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The NEW WORLD is one of the names used for the majority of Earth
Earth
's Western Hemisphere , specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Bermuda
Bermuda
).

The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas in the age of discovery , expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers , who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
, and Asia
Asia
, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a. Afro-Eurasia ).

The term was coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
. The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world".

CONTENTS

* 1 Usage

* 2 Origin of term

* 2.1 Prior usage * 2.2 Acceptance * 2.3 Cartographic representation

* 3 See also * 4 References

USAGE

The terms "Old World
World
" vs. "New World" are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the world's major ecozones , and to classify plant and animal species that originated therein.

One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g., when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
, the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period. For lack of alternatives, the term is also still useful to those discussing issues that concern the Americas and the nearby oceanic islands , such as Bermuda
Bermuda
and Clipperton Island , collectively.

The term "New World" is used in a biological context, when one speaks of Old World
World
(Palearctic , Afrotropic ) and New World
World
species (Nearctic , Neotropic ). Biological taxonomists often attach the "New World" label to groups of species that are found exclusively in the Americas, to distinguish them from their counterparts in the "Old World" (Europe, Africa
Africa
and Asia), e.g. New World
World
monkeys , New World vultures , New World
World
warblers .

The label is also often used in agriculture . Africa, Asia, and Europe
Europe
share a common agricultural history stemming from the Neolithic Revolution , and the same domesticated plants and animals spread through these three continents thousands of years ago, making them largely indistinct and useful to classify together as "Old World". Common Old World
World
crops (e.g., barley , lentils , oats , peas , rye , wheat ), and domesticated animals (e.g., cattle , chickens , goats , horses , pigs , sheep ) did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by post-Columbian contact in the 1490s (see "Columbian Exchange "). Conversely, many common crops were originally domesticated in the Americas before they spread worldwide after Columbian contact, and are still often referred to as "New World
World
crops "; common beans (phaseolus), maiz , and squash - the "three sisters " - as well as the avocado , tomato , and wide varieties of capsicum (bell pepper , chili pepper , etc.), and the turkey were originally domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples in Mesoamerica , while agriculturalists in the Andean region of South America
South America
brought forth the cassava , peanut , potato , quinoa and domesticated animals like the alpaca , guinea pig and llama . Other famous New World
World
crops include the cashew , cocoa , rubber , sunflower , tobacco , and vanilla , and fruits like the guava , papaya and pineapple . There are rare instances of overlap, e.g., the calabash (bottle-gourd), cotton , and yam , and the dog , are believed to have been domesticated separately in both the Old and New World, their early forms possibly brought along by Paleo-Indians from Asia
Asia
during the last glacial period .

In wine terminology , "New World" has a different definition. "New World
World
wines " include not only North American and South American wines, but also those from South Africa
Africa
, Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, and all other locations outside the traditional wine-growing regions of Europe
Europe
, North Africa
Africa
and the Near East .

ORIGIN OF TERM

Allegory of the New World: Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
awakens the sleeping America

The term "New World" ("Mundus Novus") was first coined by the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
, in a letter written to his friend and former patron Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de\' Medici in the Spring of 1503, and published (in Latin
Latin
) in 1503-04 under the title Mundus Novus. Vespucci's letter contains arguably the first explicit articulation in print of the hypothesis that the lands discovered by European navigators to the west were not the edges of Asia, as asserted by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
, but rather an entirely different continent, a "New World".

Vespucci first approached this realization in June 1502, during a famous chance meeting between two different expeditions at the watering stop of "Bezeguiche" (the Bay of Dakar
Dakar
, Senegal
Senegal
) - his own outgoing expedition, on its way to chart the coast of newly discovered Brazil
Brazil
, and the vanguard ships of the Second Portuguese India
India
armada of Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
, returning home from India
India
. Having already visited the Americas in prior years, Vespucci probably found it difficult to reconcile what he had already seen in the West Indies
West Indies
, with what the returning sailors told him of the East Indies
East Indies
. Vespucci wrote a preliminary letter to Lorenzo, while anchored at Bezeguiche, which he sent back with the Portuguese fleet - at this point only expressing a certain puzzlement about his conversations. Vespucci was finally convinced when he proceeded on his mapping expedition through 1501-02, covering the huge stretch of coast of eastern Brazil. After returning from Brazil, in the Spring of 1503, Amerigo Vespucci composed the Mundus Novus letter in Lisbon to Lorenzo in Florence, with its famous opening paragraph:

In passed days I wrote very fully to you of my return from new countries, which have been found and explored with the ships, at the cost and by the command of this Most Serene King of Portugal; and it is lawful to call it a new world, because none of these countries were known to our ancestors and all who hear about them they will be entirely new. For the opinion of the ancients was, that the greater part of the world beyond the equinoctial line to the south was not land, but only sea, which they have called the Atlantic; and even if they have affirmed that any continent is there, they have given many reasons for denying it is inhabited. But this opinion is false, and entirely opposed to the truth. My last voyage has proved it, for I have found a continent in that southern part; full of animals and more populous than our Europe, or Asia, or Africa, and even more temperate and pleasant than any other region known to us.

Vespucci's letter was a publishing sensation in Europe, immediately (and repeatedly) reprinted in several other countries.

PRIOR USAGE

While Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
is usually credited for coming up with the term "New World" (Mundus Novus) for the Americas in his 1503 letter, certainly giving it its popular cachet, similar terms had nonetheless been used and applied before him.

The Venetian explorer Alvise Cadamosto
Alvise Cadamosto
had used the term "un altro mundo" ("another world") to refer to sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
, which he explored in 1455 and 1456 on behalf of the Portuguese. However, this was merely a literary flourish, not a suggestion of a new "fourth" part of the world. Cadamosto was quite aware sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
was firmly part of the African continent.

The Italian -born Spanish chronicler Peter Martyr d\'Anghiera often shares credit with Vespucci for designating the Americas as a new world. Peter Martyr used the term Orbe Novo (literally, "New Globe", but often translated as "New World") in the title of his history of the discovery of the Americas as a whole, which began to appear in 1511 (cosmologically, "orbis" as used here refers to the whole hemisphere, while "mundus" refers to the land within it). Peter Martyr had been writing and circulating private letters commenting on Columbus's discoveries since 1493 and, from the start, doubted Columbus's claims to have reached East Asia
Asia
("the Indies"), and consequently came up with alternative names to refer to them. Only a few weeks after Columbus's return from his first voyage, Peter Martyr wrote letters referring to Columbus's discovered lands as the "western antipodes" ("antipodibus occiduis", letter of May 14, 1493), the "new hemisphere of the earth" ("novo terrarum hemisphaerio", September 13, 1493), and in a letter dated November 1, 1493, refers to Columbus as the "discoverer of the new globe" ("Colonus ille novi orbis repertor"). A year later (October 20, 1494), Peter Martyr again refers to the marvels of the New Globe ("Novo Orbe") and the "Western hemisphere."("ab occidente hemisphero").

Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
touched the continent of South America
South America
in his 1498 third voyage . In his own 1499 letter to the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain, reporting the results of his third voyage, Columbus relates how the massive waters of the Orinoco delta rushing into the Gulf of Paria implied that a previously unknown continent must lie behind it. However, bowing to the classical tripartite division of the world, Columbus discards that hypothesis and proposes instead that the South American landmass is not a "fourth" continent, but rather the terrestrial paradise of Biblical tradition, not a previously unknown "new" part of the world, but a land already "known" (but location undiscovered) by Christendom . In another letter (to the nurse of Prince John, written 1500), Columbus refers to having reached a "new heavens and world" ("nuevo cielo e mundo") and that he had placed "another world" ("otro mundo") under the dominion of the Kings of Spain.

ACCEPTANCE

The Vespucci passage above applied the "New World" label to merely the continental landmass of South America
South America
. At the time, most of the continent of North America
North America
was not yet discovered, and Vespucci's comments did not eliminate the possibility that the islands of the Antilles
Antilles
discovered earlier by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
might still be the eastern edges of Asia, as Columbus continued to insist down to his dying day. A critical step in the transition was the conference of navigators (Junta de Navegantes) assembled by the Spanish monarchs at Toro in 1505, and continued at Burgos
Burgos
in 1508, to digest all existing information about the Indies, come to an agreement on what had really been discovered, and set out the future goals of Spanish exploration. Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
attended both conferences, and seems to have had an outsized influence on them - Vespucci ended up being appointed the first piloto mayor, the chief of navigation of Spain, at Burgos. Although the proceedings of the Toro- Burgos
Burgos
conferences are missing, it is almost certain that Vespucci articulated his recent "New World" thesis to his fellow navigators there. It was during these conferences when Spanish officials seem to have finally accepted that the Antilles and the known stretch of Central America were definitely not the Indies they had originally sought, and Columbus had insisted they were, and set out the new goal for Spanish explorers: to find a sea passage or strait through the Americas which would permit them to sail to Asia
Asia
proper. In English usage the term "New World" was problematic and only accepted relatively late.

CARTOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATION

The World
World
Map by Diogo Ribeiro (1529) labels the Americas as MUNDUS NOVUS. It traces most of South America
South America
and the east coast of North America.

While it became generally accepted after Vespucci that Columbus's discoveries were not Asia
Asia
but a "New World", the geographic relationship between the two continents was still unclear. That there must be a large ocean between Asia
Asia
and the Americas was implied by the known existence of vast continuous sea along the coasts of East Asia
Asia
. Given the size of the Earth
Earth
as calculated by Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
this left a large space between Asia
Asia
and the newly discovered lands.

Even prior to Vespucci, several maps, e.g. the Cantino planisphere
Cantino planisphere
of 1502 and the Canerio map of 1504, placed a large open ocean between China on the east side of the map, and the inchoate largely water-surrounded North American and South American discoveries on the western side of map. However, out of uncertainty, they depicted a finger of the Asian land mass stretching across the top to the eastern edge of the map, suggesting it carried over into the western hemisphere (e.g. the Cantino Planisphere denotes Greenland
Greenland
as "Punta d'Asia" - "edge of Asia"). Some maps, e.g. the 1506 Contarini–Rosselli map and the 1508 Johannes Ruysch map, bowing to Ptolemaic authority and Columbus's assertions, have the northern Asian landmass stretching well into the western hemisphere and merging with known North America
North America
(Labrador, Newfoundland, etc.). These maps place the island of Japan near Cuba and leave the South American continent - Vespucci's "New World" proper - detached and floating below by itself. The Waldseemüller map
Waldseemüller map
of 1507, which accompanied the famous Cosmographiae Introductio volume (which includes reprints of Vespucci's letters) comes closest to modernity by placing a completely open sea (with no stretching land fingers) between Asia
Asia
on the eastern side and the New World
World
(being represented two times in the same map in a different way: with and without a sea passage in the middle of what is now named Central America) on the western side - which (on what is now named South America) that same map famously labels simply "America ". However, Martin Waldseemüller 's map of 1516 retreats considerably from his earlier map and back to classical authority, with the Asian land mass merging into North America
North America
(which he now calls Terra de Cuba Asie partis), and quietly drops the "America" label from South America, calling it merely Terra Icognita.

The western coast of the New World
World
- the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
- was only discovered in 1513 by Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
. But it would take a few more years - Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
's voyage of 1519-22 - to determine that the Pacific definitely formed a single large body of water separating Asia
Asia
from the Americas. It would be several more years before the Pacific Coast of North America
North America
was mapped, dispelling lingering doubts. Of course, until the discovery of the Bering Straits in the 17th century, there was no absolute confirmation that Asia
Asia
and North America
North America
were not connected, and some European maps of the 16th century still continued to hopefully depict North America
North America
connected by a land bridge to Asia
Asia
(e.g. the 1533 Johannes Schöner globe
Johannes Schöner globe
).

In 1524, the term was used by Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
in a record of his voyage that year along the Atlantic coast of North America
North America
, land that is now part of the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
.

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Atlas portal

* European colonization of the Americas * Settlement of the Americas * New World
World
Order

REFERENCES

* ^ A B M.H.Davidson (1997) Columbus Then and Now, a life re-examined. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, p.417) * ^ "Real Differences: New World
World
vs Old World
World
Wine - Wine Folly". 21 August 2012. * ^ This preliminary letter from Bezeguiche was not published, but remained in manuscript form. It is reproduced in F.A. de Varnhagen (1865: p.78-82). * ^ English translation of Mundus Novus as found in Markham (1894: p.42-52) * ^ Varnhagen, Amerígo Vespucci (1865: p.13-26) provides side-by-side reproductions of both the 1503 Latin
Latin
version Mundus Novus, and the 1507 Italian re-translation "El Nuovo Mondo de Lengue Spagnole interpretato in Idioma Ro. Libro Quinto" (from Paesi Nuovamente retrovati). The Latin
Latin
version of Mundus Novus was reprinted many times (see Varnhagen, 1865: p.9 for a list of early reprints). * ^ Cadamosto Navigationi, c. 1470, as reprinted in Giovanni Ramusio (1554: p.106). See also M. Zamora Reading Columbus, (1993: p.121) * ^ de Madariaga, Salvador (1952). Vida del muy magnífico señor Don Cristóbal Colón (in Spanish) (5th ed.). Mexico: Editorial Hermes. p. 363. "nuevo mundo", designación que Pedro Mártyr será el primero en usar * ^ J.Z. Smith, Relating Religion, Chicago (2004: p.268) * ^ E.G. Bourne Spain in America, 1450-580 New York: Harper (1904: p.30) * ^ Peter Martyr, Opus Epistolarum (Letter 130 p.72) * ^ Peter Martyr, Opus Epistolarum, Letter 133, p.73 * ^ Peter Martyr, Opus Epistolarum (Letter 138, p.76) * ^ Peter Martyr Opus Epistolarum, Letter 156 p.88 * ^ "if the river mentioned does not proceed from the terrestrial paradise, it comes from an immense tract of land situated in the south, of which no knowledge has been hitherto obtained" (Columbus 1499 letter on the third voyage, as reproduced in R.H. Major, Select Letters of Christopher Columbus, 1870: p.147) * ^ J.Z. Smith, Relating Religion, Chicago (2004: p.266-67) * ^ Columbus 1500 letter to the nurse (in Major, 1870: p.154) * ^ Columbus's 1500 letter to the nurse(Major, 1870: p.170) * ^ F.A. Ober Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
New York: Harper (1907: p.239; 244) * ^ S.E. Morison The European Discovery of America, v.2: The southern voyages, 1492-1616.(1974: p.265-66). * ^ For an account of Vespucci at Toro and Burgos, see Navarette Colección de los viages y descubrimientos que hicieron por mar los españoles desde fines del siglo XV(1829: v.iii, p.320-23) * ^ C.O. Sauer The Early Spanish Main. Cambridge (1966: P.166-67) * ^ Sobecki, Sebastian (2015). "New World
World
Discovery". Oxford Handbooks Online. doi :10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935338.001.0001 . Retrieved 2 June 2016. * ^ A B C D J.H. Parry, The Discovery of the Sea (1974: p.227) * ^ Verrazzano, Giovanni da (1524)."The Written Record of the Voyage of 1524 of Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
as recorded in a letter to Francis I, King of France, July 8th, 1524". Citing: Wroth, Lawrence C., ed. (1970). The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano, 1524-1528. Yale, pp. 133-143. Citing: a translation by Susan Tarrow of the Cellere Codex.

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa
Africa

Antarctica
Antarctica

Asia
Asia

Australia
Australia

Europe
Europe

North America
North America

South America
South America

Afro-Eurasia

Americas

Eurasia
Eurasia

Oceania
Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana * Laurasia
Laurasia
* Pangaea * Pannotia * Rodinia
Rodinia
* Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica
Arctica
* Asiamerica * Atlantica
Atlantica
* Avalonia * Baltica
Baltica
* Cimmeria * Congo craton
Congo craton
* Euramerica * Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia
Laurentia
* North China * Siberia
Siberia
* South China * East Antarctica
Antarctica
* India
India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau * Zealandia
Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis
Atlantis
* Kumari Kandam
Kumari Kandam
* Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea * Terra Australis
Terra Australis

* See also Regions of the world * Continental fragment

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb

* Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
* Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley
Nile Valley
* Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley
Great Rift Valley
* Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
* Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift
Albertine Rift
Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast
Pepper Coast
* Gold Coast * Slave Coast
Slave Coast
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld
Highveld
* Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
* Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands * Strait
Strait
of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula
Labrador Peninsula
* Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
* Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States
Mountain States
* Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton
Cotton
Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt
Sun Belt
* Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca
La Mixteca
* La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
* Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin
Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas * Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes * Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado
Cerrado

* Latin
Latin
* Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm
Khwarezm
* Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region
Volga region
* Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan * Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions
Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East

* Russian Far East * Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North
Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
* Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
* Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia * China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong
Guanzhong
* Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait
Strait
of Hormuz * Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
* Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
* Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip * West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah
Arabah
* Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India
India
* Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush * Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
* Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
* Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi
Sápmi
* West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
* Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia
European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states
Alpine states
* Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel * Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy
Italy
* Tuscan Archipelago * Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine
Sloboda Ukraine
* Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia
Volhynia
* Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin
Murray–Darling basin
* Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji * New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea * Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau
Palau

* Guam * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands

* French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
* Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau
Tokelau
* Tonga * Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
Antarctica
* West Antarctica
Antarctica
* Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories * Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut * Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi
Sápmi
* Yukon * North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
* Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea
Pechora Sea
* Queen Victoria Sea
Queen Victoria Sea
* Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
* Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
* English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
* Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
* Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea
Irish Sea
* Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
* Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete
Sea of Crete
* Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
* Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea * Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea
* Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea
Camotes Sea
* Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea
Chilean Sea
* Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea *