NEW SOUTH WALES (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of
Australia . It borders
Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south,
Australia to the west. It has a coast line with the Tasman
Sea on its east side. The
Australian Capital Territory is an enclave
within the state. New South Wales' state capital is
Sydney , which is
also Australia's most populous city. In March 2014 , the estimated
population of New South
Wales was 7.5 million, making it Australia's
most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population,
4.67 million, live in the Greater
Sydney area. Inhabitants of New
Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788.
It originally comprised more than half of the
Australian mainland with
its western boundary set at
129th meridian east
129th meridian east in 1825. The colony
also included the island territories of New Zealand , Van Diemen\'s
Lord Howe Island , and
Norfolk Island . During the 19th
century, most of the colony\'s area was detached to form separate
British colonies that eventually became New Zealand and the various
states and territories of
Australia . However, the Swan River Colony
has never been administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk
Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as
Australian Capital Territory and the
Jervis Bay Territory .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Aborigines (indigenous people)
* 1.2 1788 British settlement
* 1.3 Mid-19th century
* 1.4 1901 Federation of
* 1.5 Early 20th century
* 1.6 Post-war period
* 2 Government
* 2.1 Constitution
* 2.2 Parliament
* 2.3 Local government
* 2.4 Emergency services
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Population
* 4 Transport
* 4.1 Railways
* 4.2 Roads
* 4.3 Air
* 4.4 Ferries
* 5 Education
* 5.1 Primary and secondary
* 5.1.2 Higher
* 5.2 Tertiary
* 6 Geography and ecology
* 7 Climate
* 8 Economy
* 8.1 Agriculture
Riparian water rights
* 9 National parks
* 10 Sport
* 11 Culture
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 External links
History of New South Wales
ABORIGINES (INDIGENOUS PEOPLE)
Main article: Prehistory of
The prior inhabitants of New South
Wales were the Aboriginal tribes
who arrived in
Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before
European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people
in the region.
The Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra
region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language,
the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land which was
roughly surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown , Shoalhaven
Moss Vale .
Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the
northern coastal areas .
1788 BRITISH SETTLEMENT
The European discovery of New South
Wales was made by Captain James
Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the
Dutch-named continent of New Holland , now Australia. In his original
journal(s) covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty
Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after
However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording"
to "New South Wales".
The first British settlement was made by what is known in Australian
history as the
First Fleet ; this was led by Captain
Arthur Phillip ,
who assumed the role of governor of the settlement on arrival in 1788
After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor
William Bligh , a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel (later
Lachlan Macquarie , was sent from Britain to reform the
settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie
commissioned the construction of roads, wharves, churches and public
buildings, sent explorers out from
Sydney and employed a planner to
design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still
During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to
form the British colonies of
Tasmania (proclaimed as a separate colony
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land in 1825), South
Australia (1836), Victoria
Responsible government was granted to
the New South
Wales colony in 1855. Following the
Treaty of Waitangi ,
William Hobson declared
British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the
Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales to form
Colony of New Zealand .
Charles Darwin visited
Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of
the Beagle (chapter 19 of the 11th edition) records his hesitations
about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations
about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the
aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, and the future
prospects of the country.
1901 FEDERATION OF AUSTRALIA
At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation
between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and
forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis.
Proponents of New South
Wales as a free trade state were in dispute
with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist
economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders, even on
Murray River .
Travelling from NSW to Victoria in those days was very difficult.
Supporters of federation included the NSW premier Sir Henry Parkes
whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech (given in Tenterfield ) was pivotal in
gathering support for NSW involvement.
Edmund Barton , later to become
Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for
federation and a meeting held in
Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial
In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in
NSW, Victoria, South
Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a
majority in favour, but the NSW government under
Premier George Reid
(popularly known as "yes–no Reid" because of his constant changes of
opinion on the issue) had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote
than just a simple majority which was not met.
In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as
Queensland (but not Western Australia). All resulted in yes votes with
majorities increased from the previous year. NSW met the conditions
its government had set for a yes vote. As a compromise to the question
on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the
site was to be within NSW but not closer than 100 miles (161 km) from
Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. Eventually
the area that now forms the
Australian Capital Territory was ceded by
Canberra was selected.
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed during the
war fell with the resumption of international trade. Farmers became
increasingly discontented with the fixed prices paid by the compulsory
marketing authorities set up as a wartime measure by the Hughes
government. In 1919 the farmers formed the Country Party , led at
national level by
Earle Page , a doctor from Grafton , and at state
Michael Bruxner , a small farmer from Tenterfield.
Great Depression , which began in 1929, ushered in a period of
political and class conflict in New South Wales. The mass unemployment
and collapse of commodity prices brought ruin to both city workers and
to farmers. The beneficiary of the resultant discontent was not the
Communist Party , which remained small and weak, but Jack Lang 's
Labor populism. Lang's second government was elected in November 1930
on a policy of repudiating New South Wales' debt to British
bondholders and using the money instead to help the unemployed through
public works. This was denounced as illegal by conservatives, and also
James Scullin 's federal Labor government. The result was that
Lang's supporters in the federal Caucus brought down Scullin's
government, causing a second bitter split in the Labor Party. In May
1932 the Governor, Sir
Philip Game dismissed his government. The
subsequent election was won by the conservative opposition.
Japanese POW camp in Cowra, 1944, several weeks before the Cowra
By the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the differences between New
Wales and the other states that had emerged in the 19th century
had faded as a result of federation and economic development behind a
wall of protective tariffs. New South
Wales continued to outstrip
Victoria as the centre of industry, and increasingly of finance and
trade as well. Labor returned to office under the moderate leadership
William McKell in 1941 and remained in power for 24 years. World
War II saw another surge in industrial development to meet the needs
of a war economy, and also the elimination of unemployment.
Labor stayed in power until 1965. Towards the end of its term in
power it announced a plan for the construction of an opera/arts
facility on Bennelong Point . The design competition was won by Jørn
Utzon . Controversy over the cost of what would eventually become the
Sydney Opera House became a political issue and was a factor in the
eventual defeat of Labor in 1965 by the conservative Liberal Party led
Robert Askin . Sir Robert remains a controversial figure with
supporters claiming him to be reformist especially in terms of
reshaping the NSW economy. Others though, regard the Askin era as
synonymous with corruption with Askin the head of a network involving
NSW police and SP bookmaking (Goot). A short-lived South Maitland
Railway (SMR) Railcar travelling between Weston and Abermain , 1962.
The SMR is notable for being the second last system in
use steam haulage.
In the late 1960s a secessionist movement in the New England region
of the state led to a referendum on the issue. The new state would
have consisted of much of northern NSW including Newcastle . The
referendum was narrowly defeated and, as of 2010 , there are no active
or organised campaigns for new states in NSW.
Askin's resignation in 1975 was followed by a number of short lived
premierships by Liberal Party leaders. When a general election came in
1976 the ALP under
Neville Wran were returned to power. Wran was able
to transform this narrow one seat victory into landslide wins (known
as Wranslide) in 1978 and 1981.
After winning a comfortable though reduced majority in 1984, Wran
resigned as premier and left parliament. His replacement Barrie
Unsworth struggled to emerge from Wran's shadow and lost a 1988
election against a resurgent Liberal Party led by
Nick Greiner .
Unsworth was replaced as ALP leader by Bob Carr. Initially Greiner was
a popular leader instigating reform such as the creation of the
Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). Greiner called a
snap election in 1991 which the Liberals were expected to win. However
the ALP polled extremely well and the Liberals lost their majority and
needed the support of independents to retain power.
Greiner was accused (by ICAC) of corrupt actions involving an
allegation that a government position was offered to tempt an
independent (who had defected from the Liberals) to resign his seat so
that the Liberal party could regain it and shore up its numbers.
Greiner resigned but was later cleared of corruption. His replacement
as Liberal leader and
Premier was John Fahey whose government secured
Sydney the right to host the 2000 Summer Olympics. In the 1995
election, Fahey's government lost narrowly and the ALP under Bob Carr
returned to power. The
Sydney Opera House was completed in 1973
and has become a World Heritage Site.
Like Wran before him Carr was able to turn a narrow majority into
landslide wins at the next two elections (1999 and 2003). During this
era, NSW hosted the 2000
Sydney Olympics which were internationally
regarded as very successful, and helped boost Carr's popularity. Carr
surprised most people by resigning from office in 2005. He was
Morris Iemma , who remained
Premier after being re-elected
in the March 2007 state election , until he was replaced by Nathan
Rees in September 2008. Rees was subsequently replaced by Kristina
Keneally in December 2009. Keneally's government was defeated at the
2011 state election and Barry O\'Farrell became
Premier on 28 March.
On 17 April 2014 O'Farrell stood down as
Premier after misleading an
ICAC investigation concerning a gift of a bottle of wine. The Liberal
Party then elected Treasurer
Mike Baird as party leader and Premier.
Baird resigned as
Premier on 23 January 2017, and was replaced by
Gladys Berejiklian .
Government of New South Wales New South Wales
Executive authority is vested in the
Governor of New South Wales
Governor of New South Wales ,
who represents and is appointed by
Elizabeth II , Queen of
The current Governor is
David Hurley . The Governor commissions as
Premier the leader of the parliamentary political party that can
command a simple majority of votes in the Legislative Assembly. The
Premier then recommends the appointment of other Members of the two
Houses to the Ministry, under the principle of responsible or
Westminster government . It should be noted, however, that as in other
Westminster systems, there is no constitutional requirement in NSW for
the Government to be formed from the Parliament—merely convention.
Gladys Berejiklian of the Liberal Party .
The form of the
Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its
Constitution, dating from 1856 and currently the Constitution Act 1902
(NSW). Since 1901 New South
Wales has been a state of the
Commonwealth of Australia, and the Australian Constitution regulates
its relationship with the Commonwealth.
In 2006, the Constitution Amendment
Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No 6,
was enacted to amend the NSW Constitution Act 1902 to require Members
of the New South
Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge
of loyalty to
Australia and to the people of New South
of swearing allegiance to
Elizabeth II her heirs and successors, and
to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Pledge of
Loyalty Act was officially assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006.
Under the Australian Constitution, New South
Wales ceded certain
legislative and judicial powers to the Commonwealth, but retained
independence in all other areas. The New South
says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the
Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws
for the peace, welfare, and good government of New South
Wales in all
The first "responsible" self-government of New South
Wales was formed
on 6 June 1856 with Sir Stuart Alexander Donaldson appointed by
William Denison as its first Colonial Secretary which in
those days accounted also as the
Premier . The State Parliament is
composed of the Sovereign and two houses: the Legislative Assembly
(lower house), and the Legislative Council (upper house). Elections
are held every four years on the fourth Saturday of March, the most
recent being on 28 March 2015. At each election one member is elected
to the Legislative Assembly from each of 93 electoral districts and
half of the 42 members of the Legislative Council are elected by a
Wales is divided into 128 local government areas . There is
Unincorporated Far West Region which is not part of any local
government area, in the sparsely inhabited Far West , and Lord Howe
Island , which is also unincorporated but self-governed by the Lord
Howe Island Board.
Wales is policed by the New South
Wales Police Force , a
statutory authority. Established in 1862, the NSW Police Force
investigates Summary and Indictable offences throughout the State of
New South Wales. The state has two fire services: the volunteer based
Wales Rural Fire Service , which is responsible for the
majority of the state, and the
Fire and Rescue NSW , a government
agency responsible for protecting urban areas. There is some overlap
due to suburbanisation. Ambulance services are provided through the
Ambulance Service of New South
Wales . Rescue services (i.e. vertical,
road crash, confinement) are a joint effort by all emergency services,
with Ambulance Rescue, Police Rescue Squad and Fire Rescue Units
contributing. Volunteer rescue organisations include the Australian
Volunteer Coast Guard ,
State Emergency Service (SES), Surf Life
Saving New South
Volunteer Rescue Association (VRA).
See also: Demographics of
Sydney and Demographics of
The estimated resident population since 1981
The estimated population of New South
Wales at the end of December
2016 was 7,797,800 people.
The principal ancestries of New South Wales's residents (as surveyed
in 2011) are:
* 25.0% Australian
* 24.2% English
* 7.4% Irish
* 6.0% Scottish
* 4.3% Chinese
62.9% of NSW's population is based in Sydney. The Sydney
central business district is Australia's largest financial centre.
A portion of the eastern end of the Newcastle foreshore Wollongong
Tweed Heads Twin Towns on the state border of New South
Population by Statistical Area Level 4 and 3
STATISTICAL AREA LEVEL 4 AND 3
POPULATION 30 JUNE 2014
10 YEAR GROWTH RATE
POPULATION DENSITY (PEOPLE/KM2)
Newcastle and Lake Macquarie
Hunter Valley excluding Newcastle
Mid North Coast
New England and North West
Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven
Far West and Orana
New South Wales
Population by Significant Urban Area
SIGNIFICANT URBAN AREA
POPULATION 30 JUNE 2014
10 YEAR GROWTH RATE
Newcastle - Maitland
Nowra - Bomaderry
Nelson Bay - Corlette
Morisset - Cooranbong
Forster - Tuncurry
Kurri Kurri - Weston
St Georges Basin - Sanctuary Point
New South Wales
Main article: Transport in New South
Wales New South
Passage through New South
Wales is vital for cross-continent
transport. Rail and road traffic from
Brisbane (Queensland) to Perth
(Western Australia), or to
Melbourne (Victoria) must pass through New
The majority of railways in New South
Wales are currently operated by
the state government. Some lines began as branch-lines of railways
starting in other states. For instance, Balranald near the Victorian
border was connected by a rail line coming up from Victoria and into
New South Wales. Another line beginning in
Adelaide crossed over the
border and stopped at Broken Hill.
Railways management are conducted by
Sydney Trains and
which maintain rolling stock.
Sydney Trains operates trains within
NSW TrainLink operates outside Sydney, intercity, country
and interstate services.
Pacific Motorway (Sydney–Newcastle)
Pacific Motorway (Sydney–Newcastle) north of the Hawkesbury
Major roads are the concern of both federal and state governments.
The latter maintains these through the Department of Roads and
Maritime Services , formerly the
Roads and Traffic Authority , and
before that, the Department of Main Roads (DMR).
The main roads in New South
Hume Highway linking
Melbourne , Victoria;
Princes Highway linking
Melbourne via the Tasman Sea
* Pacific Highway linking
Queensland via the
New England Highway running from the Pacific Highway, at Newcastle
Brisbane by an inland route;
* Federal Highway running from the
Hume Highway south of
Canberra , Australian Capital Territory;
Sturt Highway running from the
Hume Highway near Gundagai to
Adelaide , South Australia;
Newell Highway linking rural Victoria with Queensland, passing
through the centre of New South Wales;
Great Western Highway
Great Western Highway linking
Sydney with Bathurst . As Route 32
it continues west as the
Mitchell Highway then as the Barrier Highway
Broken Hill .
Other roads are usually the concern of the RTA and/or the local
government authority .
Qantas A380 taking off at
Kingsford Smith Airport (commonly
Sydney Airport, and locally
referred to as Mascot Airport or just 'Mascot'), located in the
Sydney suburb of Mascot is the major airport for not just the
state but the whole nation. It is a hub for Australia's national
Other airlines serving regional New South
* Regional Express (also known as Rex);
Australia (formerly known as Virgin Blue Airlines).
The state government through
Sydney Ferries operates ferries within
Sydney Harbour and the
Parramatta River . It also has a ferry service
within Newcastle. All other ferry services are privately operated.
Spirit of Tasmania ran a commercial ferry service between
Devonport, Tasmania . This service was terminated in 2006.
Private boat services operated between South Australia, Victoria and
Wales along the Murray and Darling Rivers but these only
exist now as the occasional tourist paddle-wheeler service.
Sydney Grammar School , established in 1854, is the oldest
secondary school still in use in
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY
The NSW school system comprises a kindergarten to year 12 system with
primary schooling up to year 6 and secondary schooling between years 7
and 12. Schooling is compulsory until age 17.
Primary and secondary schools include government and non-government
schools. Government schools are further classified as comprehensive
and selective schools . Non-government schools include Catholic
schools, other denominational schools, and non-denominational
Typically, a primary school provides education from kindergarten
level to year 6. A secondary school, usually called a "high school",
provides education from years 7 to 12. Secondary colleges are
secondary schools which only cater for years 11 and 12.
The government classifies the 13 years of primary and secondary
schooling into six stages, beginning with early stage 1 (Kindergarten)
and ending with stage 6 (years 11 and 12).
School Certificate was awarded by the
Board of Studies
Board of Studies to
students at the end of Year 10. The
Board of Studies
Board of Studies administered five
external tests in English-literacy, Mathematics, Science, Australian
History, Geography, Civics and Citizenship. The tests were designed to
grade a student on their ability. The results of this test were
categorised into bands 1 through to 6 with band 1 as the lowest and
band 6 as the highest.
Adrian Piccoli , the NSW Education Minister
School Certificate tests would not continue after 2011.
Higher School Certificate
Main article: Higher
School Certificate (New South Wales)
School Certificate (HSC) is the usual Year 12 leaving
certificate in NSW. Most students complete the HSC prior to entering
the workforce or going on to study at university or
TAFE (although the
HSC itself can be completed at TAFE). The HSC must be completed for a
student to get an
Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (formerly
Universities Admission Index ), which determines the student's rank
against fellow students who completed the Higher School Certificate.
The University of
Sydney , established in 1850, is the oldest
Eleven universities primarily operate in New South Wales.
home to Australia's first university, the University of
in 1850. Other universities include the University of New South Wales
Macquarie University , the University of Technology,
Sydney University . The
Australian Catholic University has two
of its six campuses in Sydney, and the private University of Notre
Australia also operates a secondary campus in the city.
Outside Sydney, the leading universities are the University of
Newcastle and the University of
Armidale is home to the
University of New England , and
Charles Sturt University
Charles Sturt University and Southern
Cross University have campuses spread across cities in the state's
south-west and north coast respectively.
The public universities are state government agencies, however they
are largely regulated by the federal government, which also
administers their public funding. Admission to NSW universities is
arranged together with universities in the Australian Capital
Territory by another government agency, the Universities Admission
Primarily vocational training is provided up the level of advanced
diplomas is provided by the state government's ten Technical and
Further Education (TAFE) institutes. These institutes run courses in
more than130 campuses throughout the state.
GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY
Main article: Geography of New South
Wales is bordered on the north by Queensland, on the west
by South Australia, on the south by Victoria and on the east by the
Tasman Sea . The
Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay
Territory form a separately administered entity that is bordered
entirely by New South Wales. The state can be divided geographically
into four areas. New South Wales' three largest cities, Sydney,
Newcastle and Wollongong, lie near the centre of a narrow coastal
strip extending from cool temperate areas on the far south coast to
subtropical areas near the
Illawarra region is centred on the city of Wollongong, with the
Eurobodalla and the
Sapphire Coast to the south. The
Central Coast lies between
Sydney and Newcastle, with the Mid North
Northern Rivers regions reaching northwards to the
Queensland border. Tourism is important to the economies of coastal
towns such as
Coffs Harbour , Lismore , Nowra and
Port Macquarie , but
the region also produces seafood, beef, dairy, fruit, sugar cane and
timber. Byron Bay beach in northern New South
Great Dividing Range extends from Victoria in the south through
Wales to Queensland, parallel to the narrow coastal plain.
This area includes the
Snowy Mountains , the Northern , Central and
Southern Tablelands , the Southern Highlands and the South West Slopes
. Whilst not particularly steep, many peaks of the range rise above
1,000 metres (3,281 ft), with the highest
Mount Kosciuszko at 2,229 m
(7,313 ft). Skiing in
Australia began in this region at
1861. The relatively short ski season underwrites the tourist industry
Snowy Mountains . Agriculture, particularly the wool industry,
is important throughout the highlands. Major centres include Armidale
, Bathurst ,
Goulburn , Inverell , Orange ,
There are numerous forests in New South Wales, with such tree species
as Red Gum
Eucalyptus and Crow Ash (
Flindersia australis ), being
represented. Forest floors have a diverse set of understory shrubs
and fungi. One of the widespread fungi is Witch\'s Butter (Tremella
The western slopes and plains fill a significant portion of the
state's area and have a much sparser population than areas nearer the
coast. Agriculture is central to the economy of the western slopes,
Riverina region and
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in
the state's south-west. Regional cities such as
Wagga Wagga and towns such as Deniliquin , Leeton and
Parkes exist primarily to service these agricultural regions. The
western slopes descend slowly to the western plains that comprise
almost two-thirds of the state and are largely arid or semi-arid. The
mining town of
Broken Hill is the largest centre in this area.
One possible definition of the centre for New South
Wales is located
33 kilometres (21 mi) west-north-west of Tottenham .
Köppen climate types in New South
The major part of New South Wales, west of the
Great Dividing Range ,
has an arid to semi arid climate. Rainfall averages from 150
millimetres (5.9 in) to 500 millimetres (20 in) a year throughout most
of this region. Summer temperatures can be very hot, while winter
nights can be quite cold in this region. Rainfall varies throughout
the state. The far north-west receives the least, less than 180 mm (7
in) annually, while the east receives between 700 to 1,400 mm (28 to
55 in) of rain.
The climate along the flat, coastal plain east of the range varies
from oceanic in the south to humid subtropical in the northern half of
the state, right above
Wollongong . Rainfall is highest in this area;
however, it still varies from around 800 millimetres (31 in) to as
high as 3,000 millimetres (120 in) in the wettest areas, for example
Dorrigo . Along the southern coast, rainfall is heaviest in winter due
to cold fronts which move across southern
Australia . While in the far
north, around Lismore , rain is heaviest in summer from tropical
systems and occasionally even cyclones .
The climate in the southern half of the state is generally warm to
hot in summer and cool in the winter. The seasons are more defined in
the southern half of the state, especially as one moves inland towards
South West Slopes , Central West and the
Riverina region. The climate
in the northeast region of the state, or the North Coast , bordering
Queensland , is hot and humid in the summer and mild in winter. The
Northern Tablelands , which are also on the north coast, have
relatively mild summers and cold winters, due to their high elevation
Great Dividing Range .
Peaks along the
Great Dividing Range vary from 500 metres (1,640 ft)
to over 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) above sea level. Temperatures can be
cool to cold in winter with frequent frosts and snowfall , and are
rarely hot in summer due to the elevation.
Lithgow has a climate
typical of the range, as do the regional cities of Orange ,
Armidale . Such places fall within the subtropical highland
(Cwb) variety. Rainfall is moderate in this area, ranging from 600 to
800 mm (24 to 31 in).
Snowfall is common in the higher parts of the range, sometimes
occurring as far north as the
Queensland border. On the highest peaks
Snowy Mountains , the climate can be subpolar oceanic and even
alpine on the higher peaks with very cold temperatures and heavy snow.
The Blue Mountains ,
Southern Tablelands and
Central Tablelands ,
which are situated on the Great Dividing Range, have mild to warm
summers and cold winters, although not as severe as those in the Snowy
The highest maximum temperature recorded was 49.7 °C (121 °F) at
Menindee in the west of the state on 10 January 1939. The lowest
minimum temperature was −23 °C (−9 °F) at Charlotte Pass in the
Snowy Mountains on 29 June 1994. This is also the lowest temperature
recorded in the whole of
Australia excluding the Antarctic Territory.
CLIMATE DATA FOR NEW SOUTH WALES
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology
Main article: Economy of New South
Bridge is an important tourist attraction for New South Wales.
Port Kembla is notable for its steelworks industry, with many ships
utilising the port.
Since the 1970s, New South
Wales has undergone an increasingly rapid
economic and social transformation. Old industries such as steel and
shipbuilding have largely disappeared; although agriculture remains
important, its share of the state's income is smaller than ever
New industries such as information technology and financial services
are largely centred in
Sydney and have risen to take their place, with
many companies having their Australian headquarters in
Sydney CBD . In
Macquarie Park area of
Sydney has attracted the
Australian headquarters of many information technology firms.
Coal and related products are the state's biggest export. Its value
to the state's economy is over A$5 billion, accounting for about 19%
of all exports from NSW.
Tourism has also become important, with
Sydney as its centre, also
stimulating growth on the North Coast, around
Coffs Harbour and Byron
Bay. Tourism is worth over $25.1 billion to the New South Wales
economy and employs 7.1% of the workforce. In 2007, then-
Morris Iemma established Events New South
Sydney and NSW as a leading global events destination". In
July 2011 Events NSW merged with three key state authorities including
Tourism NSW to establish
Destination NSW (DNSW).
Wales had a Gross State Product in 2010–11 (equivalent to
Gross Domestic Product) of $419.9 billion which equalled $57,828 per
On 9 October 2007 NSW announced plans to build a 1,000 MW bank of
wind powered turbines. The output of these is anticipated to be able
to power up to 400,000 homes. The cost of this project will be $1.8
billion for 500 turbines. On 28 August 2008 the New South Wales
cabinet voted to privatise electricity retail , causing 1,500
electrical workers to strike after a large anti-privatisation
The NSW business community is represented by the NSW Business Chamber
which has 30,000 members.
See also: Agriculture in
Australia Aerial view of mixed crops
Agriculture is spread throughout the eastern two-thirds of New South
Wales. Cattle, sheep and pigs are the predominant types of livestock
produced in NSW and they have been present since their importation
during the earliest days of European settlement. Economically the
state is the most important state in Australia, with about one-third
of the country's sheep, one-fifth of its cattle, and one-third of its
small number of pigs. New South
Wales produces a large share of
Australia's hay, fruit, legumes , lucerne , maize, nuts, wool, wheat,
oats, oilseeds (about 51%), poultry, rice (about 99%), vegetables,
fishing including oyster farming, and forestry including wood chips.
Bananas and sugar are grown chiefly in the Clarence, Richmond and
Tweed River areas.
Wools are produced on the
Northern Tablelands as well as prime lambs
and beef cattle. The cotton industry is centred in the Namoi Valley in
northwestern New South Wales. On the central slopes there are many
orchards, with the principal fruits grown being apples, cherries and
About 40,200 hectares of vineyards lie across the eastern region of
the state, with excellent wines produced in the Hunter Valley , with
Riverina being the largest wine producer in New South Wales.
Australia’s largest and most valuable
Thoroughbred horse breeding
area is centred on Scone in the Hunter Valley. The Hunter Valley is
the home of the world-famous Coolmore , Darley and Kia-Ora
Thoroughbred horse studs.
About half of Australia's timber production is in New South Wales.
Large areas of the state are now being replanted with eucalyptus
forests. The Hunter Valley is known for its vineyards and
Riparian Water Rights
Under the Water Management Act 2000, updated riparian water rights
were given to those within NSW with livestock . This change was named
"The Domestic Stock Right" which gives "an owner or occupier of a
landholding is entitled to take water from a river, estuary or lake
which fronts their land or from an aquifer which is underlying their
land for domestic consumption and stock watering without the need for
an access licence."
See also: Protected areas of New South
Wales has more than 780 national parks and reserves
covering more than 8% of the state. These parks range from
rainforests, waterfalls, rugged bush to marine wonderlands and outback
deserts, including World Heritage sites.
Royal National Park on the southern outskirts of
Australia's first National Park when proclaimed on 26 April 1879.
Originally named The National Park until 1955, this park was the
second National Park to be established in the world after Yellowstone
National Park in the U.S.
Kosciuszko National Park
Kosciuszko National Park is the largest park
in state encompassing New South Wales' alpine region.
The National Parks Association was formed in 1957 to create a system
of national parks all over New South
Wales which led to the formation
of the National Parks and Wildlife Service in 1967. This government
agency is responsible for developing and maintaining the parks and
reserve system, and conserving natural and cultural heritage, in the
state of New South Wales. These parks preserve special habitats,
plants and wildlife, such as the
Wollemi National Park where the
Wollemi Pine grows and areas sacred to Australian Aboriginals such as
Mutawintji National Park in western New South Wales.
Main article: Sport in New South
Wales ANZ Stadium,
home of the NRL Grand Final
Throughout Australian history, NSW sporting teams have been very
successful in both winning domestic competitions and providing players
to the Australian national teams.
The largest sporting competition in the state is the National Rugby
League , which expanded from the New South
Wales Rugby League and
Australian Rugby Leagues whose headquarters are in Sydney. The state
is represented by The \'Blues\' in the traditional State of Origin
Sydney is the spiritual home of Australian rugby league and
to 9 of the 16 NRL teams: (
Sydney Roosters , South
Sydney Rabbitohs ,
Parramatta Eels ,
Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks ,
Wests Tigers , Penrith
Canterbury Bulldogs and
Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles
Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles ), as
well as being the northern home of the St George
Illawarra Dragons ,
which is half-based in
Wollongong . A tenth team, the Newcastle
Knights is located in Newcastle . The
City vs Country Origin match is
also taken to various regional cities around the state. The
Bathurst 1000 , held at
Mount Panorama Circuit
Mount Panorama Circuit in Bathurst
The state is represented by four teams in soccer 's
A-League : Sydney
FC (the inaugural champions in 2005–06), the Western Sydney
Wanderers , the Central Coast Mariners , based at
Gosford and the
Newcastle United Jets (2007–08 A League Champions). Australian rules
football has historically not been strong in New South
Riverina region. However, the
Sydney Swans relocated from South
Melbourne in 1982 and their presence and success since the late 1990s
has raised the profile of
Australian rules football , especially after
their AFL premiership in 2005. A second NSW AFL club, the Greater
Sydney Giants , entered the competition in 2012. Other teams
in national competitions include basketball's
Sydney Kings , Sydney
Uni Flames, rugby union's
NSW Waratahs and netball's
Sydney Swifts .
Cricket Ground at the 4th
Australia vs India test, 2004
Sydney was the host of the
2000 Summer Olympics and the 1938 British
Empire Games . The Olympic Stadium, now known as
ANZ Stadium is the
scene of the annual NRL Grand Final. It also regularly hosts State of
Origin matches and rugby union internationals, and hosted the final of
2003 Rugby World Cup and the football World Cup qualifier between
Australia and Uruguay .
The main summer sport is cricket and the SCG hosts the 'New Year'
cricket Test match from 2–6 January each year, and is also one of
the sites for the finals of the
One Day International series. The NSW
Blues play in the
Ford Ranger Cup and
Sheffield Shield cricket
competitions. The annual
Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race begins in Sydney
Harbour on Boxing Day. The climax of Australia's touring car racing
series is the
Bathurst 1000 , held near the city of Bathurst .
The popular equine sports of campdrafting and polocrosse were
developed in New South
Wales and competitions are now held across
Polocrosse is now played in many overseas countries.
Major professional teams include:
Australian rules football :
Sydney Swans , Greater Western Sydney
Sydney Kings ,
Cricket : New South
Wales Blues ,
Sydney Sixers ,
Netball : New South
* Baseball :
Sydney Blue Sox
Rugby league :
* Representative: New South
Sydney Roosters , South
Sydney Rabbitohs ,
Wests Tigers ,
Illawarra Dragons ,
Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs ,
Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles
Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles ,
Parramatta Eels ,
Penrith Panthers ,
Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks ,
Rugby union : New South
* Soccer :
Sydney FC , Western
Sydney Wanderers , Newcastle Jets ,
Central Coast Mariners
The Big Golden Guitar in Tamworth represents the city's country
As Australia's most populous state, New South
Wales is home to a
number of cultural institutions of importance to the nation. In music,
Wales is home to the
Sydney Symphony Orchestra , Australia's
busiest and largest orchestra. Australia's largest opera company,
Australia , is headquartered in Sydney. Both of these
organisations perform a subscription series at the
Sydney Opera House.
Other major musical bodies include the
Australian Chamber Orchestra .
Sydney is host to the
Australian Ballet for its
Sydney season (the
ballet is headquartered in Melbourne). Apart from the
House , major musical performance venues include the City Recital Hall
Sydney Town Hall .
Wales is home to several major museums and art galleries,
Australian Museum , the
Powerhouse Museum , the Museum
Sydney , the Art Gallery of New South
Wales and the Museum of
Contemporary Art . Indigenous art display at the Art Gallery of
Sydney is home to five Arts teaching organisations, which have all
produced world-famous students: The National Art School, The College
of Fine Arts, the
National Institute of Dramatic Art (NIDA) , the
Australian Film, Television border:solid #aaa 1px">
* Geography portal
* Oceania portal
* Commonwealth realms portal
* New South
Australia – book
* Outline of
Index of Australia-related articles
* Geology of New South
NSW Volunteer of the Year
* Postage stamps and postal history of New South
Selection (Australian history)
* Territorial evolution of
* ^ A B "The origin of the term \'cockroach\'". Australian
Broadcasting Corporation . 13 June 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
* ^ A B Jopson, Debra (23 May 2012). "Origin of the species: what a
state we\'re in". The
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Geographical Names Board of New South
Wales . Retrieved 9 December
* ^ "NSW State Flag & Emblems". NSW Government . Archived from the
original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
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June 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
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Wales". ABS. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
* ^ "Aboriginal settlement". About NSW. Archived from the original
on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
* ^ A B History of Aboriginal People of the
Illawarra 1770 to 1970.
Department of Environment and Conservation, NSW. 2005. p. 8.
* ^ See Captain W. J. L. Wharton's preface to his 1893
transcription of Cook's journal. Available online in the University of
Adelaide Library's Electronic Texts Collection.
* ^ Phillip, Arthur (1789). "The Voyage of Governor Phillip to
Project Gutenberg . With an Account of the Establishment
of the Colonies of
Port Jackson and
* ^ Fletcher, B. H. (1967). "Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814)".
Australian Dictionary of Biography .
Melbourne University Press . pp.
* ^ McLachlan, N. D. (1967). "Macquarie, Lachlan (1762–1824)".
Australian Dictionary of Biography .
Melbourne University Press . pp.
* ^ Benson, Simon; Hildebrand, Joe (5 September 2008). "Nathan Rees
new NSW premier after
Morris Iemma quits". Courier Mail . Retrieved 13
* ^ A B "Keneally sworn in as state\'s first female premier".
Herald Sun. Australia. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
* ^ "Constitution Act 1902". NSW Government. Retrieved 30 December
* ^ Constitution Act 1902 (NSW), section 5.
* ^ Government Gazette June 1856
* ^ – Australian Demographic Statistics, December 2016.
* ^ 2011 Census QuickStats: New South Wales. Censusdata.abs.gov.au.
Retrieved on 16 July 2013.
* ^ 1338.1 – New South
Wales in Focus, 2007.
* ^ A B "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia,
2013–14". Australian Bureau of Statistics.
* ^ "Transport for New South Wales". Transport for New South Wales.
Retrieved 10 July 2013.
* ^ NSW Rural and Regional Air Transport Operators Archived 11
August 2011 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Jetstar;
* ^ Rex;
* ^ "Virgin Australia". Virgin Australia. Retrieved 28 October
* ^ "Stockton Ferry". Newcastlebuses.info. 26 August 2011.
Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ "List of Ferry Services". Transportnsw.info.
* ^ "
Spirit of Tasmania –
Spiritoftasmania.com.au. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
* ^ Echuca Paddlesteamer Archived 18 April 2012 at the Wayback
* ^ Education Act 1990 (NSW), Section 22.
* ^ Introduction to the
School Certificate – Board of Studies
* ^ Announcement on
School Certificate Archived 18 March 2012 at
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Joseph Henry Maiden. 1908. The Forest Flora of New South Wales,
v. 3, Australian Government Printing Office.
* ^ C. Michael Hogan, Witch\'s Butter: Tremella mesenterica,
GlobalTwitcher.com, ed; N. Stromberg.
* ^ Australian Encyclopaedia, Vol. 7, Grolier Society.
* ^ "Geoscience
Australia — Center of Australia, States and
Territories". Archived from the original on 22 August 2008.
* ^ A B C "Stormy Weather" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved
16 May 2014.
* ^ "Rainfall and Temperature Records: National" (PDF). Bureau of
Meteorology . Retrieved 14 November 2009.
* ^ "Official records for
Australia in January". Daily Extremes.
Bureau of Meteorology. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
Archived 15 June 2009 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Economic Contribution of Tourism to NSW 2012-13 - Destination
NSW. NSW Tourism Satellite Accounts, August 2007, cited at: Tourism
Wales and there retrieved 2 May 2011
* ^ "About Us". Destination NSW. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 17 July
* ^ "Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2010–11".
Australian Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 16 February 2012.
Australia to get 1,000 megawatt wind farm.
* ^ Susan Price (30 August 2008). "NSW power workers strike against
privatisation". greenleft.org.au. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
* ^ Agricultural Production Retrieved on 7 March 2009.
* ^ Agriculture – Overview – Australia.
* ^ "From paddock to plate". Tourism New South Wales. New South
Wales Government. 1 July 2003. Archived from the original on 3
February 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
* ^ SMH Travel – Scone. Retrieved on 7 March 2009.
* ^ http://www.coolmore.com/stallions/australia/ Archived 2
February 2007 at the
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* ^ "Domestic and stock rights". NSW Department of Primary
Indistries, Office of Water. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
* ^ 2008 Guide to National Parks, p. 59, NSW NPWS.
* ^ Welcome to NSW National Parks. Office of Environment and
Heritage, retrieved 2 May 2011
* ^ "Chisholm, Alec H.". The Australian Encyclopaedia. 6. Sydney:
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* ^ "Who We Are". National Parks Association of NSW. Archived from
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* ^ Frater, Patrick (30 September 2013). "Angelina Jolie\'s
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