HOME
The Info List - New York City



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Bronx , Kings (Brooklyn) , New York
York
(Manhattan) , Queens
Queens
, Richmond (Staten Island) -------------------------

HISTORIC COLONIES New Netherland
New Netherland
Province of New York
Province of New York

SETTLED 1624

CONSOLIDATED 1898

NAMED FOR James, Duke of York
York

GOVERNMENT

• TYPE Mayor–Council

• BODY New York City Council
New York City Council

• MAYOR Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
(D )

AREA

• TOTAL 468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2)

• LAND 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2)

• WATER 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2)

• METRO 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2)

ELEVATION 33 ft (10 m)

POPULATION (2010 )

• TOTAL 8,175,133

• ESTIMATE (2016) 8,537,673

• RANK 1st, U.S.

• DENSITY 28,210/sq mi (10,890/km2)

• MSA (2016) 20,153,634 (1st )

• CSA (2016) 23,689,255 (1st )

DEMONYM(S) New Yorker

TIME ZONE Eastern (EST) ( UTC-5
UTC-5
)

• SUMMER (DST ) EDT ( UTC-4
UTC-4
)

ZIP CODE(S) 100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xx

AREA CODE(S) 212/646/332 , 718/347/929 , 917

FIPS CODE 36-51000

GNIS FEATURE ID 975772

LARGEST BOROUGH BY AREA Queens
Queens
– 109 square miles (280 km2)

LARGEST BOROUGH BY POPULATION Brooklyn
Brooklyn
(2,636,735 – 2015 est)

WEBSITE www.nyc.gov

Part of a series on

REGIONS OF NEW YORK

Downstate New York
Downstate New York

* New York
York
City * Long Island
Long Island
* Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
(Lower)

Upstate New York
Upstate New York

* * Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
(Middle and Upper) * Capital District * North Country * Southern Tier
Southern Tier
* Mohawk Valley
Mohawk Valley
* Central New York
Central New York
* Finger Lakes
Finger Lakes
* Western New York
Western New York

Administrative divisions

* Counties * Cities * Towns * Indian reservations * Villages * Census-designated places * Places (including hamlets)

Timelines of town creation

* Downstate New York
Downstate New York
* Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
* Capital District * North Country * Central New York
Central New York
* Southern Tier
Southern Tier
* Western New York
Western New York

* v * t * e

The CITY OF NEW YORK, often called NEW YORK CITY or simply NEW YORK, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2016 population of 8,537,673 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York
York
City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York
York
, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area , one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. A global power city , New York
York
City exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace defining the term _New York
York
minute_. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations , New York
York
is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world.

Situated on one of the world\'s largest natural harbors , New York City consists of five boroughs , each of which is a separate county of New York
York
State . The five boroughs – Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, Queens
Queens
, Manhattan , The Bronx
The Bronx
, and Staten Island
Staten Island
– were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States
United States
, and as many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York
York
City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the world's largest foreign-born population of any city. By 2016 estimates, the New York
York
City metropolitan region remains by a significant margin the most populous in the United States, as defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), 20.2 million residents, and the Combined Statistical Area (CSA), 23.7 million residents. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.39 trillion. In 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYC's MSA and CSA GDP are higher than the GDPs of all but 11 and 12 countries, respectively.

New York
York
City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan
Manhattan
as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and was named New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed _New York_ after King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York
York
. New York
York
served as the capital of the United States
United States
from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas
Americas
by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States
United States
and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York
York
has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship , social tolerance , and environmental sustainability , and as a world symbol of freedom and cultural diversity .

Many districts and landmarks in New York
York
City have become well known, and the city received a record 61 million tourists in 2016, hosting three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013. Several sources have ranked New York
York
the most photographed city in the world. Times Square
Times Square
, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District , one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections , and a major center of the world's entertainment industry . The names of many of the city's bridges , tapered skyscrapers , and parks are known around the world. Anchored by Wall Street
Wall Street
in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York
York
City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization , the New York
York
Stock Exchange and NASDAQ
NASDAQ
. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan\'s Chinatown
Chinatown
incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway
New York City Subway
is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York
York
City, including Columbia University
Columbia University
, New York University
New York University
, and Rockefeller University
Rockefeller University
, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Dutch rule * 1.4 English rule * 1.5 American Revolution
American Revolution
* 1.6 Nineteenth century * 1.7 Modern history

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Cityscape * 2.2 Architecture * 2.3 Boroughs * 2.4 Climate

* 2.5 Parks

* 2.5.1 National parks * 2.5.2 State parks * 2.5.3 City parks

* 2.6 Military installations

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Population density
Population density
* 3.2 Race and ethnicity

* 3.3 Sexual orientation and gender identity

* 3.3.1 Transgender
Transgender
contribution

* 3.4 Religion * 3.5 Income

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 City economic overview * 4.2 Wall Street
Wall Street
* 4.3 Silicon Alley
Silicon Alley
* 4.4 Tourism * 4.5 Media and entertainment

* 5 Human resources

* 5.1 Education and scholarly activity

* 5.1.1 Primary and secondary education * 5.1.2 Higher education
Higher education
and research * 5.1.3 Public library system

* 5.2 Public health

* 5.3 Public safety

* 5.3.1 Police and law enforcement * 5.3.2 Firefighting

* 6 Culture
Culture
and contemporary life

* 6.1 Arts

* 6.1.1 Performing arts * 6.1.2 Visual arts

* 6.2 Cuisine * 6.3 Parades * 6.4 Accent and dialect * 6.5 Sports

* 7 Transportation

* 7.1 Rapid transit
Rapid transit

* 7.1.1 Rail * 7.1.2 Buses

* 7.2 Air * 7.3 Ferries * 7.4 Taxis, transport startups, and trams

* 7.5 Streets and highways

* 7.5.1 River crossings

* 8 Environment

* 8.1 Environmental impact reduction * 8.2 Water purity and availability * 8.3 Environmental revitalization

* 9 Government and politics

* 9.1 Government * 9.2 Politics

* 10 Notable people * 11 Global outreach * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of New York City See also: Timeline of New York
York
City

ETYMOLOGY

In 1664, the city was named after the city of York
York
in Northern England
England
to honor then-Duke of York
York
, and future King of England
England
James II . James had been named by his older brother Charles II as proprietor of the former territory of New Netherlandsand its main city of New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
, which had recently been seized from the Dutch.

EARLY HISTORY

During the Wisconsinan glaciation
Wisconsinan glaciation
, the New York
York
City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York
York
City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island
Long Island
and Staten Island
Staten Island
.

In the precolonial era , the area of present-day New York
York
City was inhabited by various bands of Algonquian tribes of Native Americans , including the Lenape
Lenape
, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking
Lenapehoking
, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
.

The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano , a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown , who sailed his ship _ La Dauphine_ into New York Harbor
New York Harbor
. He claimed the area for France
France
and named it _Nouvelle Angoulême_ (New Angoulême ). Peter Minuit
Peter Minuit
is credited with the purchase of the island of Manhattan
Manhattan
in 1626.

A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V , arrived in New York Harbor
New York Harbor
in January 1525 aboard the purpose-built caravel _La Anunciada_ and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named _Río de San Antonio_ (Saint Anthony's River). Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain
Spain
in August. The Padrón Realof 1527, the first scientific map to show North America's east coast continuously, was informed by Gomes' expedition and labeled the Northeastern U.S.
Northeastern U.S.
as _Tierra de Esteban Gómez_ in his honor.

In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
rediscovered the region when he sailed his ship the _ Halve Maen
Halve Maen
_ ("Half Moon" in Dutch ) into New York Harbor
New York Harbor
while searching for the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
to the Orient
Orient
for the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River
Hudson River
), named first by Hudson as the _Mauritius_ after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Maurice, Prince of Orange
. Hudson's first mate described the harbor as "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river as "a mile broad" and "full of fish." Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles north, past the site of the present-day Albany , in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India
India
Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod
Cape Cod
and Delaware Bay would be claimed by the Netherlands
Netherlands
and called _Nieuw-Nederland_ ( New Netherland
New Netherland
).

The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York
York
City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan
Manhattan
during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway , from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan
Manhattan
, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor. New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
, in 1664, the year England
England
took control and renamed it "New York".

DUTCH RULE

A permanent European presence in New Netherland
New Netherland
began in 1624 – making New York
York
the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States
United States
– with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island . In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam
Amsterdam
on Manhattan
Manhattan
Island, later called _Nieuw Amsterdam_ (New Amsterdam). The colony of New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit
Peter Minuit
, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
, purchased the island of Manhattan
Manhattan
from the _Canarsie_, a small Lenape
Lenape
band, for 60 guilders (about $1,000 in 2006). A disproved legend claims that Manhattan
Manhattan
was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.

Following the purchase, New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
grew slowly. To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen ("patroons", or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland
New Netherland
would be awarded swathes of land in New Netherland, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.

Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General . In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economy growth, the Dutch West India
India
Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade in New Netherland, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies ).

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant
Peter Stuyvesant
began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
grew from 2,000 to 8,000. Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church , and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers
Quakers
, Jews , and Lutherans ) from establishing houses of worship. The Dutch West India
India
Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.

ENGLISH RULE

In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
to English troops led by Colonel Richard Nicolls without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city "New York" after the Duke of York
York
(the future King James II of England). The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda , which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War
Third Anglo-Dutch War
, Dutch captain Anthony Colveseized the colony of New York
York
from England
England
at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest
Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest
and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III , the Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
. The Dutch would soon return the island to England
England
under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.

Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizable population losses for the Lenape
Lenape
between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape
Lenape
population had diminished to 200. New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.

New York
York
grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery , with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, more than any other city other than Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery
Slavery
became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South . Discovery of the African Burying Groundin the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.

The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan
Manhattan
of John Peter Zenger
John Peter Zenger
, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby
William Cosby
, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University
Columbia University
was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.

AMERICAN REVOLUTION

The Battle of Long Island
Long Island
, the largest battle of the American Revolution , took place in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
in 1776.

The Stamp Act Congress
Stamp Act Congress
met in New York
York
in October 1765 as the Sons of Liberty organized in the city, skirmishing over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island
Long Island
, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
, was fought in August 1776 entirely within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean
Caribbean
.

The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference Houseon Staten Island
Staten Island
between American delegates , including Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
, and British general Lord Howe
Lord Howe
on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York
York
occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church .

In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation
Congress of the Confederation
made New York
York
the national capital shortly after the war. New York
York
was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States
United States
. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington
George Washington
, was inaugurated; the first United States
United States
Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States
United States
each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall
Federal Hall
on Wall Street. By 1790, New York
York
had surpassed Philadelphia
Philadelphia
as the largest city in the United States.

NINETEENTH CENTURY

Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck
Wickquasgeck
Trail through Manhattan.

Under New York
York
State's gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States
United States
founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay
John Jay
, the New York
York
Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free Schoolto educate black children. It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York
York
interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.

In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration . The city adopted the Commissioners\' Plan of 1811 , which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
through central New York
York
connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River
Hudson River
and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.

Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York
York
during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant
William Cullen Bryant
, Washington Irving , Herman Melville
Herman Melville
, Rufus Wilmot Griswold
Rufus Wilmot Griswold
, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park
Central Park
, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city. Manhattan's Little Italy
Italy
, Lower East Side
Lower East Side
, circa 1900.

The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants . Over 200,000 were living in New York
York
by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city's population. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.

Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood
Fernando Wood
called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States
United States
after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,835 in 2016) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863 , whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class. The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York
York
City Police Department , which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg , Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan
Manhattan
fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.

MODERN HISTORY

A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building
Empire State Building
as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
is below and behind him.

In 1898, the modern City of New York
York
was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
(until then a separate city), the County of New York
York
(which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.

In 1904, the steamship _General Slocum _ caught fire in the East River , killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire , the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies\' Garment Workers\' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards. UN Secretary General
UN Secretary General
Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations Headquarters
United Nations Headquarters
building, completed in 1952

New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York
York
City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York
York
City was home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition . The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline .

New York
York
became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression
Great Depression
saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia
Fiorello La Guardia
as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.

Returning World War II
World War II
veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street
Wall Street
leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters
United Nations Headquarters
was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris
Paris
as the center of the art world. The Stonewall Inn
Stonewall Inn
in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument , as the site of the 1969 Stonewall riots
Stonewall riots
.

The Stonewall riots
Stonewall riots
were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn
Stonewall Inn
in the Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States
United States
.

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York
York
City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification , and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley
Silicon Alley
, emerged in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census. United Airlines Flight 175
United Airlines Flight 175
hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks when 10 of the 19 terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
piloted American Airlines Flight 11
American Airlines Flight 11
into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and United Airlines Flight 175
United Airlines Flight 175
into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, and later destroyed them , killing 2,192 civilians , 343 firefighters , and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area. The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is. The rebuilding of the area , has created a new One World Trade Center , and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station , which opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) permanent station designed by Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub , the city's third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. The new One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of American independence .

The Occupy Wall Street
Wall Street
protests in Zuccotti Parkin the Financial District of Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement
Occupy movement
against social and economic inequality worldwide.

GEOGRAPHY

Main articles: Geography of New York
York
City and Geography of New York Harbor Satellite imagery
Satellite imagery
illustrating the core of the New York City Metropolitan Area , with Manhattan
Manhattan
Island at its center

New York
York
City is situated in the Northeastern United States
United States
, in southeastern New York
York
State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston
Boston
. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River
Hudson River
, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port . Most of New York
York
City is built on the three islands of Long Island , Manhattan, and Staten Island.

The Hudson River
Hudson River
flows through the Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
into New York
York
Bay . Between New York
York
City and Troy, New York
York
, the river is an estuary . The Hudson River
Hudson River
separates the city from the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New Jersey . The East River
East River
—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island
Long Island
Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan
Manhattan
from Long Island. The Harlem River
Harlem River
, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan
Manhattan
from the Bronx. The Bronx
The Bronx
River , which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County
Westchester County
, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.

The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
, with developments such as Battery Park City
Battery Park City
in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.

The city's total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water. The highest point in the city is Todt Hillon Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level , is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine
Maine
. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt . ‹ The template below (_Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Bergen County , NJ North Westchester County
Westchester County
, NY _ Long Island
Long Island
Sound _

Hudson County , NJ

Nassau County , NY

NEW YORK CITY

Middlesex County , NJ Monmouth County , NJ South _ Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
_

CITYSCAPE

View of Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan
at night, from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey
New Jersey
. View of Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
at sunset, from Jersey City
Jersey City
, New Jersey. One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere. Ten-mile Manhattan
Manhattan
panorama from 120th Street to the Battery , taken June 2017 from Weehawken, New Jersey: 1. Riverside Church
Riverside Church
, 2. Time Warner Buildings, 3. 220 Central Park
Central Park
South S, 4. One57
One57
, 5. 432 Park Avenue , 6. Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
, 7. Bank of America Tower , 8. Conde Nast Building , 9. The New York
York
Times Building , 10. Empire State
Empire State
Building , 11. Met Life Tower , 12-14. Hudson Yards
Hudson Yards
, 15. 56 Leonard Street, 16. 8 Spruce Street
8 Spruce Street
, 17. Woolworth Building
Woolworth Building
, 18. 70 Pine Street
70 Pine Street
, 19. 30 Park Place, 20. 40 Wall Street
Wall Street
, 21. Three World Trade Center , 22. Four World Trade Center, 23. One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
.

ARCHITECTURE

Further information: Architecture of New York
York
City and List of tallest buildings in New York
York
City Modernist architecture juxtaposed with classical architecture is seen often in New York
York
City. The Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
, above, built in 1930, is an example of the Art Deco
Art Deco
style, with ornamental hub caps and a spire . The Empire State Building
Empire State Building
is a solitary icon of New York. It was the world\'s tallest building 1931–70 and is defined by its setbacks , Art Deco
Art Deco
details and the spire. Landmark 19th-century rowhouses , including brownstones , on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic District , Brooklyn.

New York
York
has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff Housein Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.

Manhattan's skyline , with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world . As of 2011 , New York
York
City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m) . These include the Woolworth Building
Woolworth Building
, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world's tallest building.

The 1916 Zoning Resolution
1916 Zoning Resolution
required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size , to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco
Art Deco
style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building
Empire State Building
(1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires , reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco
Art Deco
style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States
United States
is the Seagram Building
Seagram Building
(1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York
York
State for its design.

The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York
York
City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian .

Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835 . A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water towers . In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights .

According to the United States
United States
Geological Survey , an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York
York
City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.

BOROUGHS

Main articles: Borough (New York City)
Borough (New York City)
and Neighborhoods in New York City The five boroughs of New York
York
City: 1. Manhattan
Manhattan
2. Brooklyn
Brooklyn
3. Queens
Queens
4. Bronx 5. Staten Island
Staten Island

New York
York
City's five boroughs

* v * t * e

JURISDICTION POPULATION LAND AREA DENSITY

BOROUGH COUNTY Estimate (2016) square miles square km persons / sq. mi persons / sq. km

MANHATTAN New York
York
1,643,734 22.83 59.1 72,033 27,826

THE BRONX Bronx 1,455,720 42 110 34,653 13,231

BROOKLYN Kings 2,629,150 71 180 37,137 14,649

QUEENS Queens
Queens
2,333,054 109 280 21,460 8,354

STATEN ISLAND Richmond 476,015 58.5 152 8,112 3,132

CITY OF NEW YORK 8,537,673 303.33 781.1 28,188 10,947

State of New York
York
19,745,289 47,214 122,284 416.4 159

_Sources: see individual borough articles_

New York
York
City is often referred to collectively as _THE FIVE BOROUGHS_, and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States
United States
(Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States
United States
(New York
York
, Kings , Bronx, and Queens).

* MANHATTAN (New York
York
County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough and is home to Central Park
Central Park
and most of the city's skyscrapers . Manhattan's (New York
York
County's) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km²) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States
United States
and higher than the density of any individual American city . Manhattan
Manhattan
is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York
York
City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations , the United Nations Headquarters
Headquarters
, Wall Street
Wall Street
, and a number of important universities . Manhattan
Manhattan
is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world. Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan
Manhattan
Island , at the mouth of the Hudson River
Hudson River
. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall\'s Island , Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island
Roosevelt Island
in the East River , and Governors Island
Governors Island
and Liberty Islandto the south in New York
York
Harbor . Manhattan
Manhattan
Island is loosely divided into Lower , Midtown , and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan
Manhattan
is divided by Central Park
Central Park
into the Upper East Side
Upper East Side
and the Upper West Side
Upper West Side
, and above the park is Harlem
Harlem
. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland , called Marble Hill , which is contiguous with The Bronx. New York
York
City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the _outer boroughs_. * BROOKLYN (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island
Long Island
, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn
Brooklyn
is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods , and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn
Brooklyn
is the only central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island
Coney Island
, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park
Marine Park
and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. * QUEENS ( Queens
Queens
County), on Long Island
Long Island
north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Queens
Queens
is the site of Citi Field , the baseball stadium of the New York
York
Mets , and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
and LaGuardia Airport , are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark , New Jersey
New Jersey
.) * STATEN ISLAND (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island
Staten Island
is connected to Brooklyn
Brooklyn
by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
and to Manhattan
Manhattan
by way of the free Staten Island Ferry
Ferry
, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island
Staten Island
Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks. * THE BRONX (Bronx County) is New York
York
City's northernmost borough and the only New York
York
City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium
Yankee Stadium
, the baseball park of the New York
York
Yankees , and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City . It is also home to the Bronx Zoo
Bronx Zoo
, the world's largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals. The Bronx
The Bronx
is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture . Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York
York
City, at 2,765 acres (1,119 ha).

CLIMATE

Avenue C in Manhattan
Manhattan
after flooding caused by Hurricane
Hurricane
Sandy on October 29, 2012.

Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York
York
City features a humid subtropical climate (_Cfa_), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (_Dfa_). The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, and averages 57% of possible sunshine annually, accumulating 2,535 hours of sunshine per annum. The city lies in the USDA
USDA
7b plant hardiness zone .

Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
, and Indianapolis
Indianapolis
. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August.

The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably from year to year. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York
York
area, but they are not unheard of and always have the potential to strike the area. Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
brought a destructive storm surge to New York
York
City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan
Manhattan
and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.

CLIMATE DATA FOR NEW YORK (BELVEDERE CASTLE , CENTRAL PARK ), 1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1869–PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 72 (22) 75 (24) 86 (30) 96 (36) 99 (37) 101 (38) 106 (41) 104 (40) 102 (39) 94 (34) 84 (29) 75 (24) 106 (41)

MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 59.6 (15.3) 60.7 (15.9) 71.5 (21.9) 83.0 (28.3) 88.0 (31.1) 92.3 (33.5) 95.4 (35.2) 93.7 (34.3) 88.5 (31.4) 78.8 (26) 71.3 (21.8) 62.2 (16.8) 97.0 (36.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 38.3 (3.5) 41.6 (5.3) 49.7 (9.8) 61.2 (16.2) 70.8 (21.6) 79.3 (26.3) 84.1 (28.9) 82.6 (28.1) 75.2 (24) 63.8 (17.7) 53.8 (12.1) 43.0 (6.1) 62.0 (16.7)

DAILY MEAN °F (°C) 32.6 (0.3) 35.3 (1.8) 42.5 (5.8) 53.0 (11.7) 62.4 (16.9) 71.4 (21.9) 76.5 (24.7) 75.2 (24) 68.0 (20) 56.9 (13.8) 47.7 (8.7) 37.5 (3.1) 55.0 (12.8)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 26.9 (−2.8) 28.9 (−1.7) 35.2 (1.8) 44.8 (7.1) 54.0 (12.2) 63.6 (17.6) 68.8 (20.4) 67.8 (19.9) 60.8 (16) 50.0 (10) 41.6 (5.3) 32.0 (0) 47.9 (8.8)

MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 9.2 (−12.7) 12.8 (−10.7) 18.5 (−7.5) 32.3 (0.2) 43.5 (6.4) 52.9 (11.6) 60.3 (15.7) 58.8 (14.9) 48.6 (9.2) 38.0 (3.3) 27.7 (−2.4) 15.6 (−9.1) 7.0 (−13.9)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) −6 (−21) −15 (−26) 3 (−16) 12 (−11) 32 (0) 44 (7) 52 (11) 50 (10) 39 (4) 28 (−2) 7 (−14) −13 (−25) −15 (−26)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.65 (92.7) 3.09 (78.5) 4.36 (110.7) 4.50 (114.3) 4.19 (106.4) 4.41 (112) 4.60 (116.8) 4.44 (112.8) 4.28 (108.7) 4.40 (111.8) 4.02 (102.1) 4.00 (101.6) 49.94 (1,268.5)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 7.0 (17.8) 9.2 (23.4) 3.9 (9.9) 0.6 (1.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (0.8) 4.8 (12.2) 25.8 (65.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 10.4 9.2 10.9 11.5 11.1 11.2 10.4 9.5 8.7 8.9 9.6 10.6 122.0

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 4.0 2.8 1.8 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.3 11.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 61.5 60.2 58.5 55.3 62.7 65.2 64.2 66.0 67.8 65.6 64.6 64.1 63.0

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 54 55 57 57 57 57 59 63 59 61 51 48 57

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)

See Geography of New York
York
City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.

_ ►_

See or edit raw graph data.

PARKS

Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
was used in the 1964 New York World\'s Fair , with the Unisphere
Unisphere
as its centerpiece.

The City of New York
York
has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service
National Park Service
, the New York
York
State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation , and the New York
York
City Department of Parks and Recreation .

In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, the Trust for Public Landreported that the park system in New York
York
City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous US cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis
Minneapolis
. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.

National Parks

Main article: National Park Service
National Park Service
The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
on Liberty Islandin New York Harbor
New York Harbor
is a symbol of the United States
United States
and its ideals of freedom, democracy , and opportunity.

Gateway National Recreation Area
Gateway National Recreation Area
contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha ) in total, most of it surrounded by New York
York
City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh , wetlands , islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula , most notably Jacob Riis Park
Jacob Riis Park
and Fort Tilden
Fort Tilden
. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area
Gateway National Recreation Area
includes Fort Wadsworth
Fort Wadsworth
, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weedand Fort Tompkins , and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina .

The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument and Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service
National Park Service
and are in both the states of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island
Governors Island
National Monument , in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan
Manhattan
Island include Castle Clinton National Monument ; Federal Hall
Federal Hall
National Memorial ; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site ; General Grant National Memorial ("Grant's Tomb"); African Burial Ground National Monument
African Burial Ground National Monument
; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn
Stonewall Inn
, part of the Stonewall National Monument
Stonewall National Monument
in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement .

State Parks

Main article: New York
York
State Parks

There are seven state parks within the confines of New York
York
City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.

City Parks

Reindeer
Reindeer
at the Bronx Zoo
Bronx Zoo
, the world's largest metropolitan zoo. See also: Parks and recreation in New York
York
City

New York
York
City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park
Pelham Bay Park
in the Bronx, with 2,765 acres (1,119 ha).

* Central Park
Central Park
, an 883-acre (3.57 km2) park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States
United States
and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park contains a myriad of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks , the Central Park
Central Park
Zoo , the Central Park
Central Park
Conservatory Garden , and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle
Belvedere Castle
with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park
Central Park
Conservancy , the largest ever monetary donation to New York
York
City's park system. * Washington Square Park
Washington Square Park
is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Archat the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University
University
and Greenwich Village. * Prospect Park in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow , a lake, and extensive woodlands . Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island. * Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
in Queens, with its 897 acres (363 ha) making it the city's fourth largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World\'s Fair and the 1964 World\'s Fair and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament. * Over a fifth of the Bronx's area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park , the Bronx Zoo
Bronx Zoo
, and the New York
York
Botanical Gardens . * In Staten Island, the Conference HousePark contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution
American Revolution
which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown
British Crown
. The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York
York
City, is within the park.

Central Park
Central Park
, as seen from Rockefeller Center
Rockefeller Center
, is the most visited city park in the United States.

MILITARY INSTALLATIONS

New York
York
City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military\'s only active duty installation within the city. Established in 1825 in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution , it is one of America's longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamiltonserves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York
York
City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth
Fort Wadsworth
in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main articles: Demographics of New York
York
City , New York
York
City ethnic enclaves , and Demographic profile of New York
York
City

CITY COMPARED TO STATE "> New York
York
City had an estimated population density of 28,201 people per square mile (10,890/km²) in 2016, with Manhattan
Manhattan
alone at 71,999/sq mi (27,799/km²).

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1698 4,937 —

1712 5,840 +18.3%

1723 7,248 +24.1%

1737 10,664 +47.1%

1746 11,717 +9.9%

1756 13,046 +11.3%

1771 21,863 +67.6%

1790 49,401 +126.0%

1800 79,216 +60.4%

1810 119,734 +51.1%

1820 152,056 +27.0%

1830 242,278 +59.3%

1840 391,114 +61.4%

1850 696,115 +78.0%

1860 1,174,779 +68.8%

1870 1,478,103 +25.8%

1880 1,911,698 +29.3%

1890 2,507,414 +31.2%

1900 3,437,202 +37.1%

1910 4,766,883 +38.7%

1920 5,620,048 +17.9%

1930 6,930,446 +23.3%

1940 7,454,995 +7.6%

1950 7,891,957 +5.9%

1960 7,781,984 −1.4%

1970 7,894,862 +1.5%

1980 7,071,639 −10.4%

1990 7,322,564 +3.5%

2000 8,008,278 +9.4%

2010 8,175,133 +2.1%

2016 8,537,673 +4.4%

Note: Census figures (1790–2010) cover the present area of all five boroughs, before and after the 1898 consolidation. For New York
York
City itself before annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, see Manhattan#Demographics. SOURCES: 1698–1771, 1790–1890, 1900–1990, 2000 and 2010, 2016 Census estimate. Source: U.S. Decennial Census

New York
York
City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high of 8,537,673 residents as of 2016 , incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States
United States
Census . More than twice as many people live in New York
York
City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles ), and within a smaller area. New York
York
City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York
York
City's population is about 43% of New York
York
State's population and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
.

POPULATION DENSITY

In 2015, the city had an estimated population density of 28,053 people per square mile (10,756/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey
New Jersey
having greater density , as per the 2010 Census. Geographically co-extensive with New York
York
County, the borough of Manhattan's 2015 population density of 69,468 inhabitants per square mile (26,822/km2) makes it the highest of any county in the United States
United States
and higher than the density of any individual American city .

RACE AND ETHNICITY

Further information: Chinese in New York
York
City , Fuzhounese in New York
York
City , Indians in New York
York
City , Koreans in New York
York
City , Filipinos in New York
York
City , Bangladeshis in New York
York
City , Japanese in New York
York
City , Russians in New York
York
City , Ukrainians in New York City , Irish in New York
York
City , Italians in New York
York
City , Caribbeans in New York
York
City , and Puerto Ricans in New York
York
City

The city's population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American , and 12.7% Asian . Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city's population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade. Clockwise, from upper left: the Manhattan
Manhattan
Chinatown
Chinatown
; Manhattan's Little Italy
Italy
; Spanish Harlem
Harlem
; and Manhattan\'s Koreatown

Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
between 1892 and 1924. The term "melting pot " was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side
Lower East Side
. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish , Jews , and Italians . In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city's population.

Approximately 37% of the city's population is foreign born and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants. In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
, China
China
, Mexico
Mexico
, Guyana , Jamaica
Jamaica
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Haiti
Haiti
, India
India
, Russia
Russia
, and Trinidad and Tobago , while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.

Asian Americans in New York
York
City , according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York
York
contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York
York
City borough of Queens
Queens
is home to the state's largest Asian American
Asian American
population and the largest Andean (Colombian , Ecuadorian , Peruvian , and Bolivian ) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York
York
State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan
Manhattan
Chinatown
Chinatown
, in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, and around Flushing, Queens
Queens
, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves - while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County on Long Island
Long Island
, as the New York
York
metropolitan region and New York
York
State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York
York
City and surrounding areas, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015. In 2012, 6.3% of New York
York
City was of Chinese ethnicity , with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens
Queens
or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (_Chaoxianzu_ or _Joseonjok_) is centered in Flushing, Queens
Queens
, while New York
York
City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal
Nepal
, also centered in Queens. Koreans made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian
Southeast Asian
ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese , who made up 0.2% of New York
York
City's population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian
South Asian
group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens
Queens
is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Malaysians and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn
Brooklyn
is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian
Asian Indian
immigrants. Map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WHITE, BLACK, ASIAN, HISPANIC or OTHER (yellow)

New York
York
City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(1.1 million), Chicago
Chicago
(865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010. The European diaspora
European diaspora
residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans , 385,000 Irish Americans , 253,000 German Americans , 223,000 Russian Americans , 201,000 Polish Americans , and 137,000 English Americans . Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain
Spain
numbered 30,838 total in 2010. People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech , Lithuanian , Portuguese , Scotch-Irish , and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people. Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York
York
City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians , primarily Uzbek Americans , are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens
Queens
or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.

The wider New York
York
City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse , with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York
York
region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and Miami . It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel
Israel
, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects from around the Middle East
Middle East
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India
India
enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns ; the largest Asian Indian
Asian Indian
population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American
Italian American
, and African American
African American
populations; the largest Dominican American
Dominican American
, Puerto Rican American , and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York
York
City alone.

Ecuador, Colombia
Colombia
, Guyana, Peru
Peru
, and Brazil
Brazil
were the top source countries from South America
South America
for legal immigrants to the New York
York
City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica
Jamaica
, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean
Caribbean
; Egypt
Egypt
, Ghana
Ghana
, and Nigeria
Nigeria
from Africa ; and El Salvador
El Salvador
, Honduras
Honduras
, and Guatemala
Guatemala
in Central America
Central America
. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York
York
City , this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013 .

SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY

Main article: LGBT culture in New York
York
City The scene at the 2011 LGBT Pride March . New York
York
City is home to the largest LGBTQ community in the United States
United States
and one of the world's largest.

The New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
is home to a self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States
United States
and one of the world's largest. Same-sex marriages in New York
York
were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. Charles Kaiser, author of _The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America_, wrote that in the era after World War II
World War II
, "New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame." The annual New York
York
City Pride March (or gay pride parade ) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
and ends at Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Paradeas the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of particpants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.

Transgender
Transgender
Contribution

Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots
Stonewall riots
. "None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement." Others say the transgender community in New York
York
City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots
Stonewall riots
and thereafter. New York
York
City is home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. However, until the Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.

RELIGION

Christianity (59%), made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%), was the most prevalently practiced religion in New York
York
as of 2014 , followed by Judaism
Judaism
, with approximately 1.1 million Jews in New York
York
City . over half living in Brooklyn; The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city. Islam ranks third in New York
York
City, with official estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers and including 10% of the city's public schoolchildren, followed by Hinduism
Hinduism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism . In 2014, 24% self-identified with no organized religious affiliation. The landmark Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic St. Patrick\'s Cathedral , Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan
Ultra-Orthodox Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn
Brooklyn
has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals. The Islamic Cultural Center of New York
York
in Upper Manhattan
Manhattan
, the first mosque built in New York
York
City. Ganesh Temple in Flushing, Queens
Queens
, the oldest Hindu temple
Hindu temple
in the U.S. Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Chinatown, Manhattan
Manhattan
Atheism
Atheism
, promoted on an electronic billboard in Times Square
Times Square
, is observed by a significant proportion of New Yorkers.

INCOME

New York
York
City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient
Gini Coefficient
of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York
York
County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. As of 2016, New York
York
City had the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world with 95, after Beijing
Beijing
, including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
. New York
York
also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
has been experiencing a baby boom , with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of New York
York
City

CITY ECONOMIC OVERVIEW

Top publicly traded companies in New York
York
City (ranked by 2015 revenues) _with City and U.S. ranks_

NYC

CORPORATION

US

1

Verizon Communications
Verizon Communications

13

2

JPMorgan Chase
JPMorgan Chase

23

3

Citigroup
Citigroup

29

4

MetLife
MetLife

40

5

American International Group
American International Group

49

6

Pfizer_(pharmaceuticals)_

55

7

New York
York
Life

61

8

Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs

74

9

Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley

78

10

TIAA (Teachers Ins. while Silicon Alley
Silicon Alley
, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in the first half of 2014. In February 2017, New York
York
City's unemployment rate fell to 4.3%, the lowest in the city's recorded history, with the city achieving the status of what many economists refer to as _full employment_.

Many Fortune 500
Fortune 500
corporations are headquartered in New York
York
City, as are a large number of multinational corporations . One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital , business, and tourists. This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York
York
City top the FDi MagazineAmerican Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.

Real estate
Real estate
is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York
York
City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year , an increase of 10.6% from the previous year with 89% of the increase coming from market effects. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York
York
City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. According to _ Forbes
Forbes
_, in 2014, Manhattan
Manhattan
was home to six of the top ten zip codes in the United States
United States
by median housing price. Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
in Midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.

As of 2013 , the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Groupand Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York
York
City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry , which is metonymously referred to as "Madison Avenue" . The city's fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.

Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.

Chocolate
Chocolate
is New York
York
City's leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were forming a " Chocolate
Chocolate
District" in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
as of 2014 , while Godiva , one of the world's largest chocolatiers , continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.

WALL STREET

Main article: Wall Street
Wall Street
The New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
on Wall Street , the world's largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.

New York
York
City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S.financial industry , metonymously known as _Wall Street_. The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York
York
City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies .

Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
is the third-largest central business district in the United States
United States
and is home to the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ
NASDAQ
, at 165 Broadway , representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges , respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street
Wall Street
totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York
York
City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York
York
State's tax revenue. New York
York
City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets , driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy. :31–32 In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London
London
interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association
British Bankers Association
. New York
York
also leads in hedge fund management; private equity ; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions . Several investment banks and investment mangers headquartered in Manhattan
Manhattan
are important participants in other global financial centers. :34–35 New York
York
is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.

Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan
Manhattan
contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan
, with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2015, is the largest central business district in the world.

SILICON ALLEY

Main article: Silicon Alley
Silicon Alley
Further information: Tech companies in New York
York
City and Biotech companies in New York
York
City Silicon Alley , once centered around the Flatiron District
Flatiron District
, is now metonymous for New York's high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York
York
City metropolitan region's high technology industries involving the Internet
Internet
, new media , telecommunications , digital media , software development , biotechnology , game design , financial technology ("_FinTech_"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley
Silicon Alley
generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York
York
City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet
Internet
hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines , New York's intellectual capital , and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity . Verizon Communications , headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York
York
City. As of 2014 , New York
York
City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.

The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York
York
City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University
University
and Technion- Israel
Israel
Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech
Cornell Tech
on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York
York
City into the world's premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors , including Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company
, Pfizer, and Johnson ">_ Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater
Broadway theater
district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million. The I Love New York
York
_ logo, designed by Milton Glaser
Milton Glaser
in 1977

Tourism is a vital industry for New York
York
City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving a seventh consecutive annual record of approximately 61 million visitors in 2016. Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York
York
City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Canada
Canada
, Brazil
Brazil
, and China
China
. According to the website reuters.com, "New York
York
City tourism climb record high in 2015 for sixth year.".

_I Love New York
York
_ (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York
York
City, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York
York
State Empire State Development , appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.

Major tourist destinations include Times Square
Times Square
; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building
Empire State Building
; the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
; Ellis Island ; the United Nations Headquarters
United Nations Headquarters
; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
; greenspaces such as Central Park
Central Park
and Washington Square Park
Washington Square Park
; Rockefeller Center
Rockefeller Center
; the Manhattan
Manhattan
Chinatown ; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues ; and events such as the Halloween Parade
Parade
in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
; the Macy\'s Thanksgiving Day Parade
Parade
; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center
Rockefeller Center
Christmas Tree ; the St. Patrick\'s Day parade ; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park
Central Park
in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival
Tribeca Film Festival
; and free performances in Central Park
Central Park
at Summerstage. Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan
Manhattan
include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere
Unisphere
in Queens; the Bronx Zoo
Bronx Zoo
; Coney Island , Brooklyn; and the New York
York
Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York
York
Wheel , a 630-foot ferris wheel , was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island
Staten Island
in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York
York
Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
skyline.

Manhattan
Manhattan
was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China
China
, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York
York
for US$1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold.

MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT

Main article: Media in New York
York
City Rockefeller Center
Rockefeller Center
is home to NBC
NBC
Studios .

New York
York
is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry , with many films , television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012 , New York
York
City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals; the filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York
York
City economy alone as of 2015, and by volume, New York
York
is the world leader in independent film production – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York
York
City. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York
York
City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York
York
surpassing Los Angeles
Los Angeles
as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.

New York
York
City is additionally a center for the advertising , music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city's media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner
Time Warner
, the Thomson Reuters Corporation , the Associated Press
Associated Press
, Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg L.P.
, the News Corporation , The New York
York
Times Company , NBCUniversal
NBCUniversal
, the Hearst Corporation , AOL
AOL
, and Viacom
Viacom
. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels\' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group
Warner Music Group
. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media
New media
enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere.

More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States
United States
are New York
York
papers: _The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal _ and _The New York
York
Times _, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: _The New York
York
Daily News _, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson
Joseph Medill Patterson
and _The New York
York
Post _, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. _ El Diario La Prensa_ is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. _The New York
York
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
News _, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American
African American
newspaper. _ The Village Voice
The Village Voice
_ is the largest alternative newspaper .

The television industry developed in New York
York
and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC , CBS
CBS
, and NBC
NBC
. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV
MTV
, Fox News , HBO
HBO
, Showtime , Bravo , Food Network
Food Network
, AMC , and Comedy Central
Comedy Central
. The City of New York
York
operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV
NYCTV
, that has produced several original Emmy Award
Emmy Award
-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government.

New York
York
is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States
United States
is the Manhattan
Manhattan
Neighborhood Network , founded in 1971. WNET
WNET
is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service
Public Broadcasting Service
(PBS) television programming. WNYC
WNYC
, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.

HUMAN RESOURCES

EDUCATION AND SCHOLARLY ACTIVITY

Main article: Education in New York
York
City

Primary And Secondary Education

The New York
York
City Public Schools system, managed by the New York
York
City Department of Education , is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city's public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students . The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx. Butler Library
Butler Library
at Columbia University
Columbia University
, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States. The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University
University
(NYU) and its Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
neighborhood.

The New York
York
City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools . There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.

Higher Education And Research

Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York
York
City's over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States, including over half million in the City University
University
of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree , forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city. New York
York
City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College
Barnard College
, Columbia University
University
, Cooper Union
Cooper Union
, Fordham University
University
, Mercy College , New York
York
University
University
, New York
York
Institute of Technology , Pace University
University
, and Yeshiva University
University
. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges , and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University
University
of New York (SUNY) system serves New York
York
City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John\'s University
University
, The Juilliard School
Juilliard School
, Manhattan
Manhattan
College , The College of Mount Saint Vincent
College of Mount Saint Vincent
, Fashion Institute of Technology
Fashion Institute of Technology
, Parsons School of Design
Parsons School of Design
, The New School
The New School
, Pratt Institute
Pratt Institute
, The School of Visual Arts
School of Visual Arts
, The King's College, and Wagner College
Wagner College
.

Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences . New York
York
City has the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005 ; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York
York
City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center , Rockefeller University
Rockefeller University
, SUNY Downstate Medical Center , Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Medicine
, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Medicine
, and Weill Cornell Medical College , being joined by the Cornell University
University
/Technion- Israel
Israel
Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island
Roosevelt Island
. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.

Public Library System

The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters
Headquarters
Building of the New York Public Library , at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street .

The New York
York
Public Library , which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. Queens
Queens
is served by the Queens
Queens
Borough Public Library , the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Public Library serves Brooklyn.

PUBLIC HEALTH

Main article: New York
York
City Health and Hospitals Corporation New York-Presbyterian Hospital
New York-Presbyterian Hospital
, white complex at center, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York
York
City and one of the world's busiest.

The New York
York
City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York
York
City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States
United States
serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. HHC was created in 1969 by the New York
York
State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC's MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York
York
area's largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.

HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital
Bellevue Hospital
, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States
United States
and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York
York
City. The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois.

PUBLIC SAFETY

Police And Law Enforcement

Main articles: New York
York
Police Department and Law enforcement in New York
York
City Further information: Crime in New York
York
City The New York
York
City Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States.

The New York
York
City Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States
United States
by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, _New York's Finest_.

Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York
York
City since the 1990s. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York
York
City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. Violent crime in New York
York
City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. By 2002, New York
York
City's crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah
Provo, Utah
, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. In 2015, 50.5% of New York
York
City misdemeanor assault suspects were black, 33.3% Hispanic, 11.1% white, 4.8% Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.3% Native American. New York
York
City experienced 352 homicides in 2015, its second lowest number on record.

Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStatand the broken windows theory . Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York
York
and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York
York
City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.

Organized crime
Organized crime
has long been associated with New York
York
City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards
Roach Guards
in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia , dominated by the Five Families
Five Families
, as well as in gangs , including the Black Spades. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.

Firefighting

Main article: New York
York
City Fire Department The New York
York
City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.

The New York
York
City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection , technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York
York
City. The New York
York
City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States
United States
and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department
Tokyo Fire Department
. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics . The FDNY's motto is _New York's Bravest_.

The New York
York
City Fire Department faces highly multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures , there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York
York
is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.

The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center
9 MetroTech Center
in Downtown Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island . There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island
Staten Island
Fire Communications. The Bronx
The Bronx
and Queens
Queens
offices are in separate buildings.

CULTURE AND CONTEMPORARY LIFE

Further information: Culture
Culture
of New York
York
City and List of people from New York
York
City

New York
York
City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland
Iceland
and Latvia
Latvia
and by New York's Baruch College
Baruch College
. A book containing a series of essays titled _New York, Culture
Culture
Capital of the World, 1940–1965_ has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia
National Library of Australia
. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe
Tom Wolfe
said, " Culture
Culture
just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."

Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city's punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York
York
has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.

The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York
York
School ) in painting; and hip hop , punk , salsa , disco , freestyle , Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley
, and jazz in music. New York
York
City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also frequently the setting for novels , movies (see List of films set in New York
York
City ), and television programs. New York
York
Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York
York
has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.

ARTS

New York
York
City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts . Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York
York
City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical . Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart , George M. Cohan
George M. Cohan
, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition.

Performing Arts

Main articles: Broadway theatre
Broadway theatre
and Music of New York
York
City Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts

Broadway theatre
Broadway theatre
is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway , the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square
Times Square
, also sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way ". Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan's Theatre District , each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League
The Broadway League
, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side
Upper West Side
of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera
Metropolitan Opera
, New York
York
City Opera , New York
York
Philharmonic , and New York
York
City Ballet , as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School
Juilliard School
, Jazz
Jazz
at Lincoln Center , and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square , and Tisch School of the Arts
Tisch School of the Arts
is based at New York
York
University, while Central Park
Central Park
SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park. The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
, part of Museum Mile , is one of the largest museums in the world.

In April 2015, New York
York
hosted the annual Cardistry-Con, a three-day cardistry convention and interactive conference for cardists all over the world.

Visual Arts

Main article: List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City

New York
York
City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side
Upper East Side
of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill
Carnegie Hill
. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art , joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street , the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in New York
York
City.

CUISINE

Main article: Cuisine of New York
York
City Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Flea .

New York
York
City's food culture includes a variety of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Central European and Italian immigrants brought bagels , cheesecake , and New York-style pizza into the city, while Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias , diners , and coffeehouses have become ubiquitous. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs examples of modern New York
York
street food . The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin
Michelin
. The New York
York
City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city's 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results. Clockwise, from upper left: the annual Macy\'s Thanksgiving Day Parade
Parade
, the world's largest parade; the annual Halloween Parade
Parade
in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
; the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade
Parade
; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts

PARADES

New York
York
City is well known for its street parades , which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy\'s Thanksgiving Day Parade
Parade
is the world's largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park
Central Park
and processing southward to the flagship Macy\'s Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick\'s Day Parade
Parade
in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
Halloween Parade
Parade
in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park
City Hall Park
in Lower Manhattan.

ACCENT AND DIALECT

Main article: New York
York
City English

The New York
York
area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York
York
dialect , alternatively known as _Brooklynese_ or _New Yorkese_. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English
American English
. The classic version of this dialect is centered on middle and working-class people of European descent. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as in the past.

The traditional New York
York
area accent is characterized as non-rhotic , so that the sound does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant ; hence the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk." There is no in words like _park_ or (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), _butter_ , or _here_ . In another feature called the low back chain shift, the vowel sound of words like _talk_, _law_, _cross_, _chocolate_, and _coffee_ and the often homophonous in _core_ and _more_ are tensed and usually raised more than in General American
General American
. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" became a diphthong . This would often be misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the _er_ and _oy_ sounds, so that _girl_ is pronounced "goil" and _oil_ is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet). The character Archie Bunker
Archie Bunker
from the 1970s sitcom _ All in the Family
All in the Family
_ (played by Carroll O\'Connor ) was an example of having used this pattern of speech, which continues to fade in its overall presence.

SPORTS

The New York
York
Marathon is the largest marathon in the world. The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. Citi Field
Citi Field
, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York
York
Mets since 2009. Main article: Sports in New York
York
City

New York
York
City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League , Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
, the National Basketball Association , the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
, and Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
. The New York
York
metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide ( MetLife
MetLife
Stadium
Stadium
, the new Yankee Stadium
Yankee Stadium
, Madison Square Garden , and Citi Field
Citi Field
) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor , the original Yankee Stadium
Yankee Stadium
and Ebbets Field
Ebbets Field
, are sporting venues located in New York
York
City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps .

New York
York
has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". There have been 35 Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
World Series
World Series
and 73 pennants won by New York
York
teams. It is one of only five metro areas ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, Chicago , Baltimore–Washington , and the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series
World Series
in which two New York
York
City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series
Subway Series
and occurring most recently in 2000 . No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once ( Chicago
Chicago
in 1906 , St. Louis in 1944 , and the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area in 1989 ). The city's two current Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
teams are the New York
York
Mets , who play at Citi Field
Citi Field
in Queens, and the New York
York
Yankees , who play at Yankee Stadium
Yankee Stadium
in the Bronx. who compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series
Subway Series
. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series
World Series
twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Dodgers (now the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers ), who won the World Series
World Series
once, and the New York
York
Giants (now the San Francisco Giants ), who won the World Series
World Series
five times. Both teams moved to California
California
in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Cyclones and Staten Island
Staten Island
Yankees .

The city is represented in the National Football League
National Football League
by the New York
York
Giants and the New York
York
Jets , although both teams play their home games at MetLife
MetLife
Stadium
Stadium
in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey
New Jersey
, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIIIin 2014.

The New York
York
Islanders and the New York
York
Rangers represent the city in the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
. Also within the metropolitan area are the New Jersey
New Jersey
Devils , who play in nearby Newark, New Jersey
New Jersey
.

The city's National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York
York
Knicks , while the New York
York
Liberty is the city's Women\'s National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament , was held in New York
York
in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.

In soccer, New York
York
City is represented by New York
York
City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium. The New York
York
Red Bulls play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey
New Jersey
. Historically, the city is known for the New York
York
Cosmos , the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé
Pelé
. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium
Stadium
on the campus of Hofstra University
University
, just outside the New York
York
City limits in Hempstead, New York
York
.

The annual United States
United States
Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. The New York City Marathon , which courses through all five boroughs, is the world's largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. The Millrose Games
Millrose Games
is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes
Belmont Stakes
, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing's Triple Crown races , held just over the city's border at Belmont Park
Belmont Park
on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York
York
GAA , the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.

TRANSPORTATION

New York
York
City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal
. Main article: Transportation in New York
York
City

New York
York
City's comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.

RAPID TRANSIT

Main article: Mass transit in New York
York
City

Mass transit in New York
York
City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York
York
City Metropolitan Area.

Rail

The New York City Subway
New York City Subway
is the world's largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations .

The iconic New York City Subway
New York City Subway
system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, London
London
, Paris
Paris
, Seoul , and Tokyo
Tokyo
. The New York City Subway
New York City Subway
is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere , with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal
, also referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of train platforms .

Public transport
Public transport
is essential in New York
York
City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where about 90% of commuters drive automobiles to their workplace. According to the New York
York
City Comptroller , workers in the New York
York
City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York
York
is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit , New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.

New York
York
City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York
York
City to its suburbs , consists of the Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road , Metro-North Railroad
Metro-North Railroad
, and New Jersey Transit . The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport
JFK International Airport
to the New York
York
City Subway and the Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway
Grand Central Parkway
to connect LaGuardia Airport
LaGuardia Airport
to these transit systems. For intercity rail , New York
York
City is served by Amtrak
Amtrak
, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston
Boston
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.

The Staten Island
Staten Island
Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port
Port
Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
to northeastern New Jersey , primarily Hoboken , Jersey City
Jersey City
, and Newark . Like the New York
York
City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York
York
(the others are a portion of the Chicago
Chicago
\'L\' , the PATCO Speedlineserving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro
Copenhagen Metro
).

Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York
York
City include the Second Avenue Subway
Second Avenue Subway
, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.

Buses

The Port
Port
Authority Bus Terminal , the world's busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street .

New York
York
City's public bus fleet is the largest in North America, and the Port
Port
Authority Bus Terminal , the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.

AIR

John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States.

New York\'s airspace is the busiest in the United States
United States
and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
include John F. Kennedy International Airport , Newark Liberty International Airport
Newark Liberty International Airport
, and LaGuardia Airport
LaGuardia Airport
; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011 , JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airportnear Newburgh, New York
York
, by the Port
Port
Authority of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport
LaGuardia Airport
in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. Other commercial airports in or serving the New York
York
metropolitan area include Long Island
Long Island
MacArthur Airport , Trenton–Mercer Airportand Westchester County
Westchester County
Airport . The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport
Teterboro Airport
.

FERRIES

The Staten Island
Staten Island
Ferry
Ferry
shuttles commuters between Manhattan
Manhattan
and Staten Island.

The Staten Island
Staten Island
Ferry
Ferry
is the world's busiest ferry route , carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island
Staten Island
and Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan
Manhattan
and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.

NYC Ferry
Ferry
, a NYCEDC initiative with routes that are proposed to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore
Jersey Shore
and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.

TAXIS, TRANSPORT STARTUPS, AND TRAMS

Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs ; various competing startup transportation network companies ; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island
Roosevelt Island
and Manhattan
Manhattan
Island. Ride-sharingservices have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.

STREETS AND HIGHWAYS

8th Avenue, looking northward ("uptown"). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan\'s grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.

Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan\'s street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway , Wall Street
Wall Street
, Madison Avenue
Madison Avenue
, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.

New York
York
City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways , which link the city's boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey , Westchester County
Westchester County
, Long Island
Long Island
, and southwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
through various bridges and tunnels . Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour .

River Crossings

The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
, one of the world's longest suspension bridges , connects Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Staten Island
Staten Island
across The Narrows . The George Washington
George Washington
Bridge , connecting Upper Manhattan
Manhattan
(background) from Fort Lee , New Jersey
New Jersey
across the Hudson River , is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.

New York
York
City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan
Manhattan
and Staten Island
Staten Island
are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn
Brooklyn
are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx
The Bronx
is located at the southern tip of New York
York
State's mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels .

The George Washington
George Washington
Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Manhattan
Manhattan
to Bergen County, New Jersey
New Jersey
. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas
Americas
and one of the world's longest. The Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
are built of limestone , granite , and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge
Queensboro Bridge
is an important piece of cantilever architecture . The Manhattan
Manhattan
Bridge , opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges , and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge
Triborough Bridge
, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism
Structural Expressionism
.

Manhattan
Manhattan
Island is linked to New York
York
City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel
Tunnel
, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River
Hudson River
between New Jersey
New Jersey
and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York
York
Harbor and up the Hudson River
Hudson River
to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel
Tunnel
, connecting Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
to Jersey City, New Jersey
New Jersey
, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel
Tunnel
, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan
Manhattan
with Queens
Queens
and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
was the first person to drive through it. The Hugh L. Carey Tunnel
Tunnel
runs underneath Battery Park
Battery Park
and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan
Manhattan
to Red Hook in Brooklyn.

ENVIRONMENT

Main article: Environmental issues in New York
York
City As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number of any city in North America.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REDUCTION

New York
York
City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint . Mass transit use in New York
York
City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.

New York's high rate of public transit use , over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014 , and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score
Walk Score
named New York
York
City the most walkable large city in the United States. Citibank
Citibank
sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Research
Research
conducted by Quinnipiac University
University
showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative. New York
York
City's numerical "in-season cycling indicator" of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.

The city government was a petitioner in the landmark _Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency _ Supreme Court case forcing the EPA
EPA
to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is also a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings , including the Hearst Tower among others. Mayor Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city's contributions to climate change , beginning with a comprehensive "Green Buildings" plan.

WATER PURITY AND AVAILABILITY

Main articles: Food and water in New York
York
City and New York
York
City water supply system

New York
York
City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains
Catskill Mountains
watershed . As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system , New York is one of only four major cities in the United States
United States
the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York
York
City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York
York
City Water Tunnel
Tunnel
No. 3 , an integral part of the New York
York
City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history, with segments serving Manhattan
Manhattan
and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
planned for construction in 2020.

ENVIRONMENTAL REVITALIZATION

Newtown Creek
Newtown Creek
, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens, has been designated a Superfund
Superfund
site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway's recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port
Port
of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins , an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York
York
City's sewer system, and other accumulation.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Main articles: Government of New York
York
City and Politics of New York City

GOVERNMENT

New York
York
City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions.

New York
York
City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. The government of New York
York
is more centralized than that of most other U.S. cities. In New York
York
City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.

The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit , which is reset after a four-year break. The _New York
York
City Administrative Code _, the _New York
York
City Rules _, and the _City Record _ are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively. The New York
York
County Courthouse houses the New York
York
Supreme Court and other offices.

Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System , of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York
York
Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan
Manhattan
hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn
Brooklyn
hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts , which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.

Uniquely among major American cities, New York
York
is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts : the District Court for the Southern District of New York
York
, whose main courthouse is on Foley Squarenear City Hall in Manhattan
Manhattan
and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan
Manhattan
and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York
York
, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.

POLITICS

Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
, the current and 109th Mayor of New York City
Mayor of New York City

The present mayor is Bill de Blasio
Bill de Blasio
, the first Democrat since 1993. He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014.

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans . New York
York
City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924 . In 2012 , Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York
York
City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.

New York
York
is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side
Upper East Side
, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and John Kerry
John Kerry
. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also spent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York
York
than the city received in return.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from New York
York
City

GLOBAL OUTREACH

In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed _New York
York
City Global Partners_. New York City has expanded its international outreach via this program to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers, according to the city's website. New York's _historic sister cities_ are denoted below by the year they joined New York
York
City's partnership network.

NEW YORK CITY GLOBAL PARTNERS NETWORK

AFRICA

* Accra
Accra
, Ghana * Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
, Ethiopia * Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
(1982) * Cape Town
Cape Town
, South Africa * Lagos
Lagos
, Nigeria * Libreville
Libreville
, Gabon * Johannesburg
Johannesburg
, South Africa
Africa
(2003) * Nairobi
Nairobi
, Kenya

ASIA

(_EAST_)

* Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand * Beijing
Beijing
, People's Republic of China
China
(1980) * Biên Hòa , Vietnam * Changwon
Changwon
, South Korea * Chongqing
Chongqing
, People's Republic of China
China
* Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, People's Republic of China * Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
, Vietnam * Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, People's Republic of China * Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia * Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
* Manila
Manila
, Philippines * Seoul
Seoul
, South Korea * Shanghai
Shanghai
, People's Republic of China * Shenyang
Shenyang
, People's Republic of China * Singapore
Singapore
, Singapore * Taipei
Taipei
, Taiwan * Tokyo
Tokyo
, Japan
Japan
(1960)

(_SOUTH_)

* Bangalore
Bangalore
, India * Delhi
Delhi
, India * Dhaka
Dhaka
, Bangladesh * Karachi
Karachi
, Pakistan * Mumbai
Mumbai
, India

(_WEST_)

* Dubai
Dubai
, United Arab Emirates * Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
(transcontinental ) * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Israel
Israel
(1993) * Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
, Israel
Israel

AUSTRALIA

* Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia * Sydney
Sydney
, Australia

EUROPE

(_EAST_)

* Bucharest
Bucharest
, Romania * Budapest
Budapest
, Hungary (1992) * Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
(transcontinental ) * Kiev
Kiev
, Ukraine * Moscow
Moscow
, Russia * Prague
Prague
, Czech Republic * St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
, Russia * Vienna
Vienna
, Austria * Warsaw
Warsaw
, Poland

(_SCANDINAVIA_)

* Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, Denmark * Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland * Oslo
Oslo
, Norway * Stockholm
Stockholm
, Sweden

(_SOUTH_)

* Barcelona
Barcelona
, Spain * Lisbon
Lisbon
, Portugal * Madrid
Madrid
, Spain
Spain
(1982) * Milan
Milan
, Italy * Pristina
Pristina
, Kosovo * Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy
(1992)

(_WEST_)

* Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, Netherlands * Antwerp
Antwerp
, Belgium * Belfast
Belfast
, United Kingdom * Berlin
Berlin
, Germany * Brussels
Brussels
, Belgium * Dublin
Dublin
, Ireland * Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
, Germany * Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, United Kingdom * Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland * Glasgow
Glasgow
, United Kingdom * Hamburg
Hamburg
, Germany * Heidelberg
Heidelberg
, Germany * London
London
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(2001) * Luxembourg City , Luxembourg * Lyon
Lyon
, France * Munich
Munich
, Germany * Paris
Paris
, France * Rotterdam
Rotterdam
, Netherlands * The Hague
The Hague
, Netherlands

NORTH AMERICA

(_CANADA_)

* Calgary
Calgary
, Alberta , Canada * Edmonton
Edmonton
, Alberta, Canada * Montreal
Montreal
, Quebec , Canada * Ottawa
Ottawa
, Ontario , Canada * Quebec City
Quebec City
, Quebec, Canada * Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario, Canada * Vancouver
Vancouver
, British Columbia , Canada * Victoria , British Columbia, Canada * Winnipeg
Winnipeg
, Manitoba , Canada

(_MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND CARIBBEAN_)

* Cuernavaca
Cuernavaca
, Morales , Mexico * Mexico
Mexico
City , Distrito Federal , Mexico * Monterrey
Monterrey
, Nuevo León , Mexico * Panama City
Panama City
, Panama * Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(1983)

(_UNITED STATES_)

* Baltimore
Baltimore
, Maryland
Maryland
, United States * Boston
Boston
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, United States * Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois
Illinois
, United States * Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, California
California
, United States * Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, United States

SOUTH AMERICA

* Bogotá
Bogotá
, Colombia * Brasilia
Brasilia
, Brazil
Brazil
(2004) * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, Argentina * Caracas
Caracas
, Venezuela * Córdoba , Argentina * Curitiba
Curitiba
, Brazil * Lima
Lima
, Peru * Medellín
Medellín
, Colombia * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Brazil * Santiago
Santiago
, Chile * São Paulo
São Paulo
, Brazil

NOTES

* ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. * ^ Official weather observations for Central Park
Central Park
were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle
Belvedere Castle
since 1919.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau . February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011. * ^ the Mayor, New York
York
City Office of (January 8, 2010). "Biography". New York, City of. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010. * ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States
United States
Geological Survey . October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2016 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2016 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2017. * ^ Community Facts for New York
York
city, New York, United States Census Bureau . Accessed May 26, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". _factfinder.census.gov_. Retrieved 2017-05-26. * ^ "State & County QuickFacts – Kings County ( Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Borough), New York". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 17, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2014 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – United States
United States
– Places of 50,000+ Population – 2014 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved October 28, 2015. * ^ Quick Facts for New York
York
city, New York, United States
United States
Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Stormwater Archived January 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., New York
York
City Department of Environmental Protection . Accessed February 9, 2017. "These impervious surfaces cover approximately 72% of New York
York
City’s 305 square miles in land area and generate a significant amount of stormwater." * ^ Mike Maciag (October 2, 2013). "Mapping the Nation\'s Most Densely Populated Cities". Governing – The States and Localities. Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved August 27, 2016. * ^ "World\'s Largest Urban Areas ". Rhett Butler. 2003–2006. Retrieved April 26, 2011. * ^ "Largest Cities of the World – (by metro population)". Woolwine-Moen Group d/b/a Graphic Maps. Retrieved April 26, 2011. * ^ "Global Power City Index 2009" (PDF). The Mori Memorial Foundation. Retrieved June 1, 2012. * ^ Poliak, Shira. "Adjusting To New York
York
City". _Sun Sentinel_. Archived from the original on December 3, 2015. Retrieved November 1, 2015. Additionally, the fast-paced lifestyle of New York
York
City demands adjusting. * ^ Stephen Miller. "Walking New York: Reflections of American Writers from Walt Whitman to Teju Cole pp.46, 50, 131". Oxford University
University
Press - Google Books. Retrieved May 10, 2017. * ^ "Dictionary – Full Definition of NEW YORK MINUTE". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved November 1, 2015. * ^ Plan your visit Archived March 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine ., United Nations
United Nations
. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The Headquarters
Headquarters
of the United Nations
United Nations
is located in New York
York
City, along the East River. When you pass through the gates of the United Nations
United Nations
visitors’ entrance, you enter an international territory. This 18-acre site does not belong to just one country, but to all countries that have joined the Organization; currently, the United Nations
United Nations
has 193 Member States." * ^ "NYC Mayor\'s Office for International Affairs". The City of New York. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015. * ^ Felix Richter (March 11, 2015). "New York
York
Is The World\'s Media Capital". Statista. Retrieved May 29, 2017. * ^ Dawn Ennis (May 24, 2017). "ABC will broadcast New York\'s pride parade live for the first time". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved May 29, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Consulate General of Iceland
Iceland
New York
York
Culture". Consulate General of Iceland
Iceland
New York. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Consulate of Latvia
Latvia
in New York". Consulate of Latvia. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Introduction to Chapter 14: New York
York
City (NYC) Culture". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "New York, Culture
Culture
Capital of the World, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock ; essays by Dore Ashton ... ". NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA. Retrieved February 17, 2013.

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China
China
vs. The U.S.". Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2017. For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world. "PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
. Retrieved February 4, 2017. * ^ "New York
York
City". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. * ^ " Port
Port
in a Storm: The Port
Port
of New York
York
in World War II". New York
York
State Museum. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2015. * ^ "Boroughs of New York
York
City". Ben Cahoon. 2002. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2015. * ^ "A 5-Borough Centennial Preface for Katharine Bement Davis Mini-History". The New York
York
City Department of Correction. 1997. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2011. * ^ "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Yearbook of Immigration
Immigration
Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 17, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Yearbook of Immigration
Immigration
Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2015. * ^ "Endangered Language Alliance". 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Linguistics- Say what?". The Economist. September 10, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2015. * ^ Kleinfield, N. R. (January 15, 2016). "New Yorkers, Self-Assured and Opinionated, Defend Their Values". The New York
York
Times on MSN. Retrieved January 15, 2016. * ^ Roberts, Sam (April 28, 2010). "Listening to (and Saving) the World\'s Languages". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved April 29, 2010. * ^ Turin, Mark (August 9, 2013). "The World\'s Most Linguistically Diverse Location? New York
York
City". PopAnth. Retrieved May 2, 2015. * ^ "Place of Birth by Year of Entry by Citizenship Status for the Foreign-Born Population - Universe: Foreign-born population 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York
York
City". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "More Foreign-Born Immigrants
Immigrants
Live In NYC Than There Are People In Chicago". The Huffington Post. December 19, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ "Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of the United States
United States
in 2013, by metropolitan area (in billion current U.S. dollars)". Statista. Retrieved September 12, 2014. * ^ _Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas_ Archived February 7, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., p. 106. Office of Management and Budget , February 28, 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017/ * ^ "U.S. Metro Economies (note CSA 2012 GMP total includes sum of New York, Bridgeport, New Haven, Allentown, Trenton, Poughkeepsie, and Kingston MSA 2012 GMP values cited)" (PDF). IHS Global Insight, The United States
United States
Conference of Mayors, and The Council on Metro Economies and the New American City. November 2013. pp. 9 through 18 in Appendix Tables. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ " United States
United States
History – History of New York
York
City, New York". Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ "KINGSTON Discover 300 Years of New York
York
History DUTCH COLONIES". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 10, 2011. * ^ "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States
United States
Senate . Retrieved September 7, 2008. * ^ "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790–1990". U.S. Census Bureau. June 15, 1998. Retrieved February 8, 2009. * ^ "Statue of Liberty". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved May 21, 2011. * ^ "Statue of Liberty". _World Heritage_. UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992–2011. Retrieved October 23, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Venture Investment
Investment
– Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Retrieved April 22, 2016. * ^ Matt Flegenheimer (March 23, 2016). "Ted Cruz Deplores \'Liberal, Left-Wing Values\' While Lobbying for New York
York
Votes". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved April 22, 2016. * ^ "The Latest: China
China
Hopes US Joins Climate Deal Quickly". _The New York
York
Times_. Associated Press. April 22, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016. * ^ Lisa Foderaro (September 21, 2014). "Taking a Call for Climate Change to the Streets". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved April 22, 2016. * ^ Kristine Phillips (July 8, 2017). "New York
York
mayor on Germany trip: The world should know that Americans don’t align with Trump". _The Washington Post_. Retrieved July 9, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Ginia Bellafante (June 29, 2017). "How Much Tourism Is Too Much?". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved July 2, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Shields, Ann (November 10, 2014). "The World\'s 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 3: Times Square, New York
York
City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000". Travel+Leisure. Retrieved July 12, 2015. No. 3 Times Square,...No. 4 (tie) Central Park,...No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York
York
City * ^ "The 10 Most Photographed Cities In The World". The Crazy Tourist. Retrieved June 28, 2017. * ^ O'Neill, Sean (June 12, 2011). "The 25 most photographed places on Earth". NBCNews.com. Retrieved January 17, 2014. * ^ Remnick, Noah; Schlossberg, Tatiana (August 24, 2015). "New York
York
Today:Transforming Times Square". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved August 25, 2015. * ^ " Times Square
Times Square
– The Official Site of Times Square". Times Square District Management Association, Inc. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2015. * ^ "Times Square". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 10, 2011. * ^ Pramis, Joshua (October 2011). "World\'s Most-Visited Tourist Attractions No. 1: Times Square, New York
York
City". American Express Publishing
Publishing
Corporation. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2012. * ^ "The Most Jivin\' Streetscapes in the World". Luigi Di Serio. 2010. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2011. * ^ "New York
York
Architecture Images- Midtown Times Square". 2011 nyc-architecture. Archived from the original on January 25, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2011. * ^ Buildings in New York
York
City Archived February 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
. Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Meaney, Thomas (February 12, 2016). "Michael Bloomberg\'s One Percent Foreign-Policy Doctrine". FP. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * ^ Florida, Richard (March 3, 2015). "Sorry, London: New York
York
Is the World\'s Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic
The Atlantic
Monthly Group. Retrieved March 16, 2015. Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top. * ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 17" (PDF). Long Finance. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "NYSE Listings Directory". Archived from the original on June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "2013 WFE Market Highlights" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014. * ^ "Manhattan, New York
York
– Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park". The Pinnacle
Pinnacle
List. Retrieved November 24, 2014. * ^ Brennan, Morgan (March 22, 2013). "The World\'s Most Expensive Billionaire
Billionaire
Cities". Forbes. Retrieved July 6, 2013. * ^ Waxman, Sarah. "The History of New York\'s Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2011. * ^ " Chinatown
Chinatown
New York
York
City Fact Sheet" (PDF). explorechinatown.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011. * ^ Hesser, Amanda (May 2, 2001). "A Hungry Explorer in New York\'s 3 Chinatowns". _New York
York
Times_. New York. Retrieved April 21, 2014. * ^ Kadet, Anne (April 18, 2014). "Metro Money: Comparing Three of New York
York
City\'s Chinatowns". _ Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal_. Retrieved April 21, 2014. * ^ Baker, Al; Pérez-Peña, Richard (December 20, 2005). "With Terrorism
Terrorism
Concerns in Mind, Police Prepare to Guard a Shuttered System". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved February 17, 2012. * ^ "How to Ride the Subway". mta.info. Retrieved April 21, 2014. * ^ "25 Most Extensive Metro Systems in the World". list25.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014. * ^ "NYC Subway 101". Walks of New York. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2016. * ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. Retrieved August 27, 2015. * ^ "CWUR 2015 – World University
University
Rankings". Center for World University
University
Rankings. Retrieved July 25, 2015. * ^ "Remnants of an Ice Age, The Wisconsin Ice Sheet Continues Its Journey". The City of New York. Retrieved August 8, 2015. * ^ Evan T. Pritchard: Native New Yorkers: the legacy of the Algonquin people of New York, p.27 (2002); ISBN 1-57178-107-2 * ^ Rankin, Rebecca B.; Rodgers, Cleveland (1948). _New York: The World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress_. Harper. * ^ Wpa Writer's Project:A Maritime History of New York, p.246;Going Coastal Productions (2004) ISBN 0-9729803-1-8 * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Hudson River". New Netherland
New Netherland
Institute . Retrieved July 10, 2016. * ^ "Henry Hudson". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 10, 2016. * ^ Roberts, Sam (October 2, 2012). "Honoring a Very Early New Yorker". _New York
York
Times_. * ^ Juan Rodriguez monograph. Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved July 12, 2013. * ^ Briney, Amanda. "15 Oldest Cities in the United States". About.com. Retrieved January 3, 2015. * ^ Dutch Colonies, National Park Service
National Park Service
. Accessed May 19, 2007. "Sponsored by the West India
India
Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan." * ^ GovIsland Park-to-Tolerance: through Broad Awareness and Conscious Vigilance, Tolerance Park. Accessed February 9, 2017. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708. * ^ Frederick M. Binder, David M. Reimers: All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York
York
City, p. 4;(1996)ISBN 0-231-07879-X * ^ _Pieter Schaghen Letter_ 1626: "... hebben t'eylant Manhattes van de wilde gekocht, voor de waerde van 60 gulden: is groot 11000 morgen. ... "("... They have purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders. It is 11,000 morgens in size ...) * ^ "Value of the Guilder / Euro". International Institute of Social History. Retrieved August 19, 2008. * ^ "Letter describing purchase by Pieter Schaghen from Dutch National Archive, The Hague, with transcription". Nnp.org. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010. * ^ Miller, Christopher L; Hamell, George R (September 1986). "A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade". _The Journal of American History_. Organization of American Historians. 73 (2): 311–328. JSTOR
JSTOR
1908224 . doi :10.2307/1908224 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Dutch Colonies". National Park Service
National Park Service
. Retrieved July 10, 2016. * ^ "The Patroon
Patroon
System". Library of Congress
Library of Congress
. Retrieved July 10, 2016. * ^ "The Story of New Amsterdam". New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
History Center. Retrieved July 10, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Peter Stuyvesant". New- York
York
Historical Society . Retrieved July 11, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Peter Stuyvesant". New Netherland
New Netherland
Institute. Retrieved July 11, 2016. * ^ "The surrender of New Netherland, 1664". Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History . Retrieved July 11, 2016. * ^ Homberger, Eric (2005). _The Historical Atlas of New York
York
City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York
York
City's History_. Owl Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-8050-7842-8 . * ^ "Treaty of Breda". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 10, 2016. * ^ Van Luling, Todd (April 17, 2014). "8 Things Even New Yorkers Don\'t Know About New York
York
City". _The Huffington Post_. Retrieved September 13, 2014. * ^ Peter Douglas. "The Man Who Took Back New Netherland" (PDF). New Netherland
New Netherland
Institute. Retrieved July 11, 2016. * ^ "Native Americans". Penn Treaty Museum. * ^ " Gotham
Gotham
Center for New York
York
City History" Timeline 1700–1800 * ^ "The Early History of Yellow Fever" (PDF). Pedro Nogueira, Thomas Jefferson University
University
. 2009. * ^ "Timeline of Yellow Fever in America". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). * ^ Oltman, Adele (October 24, 2005). "The Hidden History of Slavery
Slavery
in New York". The Nation. Retrieved July 9, 2013. * ^ Linder, Doug (2001). "The Trial of John Peter Zenger: An Account". * ^ Moore, Nathaniel Fish (1876). _An Historical Sketch of Columbia College, in the City of New York, 1754–1876_. Columbia College. p. 8. * ^ Trinity Church bicentennial celebration, May 5, 1897 By Trinity Church (New York, N.Y.) p. 37 * ^ "The People\'s Vote: President George Washington\'s First Inaugural Speech (1789)". U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Shorto, Russell (February 9, 2004). "The Streets Where History Lives". _The New York
York
Times _. Retrieved June 19, 2013. * ^ "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Negro Slavery
Slavery
in New York" (L. 1799, Ch. 62 ) * ^ Harper, Douglas (2003). " Slavery
Slavery
in the North – Emancipation in New York". Retrieved February 6, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _New York
York
Divided: Slavery
Slavery
and the Civil War_ online exhibit, New- York
York
Historical Society, (November 17, 2006 to September 3, 2007, physical exhibit), accessed May 10, 2012 * ^ Leslie M. Harris, "African Americans in New York
York
City, 1626–1863", Department of History, Emory University * ^ Ira Rosenwaike (1972). _Population History of New York
York
City_, p.55. * ^ Bridges, William (1811). _Map Of The City Of New York
York
And Island Of Manhattan
Manhattan
With Explanatory Remarks And References_. ; Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68. * ^ Mushkat, Jerome Mushkat (1990). _Fernando Wood: A Political Biography_. Kent State University
University
Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-87338-413-X . * ^ "Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York". VNY, City University of New York. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Leslie M. Harris, "The New York
York
City Draft Riots", excerpt from _In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York
York
City, 1626–1863_, University
University
of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 2003 * ^ "The Draft in the Civil War", u-s-history.com. * ^ William Bryk, "The Draft Riots, Part II", _New York
York
Press_ blogpost, August 2, 2002. * ^ McPherson, James M. (2001). _Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction_. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 399. ISBN 0077430352 . * ^ Cook, Adrian (1974). _The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863_. pp. 193–195. * ^ "The 100 Year Anniversary of the Consolidation of the 5 Boroughs into New York
York
City". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 28, 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ), New York
York
City. Retrieved June 29, 2007 * ^ Cornell University
University
Library: Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University
University
. Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Ira Rosenwaike (1972)._Population History of New York
York
City_, p.78. * ^ "New York
York
Urbanized Area: Population & Density from 1800 (Provisional)". Demographia.com. Retrieved July 8, 2009. * ^ Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". _The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall_. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-62463-X . * ^ Burns, Ric (August 22, 2003). "The Center of the World – New York: A Documentary Film (Transcript)". PBS. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). " Stonewall Inn
Stonewall Inn
Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved June 25, 2016. * ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2008). "Workforce Diversity: The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
National Register Number: 99000562". US Department of Interior. Retrieved June 23, 2014. * ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey
North Jersey
Media Group. January 21, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2014. * ^ Tannenbaum, Allan. "New York
York
in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved December 18, 2011. * ^ Effgen, Christopher (September 11, 2001). "New York
York
Crime Rates 1960–2009". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved October 28, 2010. * ^ "Missing Doctor Added to List of 9/11 Victims". TWO SL LLC, New York, NY. Associated Press. July 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2013. * ^ World Trade Center Transportation Hub, World Trade Center. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The state-of-the-art World Trade Center Transportation Hub, completed in 2016, serves 250,000 Port
Port
Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) daily commuters and millions of annual visitors from around the world. At approximately 800,000 square feet, the Hub, designed by internationally acclaimed architect Santiago
Santiago
Calatrava, is the third largest transportation center in New York
York
City." * ^ Hetter, Katia (November 12, 2013). "It\'s official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2014. * ^ "New York
York
City Skyscraper
Skyscraper
Diagram". Skyscraper
Skyscraper
Source Media. Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
Archived June 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine ., SkyscraperPage.com. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The roof height is the same as original One World Trade Center. The building is topped out by a 124-meter (408-foot) spire. So the tower rises 1,776 feet (541-meter) which marks the year of the American declaration of Independence." * ^ Matthews, Laura (April 30, 2012). " One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
On Top As Tallest Building In New York
York
City". The International Business Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ Lesser, Benjamin (April 30, 2012). "It\'s official: 1 World Trade Center is now New York\'s tallest skyscraper". _Daily News_. New York. Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ Nocera, Joe . "Two Days in September", _The New York
York
Times _, September 14, 2012. Accessed May 6, 2017. "On the left, that anger led, a year ago, to the rise of the Occupy Wall Street
Wall Street
movement. Thus, Anniversary No. 2: Sept. 17, 2011, was the date Occupy Wall Street took over Zuccotti Parkin Lower Manhattan, which soon led to similar actions in cities across the country. The movement’s primary issue was income inequality — 'We are the 99 percent,' they used to chant." * ^ Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
is 228 miles (367 km) driving distance from New York, and Boston
Boston
is 217 miles (349 km) driving distance from New York. – Google Maps * ^ "Information About the Hudson River
Hudson River
Estuary". Life.bio.sunysb.edu. Retrieved August 20, 2011. * ^ Berger, Joseph (July 19, 2010). "Reclaimed Jewel Whose Attraction Can Be Perilous". _New York
York
Times_. Retrieved July 21, 2010. * ^ Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). _Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center_. Rutgers University
University
Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-7838-9785-5 . * ^ Lopate, Phillip (2004). _Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan_. Anchor Press. ISBN 0-385-49714-8 . * ^ New York
York
State Gazetteer from 2010 United States
United States
Census, United States Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Roberts, Sam (May 22, 2008). "It\'s Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved May 22, 2008. * ^ Lundrigan, Margaret (2004). _Staten Island: Isle of the Bay, NY_. Arcadia Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 0-7385-2443-3 . * ^ Howard, David (2002). _Outside Magazine's Urban Adventure New York
York
City_. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 35. ISBN 0-393-32212-2 . * ^ "As One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
soars, so do its costs". msnbc.com. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2012. * ^ " Emporis
Emporis
Skyline
Skyline
Ranking". Emporis
Emporis
Corporation. Retrieved October 23, 2011. * ^ Skyline
Skyline
Ranking, Emporis
Emporis
. Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Staff. "Alchemy borrows $220M for Woolworth conversion" Archived February 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., _Real Estate Weekly _, June 15, 2016. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The neo-gothic Woolworth Building
Woolworth Building
was commissioned by Frank W. Woolworth in 1910 as his eponymous company’s new headquarters and designed by renowned architect Cass Gilbert. The building was completed in 1913 and was for 17 years the tallest building in the world." * ^ Fischler, Raphael (1998). "The Metropolitan Dimension of Early Zoning: Revisiting the 1916 New York
York
City Ordinance". _Journal of the American Planning Association _. 64 (2). * ^ "Favorites! 100 Experts Pick Their top 10 New York
York
Towers". The Skyscraper
Skyscraper
Museum. January 22, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pogrebin, Robin (April 16, 2006). "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York\'s Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Plunz, Richard A. (1990). "Chapters 3 & 4 ". _History of Housing in New York
York
City: Dwelling Type and Change in the American Metropolis_. Columbia University
Columbia University
Press. ISBN 0-231-06297-4 . * ^ "If You\'re Thinking of Living In/Riverdale, the Bronx; A Community Jealous of Its Open Space". _The New York
York
Times_. March 1, 1998. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ "New York
York
Metro: 6 Affordable Neighborhoods". Nymag.com. September 17, 2001. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ "If You\'re Thinking of Living In/Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel". _The New York
York
Times_. February 8, 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ Lankevich (1998), pp. 82–83; Wilson, Rufus Rockwell (1902). _New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks_. J.B. Lippincott. p. 354. * ^ Elliot, Debbie (December 2, 2006). "Wondering About Water Towers". National Public Radio. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Hood, Clifton (2004). _722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York_. Johns Hopkins University
University
Press. pp. 175–177. ISBN 0-8018-5244-7 . * ^ Robertson, Jessica; Petersen, Mark (July 17, 2014). "New Insight on the Nation\'s Earthquake Hazards". United States
United States
Geological Survey. Retrieved August 12, 2014. * ^ "Current Population Estimates: NYC". NYC.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2017. * ^ Mann, Camille; Valera, Stephanie. "World\'s Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved March 20, 2016. * ^ Barry, Dan (October 11, 2001). "A Nation challenged: in New York; New York
York
Carries On, but Test of Its Grit Has Just Begun". _The New York
York
Times _. Retrieved March 27, 2016. A roaring void has been created in the financial center of the world. * ^ Sorrentino, Christopher (September 16, 2007). "When He Was Seventeen". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved March 27, 2016. In 1980 there were still the remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world. * ^ Immerso, Michael (2002). _Coney Island: The People's Playground_. Rutgers University
University
Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8135-3138-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Joe Dorish. "10 Largest Parks in New York
York
City". ZipfWorks, Inc. Retrieved March 20, 2016. * ^ O'Donnell, Michelle (July 4, 2006). "In Queens, It\'s the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th ...". _New York
York
Times_. Retrieved July 20, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Christine Kim; Demand Media. "Queens, New York, Sightseeing". _USA TODAY_. Retrieved March 20, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Andrew Weber (April 30, 2013). "Queens". NewYork.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016. * ^ " Staten Island
Staten Island
Greenbelt New York- New Jersey
New Jersey
Trail Conference". Nynjtc.org. Retrieved October 28, 2010. * ^ Frazier, Ian (June 26, 2006). "Utopia, the Bronx". _The New Yorker_. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Bronx Zoo
Bronx Zoo
Animals & Exhibits". Wildlife Conservation Society. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016. * ^ Ward, Candace (2000). _New York
York
City Museum Guide_. Dover Publications. p. 72. ISBN 0-486-41000-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Toop, David (1992). _Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop_. Serpents Tail. ISBN 1-85242-243-2 . * ^ Johnson, Mary (October 29, 2012). "VIDEO: Dramatic Explosion at East Village Con Ed Plant". DNAinfo.com. Retrieved November 27, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University
University
of Melbourne. Retrieved April 26, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "New York
York
Polonia Polish Portal
Portal
in New York". NewYorkPolonia.com. Retrieved April 26, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "New York
York
Central Park, NY Climate Normals 1961−1990" . NOAA. * ^ " USDA
USDA
Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research
Research
Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Station Name: NY NEW YORK CNTRL PK TWR" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.

* ^ "The Climate of New York". New York
York
State Climate Office. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 2016-04-18. * ^ https://www.seatemperature.org/north-america/united-states/new-york-city.htm * ^ Dolnick, Sam (August 28, 2011). "Damage From Irene Largely Spares New York
York
– Recovery Is Slower in New York
York
Suburbs". The New York
York
Times. Retrieved January 26, 2013. * ^ "Superstorm Sandy blamed for at least 11 U.S. deaths as it slams East Coast". CNN. October 29, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ Stone, Jeff; Gallucci, Maria (October 29, 2014). "Hurricane Sandy Anniversary 2014: Fortifying New York
York
– How Well Armored Are We For The Next Superstorm?". International Business Times. Retrieved July 23, 2015. * ^ Eshelman, Robert S. (November 15, 2012). "ADAPTATION: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor
New York Harbor
begins to form". E&E Publishing, LLC. Retrieved July 23, 2015. * ^ Belvedere Castle
Belvedere Castle
at NYC Parks * ^ Foderado, Lisa W. (June 5, 2013). "New York
York
Parks Rank No. 2 in a Survey of 50 U.S. cities". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved July 12, 2013. * ^ "Statue of Liberty". _World Heritage_. UNESCO. Retrieved July 18, 2015. * ^ "Discover the truly wild side of New York\'s metropolitan area". nps.gov. Retrieved June 11, 2012. * ^ "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 30, 2011. * ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey
North Jersey
Media Group Inc. January 21, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013. * ^ Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). " Stonewall Inn
Stonewall Inn
Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved June 25, 2016. * ^ "New York
York
State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, New York
York
City Region". Nysparks.state.ny.us. Retrieved October 28, 2010. * ^ "Mayor Giuliani Announces Amount of Parkland in New York
York
City has Passed 28,000-acre (110 km2) Mark". New York
York
City Mayor's Office. February 3, 1999. Retrieved September 1, 2008. ; "Beaches". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "Pelham Bay Park". City of New York. Retrieved June 8, 2012. * ^ Ann Shields (November 10, 2014). "The World\'s 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 4 (tie) Central Park, New York
York
City – Annual Visitors: 40,000,000". Travel+Lesiure. Retrieved March 27, 2016. * ^ Foderaro, Lisa W. (October 23, 2012). "A $100 Million Thank-You for a Lifetime\'s Central Park
Central Park
Memories". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved October 23, 2012. * ^ Park History, Prospect Park Alliance. Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Foderaro, Lisa W. "How Big Is That Park? City Now Has the Answer", _New York
York
Times _, May 31, 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017. "But the biggest loser was clearly Flushing Meadows. Previously the third-largest park in the city, it dropped to fourth place after the new analysis put its actual acreage at 897 (897.62 to be precise), down from 1,255 acres." * ^ , United States
United States
Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ DP-1: Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 from the 2010 Demographic Profile Data for New York
York
city, New York, United States
United States
Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Roberts, Sam (March 24, 2011). "City Population Barely Grew in the \'00s, Census Finds". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved March 24, 2011. * ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016. * ^ Sherry, Virginia N. (March 27, 2014). " Staten Island
Staten Island
population at all-time high of 473,000; NYC\'s soars to record 8.4 million". Staten Island
Staten Island
Advance. Retrieved March 27, 2014. * ^ Roberts, Sam (March 14, 2013). "Fewer People Are Abandoning the Bronx, Census Data Show". _New York
York
Times_. Retrieved March 27, 2014. * ^ Accessed June 26, 2017. * ^ Accessed June 26, 2017. * ^ GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File
File
1 for New Jersey, United States
United States
Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County -- County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File
File
1 for New York
York
County, New York, United States
United States
Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ _Guide to State and Local Census Geography_, United States Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Highest Density, United States
United States
Census Bureau . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Mann, Camille; Valera, Stephanie. "World\'s Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 27, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Saul, Michael Howard (March 27, 2014). "New York
York
City Population Hits Record High". _The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal_. Retrieved March 27, 2014. * ^ Roberts, Sam (March 24, 2011). "New York
York
City\'s Population Barely Rose in the Last Decade, the Census Finds". _The New York Times_. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ Jones, Charisse (September 24, 2008). " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
strives to tell more complete immigration story". _USA Today_. Retrieved July 4, 2014. * ^ _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "New York
York
City#Population". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University
University
Press. p. 617. * ^ _A_ _B_ Semple, Kirk (June 8, 2013). "City\'s Newest Immigrant Enclaves, From Little Guyana to Meokjagolmok". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved June 12, 2013. * ^ _The Newest New Yorkers: 2013_, New York
York
City Department of City Planning , December 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The immigrant share of the population has also doubled since 1965, to 37 percent. With foreign-born mothers accounting for 51 percent of all births, approximately 6-in-10 New Yorkers are either immigrants or the children of immigrants." * ^ Semple, Kirk (December 18, 2013). " Immigration
Immigration
Remakes and Sustains City, a Report Concludes". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved December 18, 2013. * ^ Goldstein, Joseph (November 28, 2013). "Bangladeshis Build Careers in New York
York
Traffic". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved November 28, 2013. * ^ Semple, Kirk (June 23, 2011). "Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers". _The New York
York
Times _. Retrieved July 5, 2011. Asians, a group more commonly associated with the West Coast, are surging in New York, where they have long been eclipsed in the city's kaleidoscopic racial and ethnic mix. For the first time, according to census figures released in the spring, their numbers have topped one million—nearly 1 in 8 New Yorkers—which is more than the Asian population in the cities of San Francisco
San Francisco
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
combined. * ^ " Asian American
Asian American
Statistics". Améredia Incorporated. Retrieved July 5, 2011. * ^ "State & County QuickFacts Nassau County, New York
York
QuickLinks". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014. * ^ Shao, Heng (April 10, 2014). "Join The Great Gatsby: Chinese Real Estate Buyers Fan Out To Long Island\'s North Shore". Forbes. Retrieved August 2, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Yearbook of Immigration
Immigration
Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014. * ^ "Yearbook of Immigration
Immigration
Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014. * ^ "Yearbook of Immigration
Immigration
Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 1". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014. * ^ "Yearbook of Immigration
Immigration
Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved February 24, 2013.

* ^ Marzulli, John (May 9, 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn
Brooklyn
using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: The New York
York
Daily News. Retrieved February 24, 2013. * ^ "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. January 25, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013. * ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA Chinese alone". United States
United States
Census Bureau . Retrieved April 2, 2017.

* ^ "American Fact Finder". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved July 19, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Most Significant Unreached People Group Communities in Metro NY". GLOBAL GATES. July 17, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2014. * ^ Table SF1-P9 NYC: Total Asian Population by Selected Subgroups, New York
York
City Department of City Planning . Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ " Queens
Queens
County, New York
York
QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ Roleke, John. "A Growing Chinatown
Chinatown
in Elmhurst". About.com. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ "American FactFinder – Results". U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990". _Population Division Working Paper_. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. * ^ "Census Estimates Show Another Increase in New York
York
City\'s Non-Hispanic White Population". _The New York
York
Times_. July 1, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ "American FactFinder – Results". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ "A Community of Many Worlds: Arab Americans in New York
York
City". Allied Media Corp. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2014. * ^ "Yearbook of Immigration
Immigration
Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 19, 2014. * ^ Ragaru, Nadège; Dymi, Amilda. "The Albanian-American Community in the United States
United States
: A Diaspora Coming to Visibility" (PDF). Retrieved July 29, 2014. * ^ Gordon, Ian; Travers, Tony; Whitehead, Christine; London
London
School of Economics and Political Science (July 2007). "The Impact of Recent Immigration
Immigration
on the London
London
Economy" (PDF). The City of London Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2013. * ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". Retrieved September 2, 2012. * ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2012. * ^ Semple, Kirk (June 23, 2011). "Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved September 2, 2012. * ^ "Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2013". United States
United States
Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved March 6, 2015. * ^ Scott M. Stringer
Scott M. Stringer
, New York
York
City Comptroller (June 2015). "LGBTQ Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender
Transgender
">(PDF). City of New York. Retrieved April 30, 2016. * ^ Gates, Gary J. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation. Retrieved December 7, 2013. * ^ Silverman, Brian; Chauvin, Kelsy (2013). "Frommer\'s New York City 2013". Frommer – Google Books. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Gates, Gary J. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation. Retrieved December 7, 2013. . * ^ Silverman, Brian; Chauvin, Kelsy (2013). "Frommer\'s New York City 2013". Frommer – Google Books. Retrieved March 24, 2015. . * ^ Confessore, Nicholas; Barbaro, Michael (June 24, 2011). "New York
York
Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law". The New York
York
Times Company. Retrieved September 2, 2012. * ^ Kaiser, p. xiv Accessed March 28, 2017. * ^ "Revelers Take To The Streets For 48th Annual NYC Pride March". CBS
CBS
New York. June 25, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2017. A sea of rainbows took over the Big Apple for the biggest pride parade in the world Sunday. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cristan Williams. ""So, what was Stonewall?"". The TransAdvocate. Retrieved March 28, 2017. * ^ Jennifer Fermino (March 7, 2016). "De Blasio: NYC toilets won\'t discriminate by gender identity". _New York
York
Daily News_. Retrieved March 28, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research
Research
Center, Accessed July 30, 2015. * ^ "World Jewish Population". SimpleToRemember.com – Judaism Online. Retrieved September 2, 2012. * ^ "Jewish Community Study of New York: 2011 Comprehensive Report" (PDF). UJA-Federation of New York. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ Weichselbaum, Simone (June 26, 2012). "Nearly one in four Brooklyn
Brooklyn
residents are Jews, new study finds". _New York
York
Daily News_. Retrieved May 30, 2013. * ^ Josh Nathan-Kazis (12 June 2012). "N.Y. Jewish Population Grows to 1.5M: Study". * ^ Santora, Marc; Otterman, Sharon (March 4, 2015). "New York
York
City Adds 2 Muslim Holy Days to Public School Calendar". _The New York Times_. Retrieved March 4, 2015. * ^ Weichselbaum, Simone (June 26, 2012). "Nearly one in four Brooklyn
Brooklyn
residents are Jews, new study finds". _New York
York
Daily News_. Retrieved May 30, 2013. * ^ "Inequality" (PDF). harvard.edu. page 2, introduction. Retrieved March 30, 2014. * ^ "County Employment and Wages Summary". Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014. * ^ Shih, Gerry via Associated Press
Associated Press
. " Beijing
Beijing
overtakes NYC as \' Billionaire
Billionaire
Capital\'", _ USA Today
USA Today
_, February 24, 2016. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The Chinese capital has overtaken the Big Apple as home to the most billionaires — 100 to 95 — according to Hurun, a Shanghai
Shanghai
firm that publishes a monthly magazine and releases yearly rankings and research about the world’s richest people and their spending habits." * ^ "Michael Bloomberg". Forbes. Retrieved February 24, 2016. * ^ Wallace, Gregory (August 4, 2014). "Want to meet a millionaire? Here\'s where to go". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2014. * ^ Shapiro, Julie (January 11, 2012). "Downtown Baby Boom Sees 12 Percent Increase in Births". DNAinfo New York. Retrieved August 4, 2013. * ^ _Fortune_, Volume 173, Number 8 (June 15, 2016), page F-40 * ^ Florida, Richard (May 8, 2012). "What Is the World\'s Most Economically Powerful City?". The Atlantic
The Atlantic
Monthly Group. Retrieved November 21, 2012. * ^ Strunsky, Steve (August 5, 2014). " Port
Port
reports record container volume for first half of 2014". _The Star-Ledger_. Retrieved December 5, 2014. * ^ Greg David (March 30, 2017). "New York
York
City reaches the Holy Grail of \'full employment\' - The jobless rate is now down to 4.3%, the lowest ever". Crain's New York
York
Business. Retrieved April 3, 2017. * ^ _Fortune_ 500 web site (cities), retrieved July 21, 2011; _Fortune_, Vol. 163, no. 7 (May 23, 2011), page F-45 * ^ Wylde, Kathryn (January 23, 2006). "Keeping the Economy Growing". Gotham
Gotham
Gazette. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Kennedy, Simon (April 13, 2014). " Beijing
Beijing
Breaks Into Top Ten in Rankings by A.T. Kearney". Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg L.P.
Retrieved April 13, 2014.

* ^ Kaske, Michelle. "New York
York
City Tops Global Competitiveness Rankings, Economist Report Says", Bloomberg.com
Bloomberg.com
, March 12, 2012, backed up by the Internet
Internet
Archive as of March 12, 2012. Accessed February 9, 2017. * ^ Walls, Jacqueline (April 8, 2013). "American Cities of the Future 2013–14". fDiIntelligence.com. Retrieved August 5, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Department of Finance Publishes Fiscal Year 2017 Tentative Assessment Roll_, New York
York
City Department of Finance , January 15, 2016. "Today, Jacques Jiha, Commissioner for the Department of Finance, announced the publication of the Tentative Property Assessment Roll for fiscal year 2017, which shows the total Market Value for the upcoming year at about $1.072 trillion, an increase of $102.5 billion, or 10.6 percent from the 2016 Fiscal Year." * ^ Quirk, James. "Bergen offices have plenty of space". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. , _The Record (Bergen County) _, July 5, 2007. Accessed July 5, 2007. "On Monday, a 26-year-old, 33-story office building at 450 Park Ave. sold for a stunning $1,589 per square foot, or about ,10 million. The price is believed to be the most ever paid for a U.S. office building on a per-square-foot basis. That broke the previous record—set four weeks earlier—when 660 Madison Ave. sold for $1,476 a square foot." * ^ Carlyle, Erin (October 8, 2014). "New York
York
Dominates 2014 List of America\'s Most Expensive ZIP Codes". Forbes. Retrieved October 9, 2014. * ^ Janette Sadik-Khan (January 9, 2017). "A plea for Fifth Avenue". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved January 9, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Definition of Metonymy". Chegg, Inc. Retrieved August 12, 2014. * ^ Fermino, Jennifer (February 7, 2014). "Mayor de Blasio announces $3M in grants for New York
York
City\'s fashion industry". _New York
York
Daily News_. Retrieved February 11, 2014. * ^ Yang, Catherine (July 19, 2014). "The Garment District, Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Style". _Epoch Times_. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014. * ^ "More Than a Link in the Food Chain" (PDF). The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business. February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 31, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Potkewitz, Hilary (November 17, 2014). "\' Chocolate
Chocolate
district\' in the making in Brooklyn". Crain Communications Inc. Retrieved December 15, 2014. * ^ " Godiva ChocolatierINC. Company Information". Hoover's Inc. Retrieved January 9, 2015. * ^ DiNapoli, Thomas P. (New York
York
State Comptroller); Bleiwas, Kenneth B. (New York
York
State Deputy Comptroller) (October 2013). "The Securities Industry in New York
York
City" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2014. * ^ Choudhury, Ambereen; Martinuzzi, Elisa; Moshinsky, Ben (November 26, 2012). " London
London
Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York". Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg L.P.
Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014. * ^ Vallikappen, Sanat (November 10, 2013). "Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York". Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg L.P.
Retrieved July 20, 2014. * ^ "DiNapoli: Wall Street
Wall Street
Bonuses Edge Up in 2014". Office of the New York
York
State Comptroller. March 11, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ McKinsey New York
York
City Economic Development Corporation. "Sustaining New York\'s and the US\' Global Financial Services Leadership" (PDF). City of New York. Retrieved July 19, 2015.

* ^ "Total debt securities" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements . June 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2015. * ^ Enrich, David; Bunge, Jacob; Bryan-Low, Cassell (July 9, 2013). " NYSE Euronextto Take Over Libor". The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2015. * ^ Chaudhuri, Saabira (September 15, 2014). "Ranking the Biggest U.S. Banks: A New Entrant in Top 5". _The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal_. Retrieved July 19, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Nelson, Andrew. "Top CBDs See Solid Growth in 2nd Quarter, US – Canada
Canada
Performance Diverges" (PDF). Colliers International. Retrieved February 14, 2016. * ^ "Understanding The Manhattan
Manhattan
Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014. * ^ "Marketbeat United States
United States
CBD Office Report 2Q11" (PDF). Cushman ">(PDF) on May 8, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014. * ^ Lahlou, Karim. "Startups move to co-shared offices amid high real estate prices". The Midtown Gazette. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2014. * ^ Dickey, Megan Rose; D'Onfro, Jillian (October 24, 2013). "SA 100 2013: The Coolest People In New York
York
Tech". Business Insider. Retrieved July 30, 2014. * ^ " Telecommunications
Telecommunications
and Economic Development in New York
York
City: A Plan for Action" (PDF). New York
York
City Economic Development Corporation. March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2016. * ^ Pereira, Ivan (December 10, 2013). "City opens nation\'s largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem". amNewYork/Newsday. Retrieved July 30, 2014. * ^ Brodkin, Jon (June 9, 2014). "Verizon will miss deadline to wire all of New York
York
City with FiOS". Condé Nast. Retrieved July 30, 2014. * ^ S3 Partners (January 8, 2015). "5 signs NYC\'s tech scene is growing up – NYC tech sector hits 300,000". _New York
York
Daily News_. Retrieved May 1, 2015. * ^ Eugenios, Jillian; Hargreaves, Steve; Rawlins, Aimee (October 7, 2014). "The most innovative cities in America". CNNMoney. Retrieved October 7, 2014. * ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard (December 19, 2011). "Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City". The New York
York
Times. Retrieved August 1, 2014. * ^ Ju, Anne (December 19, 2011). "\'Game-changing\' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion". Cornell University. Retrieved August 1, 2014. * ^ Morris, Keiko (July 28, 2014). "Wanted: Biotech Startups in New York
York
City: The Alexandria Center for Life Science Looks to Expand". _The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal_. Retrieved August 1, 2014. * ^ Interview with Milton Glaser
Milton Glaser
_The Believer _. Accessed July 8, 2015. * ^ "I Love New York
York
Logo". New York
York
State Education Department . September 26, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2015. * ^ "Places To Visit In New York
York
City". _Pinterest Places To Visit In New York
York
City_. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2015. * ^ Hargreaves, Steve (July 15, 2015). "Visa-seeking Chinese fund giant NY Ferris wheel". CNN. Retrieved July 19, 2015. * ^ Peltz, Jennifer; Associated Press
Associated Press
(September 28, 2012). "NYC to get \'world\'s largest\' Ferris wheel". NBC
NBC
News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 29, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012. * ^ Dailey, Jessica (October 9, 2013). "Number Of Manhattan
Manhattan
Hotel Rooms To Increase 10% In 2014". Vox Media. Retrieved October 6, 2014. * ^ Frank, Robert (October 6, 2014). "Waldorf becomes most expensive hotel ever sold: $1.95 billion". CNBC. Retrieved October 6, 2014. * ^ Santora, Marc (February 26, 2014). "Four Marvel TV Shows to Film in New York". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved February 27, 2014. * ^ "Mayor De Blasio Announces Increased Growth of New York
York
City\'s Entertainment Industry Brings $8.7 billion into the Local Economy". City of New York
York
Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment. October 15, 2015. Retrieved April 10, 2016. * ^ "New York
York
Film Academy, New York
York
City". New York
York
Film Academy. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Request for Expressions of Interest" (PDF). The Governors Island
Governors Island
Preservation ">(PDF) on August 2, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2014. * ^ "AICP Staff & National Offices". Association of Independent Commercial Producers. Retrieved February 8, 2012. * ^ Goundry, Nick (June 6, 2014). "New York
York
half-year location filming surpasses record for whole of 2013". Location Guide. Retrieved September 20, 2014. * ^ Goundry, Nick (June 25, 2014). "New York
York
surpasses Los Angeles for TV drama pilot filming". Location Guide. Retrieved September 20, 2014. * ^ "Tampa Bay 12th Largest Media Market Now" (Press release). Tampa Bay Partnership. August 26, 2006. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Top 10 Consolidated Agency Networks: Ranked by 2006 Worldwide Network Revenue, _ Advertising
Advertising
Age _ Agency Report 2007 Index (April 25, 2007). Retrieved June 8, 2007. * ^ "Media and Entertainment". New York
York
City Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on January 28, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "New York
York
Daily News (American newspaper)". Britannica.com. Retrieved May 4, 2013. * ^ Allan Nevins, _The Evening Post: Century of Journalism_, Boni and Liveright, 1922, page 17. * ^ "Ethnic Press Booms In New York
York
City". Editor & Publisher. July 10, 2002. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "el Diario/La Prensa: The Nation\'s Oldest Spanish-Language Daily". New America Media. July 27, 2005. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "NYC Media". Nyc.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2013. * ^ "Community Celebrates Public Access TV\'s 35th Anniversary". Mnn.org. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010. * ^ "Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers: Spring 2006 Arbitron" (PDF). Radio Research
Research
Consortium. August 28, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "New York
York
City Department of Education – About Us". The New York
York
City Department of Education. 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014. * ^ Gross, Jane (May 6, 1997). "A Tiny Strip of New York
York
That Feels Like the Suburbs". _The_ New York
York
Times . Archived from the original on June 28, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) () * ^ Wienerbronner, Danielle (November 9, 2010). "Most Beautiful College Libraries". TheHuffingtonPost.com. Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ "The New York
York
City Charter School Center". Retrieved April 16, 2015. * ^ "Private School Universe Survey". National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "The City University
University
of New York". Retrieved August 24, 2014. * ^ McGeehan, Patrick (August 16, 2006). "New York
York
Area Is a Magnet For Graduates". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved March 27, 2007. * ^ "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan" (Press release). New York City Economic Development Corporation. November 18, 2004. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Horner, Blair; Levin, Arthur; Mattei, Suzanne; Casey, Ciceron (contributor) (August 2014). "The Doctor Is In: New York\'s Increasing Number of Doctors – p.13, Appendix 1: Comparison Of The Numbers Of New York
York
Doctors By County, As Of 12/31/2004 And 12/31/2012" (PDF). Retrieved August 22, 2014. * ^ Gary M. Stern (March 16, 2017). "The Young Mariners of Throgs Neck". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved March 16, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Nation\'s Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "NewYork–Presbyterian". Retrieved August 12, 2014. * ^ "HHC Website". * ^ "The History of New York
York
City\'s Municipal Hospitals,". HHC Foundation. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. * ^ "Metroplus". MetroPlus. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ "2014 HHC Report to the Community" (PDF). NEW YORK CITY HEALTH + HOSPITALS. Retrieved March 10, 2017. * ^ "Funding Universe Web Site". Funding Universe. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ "CEO of Chicago
Chicago
Public Hospitals to Take the Helm of HHC". _WNYC_. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ "Bureau of Justice Statistics – Appendix Table 1 – page 34" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved December 5, 2013. * ^ Accessed July 6, 2017. * ^ "NYPD Stop And Frisks: 15 Shocking Facts About A Controversial Program". _Huffington Post_. May 15, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2013. * ^ "Stop-and-Frisk Campaign: About the Issue". NYCLU. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013. * ^ "NYPD Stop and Frisk". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 24, 2013. * ^ Winkley, Lyndsay. "San Diego County homicides up 12% in 2015". * ^ Arthur Prager, "Worst-Case Scenario" Archived March 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., _American Heritage_, February/March 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Don\'t Tell New York, But Crime Is Going Up". Lib.jjay.cuny.edu. Retrieved August 20, 2011. * ^ Langan, Patrick A.; Matthew R. Durose (October 21, 2004). "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York
York
City" (PDF). Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2009. * ^ Fewer Killings in 2007, but Still Felt in City\'s Streets, _The New York
York
Times _, January 1, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2009. * ^ New York
York
City Police Department * ^ "Table 8 – New York". * ^ "NYC Murder Rate Drops To New Historic Low In 2014". * ^ "Livingstone to follow methods of the NYPD". Telegraph. January 17, 2001. * ^ "Staying a beat ahead of crime". Theage.com.au. November 5, 2002. * ^ Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise (2006). "The Rise and Decline of Hard Drugs, Drug Markets, and Violence in Inner-City New York". In Blumstein, Alfred; Joel Wallman. _The Crime Drop in America_. Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 0-521-86279-5 . ; Karmen, Andrew (2000). _New York
York
Murder Mystery: The True Story Behind the Crime Crash of the 1990s_. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-4717-5 . * ^ Shurkin, Joel N. (February 13, 2013). "Mystery Of New York\'s Falling Crime Rate Remains Unsolved". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved July 5, 2015. * ^ Drum, Kevin (January–February 2013). "America\'s Real Criminal Element: Lead". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 3, 2013. * ^ Lehren, Andrew W.; Hauser, Christine (July 2, 2009). "In New York
York
City, Fewer Murders on Rainy Days". The New York
York
Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015. * ^ "Youth Gangs". Gotham Gazette. March 5, 2001. * ^ Sean Gardiner; Pervaiz Shallwani (February 18, 2014). "NY Crime – Mafia Is Down—but Not Out – Crime Families Adapt to Survive, Lowering Profile and Using Need-to-Know Tactics". _The Wall Street Journal_. Retrieved July 8, 2015. * ^ "How New York
York
Gang
Gang
Culture
Culture
Is Changing". VICE. August 18, 2015.

* ^ "9 Metrotech Center – FDNY Headquarters
Headquarters
Archived January 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.". Fresh Meadow
Meadow
Mechanical Corp. Retrieved on November 5, 2009. * ^ "FDNY Fire Academy". The City of New York. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ "Speeches: Tom Christopher Exhibit Opening" (Press release). Consulate General of the United States: Frankfurt, Germany. May 9, 2007. Archived from the original on July 23, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ " Harlem
Harlem
in the Jazz
Jazz
Age". _New York
York
Times_. February 8, 1987. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "ART; A 1920\'s Flowering That Didn\'t Disappear". _NY Times_. May 24, 1998. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ " Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
Music in the 1920s". 1920s Fashion & Music. Retrieved June 1, 2012. * ^ "Will Gentrification
Gentrification
Spoil the Birthplace of Hip-Hop? – New York". _NY Times_. May 21, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2012. * ^ Harrington, Joe S. _Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'N' Roll_. pp. 324–30. 2002. Hal-Leonard. USA. * ^ "Survival of the Streets". Vice. Retrieved June 1, 2012. * ^ "capital". Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 10, 2011. * ^ "Free To Dance – About The Film". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved July 10, 2011. * ^ "Group Visits". Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011. * ^ Bradford, Julie (2014). _Fashion Journalism_. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9781136475368 . Retrieved July 18, 2015. * ^ Dillon, Susan (2011). _The Fundamentals of Fashion Management_. A&C Black. p. 115. ISBN 9782940411580 . Retrieved July 18, 2015. * ^ "New York
York
retakes Top Global Fashion Capital Title from London, edging past Paris". Languagemonitor.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Creative New York" (PDF). Center for an Urban Future. December 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Welsh, Anne Marie (June 6, 2004). "2 plays + 9 nominations=good odds for locals". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ McBeth, VR. "The Great White Way" on TimesSquare.com. Quote: "Coined in 1901 by O.J. Gude, the designer of many prominent advertising displays, to describe the new light show that beckoned along Broadway, The Great White Wayis a phrase known worldwide to describe Broadway's profusion of theaters in Times Square." * ^ Tell, Darcy. _ Times Square
Times Square
spectacular: lighting up Broadway_ New York: HarperCollins, 2007 * ^ Allen, Irving Lewis. _The City in Slang: New York
York
Life and Popular Speech_. New York: Oxford University
University
Press, 1995. Quote: "By 1910, the blocks of Broadway just above 42nd Street were at the very heart of the Great White Way. The glow of Times Square
Times Square
symbolized the center of New York, if not of the world." * ^ "Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics". The Broadway League. Retrieved July 20, 2014. * ^ "About Summer Stage". City Parks Foundation. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012. * ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
General Information". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved September 10, 2012. * ^ "72 Hours Inside the Eye-Popping World of Cardistry". Vanity Fair. Retrieved December 6, 2015. * ^ "Museum Mile Festival". Official site. Retrieved August 23, 2014. * ^ Kusisto, Laura (October 21, 2011). "Reaching High on Upper 5th Avenue". _The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal _. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2014. * ^ "Museums on the Mile". Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2014. * ^ Chan, Sewell (February 9, 2007). " Museum for African ArtFinds its Place". _The New York
York
Times _. Retrieved August 23, 2014. * ^ "New Drive Promoting 5th Ave.\'s \'Museum Mile\'". _The New York
York
Times _. June 27, 1979. Retrieved August 23, 2014. * ^ Strand, Oliver (July 5, 2011). " Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Market: Woodstock of Eating". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved May 29, 2013. * ^ Bleyer, Jennifer (May 14, 2006). "Kebabs on the Night Shift". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved January 17, 2014. * ^ "27,479 restaurants selected by the Michelin
Michelin
Guide – Top Destinations". Michelin. Retrieved August 24, 2014. * ^ "Restaurant Inspection Results (Letter Grades)". The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Millions Of Revelers Marvel Over Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade". CBS
CBS
Broadcasting Inc. November 24, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2017. * ^ Hilarey Wojtowicz. "Guide to the 2016 Macy\'s Thanksgiving Day Parade". The Independent Traveler, Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2017. * ^ Newman, Michael (2005). "New York
York
Talk". In Wolfram, Walt; Ward, Ben. _American Voices_. Blackwell. pp. 82–87. ISBN 1-4051-2109-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Sontag, Deborah (February 14, 1993). "Oy Gevalt! New Yawkese An Endangered Dialect?". _The New York
York
Times _. Retrieved July 19, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kit Fox (March 2, 2017). "2017 New York
York
City Marathon Entrants By the Numbers - Applications for the world’s largest race were at an all-time high for 2017". Runner's World - Rodale Inc. Retrieved May 10, 2017. * ^ " National Football League
National Football League
Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013. * ^ " Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013. * ^ "National Basketball Association, Inc. Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013. * ^ " National Hockey League
National Hockey League
Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013. * ^ "Major League Soccer, L.L.C. Company Information". Hoovers, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013. * ^ Esteban (October 27, 2011). "11 Most Expensive Stadiums In The World". Total Pro Sports. Retrieved September 2, 2012. * ^ _Baseball: A Film by Ken Burns;_ Inning 7: The Capital of Baseball (Television Documentary). PBS. * ^ "New York
York
Mets – TeamReport". _ Chicago
Chicago
Tribune_. May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "2000S". Newyork Yankees. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "New York
York
Yankees: Facts, History, Stats, and Resources". The free sources. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "How Mets, Colt .45s Grew Up To Beat The Bullies". _Chicago Tribune_. October 8, 1986. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "Dodgers Timeline". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers. Retrieved September 22, 2008. * ^ "Historical Moments". Dodgers Giants. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "Major League Baseball, Police Athletic League and the Brooklyn Cyclones to host free MLB Umpire Camp". _MLB Press Release_. May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "New ownership group for Staten Island
Staten Island
Yankees talks about future plans". _Silive_. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2012. * ^ "Preparations Different for a Home-and-Home Contest". _New York Times_. December 22, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "Owners warm up to New York/ New Jersey
New Jersey
as Super Bowl XLVIII host". _NFL.com_. Associated Press. May 26, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010. It's the first time the league has gone to a cold-weather site that doesn't have a dome ... the NFL will wait and see how this foray into the great outdoors in winter goes. Then the league might OK another bid * ^ "Islanders Moving to Brooklyn". October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2012. * ^ Anderson, Dave (May 14, 1995). "Sports of The Times; At Boston Garden, There\'s Much More Gold Than Green". _New York
York
Times _. Retrieved June 17, 2008. * ^ "Devils\' dance with Kings in Stanley Cup Finals gives Newark a spotlight". _Nj.com_. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012. * ^ "Postseason Overview". National Invitation Tournament. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Accessed May 10, 2017. * ^ "Picture-perfect opening for $200M Red Bull Arena in Harrison". Associated Press
Associated Press
. March 20, 2010. * ^ "US Open 2015". United States
United States
Tennis Association. Retrieved July 6, 2015. * ^ "TCS New York
York
City Marathon". New York
York
Road Runners . Retrieved May 10, 2017. * ^ "Boxer Johnny Tapia\'s \'crazy life\' ends". _CNN_. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York
York
Region". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved August 30, 2012. * ^ Pisarski, Alan (October 16, 2006). " Commuting
Commuting
in America III: Commuting
Commuting
Facts" (PDF). Transportation Research
Research
Board. Retrieved August 30, 2012. * ^ "Service Hours". MTR. Retrieved July 31, 2012. * ^ "Tsuen Wan Line". TravelChinaGuide.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012. * ^ "Train Time Table – Search station". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation . Retrieved August 29, 2012. * ^ "Subway map". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. Retrieved August 29, 2012. * ^ "Annual Subway Ridership". Metropolitan Transit Authority. Retrieved May 21, 2016. * ^ Christie, Les (June 29, 2007). "New Yorkers are Top Transit Users". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved January 2, 2008. * ^ "NHTS 2001 Highlights Report, BTS03-05" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ The Hardest Working Cities (PDF) (Report). Office of the New York
York
City Comptroller. March 2015. * ^ Weinberger, Rachel; Kaehny, John; Rufo, Matthew (2010). "U.S. Parking Policies: An Overview of Management Strategies" (PDF). Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. p. 62. Retrieved June 11, 2011. New York
York
City is the largest, densest and most transit- and pedestrian-oriented city in the United States. It is the only U.S. city in which a majority of households do not have a car. Despite this, New York
York
City is very much an American city in the way it under prices and under uses curbside parking meters. Meter rates are far lower than in other leading world cities, and New York
York
suffers from high levels of cruising and double parking (p 62) ... Nationally 90% of households own automobiles. New Yorkers own fewer at 48% with only 22% of Manhattan
Manhattan
residents owning automobiles (page 78) * ^ "New York
York
City\'s Green Dividend". CEOs for Cities. Retrieved January 26, 2012. * ^ Durkin, Erin (January 20, 2015). "Andrew Cuomo announces $450M plan to build AirTrain connecting LaGuardia Airport
LaGuardia Airport
to the subway". NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved January 21, 2015. * ^ Honan, Katie. "Cuomo Announces AirTrain to LaGuardia Airport from Subway, LIRR". _DNAinfo_. Retrieved January 20, 2015. * ^ "National Fact Sheet Fiscal Year 2013" (PDF). Amtrak. Retrieved April 20, 2015. * ^ Dobnik, Verena (February 7, 2013). "NYC Transit Projects: East Side Access, Second Avenue Subway, And 7 Train Extension (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Architect Chosen for Planned Office Tower Above Port Authority Bus Terminal\'s North Wing" (Press release). Port
Port
Authority of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
. November 17, 2008. Archived from the original on February 22, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2014. * ^ "Top 100 Transit Bus Fleets, page 4" (PDF). Metro Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2015. * ^ "The Port
Port
Authority of NY and NJ 2016 Air Traffic Report" (PDF). The Port
Port
Authority of New York
York
and New Jersey. April 14, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2017. * ^ "2011 Year-to-date International Passenger Traffic (as of December 2011)". Airports Council International. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ Strunsky, Steve (May 31, 2012). "Stewart International Airport upgrade approved as Port
Port
Authority aims to increase passenger traffic". New Jersey
New Jersey
On-Line LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2012. * ^ McGeehan, Patrick (July 27, 2015). "La Guardia Airport to Be Overhauled by 2021, Cuomo and Biden Say". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved July 28, 2015. * ^ Anna Sanders (September 20, 2016). " Staten Island
Staten Island
Ferry ridership breaks record". SILive.com. Retrieved December 31, 2016. * ^ Zoe Rosenberg (April 17, 2017). "First of New York\'s citywide ferries arrives in Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
Park". Curbed New York, Vox Media. Retrieved April 17, 2017. * ^ Larry Higgs (September 14, 2016). "This is the new high-speed ferry coming to New Jersey
New Jersey
in 2017". NJ Advance Media for NJ.com. Retrieved September 23, 2016. * ^ "The State of the NYC Taxi" (PDF). New York
York
City Taxi and Limousine Commission. March 9, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Winnie Hu (March 6, 2017). "The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York
York
City Gridlock". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved March 30, 2017. * ^ Karen DeWitt (January 10, 2017). "Cuomo pushes for ride-sharing services outside NYC". North Country Public Radio. Retrieved March 29, 2017. * ^ "The Myths and Metaphors of Music and Dance Singin\' in the Rain". Hofstra University. Retrieved February 6, 2012. * ^ Nordquist, Richard. "Grammar & Composition metonymy". About.com. Retrieved February 6, 2012. * ^ " Metonymyvs Synecdoche". 2012 Buzzle.com. Retrieved February 6, 2012. * ^ George Washington
George Washington
Bridge turns 75 years old: Huge flag, cake part of celebration, _ Times Herald-Record
Times Herald-Record
_, October 24, 2006. "The party, however, will be small in comparison to the one that the Port Authority of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
organized for 5,000 people to open the bridge to traffic in 1931. And it won't even be on _what is now the world's busiest bridge_ for fear of snarling traffic." * ^ _A_ _B_ "Longest Suspension Bridges in the World". Pearson Education. Retrieved September 7, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge". Eastern Roads. Retrieved September 7, 2012. * ^ " Port
Port
Authority of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
– George Washington Bridge". The Port
Port
Authority of New York
York
& New Jersey. Retrieved March 10, 2014. * ^ Bod Woodruff; Lana Zak & Stephanie Wash (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World\'s Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved April 20, 2016. * ^ New York Harbor
New York Harbor
Video – How the Earth Was Made. HISTORY.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014. * ^ " Port
Port
Authority of New York
York
and New Jersey
New Jersey
– George Washington Bridge". The Port
Port
Authority of New York
York
& New Jersey. Retrieved September 13, 2013. * ^ Woodruff, Bod; Zak, Lana; Wash, Stephanie (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World\'s Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved September 13, 2013. * ^ New York
York
Architecture Images- Manhattan
Manhattan
Bridge. Nyc-architecture.com (December 31, 1909). Retrieved on April 12, 2014. * ^ New York
York
Architecture Images. Nyc-architecture.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014. * ^ "Lincoln Tunnel
Tunnel
Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ Holland Tunnel
Tunnel
(I-78). Nycroads.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014. * ^ "Holland Tunnel". _ National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
Quicklinks_. National Park Service
National Park Service
. Archived from the original on June 29, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ "Queens-Midtown Tunnel
Tunnel
Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ "President the 'First' to Use Midtown Tube; Precedence at Opening Denied Hundreds of Motorists", _The New York
York
Times_, November 9, 1940. p. 19. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Mayor de Blasio Commits to 80 Percent Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2050, Starting with Sweeping Green Buildings Plan". City of New York. Retrieved October 31, 2014. * ^ Newman, Andy (July 27, 2010). "Appeals Court Rejects Effort to Create Hybrid Taxi Fleet". _New York
York
Times_. Retrieved July 31, 2010. * ^ "Bicycling in New York
York
City: Know the Facts". Transportation Alternatives. Retrieved October 31, 2014. * ^ Jervey, Ben (2006). _The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York
York
City_. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 0-7627-3835-9 . * ^ "2001 National Household Travel Survey: Summary of Travel Trends" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation. December 2004. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ Florida, Richard (April 7, 2015). "2015\'s Most Walkable U.S. Cities". _The Atlantic_. MSN. Retrieved April 12, 2015. * ^ "NYC tops list of most walkable cities in America – video narrative by Mara Montalbano". Buzz60, on MSN. Retrieved April 11, 2015. * ^ "The 10 Most Walkable U.S. Cities". _MarketWatch_. 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2011. * ^ Hamblin, James (June 28, 2013). "The Summer Bicycles Took Control". _ The Atlantic
The Atlantic
Monthly_. The Atlantic
The Atlantic
Monthly Group. Retrieved June 28, 2013. * ^ Smith, Pat; Maurice Carroll (June 27, 2013). "New York
York
City Voters Back Mayor\'s Storm Plan 4–1, Quinnipiac University
University
Poll Finds; Slim Majority Backs Food Recycling, Bike Rentals" (PDF). _Quinnipiac University
University
Poll_. Quinnipiac University. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013. * ^ "NYC In-Season Cycling Indicator, page 3" (PDF). City of New York. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2014. * ^ "Current Reservoir Levels". New York
York
City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved August 15, 2014. * ^ Lustgarten, Abrahm (August 6, 2008). "City\'s Drinking Water Feared Endangered; $10B Cost Seen". _The New York
York
Sun_. Retrieved August 9, 2008. * ^ Dunlap, David W. (July 23, 2014). "Quiet Milestone in Project to Bring Croton Water Back to New York
York
City". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved August 20, 2014. * ^ Flegenheimer, Matt (October 16, 2013). "After Decades, a Water Tunnel
Tunnel
Can Now Serve All of Manhattan". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved August 15, 2014. * ^ Jim Dwyer (April 6, 2016). "De Blasio Adding Money for Water Tunnel
Tunnel
in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved April 15, 2016. * ^ Navarro, Mireya (September 27, 2010). " Newtown Creek
Newtown Creek
Is Declared a Superfund
Superfund
Site". _The New York
York
Times _. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Newtown Creek
Newtown Creek
Clean-Up Efforts". _The City Concealed_. Thirteen (WNET.org). December 12, 2008. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009. * ^ "Forms of Municipal Government". National League of Cities. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ "About the Council". New York
York
City Council. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007. * ^ Chan, Sewell; Hicks, Jonathan P. (October 23, 2008). "Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved February 13, 2012. * ^ Gibson, Ellen M.; Manz, William H. (2004). _Gibson\'s New York Legal Research
Research
Guide_ (PDF) (3rd ed.). Wm. S. Hein Publishing. pp. 450, 458, 473. ISBN 1-57588-728-2 . LCCN 2004042477 . OCLC
OCLC
54455036 . * ^ Durkin, Erin (May 26, 2014). "Councilman Ben Kallos wants city to publish government notices on its website". _New York
York
Daily News _.

* ^ Barbaro, Michael; Chen, David W. (November 5, 2013). "De Blasio Is Elected New York
York
City Mayor". _The New York
York
Times_. Retrieved November 6, 2013. * ^ "NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status" (PDF). New York
York
State Board of Elections. April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016. * ^ "2006 Election Overview: Top Zip Codes". Opensecrets.org. Retrieved September 1, 2008. * ^ "Downstate Pays More, Upstate Gets More: Does It Matter?". The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government – The Public Policy Research
Research
Arm of the State University
University
of New York. December 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2016. * ^ "NYC\'s Partner Cities". The City of New York. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2015. * ^ "K1084-2011: Recognizing Yunnan Province and Chongqing Municipality of the People\'s Republic of China
China
as a "Sister City" with New York
York
City". New York
York
State Senate. Retrieved December 16, 2012. * ^ "KL\'s Sister Cities". poskod.my. Retrieved August 21, 2013. * ^ "(Israel) Sister Cities". Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on July 22, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2013.

FURTHER READING

* Belden, E. Porter (1849). _New York, Past, Present, and Future: Comprising a History of the City of New York, a Description of its Present Condition, and an Estimate of its Future Increase_. New York: G.P. Putnam. From Google Books
Google Books
. * Burgess, Anthony (1976). _New York
York
_. New York: Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 90-6182-266-1 . * Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999), _Gotham: A History of New York
York
City to 1898 _, New York: Oxford University
University
Press, ISBN 0-195-11634-8 * Federal Writers\' Project (1939). _The WPA Guide to New York
York
City_ (1995 reissue ed.). New York: The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-321-5 . * Jackson, Kenneth T. , ed. (1995), _The Encyclopedia of New York City _, New Haven: Yale University
University
Press, ISBN 0300055366 * Jackson, Kenneth T.; Dunbar, David S., eds. (2005). _Empire City: New York
York
Through the Centuries_. Columbia University
Columbia University
Press. ISBN 0-231-10909-1 . * Lankevich, George L. (1998). _American Metropolis: A History of New York
York
City_. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-5186-5 . * White, E. B. (1949). _Here is New York_ (2000 reissue ed.). Little Bookroom. * White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000), _AIA Guide to New York City _ (4th ed.), New York: Three Rivers Press, ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5 * Whitehead, Colson (2003). _The Colossus of New York: A City in 13 Parts_. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50794-1 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to NEW YORK CITY _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for NEW YORK CITY _.

* Official website * NYC Go, official tourism website of New York
York
City * New York
York
City at DMOZ * _ Geographic data related to New York
York
City at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap
. * Collections, 145,000 NYC photographs at Museum of the City of New York
York
* "The New New York
York
Skyline".