, Democratic

resigned to join the management of The New York Times[39]

Frank L. Dowling[40] February 1, 1916[38][41] – December 31, 1917 Democratic

ran for borough president of Manhattan, and won[42]

Alfred E. Smith[43] January 1, 1918[44] – December 31, 1918 Democratic

ran for Governor of New York, and won[45]

Robert L. Moran[46] January 1, 1919[45] – December 31, 1919 Democratic

ran for re-election, but lost to La Guardia[47]

Fiorello H. La Guardia[48] b, c January 1, 1920[49] – December 31, 1921 Republican

ran for Mayor, but lost in the Republican primary election[50]

Murray Hulbert[51] January 2, 1922[52] – January 8, 1925[53] Democratic

ousted by a court decision after accepting an honorary position as a member of the Finger Lakes Park Commission[53]

William T. Collins[54] January 8, 1925[53] – December 30, 1925[55] Democratic

became Acting Mayor for one day, then became New York County Clerk[55]

Joseph V. McKee[56] a, c January 1, 1926[57] – May 15, 1933[58] Democratic

resigned to become president of the Title Guarantee and Trust Company[58]

Dennis J. Mahon[59] (acting) May 16, 1933[60] – December 31, 1933[61] Democratic

ran for re-election to his aldermanic seat, but lost to the Republican-Fusion candidate Morton Baum[62]

Bernard S. Deutsch[63] January 1, 1934[64] – November 21, 1935[63] Republican, Fusion, Law Preservation[65]

died unexpectedly[63]

Timothy J. Sullivan[66] November 22, 1935[63] – December 31, 1936 Democratic

did not run for election as aldermanic president, but won re-election to his aldermanic seat

William F. Brunner[67] January 1, 1937[68] – December 31, 1937 Democratic

ran for Queens
Borough President, and lost[69]

As President of the City Council

Newbold Morris[70] c December 31, 1937[71] – January 1, 1946 Republican

ran for Mayor as the No Deal Party candidate, and lost in the general election to William F. O'Dwyer[72]

Vincent Impellitteri[73] a, b January 1, 1946[74] – August 31, 1950 Democratic

became Mayor upon O'Dwyer's resignation

Joseph T. Sharkey[75] (acting) September 2, 1950[76] – November 14, 1951 Democratic

Halley was sworn in as soon as the Election Day results were certified[77]

Rudolph Halley[78] c November 14, 1951[77] – December 31, 1953 Liberal, Fusion, Independent Citizens

ran for Mayor, and lost in the general election to Robert F. Wagner Jr.[79]

Abe Stark[80] January 1, 1954[81] – December 31, 1961 Democratic

ran for Brooklyn
Borough President, and won[82]

Paul R. Screvane[83] January 1, 1962[84] – December 31, 1965 Democratic, Liberal, Brotherhood[85]

ran for Mayor, and lost in the Democratic primary to Abraham D. Beame[86]

Frank D. O'Connor[87] January 1, 1966[88] – January 3, 1969[89] Democratic

resigned to become a New York Supreme Court
New York Supreme Court

Francis X. Smith January 8, 1969[90] – December 31, 1969 Democratic

ran for re-election, but lost to Garelik[91]

Sanford Garelik[92] January 1, 1970[93] – December 31, 1973 Republican, Liberal

ran for re-election as a Democrat, but lost the primary election to O'Dwyer[94][95]

Paul O'Dwyer[96] January 1, 1974[97] – December 31, 1977 Democratic

ran for re-election, won the Democratic primary but not with enough votes to avoid a run-off,[98] then lost the run-off to Bellamy[99]

Carol Bellamy
Carol Bellamy
c January 1, 1978[100] – December 31, 1985 Democratic

ran for Mayor, and lost to Edward I. Koch[101]

Andrew Stein January 1, 1986[102] – December 31, 1993 Democratic, Liberal

initially ran for Mayor, then dropped out, then ran for Public Advocate, and dropped out of that race[103]

As Public Advocate

Mark Green c January 2, 1994[104] – December 31, 2001 Democratic

ran for Mayor and lost in the general election to Michael R. Bloomberg[105]

As Speaker of the City Council

Gifford Miller January 9, 2002[106] – December 31, 2005 Democratic

had to give up his seat because of term limits,[107] ran for Mayor and came in fourth in the Democratic primary election[108]

Christine Quinn January 4, 2006[109] – December 31, 2013 Democratic

ran for Mayor, and lost in the Democratic primary election to Bill De Blasio[110]

Melissa Mark-Viverito January 8, 2014[111] – December 31, 2017 Democratic

term limits

Corey Johnson January 3, 2018 – present Democratic


Notes[edit] a. Became acting mayor upon the death or resignation of the elected mayor. b. Later won election as mayor. c. Unsuccessful candidate for mayor in a subsequent general election. d. Not elected by citywide popular vote (Ardolph Kline had been elected deputy president by his fellow aldermen, and then succeeded as president upon Mitchel's resignation). Standing committees[edit]

Aging (Chair: Margaret Chin)

Subcommittee on Senior Centers (Chair: Paul Vallone)

Civil Rights (Chair: Darlene Mealy) Civil Service & Labor (Chair: Daneek Miller) Consumer Affairs (Chair: Rafael Espinal) Contracts (Chair: Helen Rosenthal) Cultural Affairs, Libraries & International Intergroup Relations (Chair: Jimmy Van Bramer)

Subcommittee on Libraries (Chair: Andy King)

Economic Development (Chair: Dan Garodnick) Education (Chair: Danny Dromm) Environmental Protection (Chair: Costa Constantinides) Finance (Chair: Julissa Ferreras) Fire & Criminal Justice Services (Chair: Elizabeth Crowley) General Welfare (Chair: Stephen Levin) Governmental Operations (Chair: Ben Kallos) Health (Chair: Corey Johnson) Higher Education (Chair: Inez Barron) Housing & Buildings (Chair: Jumaane Williams) Immigration (Chair: Carlos Menchaca) Juvenile Justice (Chair: Fernando Cabrera) Land Use (Chair: David Greenfield)

Subcommittee on Landmarks, Public Siting and Maritime Uses (Chair: Peter Koo) Subcommittee on Planning, Dispositions and Concessions (Chair: Rafael Salamanca) Subcommittee on Zoning and Franchises (Chair: Donovan Richards)

Mental Health, Developmental Disability, Alcoholism, Drug Abuse and Disability Services (Chair: Andrew Cohen) Oversight and Investigations (Chair: Vincent Gentile) Parks & Recreation (Chair: Mark Levine) Public Housing (Chair: Ritchie Torres) Public Safety (Chair: Vanessa Gibson) Recovery and Resiliency (Chair: Mark Treyger) Rules, Privileges & Elections (Chair: Brad Lander) Sanitation & Solid Waste Management (Chair: Antonio Reynoso) Small Business (Chair: Robert Cornegy) Standards & Ethics (Chair: Alan Maisel) State & Federal Legislation (Chair: Karen Koslowitz) Technology (Chair: James Vacca) Transportation (Chair: Ydanis Rodriguez) Veterans (Chair: Eric Ulrich) Waterfronts (Chair: Debi Rose) Women's Issues (Chair: Laurie Cumbo) Youth Services (Chair: Mathieu Eugene)


Black, Latino and Asian (BLA) Caucus Jewish Caucus LGBT Caucus Progressive Caucus Women's Caucus

See also[edit]

Government of New York City Mayor of New York City New York City
New York City
Civil Court New York City
New York City
Criminal Court La Guardia and Wagner Archives


^ Charter of the City of New York, Chapter 2 §25(a) ^ Councilman Holden, though elected on a Republican ballot line and caucusing with Republicans, is a registered Democrat. ^ United States Census
United States Census
figures for the respective counties from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2009, (New York, 2008), ISBN 978-1-60057-105-3, page 620 ^ NYC Council votes 40-7 to raise members’ pay to $148,500, by Matthew Chayes, Newsday; February 5, 2016 ^ Gibson, Ellen M.; Manz, William H. (2004). Gibson's New York Legal Research Guide (PDF) (3rd ed.). Wm. S. Hein Publishing. p. 450. ISBN 1-57588-728-2. LCCN 2004042477. OCLC 54455036.  ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 458. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 473. ^ Adopting Local Laws in New York State (PDF). James A. Coon Local Government Technical Series. New York State Department of State. May 1998. pp. 1–10.  ^ a b Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 261. ^ "About the Law Department". New York City
New York City
Law Department. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013. The most important laws of the City of New York are now available on the web. The Law Department contracted with New York Legal Publishing Corp. for a site where you can browse and search the New York City
New York City
Charter, the New York City
New York City
Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York.  ^ Amy, Douglas J (1996). "A Brief History of Proportional Representation in the United States". Retrieved 30 April 2014.  ^ Andrews v. Koch, 528 F.Supp. 246 (1981), aff’d sub nom., Giacobbe v. Andrews, 459 U.S. 801 (1982). ^ Cardwell, Diane. "Betsy Gotbaum, the Advocate, Struggles to Reach Her Public". Retrieved January 14, 2013.  ^ Sewell Chan and Jonathan P. Hicks. Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits, New York Times, published on-line and retrieved October 23, 2008. ^ Fernanda Santos. The Future of Term Limits Is in Court, New York Times, October 24, 2008, p. A24 (retrieved October 24, 2008). ^ Fernanda Santos. Judge Rejects Suit Over Term Limits, New York Times, January 14, 2009, p. A26 (retrieved July 6, 2009). ^ Appeals Court Upholds Term Limits Revision, New York Times
New York Times
City Room Blog, April 28, 2009 (retrieved July 6, 2009). ^ Javier C. Fernandez. "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits", New York Times, November 3, 2010. ^ Hernandez, Javier (November 3, 2010). "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2018.  ^ " New York City
New York City
Charter, ch. 1, §10" (PDF). nyc.gov. City of New York. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "Death of Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. September 13, 1907. p. 7. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Democrats Take All — The Tammany Ticket Makes Almost a Clean Sweep of the Greater City — Only Two Republicans in the Council — Van Wyck's Plurality Is 80,316 — Seth Low Ran Nearly 40,000 Ahead of His Ticket — The Republicans Lose 21 Assemblymen and Elect Only 11 Candidates to the Board of Aldermen". New York Times. November 4, 1897. p. 1. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "City Legislators Meet — The First Session of the Council in Its Chamber Held Amid a Profusion of Flowers — Address of the President — He Calls the Attention of the Members to Serious Questions Confronting Them and Urges the Necessity of Economy in Expenditures". New York Times. January 4, 1898. p. 5. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. January 1, 1902. p. 6. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ a b " Charles V. Fornes
Charles V. Fornes
Dies of Stroke at 82 — Twice President of New York City
New York City
Board of Aldermen Succumbs in Buffalo — Was an Ex-Congressman — Long a Merchant Here and Active in Charities — Former President of Catholic Club". New York Times. May 23, 1929. p. 29. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Seth Low Takes The Mayor's Chair — Ex-Mayor Van Wyck Leaves the City Hall Alone — The New Executive Greeted With Courteous Words by His Predecessor Asks the People's Help in Redeeming His Solemn Pledges". New York Times. January 2, 1902. p. 1. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "Patrick F. M'Gowan Dead in Hospital — Operation for Spleen Growth Fails to Save Former President of Aldermen — Washington Irving High School His Monument — Came to City As a Poor Young Man". New York Times. April 7, 1913. p. 9. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Mayor McClellan Sworn In — McGowan, Metz, Hayes, and Gass Also Get Certificates and Follow Suit". New York Times. December 28, 1905. p. 5. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "Kind to Metz and McGowan — Good Committees Picked for Them on Board of Education". New York Times. January 7, 1910. p. 6. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Belt Unfastened, Ex-Mayor Mitchel Falls To Death - His Scout Plane 500 Feet from Ground When the Accident Happened - Find Body In Marsh Grass - Other Airmen Believe He Was Trying to Make Landing When He Fell - Wife Not on the Grounds - Bears Shock Bravely and Will Bring Body from Louisiana Field to This City". New York Times. July 7, 1918. p. 1. Retrieved 18 August 2016.  ^ "Mayor Gaynor Takes Office — But He Will Not Announce His Appointments Before To-morrow — Ridder For Park Board — Publisher May be Commissioner for Manhattan, But Asks Time to Consider — McAneny Is Sworn In — Mitchel, Prendergast and Other Officers of the New Administration Also Take Hold". New York Times. January 2, 1910. p. 1. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "Mitchel In Office As Port Collector Loeb, Retiring, Wishes Him Well — McAneny and Steers There as He Is Sworn In — Still in Mayoralty Fight — Politicians Say His Federal Appointment Can't Keep Him Out and Will Help Him". New York Times. June 8, 1913. p. C4. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "Ex-Mayor Kline Dies At Age Of 72 — City's Chief Executive A Few Months Upon Death Of Mayor Gaynor In 1913 — Once Head Of Aldermen — A Brigadier General in the National Guard — Was With U.S. Shipping Board At His Death — Joined National Guard In 1876 — Praised By Gaynor". New York Times. October 14, 1930. p. 25. Retrieved December 31, 2016.  ^ "Col. Kline For Economy — Successor of Mitchel As Aldermen's Head Will Follow His Lead". New York Times. June 10, 1913. p. 6. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "Kline Elected Alderman — Mayor Gets All but Forty Votes In His Home District". New York Times. November 5, 1913. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "George M'Aneny, 83, Dead in Princeton — Zoning and Transit Expert Was City Controller, President of Manhattan
Borough — Banker, Reform Leader — Former Executive Manager of The Times Helped to Draft Code for Civil Service". New York Times. July 30, 1953. p. 23. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Mitchel's First Day As Mayor — Cautions Heads of Departments Against Talking Too Much — Insists on Co-operation — No Police Head Yet — Commissioner McKay May Remain If Mayor Cannot Get the Man He Wants for the Place". New York Times. January 2, 1914. p. 1. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ a b "McAneny Stays Till Feb. 1 — President of Aldermen Postpones His Resignation at Mayor's Request". New York Times. January 22, 1916. p. 9. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "M'Aneny to Resign to Join The Times — President of the Board of Aldermen to Give Up Office in January Next — Will Finish Work in Hand — Regrets Leaving Associates, but Feels That He Will Still Be in the Public's Service". New York Times. October 20, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Frank L. Dowling Dies of Pneumonia — President of Manhattan Borough Stricken After Attack of Gall Stones a Week Ago — Long Career in Politics — Former President of Board of Aldermen Served 18 Years in That Body — Mayor Pays Tribute". New York Times. September 28, 1919. p. 22. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Frank L. Dowling Heads Aldermen; Vice Chairman of the Board Will Take President McAneny's Place — Democrats in Control — Dr. Thomas W. Martin Replaces Barry, Who Died In Bronx District — Committees Named". New York Times. January 4, 1916. p. 8. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "A Tammany Sweep — Hylan Can Get Every Vote in the Board of Estimate — Carries Every Borough — His Vote Is 293,382, Mitchel's 148,060, and Hillquit's 138,793 — Lewis, Attorney General — Beaten in This City, but Had a Big Plurality Up-State — Hylan Promises Loyalty". New York Times. November 7, 1917. p. 1. Retrieved 21 November 2016.  ^ " Alfred E. Smith
Alfred E. Smith
Dies Here at 70 — 4 Times Governor — End Comes After a Sudden Relapse Following Earlier Turn for the Better — Ran For President in '28 — His Rise From Newsboy and Fishmonger Had No Exact Parallel in U.S. History". New York Times. October 4, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Smith Fills Offices — Matthew T. Horgan Will Be Assistant President of Aldermen". New York Times. January 2, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ a b "Named By Smith To Military Staff — Governor-Elect Will Appoint 4 More Men Later Who Have Seen Active Service — Resigns From Aldermen — Will Use Governor's Room at City Hall to Meet Persons Here on Official Business". New York Times. December 24, 1918. p. 7. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "R.L. Moran, Led City's Aldermen — Chief of Board Under Hylan Dies — Was Commissioner of Bronx Public Works". New York Times. August 19, 1954. p. 23. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "La Gaurdia Wins By 1,530 — Beats Moran for President of Board of Aldermen in a Close Contest — Koenig Ordered Vigilance — Warned Republican Chairmen to Stay by the Ballot Boxes and Scrutinize Count — Curran Defeats Boyle — Five Republican Votes in Board of Estimate Assured — Clean Cut Result in Supreme Court". New York Times. November 5, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "La Guardia is Dead; City Pays Homage to 3-Time Mayor — Body Lying in State at St. John the Divine, Where Services Will Be Held Tomorrow — Gilbert Will Officiate — Truman, O'Dwyer and General Assembly of U.N. Mourn 'Champion of Democracy'". New York Times. September 21, 1947. p. 1. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Curran Sworn In, LaGuardia Also — Borough President
Borough President
and Head of Aldermen Silent on Public Issues — Two Resignations Asked — Curran Pays Tribute to the Late Frank L. Dowling — Says Fairer Man Never Lived". New York Times. January 2, 1920. p. 8. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "Curran Defeats La Guardia by 60,000 — Haskell Third — Gilroy Wins — Hines Loses — Hines's Manager and a Candidate Shot — Fusion Wins All Over City — Wet Republican Runs 3 to 1 Behind — Bennett a Poor Fourth — Connolly Wins in Queens
— Organization Leader Defeats Denis O'Leary, Insurgent Democrat, by 3 to 1 — Lockwood in Easy Victory — With 455 Districts Missing, Curran Has 83,425, LaGuardia 30,955, Bennett 3,777". New York Times. September 14, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Murray Hulbert, Jurist, 65, Dead — Member of the Federal Bench Since 1934 Formerly Headed Board of Aldermen Here". New York Times. April 27, 1950. p. 19. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Hylan Reinstalled, Pledges Old Policy; Keeps His Old Staff — In Inaugural Address Continues His Criticism of Press, Legislature and Port Authority — Refers to His Large Vote — Says It Is Not a Personal Tribute, but It Imposes Grave Responsibility — For Higher Aldermanic Pay — Craig Appears With Draft of New Charter Providing $5,000 Salaries for Members". New York Times. January 3, 1922. p. 1. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ a b c "Court Ousts Hulbert From City Office; Forfeited Post By Taking State Job; Hylan Hopes Smith Will Reappoint Him — Collins His Successor — His Eligibility to the Office Since Jan. 1 Is Questioned, However — Dispute Over The Law — Governor May Have Power to Appoint Hulbert to His Old Position — Comma Figures in Case". New York Times. January 9, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ "William Collins, Ex-Justice, Dead — Surrogate Served on State Supreme Court, 1928–45". New York Times. September 6, 1961. p. 37. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ a b "Hylan And Enright Out With Pensions; Last-Hour Shifts In Police Department; Walker Fills Important City Posts — Collins Mayor for a Day — Leach is the Active Head of the Police Force for the Last Day of 1925 — Hylan to Get $4,205 A Year — Retirement Voted by Board of Estimate, He Quits to Assure Pension — Enright to Draw $5,000 — Approval of His Retirement as Commissioner One of Hylan's Last Official Acts". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "J.V. M'Kee is Dead; Served as Mayor — President of Old Aldermanic Board Replaced Walker in Wave of Reform — Known as 'Holy Joe' — Former Teacher Entered Politics 'by Accident' — Headed Trust Company". New York Times. January 29, 1956. p. 93. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "McKee Resigns as Judge". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 2. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ a b "M'Kee Reinstates Man The Man He Had Ousted — Just Before Quitting Office He Names McEneny, Dropped in School Site Inquiry — Now Finds Charges Fail — O'Brien Assures His Departing Associate He Will Always Be Welcome at City Hall". New York Times. May 16, 1933. p. 1. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ "Dennis J. Mahon, Tammany Aide, 71 — Acting Mayor in 30's Dies — Assisted De Sapio". New York Times. June 14, 1965. p. 33. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "City Charter Bill Voted — Aldermen Provide Referendum on Question of Revision". New York Times. May 17, 1933. p. 19. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ "Rockway Subway Approved by City — Long Island
Long Island
Road's Route Held Best of 3 Proposed — Buying of Line Up to LaGuardia — Cost Put at $34,114,000 — Estimate Board Also Passes on Site of Staten Island Tube and Brooklyn
Tunnel". New York Times. December 30, 1933. p. 15. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ "Democrats Keep Aldermanic Rule — But the Republican-Fusionists Elect Seventeen, a Gain of Sixteen Seats — Majority Leader Loses — Mahon's Defeat Blow to Tammany — Kiernan Beaten in Brooklyn
— Baldwin Winner". New York Times. November 8, 1933. p. 2. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ a b c d "Bernard S. Deutsch Dies Unexpectedly At 51 In Bronx Home — President of Board of Aldermen Succumbs to Brief Illness Not Known to Be Serious — Strain of Office Blamed — Wife and Two Daughters at Bedside — Mayor Goes to Home on Learning News — He Was Leader in Fusion — Long Identified With Law Here — Rose in Politics After 1930 Ambulance Chasing Inquiry". New York Times. November 22, 1935. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "LaGuardia Takes Office To Give City A New Deal; Sworn at Seabury Home — Ceremony At Midnight — Wife and Fusion Chiefs Are Present as McCook Administers Oath — His Day to Begin Early — Goes to Headquarters at 8:30 A.M. to Induct O'Ryan as Police Commissioner — Board to Hear His Plans — Mayor Faces Many Problems, a Hostile Tammany and Fight for His Program at Albany". New York Times. January 1, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "List of Candidates Who Will Be on Ballots in Municipal Election Nov. 7". New York Times. November 5, 1933. p. N2. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "T.J. Sullivan Dies; Once Acting Mayor — Former President of the Board of Aldermen and Midtown Democratic Leader". New York Times. December 14, 1951. p. 31. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "William Brunner ot Queens, 77, Last Alderman Board Head, Dies — Representative, 1928 to '35, Assemblyman and Sheriff — Headed Peninsula Hospital". New York Times. April 24, 1965. p. 29. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Brunner Sworn In To Head Aldermen — Hallinan Administers Oath in Presence of Family and a Few Close Friends — Induction on Monday — Former Sheriff of Queens
is Expected to Outline Policies at Meeting of Board". New York Times. January 2, 1937. p. 4. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "Tables Showing the Vote for City-Wide Officials and Borough and County Posts". New York Times. November 3, 1937. p. 14. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ "Morris, An Athlete, Heads City Council — Amateur Skating Champion and College Oarsman a Descendant of Declaration Signer". New York Times. November 3, 1937. p. 13. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "Morris Is Sworn As Council Head — Takes Oath Under Portrait of Great-Grandfather, Mayor of City 1851 to 1853 — 200 Attend Ceremonies — Lazarus is Selected as Head of Administrative Staff — 5 Other Aides Named". New York Times. January 1, 1938. p. 36. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "O'Dwyer Elected Mayor in City Sweep; Carries Ticket With Him; Goldstein 2d; Molotov Rebukes US on Atomic Policy — Record Plurality — Margin Totals 685,175 — McGoldrick Out but Runs Ahead of Ticket — Blow to Dewey Seen — Beldock Defeated by Big Margin — Lynch Loses to Hall in Richmond". New York Times. November 7, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ McFadden, Robert D. (January 30, 1987). "Vincdent Impellitteri is Dead; Mayor of New York in 1950's". New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ Potter, Robert W. (January 2, 1946). "O'Dwyer As Mayor Pledges His Regime 'To Do Good Work' — In Inaugural Talk
He Appeals for Citizens' Aid in Meeting 'Heavy' Responsibilities — Homecoming Spirit Noted — Democrats Happy in Taking Over City Hall — LaGuardia Waves Hat in Farewell". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Fowler, Glenn (January 3, 1991). "Joseph Sharkey, 97, Former Head Of New York City
New York City
Council, Is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ Crowell, Paul (November 9, 1950). "Mayor Will Delay Changing Top Aides — In No Hurry, but Some Will Go, Says Impellitteri After Crowd Cheers Him at City Hall". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ a b "Halley Induction Slated For Today — Board Certifies the Election of President of City Council by Plurality of 163,342 Votes". New York Times. November 14, 1951. p. 25. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "Halley Dies at 43; Ex-Crime Counsel — Former Kefauver Committee Aide Served as President of City Council Here — Exposed Rackets on TV — Lawyer Suffered Reverses in Municipal Post — Lost in '53 Mayoralty Race". New York Times. November 20, 1956. p. 37. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Wagner Wins By 360,078 in Democratic Sweep; Meyner is Elected in Jersey By a Landslide and — City Vote 2,205,662 — Riegelman Runs Second — Stark Tops Ticket in New Dealers' Triumph". New York Times. November 4, 1953. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Illson, Murray (July 4, 1972). " Abe Stark
Abe Stark
of Brooklyn, Who Led City Council, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ Crowell, Paul (January 2, 1954). "Wagner Pledges His Best To City At Inauguration — Mayor, in Ceremony, Voices Aims for Housing, Schools, Health and Security — Swears In His 36 Aides — Moses Retained in All Three Posts — Impellitteri Will Get His Judgeship Today". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Kihss, Peter (November 8, 1961). "City Vote Heavy – Lefkowitz Takes 34% of Total, Screvane and Beame Elected". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ Martin, Douglas (November 7, 2001). " Paul R. Screvane Dies at 87; Held Many Political Offices". Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ Crowell, Paul (January 1, 1962). "Wagner Gives Jobs to 7 Who Helped to Elect Him". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Grutzner, Charles (November 7, 1961). "City Elects Mayor Today; Vote Of 2 Million Is Seen; Jersey To Pick Governor — Wagner and Lefkowitz End Bitterly Fought Campaign — Union Cheers for Mayor". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Bigart, Homer (September 15, 1965). "For Beame, an Unexpected Joy — For Screvane, Stunning Dismay". New York Times. p. 37. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Hevesi, Dennis (December 3, 1992). "Frank D. O'Connor, 82, Is Dead; Retired New York Appellate Judge". New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ Knowles, Clayton (December 30, 1965). "O'Connor Chooses First 3 Top Aides — Bragdon, Mrs. Shainswit and Olivero Are Lawyers". New York Times. p. 50. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ King, Seth S. (January 5, 1969). "Council Narrows Presidency Race — Seeks to Fill Vacancy With Member From Queens". New York Times. p. 37. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ King, Seth S. (January 9, 1969). "F.X. Smith Elected City Council Head". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Reeves, Richard (November 8, 1969). "Lindsay, Garelik and Beame Victors; Cahill Beats Meyner in New Jersey — Marchi Gets 20% — He Wins Enough Votes to Prevent Victory by Procaccino". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Flegenheimer, Matt (November 21, 2011). "Sanford Garelik, Former Mayoral Candidate, Dies at 93". New York Times. p. A27. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Mayor Lindsay's Second Term". New York Times. January 1, 1970. p. 22. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "Beame Tops Democratic Primary But Must Face Badillo in Runoff; Hogan Turns Back Vanden Heuvel — 2D Place is Close — Biaggi Finishes Third in Mayoral Contest — Goldin Is Victor". New York Times. June 5, 1973. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ "The Primary". New York Times. June 5, 1973. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Clines, Francis X. (June 25, 1998). "Paul O'Dwyer, New York's Liberal Battler For Underdogs and Outsiders, Dies at 90". New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ Carroll, Maurice (January 1, 1974). "Quiet Ceremony Held at Home". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Gupte, Pranay (September 7, 1977). " Carol Bellamy
Carol Bellamy
Wins a Place in Runoff — State Senator to Face O'Dwyer in Council Presidency Race". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Carroll, Maurice (September 20, 1977). "Easy Triumph by Miss Bellamy Opens Door to Top Council Post". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ "List of City Officers Who Were Sworn In". New York Times. January 2, 1978. p. 13. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "The '85 Elections — Election Results in Voting Tuesday in City and on Long Island
Long Island
— Vote Totals for the Elections Held in New York and New Jersey". New York Times. November 7, 1985. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Heller Anderson, Susan; Bird, David. "Honoring Unisex Tradition". New York Times
New York Times
(January 3, 1986). Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Hicks, Jonathan P. (September 12, 1993). "Voters Guide — A Wide Field Battles for a Weakened Office". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Mitchell, Alison (January 3, 1994). "The New Mayor: The Overview — Giuliani Urges Dream of Better City and End to Fear". New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Nagourney, Adam (November 7, 2001). "The 2001 Election: Mayor — Bloomberg Edges Green in Race for Mayor; McGreevey is an Easy Winner in New Jersey". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Cardwell, Diane (January 10, 2002). "A Very Different Council Ushers In New Leadership". New York Times. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Hu, Winnie (December 4, 2015). "Council Wants to Extend Term Limits". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Hu, Winnie (September 14, 2005). "The New York Primary: The Council Speaker — Miller Loses Mayoral Bid but Vows to Try Again". New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ Hu, Winnie (January 3, 2006). "Council Ready to Fill the Job of Speaker". New York Times. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ Kantor, Jodi; Taylor, Kate (September 12, 2013). "In Quinn's Loss, Questions About Role of Gender and Sexuality". New York Times. p. A23. Retrieved 29 December 2016.  ^ Grynbaum, Michael M.; Taylor, Kate (January 8, 2014). "Mayoral Ally Elected Speaker, Furthering City's Liberal Shift". New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 

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New York City
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Council main page La Guardia and Wagner Archives/The Council of the City of New York Collection David W. Chen, Council Gets a Charge From Vote on Term Limits, New York Times, New York edition, October 25, 2008, page A18, retrieved the same day. (Discusses changes in the Council's degree of independence and authority in relation to the Mayor's powers.) NYS Go New York Forum Councilpedia, a Wiki about the City Council (inactive since January 2013) New York City
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