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New Mexico
Mexico
(Spanish: Nuevo México pronounced [ˈnweβo ˈmexiko], Navajo: Yootó Hahoodzo pronounced [jòːtxó xɑ̀xʷòːtsò]) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America. With a population of approximately two million, New Mexico
Mexico
is the 36th most populous state. With a total area of 121,590 sq mi (314,900 km2), it is the fifth largest and fifth least densely populated of the fifty states. It is one of the Mountain States
Mountain States
and shares the Four Corners
Four Corners
region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Its capital and cultural center is Santa Fe, while its largest city is Albuquerque. Due to its geographic location, Northern and Eastern New Mexico
Eastern New Mexico
exhibits a colder, alpine climate while Western and Southern New Mexico
Mexico
exhibits a warmer, arid climate. The economy of New Mexico
Mexico
is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, and retail trade. As of 2016-17, its total gross domestic product (GDP) was $95 billion with a GDP per capital of $45,465. A tax haven, New Mexico
Mexico
collects low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel,[7] and gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries. Because of this, its film industry has grown and contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy. Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico
Mexico
has a large U.S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U.S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico
Mexico
such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. Its history has given New Mexico
Mexico
the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, and the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion (after Alaska).[8] Three federally-protected Native American tribes–the Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache
Apache
peoples–inhabit New Mexico; historically the Ancestral Puebloans, Mogollon, and the modern extant Comanche
Comanche
inhabited the state. The largest Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico
Hispanos of New Mexico
(of Iberian, Mediterranean, or Mestizo descent), Chicanos, and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico emphatically features the state’s Spanish and Native American origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe.[9] Inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Contrary to popular belief,[10][11][12][13] the present-day state of New Mexico
Mexico
is not part of,[14] nor is it even named for,[15][16] the present-day nation of Mexico. In fact, New Mexico
Mexico
was so named as early as 1561,[17] whereas the country of Mexico
Mexico
did not receive that name until 1821.[18] It was named Nuevo México after the Aztec
Aztec
Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, 223 years before the establishment of the present-day country of Mexico. Being on the periphery of two empires—Spanish and Comancheria—made settlement and effective political control difficult, even when it became part of Mexico
Mexico
after 1821. New Mexico's longstanding economic ties to the Comanche
Comanche
made integration with Mexico
Mexico
difficult, which helped spark the Revolt of 1837 and a growing economic association with the expanding United States. The 1848 Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
indirectly capitalized on this tension and created the U.S. New Mexico
Mexico
Territory. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. During the 1940s, Project Y
Project Y
of the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
developed and built the world's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity, in northern and central New Mexico, respectively.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Adjacent states 2.2 Climate 2.3 Flora and fauna

3 History

3.1 1848 cession of land 3.2 20th century to present

4 Demography

4.1 Population 4.2 Birth data 4.3 Settlements 4.4 Ancestry 4.5 Languages

4.5.1 Official language

4.6 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Economic indicators 5.2 Oil and gas production 5.3 Federal government 5.4 Economic incentives 5.5 State taxes

6 Transportation

6.1 Road 6.2 Urban mass transit 6.3 Rail

6.3.1 Freight 6.3.2 Passenger

6.4 Aerospace

7 Government and politics

7.1 Government 7.2 Politics

8 Education

8.1 Primary and secondary education 8.2 Colleges and universities

8.2.1 Major state universities

9 Culture

9.1 Art and literature 9.2 Sports

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

13.1 State Government 13.2 US Government 13.3 Tourism

Etymology[edit] New Mexico
Mexico
received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico
Mexico
won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Spanish explorers recorded this region as New Mexico
Mexico
(Nuevo México in Spanish) in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
"San Felipe del Nuevo México."[19] The Spaniards hoped to find wealthy Mexican Indian cultures there similar to those of the Aztec
Aztec
(Mexica) Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, however, proved to be unrelated to the Aztecs and were not wealthy.[20][21] Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.S. Territory, to a Mexican state, and to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area but of varying extensions.[22] Geography[edit] Further information: List of counties in New Mexico See also: Delaware
Delaware
Basin

Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range

Chaco Canyon

Carlsbad Caverns

White Sands National Monument

Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Gorge

Shiprock

At total area 121,699 square miles (315,200 km2),[23] the state is fifth largest state of the US and slightly larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and (due to a 19th-century surveying error[24]) 2.2 miles (3.5 km) west of 103° W longitude with Texas.[25] On the southern border, Texas
Texas
makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora
Sonora
make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that. The western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03' W longitude.[23] The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel. The 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah
Utah
come together at the Four Corners
Four Corners
in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico, although a large state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles (650 km2). The New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexico's arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, especially towards the north. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexico's rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, and Gila. The Rio Grande
Rio Grande
is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States.[26] The U.S. government protects millions of acres of New Mexico
Mexico
as national forests, including:[27]

Carson National Forest Cibola National Forest
Cibola National Forest
(headquartered in Albuquerque) Lincoln National Forest Santa Fe National Forest
Santa Fe National Forest
(headquartered in Santa Fe) Gila National Forest Gila Wilderness

Areas managed by the National Park Service
National Park Service
include:[28]

Aztec Ruins National Monument
Aztec Ruins National Monument
at Aztec Bandelier National Monument
Bandelier National Monument
in Los Alamos Capulin Volcano National Monument
Capulin Volcano National Monument
near Capulin Carlsbad Caverns
Carlsbad Caverns
National Park near Carlsbad Chaco Culture National Historical Park
Chaco Culture National Historical Park
at Nageezi El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
National Historic Trail El Malpais National Monument
El Malpais National Monument
in Grants El Morro National Monument
El Morro National Monument
in Ramah Fort Union National Monument
Fort Union National Monument
at Watrous Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument
near Silver City Old Spanish National Historic Trail Pecos National Historical Park
Pecos National Historical Park
in Pecos Petroglyph National Monument
Petroglyph National Monument
near Albuquerque Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument
at Mountainair Santa Fe National Historic Trail White Sands National Monument
White Sands National Monument
near Alamogordo Rio Grande
Rio Grande
del Norte National Monument near Taos Valles Caldera National Preserve

Visitors also frequent the surviving native pueblos of New Mexico. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state. Other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness
Gila Wilderness
in the southwest of the state. Adjacent states[edit]

Colorado
Colorado
(north) Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(northeast) Utah
Utah
(northwest) Chihuahua, Mexico
Mexico
(south) Sonora, Mexico
Mexico
(soutwest) Texas
Texas
(east and south) Arizona
Arizona
(west)

Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types of New Mexico

The climate of New Mexico
Mexico
is generally semiarid to arid, though areas of continental and alpine climates exist, and its territory is mostly covered by mountains, high plains, and desert. The Great Plains
Great Plains
(High Plains) are in Eastern New Mexico, similar to the Colorado
Colorado
high plains in eastern Colorado. The two states share similar terrain, with both having plains, mountains, basins, mesas, and desert lands. New Mexico's average precipitation rate is 13.9 inches (350 mm) a year. The average annual temperatures can range from 64 °F (18 °C) in the southeast to below 40 °F (4 °C) in the northern mountains.[23] During the summer, daytime temperatures can often exceed 100 °F (38 °C) at elevations below 5,000 feet (1,500 m), the average high temperature in July ranges from 97 °F (36 °C) at the lower elevations down to 78 °F (26 °C) at the higher elevations. Many cities in New Mexico
Mexico
can have temperature lows in the teens. The highest temperature recorded in New Mexico
Mexico
was 122 °F (50 °C) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Loving on June 27, 1994, and the lowest recorded temperature is −50 °F (−46 °C) at Gavilan on February 1, 1951.[29] Astronomical observatories in New Mexico
Mexico
take advantage of unusually clear skies, including the Apache
Apache
Point Observatory, the Very Large Array, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory, and others.[30][31] Flora and fauna[edit]

Greater roadrunner
Greater roadrunner
(the state bird of NM)

New Mexico
Mexico
contains extensive habitat for many plants and animals, especially in desert areas and piñon-juniper woodlands. Creosote bush, mesquite, cacti, yucca, and desert grasses, including black grama, purple three-awn, tobosa, and burrograss, cover the broad, semiarid plains of the southern portion of the state. The northern portion of the state is home to many tree species such as ponderosa pine, aspen, cottonwood, spruce, fir, and Russian olive, which is an invasive species. Native birds include the greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus, the state bird of New Mexico)[32] and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).[33] Other fauna present in New Mexico include black bears, cougars, jaguars, coyotes, porcupines, skunks, Mexican gray wolves, deer, elk, Plains bison, collared peccary, bighorn sheep, squirrels, chipmunks, pronghorns, western diamondbacks, kangaroo rats, jackrabbits, and a multitude of other birds, reptiles, and rodents. The black bear native to New Mexico, Ursus americanus amblyceps, was formally adopted as the state's official animal in 1953.[34] See also: List of taxa described from New Mexico History[edit] Main article: History of New Mexico See also: Territorial evolution of New Mexico

Ancestral Pueblo territory shown in pink over New Mexico

The first known inhabitants of New Mexico
Mexico
were members of the Clovis culture of Paleo-Indians.[35]:19 Later inhabitants include American Indians of the Mogollon and Ancestral Pueblo peoples cultures.[36]:52 By the time of European contact in the 16th century, the region was settled by the villages of the Pueblo peoples and groups of Navajo, Apache, and Ute.[35]:6,48 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
assembled an enormous expedition at Compostela in 1540–1542 to explore and find the mythical Seven Golden Cities of Cibola as described by Fray Marcos de Niza.[36]:19–24 The name Nuevo México was first used by a seeker of gold mines named Francisco de Ibarra, who explored far to the north of New Spain
New Spain
in 1563 and reported his findings as being in "a New Mexico".[37] Juan de Oñate
Juan de Oñate
officially established the name when he was appointed the first governor of the new Province of New Mexico
Mexico
in 1598.[36]:36–37 The same year, he founded the San Juan de los Caballeros colony, the first permanent European settlement in the future state of New Mexico,[38] on the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
near Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo.[36]:37 Oñate extended El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, Royal Road of the Interior, by 700 miles (1,100 km) from Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua, to his remote colony.[39]:49 The settlement of Santa Fe was established at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost subrange of the Rocky Mountains, around 1608.[39]:182 The city, along with most of the settled areas of the state, was abandoned by the Spanish for 12 years (1680–92) as a result of the successful Pueblo Revolt.[40] After the death of the Pueblo leader Popé, Diego de Vargas
Diego de Vargas
restored the area to Spanish rule.[36]:68–75 While developing Santa Fe as a trade center, the returning settlers founded Albuquerque
Albuquerque
in 1706 from existing surrounding communities,[36]:84 naming it for the viceroy of New Spain, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque.[41]

Province of New Mexico
Mexico
when it belonged to Mexico
Mexico
in 1824

As a part of New Spain, the claims for the province of New Mexico passed to independent Mexico
Mexico
in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence.[36]:109 The Republic of Texas
Texas
claimed the portion east of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
when it seceded from Mexico
Mexico
in 1836, when it incorrectly assumed the older Hispanic
Hispanic
settlements of the upper Rio Grande were the same as the newly established Mexican settlements of Texas. Texas' only attempt to establish a presence or control in the claimed territory was the failed Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Their entire army was captured and jailed by Hispanic
Hispanic
New Mexico
Mexico
militia. At the turn of the 19th century, the extreme northeastern part of New Mexico, north of the Canadian River
Canadian River
and east of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, was still claimed by France, which sold it in 1803 to the United States
United States
as part of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase. The United States assigned this portion of New Mexico
Mexico
as part of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Territory until 1812; that year Louisiana
Louisiana
was admitted as a state. The US then reclassified this area as part of the Missouri
Missouri
Territory. This region of the state (along with territory that makes up present-day southeastern Colorado, the Texas
Texas
and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Panhandles, and southwestern Kansas) was ceded to Spain under the Adams-Onis Treaty
Adams-Onis Treaty
in 1819. The independent Republic of Texas
Texas
also claimed this portion of New Mexico. By 1800, the Spanish population had reached 25,000, but Apache and Comanche
Comanche
raids on Hispanic
Hispanic
settlers were common until well into the period of U.S. occupation.[42] 1848 cession of land[edit] Following the victory of the United States
United States
in the Mexican–American War (1846–48), under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern holdings, today known as the American Southwest
American Southwest
and California, to the United States
United States
of America.[36]:132 The United States vowed to accept the residents' claims to their lands and to accept them as full citizens with rights of suffrage. This acquisition of territory and residents resulted in Mexicans legally being classified as white, since at that time, in most of the southern United States, only whites could vote. Nevertheless, Texas
Texas
and other western states raised barriers to voting and political participation by ethnic Mexicans, including barring them from serving on juries. After Texas
Texas
was admitted as a state to the Union, it continued to claim the northeastern portion of present-day New Mexico. Finally, in the Compromise of 1850, Texas
Texas
ceded these claims to the United States of the area in New Mexico
Mexico
lying east of the Rio Grande, in exchange for $10 million.[36]:135 Congress established the separate New Mexico Territory
New Mexico Territory
in September 1850.[43] It included most of the present-day states of Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico, and part of Colorado. When the boundary was fixed, a surveyor's error awarded the Permian Basin to the State of Texas.[dubious – discuss] New Mexico
Mexico
dropped its claims to the Permian in a bid to gain statehood in 1911. In 1853, the United States
United States
acquired the mostly desert southwestern boot heel of the state and southern Arizona
Arizona
below the Gila River
Gila River
in the Gadsden Purchase. It wanted to control lands needed for the right-of-way in order to encourage construction of a transcontinental railroad.[36]:136

Civil war effects in New Mexico

New Mexico
Mexico
territory included Arizona, 1860

Territories now divided, 1867

New Mexico
Mexico
played a role in the Trans- Mississippi
Mississippi
Theater of the American Civil War. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over New Mexico
Mexico
Territory. In 1861, the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico
Mexico
Campaign in an attempt to control the American Southwest
American Southwest
and open up access to Union California. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory
New Mexico Territory
was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass
Battle of Glorieta Pass
in 1862. However, the Confederate territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona
Arizona
flag until the end of the war. Additionally, more than 8,000 men from New Mexico
Mexico
Territory served in the Union Army.[44] In the late 19th century, the majority of officially European-descended residents in New Mexico
Mexico
were ethnic Mexicans, many of whom had deep roots in the area from early Spanish colonial times. Politically, they still controlled most of the town and county offices through area elections, and wealthy sheepherder families commanded considerable influence. The Anglo-Americans tended to have more ties to the territorial governor and judges, who were appointed by officials out of the region. The two groups struggled for power and the future of the territory. The Anglo minority was "outnumbered, but well-organized and growing."[45] Anglo-Americans made distinctions between the wealthy Mexicans and poor, ill-educated laborers. 20th century to present[edit]

Homesteader and his children in Pie Town, New Mexico, 1940

Congress admitted New Mexico
Mexico
as the 47th state in the Union on January 6, 1912.[36]:166 European-American settlers in the state had an uneasy relationship with the large Native American tribes, most of whose members lived on reservations at the beginning of the 20th century. Although Congress passed a law in 1924 that granted all Native Americans with US citizenship, as well as the right to vote in federal and state elections, New Mexico
Mexico
was among several states that restricted Indian voting by raising barriers to voter registration. Their constitution said that Indians who did not pay taxes could not vote, in their interpretation disqualifying those Native Americans who lived on reservations (but only the land was tax free.)[46] A major oil discovery in 1928 brought prosperity to the state, especially Lea County and the town of Hobbs. The town was named after James Hobbs, a homesteader there in 1907.[47] The Midwest State No. 1 well, begun in late 1927 with a standard cable-tool drilling rig, revealed the first signs of oil from the Hobbs field on June 13, 1928. Drilled to 4,330 feet and completed a few months later, the well produced 700 barrels of oil per day on state land. The Midwest Refining Company's Hobbs well produced oil until 2002. The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources called it "the most important single discovery of oil in New Mexico's history".[48] During World War II, the first atomic bombs were designed and manufactured at Los Alamos, a site developed by the federal government specifically to support a high-intensity scientific effort to rapidly complete research and testing of this weapon. The first bomb was tested at Trinity site
Trinity site
in the desert between Socorro and Alamogordo on what is now White Sands Missile Range.[36]:179–180

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 61,547

1860 93,516

51.9%

1870 91,874

−1.8%

1880 119,565

30.1%

1890 160,282

34.1%

1900 195,310

21.9%

1910 327,301

67.6%

1920 360,350

10.1%

1930 423,317

17.5%

1940 531,818

25.6%

1950 681,187

28.1%

1960 951,023

39.6%

1970 1,017,055

6.9%

1980 1,303,302

28.1%

1990 1,515,069

16.2%

2000 1,819,046

20.1%

2010 2,059,179

13.2%

Est. 2017 2,088,070

1.4%

Source: 1910–2010[49] 2015 estimate[50]

Native Americans from New Mexico
Mexico
fought for the United States
United States
in both the First and Second World Wars. Veterans were disappointed to return and find their civil rights limited by state discrimination. In Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico, veterans challenged state laws or practices prohibiting them from voting. In 1948, after veteran Miguel Trujillo, Sr. of Isleta Pueblo
Isleta Pueblo
was told by the county registrar that he could not register to vote, he filed suit against the county in federal district court. A three-judge panel overturned as unconstitutional New Mexico's provisions that Indians who did not pay taxes (and could not document if they had paid taxes) could not vote.[46] Judge Phillips wrote:

Any other citizen, regardless of race, in the State of New Mexico
Mexico
who has not paid one cent of tax of any kind or character, if he possesses the other qualifications, may vote. An Indian, and only an Indian, in order to meet the qualifications to vote must have paid a tax. How you can escape the conclusion that makes a requirement with respect to an Indian as a qualification to exercise the elective franchise and does not make that requirement with respect to the member of any race is beyond me.

[46] New Mexico
Mexico
has benefited greatly from federal government spending on major military and research institutions in the state. It is home to three Air Force bases, White Sands Missile Range, and the federal research laboratories Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
and Sandia National Laboratories. The state's population grew rapidly after World War II, growing from 531,818 in 1940 to 1,819,046 in 2000.[51] Both residents and businesses moved to the state; some northerners came at first for the mild winters; others for retirement. In the late 20th century, Native Americans were authorized by federal law to establish gaming casinos on their reservations under certain conditions, in states which had authorized such gaming. Such facilities have helped tribes close to population centers to generate revenues for reinvestment in economic development and welfare of their peoples. In the 21st century, employment growth areas in New Mexico
Mexico
include microelectronics, call centers, and Indian casinos.[52] Demography[edit] See also: List of settlements in New Mexico
Mexico
by population and New Mexico
Mexico
locations by per capita income

New Mexico
Mexico
population density map

Population[edit] The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of New Mexico
Mexico
was 2,085,109 on July 1, 2015, a 1.26% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[50] The 2000 United States
United States
Census recorded the population of New Mexico
Mexico
to be 1,819,046; ten years later the 2010 United States
United States
Census recorded a population of 2,059,179, an 11.7% increase.[53] Of the people residing in New Mexico, 51.4% were born in New Mexico, 37.9% were born in a different US state, 1.1% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 9.7% were foreign born.[54] As of May 1, 2010, 7.5% of New Mexico's population was reported as under 5 years of age, 25% under 18, and 13% were 65 or older; women make up around 51% of the population.[55] As of 2000, 8% of the residents of the state were foreign-born.[55] Among U.S. states, New Mexico
Mexico
has the highest percentage of Hispanic ancestry, at 47% (as of July 1, 2012). This classification covers people of very different cultures and histories, including descendants of Spanish colonists with deep roots in the region, and recent immigrants from a variety of nations in Latin America, each with their own cultures. According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau Model-based Small Area Income & Poverty Estimates, the number of persons in poverty has increased to 400,779 (19.8% of the population) persons in 2010 from 2000. At that time, the estimated number of persons in poverty was recorded at 309,193 (17.3% of the population). The latest available estimates for 2014 estimate the number of persons in poverty at 420,388 (20.6% of the population).[53] Birth data[edit] Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[56] 2014[57] 2015[58]

White 21,325 (80.9%) 21,161 (81.2%) 21,183 (82.0%)

> Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White 7,428 (28.2%) 7,222 (27.7%) 7,157 (27.7%)

Native 3,763 (14.3%) 3,581 (13.7%) 3,452 (13.4%)

Black 669 (2.5%) 732 (2.8%) 664 (2.6%)

Asian 597 (2.3%) 578 (2.2%) 517 (2.0%)

Hispanic
Hispanic
(of any race) 14,402 (54.6%) 14,449 (55.5%) 14,431 (55.9%)

Total New Mexico 26,354 (100%) 26,052 (100%) 25,816 (100%)

Settlements[edit] See also: List of municipalities in New Mexico, List of census-designated places in New Mexico, and List of counties in New Mexico

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in New Mexico Source:2016 U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
Estimate

Rank Name County Pop.

Albuquerque

Las Cruces 1 Albuquerque Bernalillo 559,277

Rio Rancho

Santa Fe

2 Las Cruces Dona Ana 101,759

3 Rio Rancho Sandoval / Bernalillo 96,028

4 Santa Fe Santa Fe 83,875

5 Roswell Chaves 48,184

6 Farmington San Juan 41,629

7 Clovis Curry 39,373

8 Hobbs Lea 38,143

9 Alamogordo Otero 31,283

10 Carlsbad Eddy 28,914

Ancestry[edit]

Race/Ethnicity in New Mexico
Mexico
(2010)[59]

White 68.4%

• Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white 40.5%

• White Hispanic 28.1%

American Indian 9.4%

Black/African American 2.1%

Asian 1.4%

Pacific Islander 0.1%

Other 15.0%

Two or more races 3.7%

Hispanic/Latino 46.3%

New Mexico
Mexico
is a majority–minority state.[60] The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
estimated that 48% of the total 2015 population was Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino of any race, the highest of any state. The majority of Hispanics in New Mexico
Mexico
claim to be descendants of Spanish colonists who settled here during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. They speak New Mexican Spanish
New Mexican Spanish
or English at home.[55] The state also has a large Native American population, second in percentage behind that of Alaska.[55][61] The 2016 racial composition of the population was estimated to be:[62]

82.6% White American 10.6% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 2.5% Black or African American 1.7% Asian 0.2% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander 2.5% Two or more races 48.5% Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino 38.1% White alone

New Mexico
Mexico
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1970[63] 1990[63] 2000[64] 2010[65]

White 90.1% 75.6% 66.7% 68.6%

Native 7.2% 8.9% 9.5% 9.4%

Black 1.9% 2.0% 1.9% 2.1%

Asian 0.2% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 0.6% 12.6% 17.0% 15.0%

Two or more races – – 3.6% 3.7%

According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau, 1.5% of the population identifies as multiracial/mixed-race, a population larger than both the Asian and NHPI population groups.[55] In 2008, New Mexico
Mexico
had the highest percentage (47%) of Hispanics (of any race) of any state,[55] with 83% native-born and 17% foreign-born.[66] According to the 2000 United States
United States
Census,[67]:6 the most commonly claimed ancestry groups in New Mexico
Mexico
were:

Mexican (16.3%) American Indian (10.3%) German (9.8%), Spanish (9.3%) and English (7.2%).

Languages[edit]

Languages Spoken in New Mexico

English only 64%

Spanish 28%

Navajo 4%

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 28.45% of the population aged 5 and older speak Spanish at home, while 3.50% speak Navajo.[68] Speakers of New Mexican Spanish
New Mexican Spanish
dialect are mainly descendants of Spanish colonists who arrived in New Mexico
Mexico
in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.[69] New Mexican Spanish
New Mexican Spanish
is an archaic form of 17th century Castilian Spanish.[70] Official language[edit] The original state constitution of 1912 provided for a bilingual government with laws being published in both English and Spanish;[71] this requirement was renewed twice, in 1931 and 1943.[72] Nonetheless, the constitution does not declare any language as "official".[73] While Spanish was permitted in the legislature until 1935, all state officials are required to have a good knowledge of English. Cobarrubias and Fishman therefore argue that New Mexico
Mexico
cannot be considered a bilingual state as not all laws are published in both languages.[72] Others, such as Juan Perea, claim that the state was officially bilingual until 1953.[74] In either case, Hawaii
Hawaii
is the only state that remains officially bilingual in the 21st century.[75] With regard to the judiciary, witnesses have the right to testify in either of the two languages, and monolingual speakers of Spanish have the same right to be considered for jury-duty as do speakers of English.[73][76] In public education, the state has the constitutional obligation to provide for bilingual education and Spanish-speaking instructors in school districts where the majority of students are hispanophone.[73] In 1995, the state adopted an official bilingual song, "New Mexico
Mexico
– Mi Lindo Nuevo México".[77]:75,81 In 1989, New Mexico
Mexico
became the first state to officially adopt the English Plus resolution,[75] and in 2008, the first to officially adopt a Navajo textbook for use in public schools.[78] Religion[edit]

San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the U.S.

Religion in New Mexico
Mexico
(2014)[79]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

38%

Catholic

34%

None

21%

Mormon

2%

Jehovah's Witness

1%

Buddhist

1%

Other faith

3%

According to Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), the largest denominations in 2010 were the Catholic
Catholic
Church with 684,941; the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
with 113,452; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 67,637, and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 36,424 adherents.[80] According to a 2008 survey by the Pew Research Center, the most common self-reported religious affiliation of New Mexico
Mexico
residents are mentioned in reference.[citation needed] Within the hierarchy of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, New Mexico
Mexico
belongs to the Ecclesiastical Province of Santa Fe. New Mexico
Mexico
has three dioceses, one of which is an archdiocese:[81] Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Santa Fe, Diocese of Gallup, Diocese
Diocese
of Las Cruces. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of New Mexico See also: New Mexico
Mexico
locations by per capita income

New Mexico
Mexico
state quarter circulated in April 2008.

Oil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of the state economy. State government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies. Economic indicators[edit] In 2010 New Mexico's Gross Domestic Product was $80 billion and an estimated $85 billion for 2013.[82] In 2007 the per capita personal income was $31,474 (rank 43rd in the nation).[83] In 2005 the percentage of persons below the poverty level was 18.4%.[84] The New Mexico
Mexico
Tourism Department estimates that in Fiscal Year 2006 the travel industry in New Mexico
Mexico
generated expenditures of $6.5 billion.[85] As of April 2012[update], the state's unemployment rate was 7.2%.[86] During the Late 2000s Recession New Mexico's unemployment rate peaked at 8.0% for the period June–October 2010.[87] Oil and gas production[edit] New Mexico
Mexico
is the fourth leading crude oil and eighth leading natural gas producer (EIA.gov 2015) in the United States. The Permian Basin (part of the Mid-Continent Oil Field) and San Juan Basin
San Juan Basin
lie partly in New Mexico. In 2006 New Mexico
Mexico
accounted for 3.4% of the crude oil, 8.5% of the dry natural gas, and 10.2% of the natural gas liquids produced in the United States.[88] In 2000 the value of oil and gas produced was $8.2 billion.[89] Federal government[edit]

The F-22 Raptor
F-22 Raptor
is flown by the 49th Fighter Wing
49th Fighter Wing
at Holloman AFB.

Federal government spending is a major driver of the New Mexico economy. In 2005 the federal government spent $2.03 on New Mexico
Mexico
for every dollar of tax revenue collected from the state. This rate of return is higher than any other state in the Union.[90] Many of the federal jobs relate to the military; the state hosts three air force bases (Kirtland Air Force Base, Holloman Air Force Base, and Cannon Air Force Base); a testing range (White Sands Missile Range); and an army proving ground and maneuver range ( Fort Bliss
Fort Bliss
– McGregor Range). A May 2005 estimate by New Mexico
Mexico
State University is that 11.65% of the state's total employment arises directly or indirectly from military spending.[91] Other federal installations include the technology labs of Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
and Sandia National Laboratories. Economic incentives[edit]

Albuquerque
Albuquerque
Studios, built in 2007 for rising demand of film production in the state.

New Mexico
Mexico
provides a number of economic incentives to businesses operating in the state, including various types of tax credits and tax exemptions. Most of the incentives are based on job creation.[92] New Mexico
Mexico
law allows governments to provide land, buildings, and infrastructure to businesses to promote job creation. Several municipalities have imposed an Economic Development Gross Receipts Tax (a form of Municipal Infrastructure GRT) that is used to pay for these infrastructure improvements and for marketing their areas.[93] The state provides financial incentives for film production.[94][95] The New Mexico
Mexico
Film Office estimated at the end of 2007 that the incentive program had brought more than 85 film projects to the state since 2003 and had added $1.2 billion to the economy.[96] State taxes[edit] Main article: Taxation in New Mexico Since 2008, personal income tax rates for New Mexico
Mexico
have ranged from 1.7% to 4.9%, within four income brackets.[97] As of 2007, active-duty military salaries are exempt from state income tax.[98] New Mexico
Mexico
imposes a Gross Receipts Tax
Gross Receipts Tax
(GRT) on many transactions, which may even include some governmental receipts. This resembles a sales tax but, unlike the sales taxes in many states, it applies to services as well as tangible goods. Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. GRT is imposed by the state and there may an additional locality component to produce a total tax rate.[99] As of July 1, 2013 the combined tax rate ranged from 5.125% to 8.6875%.[100] Property tax
Property tax
is imposed on real property by the state, by counties, and by school districts. In general, personal-use personal property is not subject to property taxation. On the other hand, property tax is levied on most business-use personal property. The taxable value of property is 1/3 of the assessed value. A tax rate of about 30 mills is applied to the taxable value, resulting in an effective tax rate of about 1%. In the 2005 tax year the average millage was about 26.47 for residential property and 29.80 for non-residential property. Assessed values of residences cannot be increased by more than 3% per year unless the residence is remodeled or sold. Property tax
Property tax
deductions are available for military veterans and heads of household.[101] Transportation[edit]

Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
in Cimarron, New Mexico.

In this photo, the US- Mexico
Mexico
border divides Sunland Park and the Mexican state of Chihuahua.

New Mexico
Mexico
has long been an important corridor for trade and migration. The builders of the ruins at Chaco Canyon
Chaco Canyon
also created a radiating network of roads from the mysterious settlement.[102] Chaco Canyon's trade function shifted to Casas Grandes
Casas Grandes
in the present-day Mexican state of Chihuahua, however, north-south trade continued. The pre-Columbian trade with Mesoamerican cultures
Mesoamerican cultures
included northbound exotic birds, seashells and copper. Turquoise, pottery, and salt were some of the goods transported south along the Rio Grande. Present-day New Mexico's pre-Columbian trade is especially remarkable for being undertaken on foot. The north-south trade route later became a path for colonists with horses arriving from New Spain
New Spain
as well as trade and communication. The route was called El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.[103] The Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
was the 19th century US territory's vital commercial and military highway link to the Eastern United States.[104] All with termini in Northern New Mexico, the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
and the Old Spanish Trail are all recognized as National Historic Trails. New Mexico's latitude and low passes made it an attractive east-west transportation corridor.[105] As a territory, the Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
increased New Mexico's land area for the purpose of the construction of a southern transcontinental railroad, that of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Another transcontinental railroad was completed by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The railroads essentially replaced the earlier trails but brought on a population boom. Early transcontinental auto trails later crossed the state bringing more migrants. Railroads were later supplemented or replaced by a system of highways and airports. Today, New Mexico's Interstate Highways approximate the earlier land routes of the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
and the transcontinental railroads. Road[edit] See also: Speed limits in the United States
United States
by jurisdiction § New Mexico, and List of New Mexico
Mexico
highways

Map of New Mexico
Mexico
highways.

New Mexico
Mexico
has had a problem with drunk driving, but that has lessened. According to the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times, for years the state had the highest alcohol-related crash rates in the U.S., but ranked 25th in alcohol-related fatal crash rates, as of July 2009[update].[106] The automobile changed the character of New Mexico, marking the start of large scale immigration to the state from elsewhere in the United States. Settlers moving West during the Great Depression
Great Depression
and post- World War II
World War II
American culture immortalized the National Old Trails Highway, later U.S. Route 66. Today, the automobile is heavily relied upon in New Mexico
Mexico
for transportation. New Mexico
Mexico
had 59,927 route miles of highway as of 2000[update], of which 7,037 receive federal-aid.[107] In that same year there were 1,003 miles (1,614 km) of freeways, of which 1000 were the route miles of Interstate Highways 10, 25 and 40.[108] The former number has increased with the upgrading of roads near Pojoaque, Santa Fe and Las Cruces to freeways. The highway traffic fatality rate was 1.9 fatalities per million miles traveled in 2000, the 13th highest rate among U.S. states.[109] Notable bridges include the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Gorge Bridge near Taos. As of 2001[update], 703 highway bridges, or one percent, were declared "structurally deficient" or "structurally obsolete".[110] Rural and intercity public transportation by road is provided by Americanos USA, LLC, Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
and several government operators.

The New Mexico
Mexico
Rail Runner Express is a commuter rail operation train that runs along the Central Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley.

Urban mass transit[edit] See also: Category:Bus transportation in New Mexico The New Mexico
Mexico
Rail Runner Express is a commuter rail system serving the metropolitan area of Albuquerque, New Mexico. It began operation on July 14, 2006.[111] The system runs from Belen to downtown Santa Fe. Larger cities in New Mexico
Mexico
typically have some form of public transportation by road; ABQ RIDE is the largest such system in the state.[112] Rail[edit] See also: List of New Mexico
Mexico
railroads

The Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad

There were 2,354 route miles of railroads in the year 2000, this number increased with the opening of the Rail Runner's extension to Santa Fe.[113] In addition to local railroads and other tourist lines, the state jointly owns and operates a heritage narrow-gauge steam railroad, the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, with the state of Colorado. Narrow gauge
Narrow gauge
railroads once connected many communities in the northern part of the state, from Farmington to Santa Fe.[114]:110 No fewer than 100 railroads of various names and lineage have operated in the jurisdiction at some point.[114]:8 New Mexico's rail transportation system reached its height in terms of length following admission as a state; in 1914 eleven railroads operated 3124 route miles.[114]:10 Railroad surveyors arrived in New Mexico
Mexico
in the 1850s.[115] The first railroads incorporated in 1869.[114]:9 The first operational railroad, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway (ATSF), entered the territory by way of the lucrative and contested Raton Pass
Raton Pass
in 1878. It eventually reached El Paso, Texas
Texas
in 1881 and with the Southern Pacific Railroad created the nation's second transcontinental railroad with a junction at Deming. The Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
entered the territory from the Territory of Arizona
Arizona
in 1880.[114]:9, 18, 58–59[115] The Denver
Denver
& Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Railway, who would generally use narrow gauge equipment in New Mexico, entered the territory from Colorado
Colorado
and began service to Española on December 31, 1880.[114]:95–96[115] These first railroads were built as long-distance corridors, later railroad construction also targeted resource extraction.[114]:8–11 Freight[edit] New Mexico
Mexico
is served by two class I railroads, the BNSF Railway
BNSF Railway
and the Union Pacific
Union Pacific
Railroad. Combined, they operate 2,200 route miles of railway in the state.[113] Passenger[edit]

Downtown Santa Fe train station

A commuter rail operation, the New Mexico
Mexico
Rail Runner Express, connects the state's capital, its largest city, and other communities.[116] The privately operated state owned railroad began operations in July 2006.[111] The BNSF Railway's entire line from Belen to Raton, New Mexico
Mexico
was sold to the state, partially for the construction of phase II of this operation, which opened in December 2008.[117] Phase II of Rail Runner extended the line northward to Santa Fe from the Sandoval County
Sandoval County
station, the northernmost station under Phase I service. The service now connects Santa Fe, Sandoval, Bernalillo, and Valencia counties. The trains connect Albuquerque's population base and central business district to downtown Santa Fe with up to eight roundtrips in a day. The section of the line running south to Belen is served less frequently.[118] Rail Runner operates scheduled service seven days per week.[119]

The railway station in Tucumcari

With the rise of rail transportation many settlements grew or were founded and the territory became a tourist destination. As early as 1878, the ATSF promoted tourism in the region with emphasis on Native American imagery.[120]:64 Named trains often reflected the territory they traveled: Super Chief, the streamlined successor to the Chief;[120] Navajo, an early transcontinental tourist train; and Cavern, a through car operation connecting Clovis and Carlsbad (by the early 1950s as train 23–24),[114]:49–50[121]:51 were some of the named passenger trains of the ATSF that connoted New Mexico. Passenger train service once connected nine of New Mexico's present ten most populous cities (the exception is Rio Rancho), while today passenger train service connects two: Albuquerque
Albuquerque
and Santa Fe.[116] With the decline of most intercity rail service in the United States in the late 1960s, New Mexico
Mexico
was left with minimal services. No less than six daily long-distance roundtrip trains supplemented by many branch line and local trains served New Mexico
Mexico
in the early 1960s. Declines in passenger revenue, but not necessarily ridership, prompted many railroads to turn over their passenger services in truncated form to Amtrak, a state owned enterprise. Amtrak, also known as the National Passenger Railroad Corporation, began operating the two extant long-distance routes in May 1971.[114][120][121] Resurrection of passenger rail service from Denver
Denver
to El Paso, a route once plied in part by the ATSF's El Pasoan,[121]:37 has been proposed over the years. As early as the 1980s former Governor Toney Anaya
Toney Anaya
proposed building a high-speed rail line connecting the two cities with New Mexico's major cities.[122] Front Range Commuter Rail is a project to connect Wyoming
Wyoming
and New Mexico
Mexico
with high-speed rail.[123] Amtrak's Southwest Chief
Southwest Chief
passes through daily at stations in Gallup, Albuquerque, Lamy, Las Vegas, and Raton, offering connections to Los Angeles, Chicago and intermediate points.[124] The Southwest Chief
Southwest Chief
is a fast Amtrak
Amtrak
long distance train, being permitted a maximum speed of 90 mph (140 km/h) in various places on the tracks of the BNSF Railway.[125] It also operates on New Mexico
Mexico
Rail Runner Express trackage. The Southwest Chief
Southwest Chief
is the successor to the Super Chief
Super Chief
and El Capitan.[121]:115 The streamliner Super Chief, a favorite of early Hollywood stars, was one of the most famous named trains in the United States and one of the most esteemed for its luxury and exoticness—train cars were named for regional Native American tribes and outfitted with the artwork of many local artists—but also for its speed: as few as 39 hours 45 minutes westbound.[120]

A sign in Southern New Mexico
Mexico
indicating "The Future site of the New Mexico
Mexico
Spaceport"

The Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
makes stops three times a week in both directions at Lordsburg, and Deming, serving Los Angeles, New Orleans and intermediate points.[126] The Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
is the successor to the Southern Pacific Railroad's train of the same name and operates exclusively on Union Pacific
Union Pacific
trackage in New Mexico. Aerospace[edit] See also: List of airports in New Mexico The Albuquerque
Albuquerque
International Sunport is the state's primary port of entry for air transportation. Upham, near Truth or Consequences is the location of the world's first operational and purpose-built commercial spaceport, Spaceport America.[127][128][129] Rocket launches began in April 2007.[129] It is undeveloped and has one tenant, UP Aerospace, launching small payloads.[130] Virgin Galactic, a space tourism company, plans to make this their primary operating base.[128][131] Government and politics[edit]

Governor Susana Martinez
Susana Martinez
(R)

Government[edit] Main article: Government of New Mexico The Constitution of New Mexico
Mexico
established New Mexico's governmental structure. The executive branch of government is fragmented as outlined in the state constitution. The executive is composed of the Governor and other statewide elected officials including the Lieutenant Governor (elected on the same ticket as the Governor), Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, and Commissioner of Public Lands. The governor appoints a cabinet that leads agencies statutorily designated under his/her jurisdiction. The New Mexico
Mexico
Legislature
Legislature
consists of the House of Representatives and Senate. The judiciary is composed of the New Mexico
Mexico
Supreme Court and lower courts. There is also local government, consisting of counties, municipalities and special districts. Politics[edit]

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See also: Elections in New Mexico
Mexico
and Political party strength in New Mexico Current Governor Susana Martinez
Susana Martinez
(R) and Lieutenant Governor John Sanchez (R), were first elected in 2010 and re-elected in 2014. Terms for both the Governor and Lieutenant Governor expire in January 2019. Governors serve a term of four years and may seek re-election for one additional term (limit of two terms). Other constitutional officers, all of whose terms also expire in January 2019, include Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver
Maggie Toulouse Oliver
(D),[132] Attorney General Hector Balderas (D),[133] State Auditor Wayne Johnson (R),[134] State Land Commissioner Aubrey Dunn (L),[135] and State Treasurer Tim Eichenberg (D).[136]

State Executive Officers

Office Name Party

Governor Susana Martinez Republican

Lieutenant Governor John Sanchez Republican

Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver Democrat

Attorney General Hector Balderas Democrat

Auditor Wayne Johnson Republican

Treasurer Tim Eichenberg Democrat

Land Commissioner Aubrey Dunn Jr. Libertarian

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of November 3, 2016[update][137]

Party Number of Voters Percentage

Democratic 599,813 47%

Republican 399,930 31%

Unaffiliated 242,106 19%

Minor parties 47,571 4%

Total 1,289,420 100%

Currently, both chambers of the New Mexico
Mexico
State Legislature
Legislature
have Democratic majorities. There are 26 Democrats and 16 Republicans in the Senate, and 38 Democrats and 32 Republicans in the House of Representatives. New Mexico's members of the United States
United States
Senate are Democrats Martin Heinrich and Tom Udall. Democrats Michelle Lujan Grisham, and Ben R. Luján represent the first and third congressional districts, respectively, and Republican Steve Pearce represents the second congressional district in the United States
United States
House of Representatives. See New Mexico
Mexico
congressional map. New Mexico
Mexico
had been considered a swing state, whose population has favored both Democratic and Republican presidential candidates, but it became more of a Democratic stronghold after the presidential election of 2008. The governor is Susana Martinez
Susana Martinez
(R), who succeeded Bill Richardson (D) on January 1, 2011 after he served two terms as governor from 2003 to 2011. Before Richardson, Gary Johnson
Gary Johnson
served as governor from 1995 to 2003. Johnson served as a Republican, but in 2012 and 2016, he ran for President from the Libertarian Party. In previous presidential elections, Al Gore
Al Gore
carried the state (by 366 votes) in 2000; George W. Bush
George W. Bush
won New Mexico's five electoral votes in 2004, and the state's electoral votes were won by Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
in 2008, 2012, and 2016. Since achieving statehood in 1912, New Mexico
Mexico
has been carried by the national popular vote victor in every presidential election of the past 104 years except 1976 when Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
won the state by 2% but lost the national popular vote by 2%.[138]

Gubernatorial election results

Year Republican Democratic

2014 57.34% 288,549 42.66% 214,636

2010 53.29% 321,219 46.55% 280,614

2006 31.18% 174,364 68.82% 384,806

2002 39.05% 189,074 55.49% 268,693

1998 54.53% 271,948 45.47% 226,755

1994 49.81% 232,945 39.92% 186,686

1990 45.15% 185,692 54.61% 224,564

1986 53.05% 209,455 46.95% 185,378

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 40.04% 319,685 48.25% 385,232

2012 42.84% 335,788 52.99% 415,335

2008 41.78% 346,832 56.91% 472,422

2004 49.8% 376,930 49.1% 370,942

2000 47.85% 286,417 47.91% 286,783

1996 42% 232,751 49% 273,495

1992 37% 212,617 46% 261,617

1988 51% 270,341 46% 244,49

1984 59% 307,101 39% 201,769

1980 55% 250,779 36% 167,826

1976 50% 211,419 48% 201,148

1972 60% 235,606 36% 141,084

Democratic strongholds in the state include the Santa Fe Area, various areas of the Albuquerque
Albuquerque
Metro Area (such as the southeast and central areas, including the affluent Nob Hill neighborhood and the vicinity of the University of New Mexico), Northern and West Central New Mexico, and most of the Native American reservations, particularly the Navajo Nation. Republicans have traditionally had their strongholds in the eastern and southern parts of the state, the Farmington area, Rio Rancho, and the newly developed areas in the Northwest mesa. Albuquerque's Northeast Heights have historically leaned Republican, but have become a key swing area for Democrats in recent election cycles. While registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly 200,000, New Mexico
Mexico
voters have favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels. On major political issues, New Mexico
Mexico
abolished its death penalty statute, though not retroactively, effective July 1, 2009. This means individuals on New Mexico's Death Row can still be executed. On March 18, 2009, then Governor Bill Richardson
Bill Richardson
signed the law abolishing the death penalty in New Mexico
Mexico
following the assembly and senate vote the week before, thus becoming the 15th U.S. state
U.S. state
to abolish the penalty.[139] On gun control, New Mexico
Mexico
arguably has some of the least restrictive firearms laws in the country. State law pre-empts all local gun control ordinances. Unlike states with strong gun control laws, a New Mexico
Mexico
resident may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law. There are no waiting periods under state law for picking up a firearm after it has been purchased, and there are no restrictions on magazine capacity. Additionally, New Mexico
Mexico
allows open carry of a loaded firearm without a permit, and is "shall-issue" for concealed carry permits. Before December 2013 New Mexico
Mexico
law neither explicitly allowed nor prohibited same-sex marriage. Policy concerning the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples was determined at the county level; that is, some county clerks issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples, while others did not. In December 2013, the New Mexico
Mexico
Supreme Court issued a unanimous ruling directing all county clerks to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, thereby making New Mexico
Mexico
the 17th state to recognize same-sex marriage at the statewide level. Education[edit]

The New Mexico
Mexico
Public Education Department is situated in Santa Fe.

Due to its relatively low population in combination with numerous federally funded research facilities, New Mexico
Mexico
had the highest concentration of PhD holders of any state in 2000.[140] Despite this, the state routinely ranks near the bottom in surveys of quality of primary and secondary school education.[141] New Mexico
Mexico
has a higher concentration of persons who do not finish high school or have some college without a degree than the nation as a whole. For the state, 23.9% of people over 25 years of age have gone to college but not earned a degree.[53] This is compared with 21.0% of the nation as a whole according to United States
United States
Census Bureau 2014 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
estimates.[142] Los Alamos County has the highest number percent of post secondary degree holders of any county in New Mexico
Mexico
with 38.7% of the population (4,899 persons) estimated by the 2010-2014 American Community Survey.[143] Primary and secondary education[edit] See also: List of high schools in New Mexico The New Mexico
Mexico
Public Education Department oversees the operation of primary and secondary schools. Colleges and universities[edit] Main article: List of colleges and universities in New Mexico Major state universities[edit]

University of New Mexico
Mexico
at Albuquerque New Mexico
Mexico
State University at Las Cruces Eastern New Mexico
Eastern New Mexico
University at Portales New Mexico
Mexico
Highlands University at Las Vegas Western New Mexico
Mexico
University at Silver City New Mexico
Mexico
Institute of Mining
Mining
& Technology at Socorro

Four campus libraries

Zimmerman Library at The University of New Mexico

Zuhl Library at New Mexico
Mexico
State University

Walkway outside Golden Library at Eastern New Mexico
Eastern New Mexico
University

Donnelly Library at New Mexico
Mexico
Highlands University

Culture[edit] See also: List of people from New Mexico, New Mexican cuisine, New Mexico
Mexico
chile, New Mexico
Mexico
wine, List of breweries in New Mexico, Music of New Mexico, and New Mexico
Mexico
music

Symbols of the Southwest: a string of chili peppers (a ristra) and a bleached white cow's skull hang in a market near Santa Fe

With a Native American population of 134,000 in 1990,[144] New Mexico still ranks as an important center of Native American culture. Both the Navajo and Apache
Apache
share Athabaskan
Athabaskan
origin. The Apache
Apache
and some Ute live on federal reservations within the state. With 16 million acres (6,500,000 ha), mostly in neighboring Arizona, the reservation of the Navajo Nation
Navajo Nation
ranks as the largest in the United States. The prehistorically agricultural Pueblo Indians
Pueblo Indians
live in pueblos scattered throughout the state. Almost half of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin; many are descendants of colonial settlers. They settled in the state's northern portion. Most of the Mexican immigrants reside in the southern part of the state. Also 10-15% of the population, mainly in the north, may contain Hispanic
Hispanic
Jewish ancestry.[citation needed] Many New Mexicans speak a unique dialect of Spanish. Because of the historical isolation of New Mexico
Mexico
from other speakers of the Spanish language, some of the vocabulary of New Mexican Spanish
New Mexican Spanish
is unknown to other Spanish speakers. It uses numerous Native American words for local features and includes anglicized words that express American concepts and modern inventions. Albuquerque
Albuquerque
has the New Mexico
Mexico
Museum of Natural History and Science, the National Hispanic
Hispanic
Cultural Center, and the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, as well as hosts the famed annual Albuquerque
Albuquerque
International Balloon Fiesta every fall. Art and literature[edit] The earliest New Mexico
Mexico
artists whose work survives today are the Mimbres Indians, whose black and white pottery could be mistaken for modern art, except for the fact that it was produced before 1130 CE. See Mimbres culture. Many examples of this work can be seen at the Deming Luna Mimbres Museum[145] and at the Western New Mexico University Museum.[146] A large artistic community thrives in Santa Fe, and has included such people as Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, John Connell and Steina Vasulka. The capital city has several art museums, including the New Mexico
Mexico
Museum of Art, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, Museum of International Folk Art, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of Contemporary Native Arts, SITE Santa Fe
SITE Santa Fe
and others. Colonies for artists and writers thrive, and the small city teems with art galleries. In August, the city hosts the annual Santa Fe Indian Market, which is the oldest and largest juried Native American art showcase in the world. Performing arts include the renowned Santa Fe Opera which presents five operas in repertory each July to August, the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival held each summer, and the restored Lensic Theater
Lensic Theater
a principal venue for many kinds of performances. Santa Fe is also home to Frogville Records, an indie record label. The weekend after Labor Day boasts the burning of Zozobra, a 50 ft (15 m) marionette, during Fiestas de Santa Fe.

The interior of the Crosby Theater at the Santa Fe Opera; viewed from the mezzanine.

Art is also a frequent theme in Albuquerque, New Mexico's largest city. The National Hispanic
Hispanic
Cultural Center has held hundreds of performing arts events, art showcases, and other events related to Spanish culture in New Mexico
Mexico
and worldwide in the centerpiece Roy E Disney Center for the Performing Arts or in other venues at the 53 acre facility. New Mexico
Mexico
residents and visitors alike can enjoy performing art from around the world at Popejoy Hall on the campus of the University of New Mexico. Popejoy Hall hosts singers, dancers, Broadway shows, other types of acts, and Shakespeare.[147] Albuquerque also has the unique and memorable KiMo Theater
KiMo Theater
built in 1927 in the Pueblo Revival Style architecture. The KiMo presents live theater and concerts as well as movies and simulcast operas.[148] In addition to other general interest theaters, Albuquerque
Albuquerque
also has the African American Performing Arts Center and Exhibit Hall which showcases achievements by people of African descent[149] and the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center which highlights the cultural heritage of the First Nations people of New Mexico.[150] New Mexico
Mexico
holds strong to its Spanish heritage. Old Spanish traditions such zarzuelas and flamenco are popular in New Mexico.[151][152] Flamenco
Flamenco
dancer and native New Mexican María Benítez founded the Maria Benítez Institute for Spanish Arts "to present programs of the highest quality of the rich artistic heritage of Spain as expressed through music, dance, visual arts and other art forms." There is also the Festival Flamenco
Flamenco
Internacional de Alburquerque held each year in which native Spanish and New Mexican flamenco dancers perform at the University of New Mexico. In the mid-20th century there was a thriving Hispano school of literature and scholarship being produced in both English and Spanish. Among the more notable authors were: Angélico Chávez, Nina Otero-Warren, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca, Aurelio Espinosa, Cleofas Jaramillo, Juan Bautista Rael, and Aurora Lucero-White Lea. As well, writer D. H. Lawrence
D. H. Lawrence
lived near Taos in the 1920s at the D. H. Lawrence Ranch
Ranch
where there is a shrine said to contain his ashes. New Mexico's strong Spanish, Native American, and Wild West frontier motifs have provided material for many authors in the state, including internationally recognized Rudolfo Anaya and Tony Hillerman.[153] Silver City, in the southwestern mountains of the state, was originally a mining town, and at least one nearby mine still operates. It is perhaps better known now as the home of and/or exhibition center for large numbers of artists, visual and otherwise.[154] Another former mining town turned art haven is Madrid, New Mexico.[155] It was brought to national fame as the filming location for the movie Wild Hogs in 2007. The City of Las Cruces, in southern New Mexico, has a museum system that is affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution Affiliations Program.[156] Las Cruces also has a variety of cultural and artistic opportunities for residents and visitors.[157] Aside from the aforementioned Wild Hogs, other movies filmed in New Mexico
Mexico
include Sunshine Cleaning
Sunshine Cleaning
and Vampires. The various seasons of the A&E/ Netflix
Netflix
series Longmire have been filmed in several locations in New Mexico, including Las Vegas, Santa Fe, Eagle Nest, and Red River.[158] Sports[edit]

The New Mexico
Mexico
Stars play in the Santa Ana Star Center

No major league professional sports teams are based in New Mexico, but the Albuquerque
Albuquerque
Isotopes are a Pacific Coast League
Pacific Coast League
Triple-A baseball affiliate of the MLB
MLB
Colorado
Colorado
Rockies. New Mexico
Mexico
is home to several baseball teams of the Pecos League: Santa Fe Fuego, Roswell Invaders and the White Sands Pupfish. The Duke City Gladiators
Duke City Gladiators
of the CIF are an indoor football team that plays their home games at the Tingley Coliseum. The Albuquerque
Albuquerque
Sol F.C are a soccer club that plays in the PDL (the 4th tier of the American soccer pyramid). Collegiate athletics in New Mexico
Mexico
involve various University of New Mexico
Mexico
Lobos and New Mexico
Mexico
State Aggies teams in many sports. For many years the two universities have had a rivalry often referred to as the " Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Rivalry" or the "Battle of I-25" in recognition of the campuses both located along that interstate highway. NMSU
NMSU
also has a rivalry with the University of Texas
Texas
at El Paso that is called "The Battle of I-10." The winner of the NMSU-UTEP football game receives the Silver Spade
Silver Spade
trophy. Olympic gold medalist Tom Jager, who is an advocate of controversial high-altitude training for swimming, has conducted training camps in Albuquerque
Albuquerque
(elevation 5,312 ft (1,619.1 m)) and Los Alamos (7,320 ft (2,231 m)).[159] NRA Whittington Center
NRA Whittington Center
in Raton is the United States' largest and most comprehensive competitive shooting range and training facility.[160] See also[edit]

New Mexico
Mexico
portal

Index of New Mexico-related articles Outline of New Mexico
Mexico
– organized list of topics about New Mexico

References[edit]

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Mexico
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Mexico
Caters to All in the Middle of Nowhere". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Beck, Warren. Historical Atlas of New Mexico
Mexico
1969. Chavez, Thomas E. An Illustrated History of New Mexico, 267 pages, University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press 2002, ISBN 0-8263-3051-7 Bullis, Don. New Mexico: A Biographical Dictionary, 1540–1980, 2 vol, (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande, 2008) 393 pp. ISBN 978-1-890689-17-9 Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, eds. The Contested Homeland: A Chicano
Chicano
History of New Mexico, University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press 2000, ISBN 0-8263-2199-2, 314 pp. Gutiérrez, Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846 (1991) Hain, Paul L., F. Chris Garcia, Gilbert K. St. Clair; New Mexico Government 3rd ed. (1994) Horgan, Paul, Great River, The Rio Grande
Rio Grande
in North American History, 1038 pages, Wesleyan University Press 1991, 4th Reprint, ISBN 0-585-38014-7, Pulitzer Prize 1955 Larson, Robert W. New Mexico's Quest for Statehood, 1846–1912 (1968) Nieto-Phillips, John M. The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s–1930s, University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press 2004, ISBN 0826324231 Simmons, Marc. New Mexico: An Interpretive History, University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press 1988, ISBN 0-8263-1110-5, 221 pp, good introduction Szasz, Ferenc M., and Richard W. Etulain, eds. Religion in Modern New Mexico
Mexico
(1997) Trujillo, Michael L. Land of Disenchantment: Latina/o Identities and Transformations in Northern New Mexico
Northern New Mexico
(2010) 265 pp; an experimental ethnography that contrasts life in the Espanola Valley with the state's commercial image as the "land of enchantment." Weber; David J. Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
(1973), primary sources to 1912

Primary sources

Ellis, Richard, ed. New Mexico
Mexico
Past and Present: A Historical Reader. 1971. primary sources Tony Hillerman, The Great Taos Bank Robbery and other Indian Country Affairs, University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press, Albuquerque, 1973, trade paperback, 147 pages, (ISBN 0-8263-0530-X), fiction

External links[edit]

Find more aboutNew Mexicoat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage

New Mexico
Mexico
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

State Government[edit]

New Mexico
Mexico
Government New Mexico
Mexico
State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by New Mexico
Mexico
state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BBER) at University of New Mexico
Mexico
– Exists to provide credible and objective data and research to inform economic development and public policy in New Mexico.

US Government[edit]

New Mexico
Mexico
State Guide, from the Library of Congress Energy Profile for New Mexico– Economic, environmental, and energy data New Mexico
Mexico
– Science In Your Backyard – United States
United States
Geological Society "American Southwest" – Discover Our Shared Heritage travel itinerary – National Park Service New Mexico
Mexico
state facts – Economic Research Service – United States Department of Agriculture

Tourism[edit]

Flora of the Gila National Forest
Gila National Forest
in New Mexico Geographic data related to New Mexico
Mexico
at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Oklahoma List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on January 6, 1912 (47th) Succeeded by Arizona

Topics related to New Mexico Land of Enchantment

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 State of New Mexico

Santa Fe (capital)

Topics

Index Delegations Geography Government History

World War II

Landmarks Military Nuevomexicanos New Mexicans Paleontology Municipalities Census-designated places Symbols Transportation Tribes Tourist attractions New Mexican cuisine

Seal of New Mexico

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Central New Mexico Colorado
Colorado
Plateau Eastern New Mexico Llano Estacado Northern New Mexico Permian Basin San Luis Valley Sangre de Cristo Mountains Southwestern New Mexico

Cities

Alamogordo Albuquerque Artesia Carlsbad Clovis Corrales Deming Española Farmington Gallup Grants Hobbs Las Cruces Las Vegas Los Alamos Los Lunas Lovington Portales Raton Rio Rancho Roswell Ruidoso Santa Fe Silver City Socorro Sunland Park Taos Tucumcari

Counties

See: List of counties in New Mexico

Bernalillo Catron Chaves Cibola Colfax Curry De Baca Doña Ana Eddy Grant Guadalupe Harding Hidalgo Lea Lincoln Los Alamos Luna McKinley Mora Otero Quay Rio Arriba Roosevelt San Juan San Miguel Sandoval Santa Fe Sierra Socorro Taos Torrance Union Valencia

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Protected areas of New Mexico

National Parks

Carlsbad Caverns

National Historical Parks

Chaco Culture Manhattan Project Pecos

National Monuments

Aztec
Aztec
Ruins Bandelier Capulin Volcano El Malpais El Morro Fort Union Gila Cliff Dwellings Petroglyph Salinas Pueblo Missions White Sands

National Trails

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Old Spanish Trail Santa Fe Trail

National Forests

Apache-Sitgreaves Carson Cibola Coronado Gila Lincoln Santa Fe

National Grasslands

Kiowa

National Wildlife Refuges

Bitter Lake Bosque del Apache Grulla Las Vegas Maxwell San Andres Sevilleta

National Conservation Areas

El Malpais Fort Stanton – Snowy River Cave

BLM National Monuments

Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks Prehistoric Trackways Rio Grande
Rio Grande
del Norte

National Natural Landmarks

See List of National Natural Landmarks in New Mexico

National Preserves

Valles Caldera

Wilderness

Aldo Leopold Apache
Apache
Kid Bandelier Bisti/De-Na-Zin Blue Range Bosque del Apache Capitan Mountains Carlsbad Caverns Cebolla Chama River Canyon Columbine-Hondo Cruces Basin Dome Gila Latir Peak Manzano Mountain Ojito Pecos Sabinoso Salt Creek San Pedro Parks Sandia Mountain West Malpais Wheeler Peak White Mountain Withington

State Parks

Bluewater Lake Bottomless Lakes Brantley Lake Caballo Lake Cerrillos Hills Cimarron Canyon City of Rocks Clayton Lake Conchas Lake Coyote
Coyote
Creek Eagle Nest Lake El Vado Lake Elephant Butte Lake Fenton Lake Heron Lake Hyde Memorial Leasburg Dam Living Desert Zoo and Gardens Manzano Mountains Mesilla Valley Bosque Morphy Lake Navajo Lake Oasis Oliver Lee Memorial Pancho Villa Percha Dam Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Nature Center Rockhound Santa Rosa Lake Storrie Lake Sugarite Canyon Sumner Lake Ute Lake Vietnam Veterans Memorial Villanueva

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Western United States

Regions

Rocky Mountains Great Basin West Coast Pacific Northwest Mountain States

States

Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Major metropolitan areas

Los Angeles Phoenix San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area San Bernardino-Riverside Seattle San Diego Denver Portland Las Vegas Sacramento

Major cities

Anchorage Albuquerque Denver Honolulu Las Vegas Los Angeles Long Beach Oakland Phoenix Portland Reno Riverside Sacramento San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Jose Salt Lake City Seattle Spokane Tucson

State capitals

Boise Carson City Cheyenne Denver Helena Honolulu Juneau Olympia Phoenix Sacramento Salem Salt Lake City Santa Fe

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  New France
New France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois Country
Illinois Country
Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis (Illinois) Fort St. Louis (Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

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New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
→ Seven Years' War → Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
Spanish American
Spanish American
wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico
Mexico
City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

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Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 34°N 106°W / 34°N 106°W / 34; -106

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131332136 LCCN: n79005595 ISNI: 0000 0004 0647 0855 GND: 4042006-

.