NEW JERSEY is a state in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of
United States. It is a peninsula , bordered on the north and east
by the state of New York ; on the east, southeast, and south by the
New Jerseywas inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenapealong the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. The English later seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jerseyafter the largest of the Channel Islands , Jersey, and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. New Jerseywas the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century.
In the 19th century, factories in cities such as Camden , Paterson , Newark , Trenton , and Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution . New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Bostonand New York Cityto the northeast, and Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting to consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile -oriented suburbs since 2008.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Colonial era * 1.2 Revolutionary War era * 1.3 19th century * 1.4 20th century * 1.5 21st century
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 State population * 3.2 Birth data * 3.3 Languages * 3.4 Religion * 3.5 Settlements * 3.6 Wealth
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Affluence * 4.2 Fiscal policy * 4.3 Federal taxation disparity
* 4.4 Industries
* 4.4.1 Tourism * 4.4.2 Gambling
* 4.5 Natural resources
* 5 Education
* 6 Media and communication
* 6.1 Newspapers * 6.2 On-line news * 6.3 Radio stations * 6.4 Television and film
* 7 Transportation
* 7.1 Roadways * 7.2 Airports * 7.3 Rail and bus * 7.4 Ferries * 7.5 Private bus carriers
* 8 Governance
* 8.1 Executive * 8.2 Legislative * 8.3 Judicial * 8.4 Counties
* 8.5 Municipalities
* 8.5.1 Forms of municipal government
* 8.6 Politics
* 8.6.1 Social attitudes and issues * 8.6.2 Elections * 8.6.3 Capital punishment
* 9 Points of interest
* 9.1 Museums * 9.2 Entertainment and concert venues * 9.3 Theme parks * 9.4 JerseyShore
* 10 Sports
* 10.1 Professional sports * 10.2 College sports * 10.3 High-school sports
* 11 Culture
* 11.1 General * 11.2 Cuisine * 11.3 Music * 11.4 Comics and video games
* 12 State symbols * 13 Notable people * 14 See also * 15 References
* 16 External links
* 16.1 State government * 16.2 U.S. government * 16.3 Other
Main article: History of New Jersey
Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains. Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic , as well as many rivers, swamps, and gorges.
New Jerseywas originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni- Lenapebeing dominant at the time of contact. _Scheyichbi_ is the Lenapename for the land that is now New Jersey. The Lenapewere several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound . The Lenapesociety was divided into matrilinear clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle , Turkey , and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade .
The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherlandconsisted of parts of modern Middle Atlanticstates. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West IndiaCompany policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen . Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden. The entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicollssailed into what is today New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province.
During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jerseyremained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King . It was from the Royal Square in St. Helierthat Charles II of Englandwas proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I . The North American lands were divided by Charles II , who gave his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II ), the region between New Englandand Marylandas a proprietary colony (as opposed to a royal colony ). James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River(the land that would become New Jersey) to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteretand Lord Berkeley of Stratton . The area was named the Province of New Jersey.
Since the state's inception, New Jerseyhas been characterized by ethnic and religious diversity . New EnglandCongregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformedmigrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres (40 ha), a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakersand Anglicansowned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony, Jamestown and other colonies, New Jerseywas populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jerseyremained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed sporadically. Some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware Riverand Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York Cityand Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775.
Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack Riverand Arthur Kill– settlers came primarily from New York and New England. On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold his half of the colony to Quakersin England, who settled the DelawareValley region as a Quaker colony. ( William Pennacted as trustee for the lands for a time.) New Jerseywas governed very briefly as two distinct provinces, East and West Jersey, for 28 years between 1674 and 1702, at times part of the Province of New Yorkor Dominion of New England.
In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal governor , rather than a proprietary one . Edward Hyde , Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the colony as a royal colony. Britain believed that he was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, taking bribes and speculating on land. In 1708 he was recalled to England. New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused those governors of favoritism to New York. Judge Lewis Morris led the case for a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738.
REVOLUTIONARY WAR ERA
New Jerseywas one of the Thirteen Coloniesthat revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. The New JerseyConstitution of 1776 was passed July 2, 1776, just two days before the Second Continental Congressdeclared American Independence from Great Britain . It was an act of the Provincial Congress , which made itself into the state Legislature. To reassure neutrals, it provided that it would become void if New Jerseyreached reconciliation with Great Britain.
New Jerseyrepresentatives Richard Stockton , John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart , and Abraham Clarkwere among those who signed the United StatesDeclaration of Independence . _ Washington Crossing the Delaware_ during the New York and New Jersey campaign , winter 1777
During the American Revolutionary War, British and American armies crossed New Jerseynumerous times, and several pivotal battles took place in the state. Because of this, New Jerseytoday is often referred to as "The Crossroads of the American Revolution." The winter quarters of the Continental Armywere established there twice by General George Washingtonin Morristown , which has been called "The Military Capital of the American Revolution". George Washington rallying his troops at the Battle of Princeton
On the night of December 25–26, 1776, the Continental Armyunder George Washingtoncrossed the Delaware River. After the crossing, he surprised and defeated the Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton. Slightly more than a week after victory at Trenton , American forces gained an important victory by stopping General Cornwallis\'s charges at the Second Battle of Trenton. By evading Cornwallis's army, Washington made a surprise attack on Princeton and successfully defeated the British forces there on January 3, 1777. Emanuel Leutze 's painting of _Washington Crossing the Delaware_ became an icon of the Revolution.
American forces under Washington met the forces under General Henry Clinton at the Battle of Monmouthin an indecisive engagement in June 1778. Washington attempted to take the British column by surprise; when the British army attempted to flank the Americans, the Americans retreated in disorder. The ranks were later reorganized and withstood the British charges.
In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congressmet in Nassau Hallat Princeton University, making Princeton the nation's capital for four months. It was there that the Continental Congresslearned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the war.
On December 18, 1787, New Jerseybecame the third state to ratify the United StatesConstitution , which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey, as it prevented New York and Pennsylvaniafrom charging tariffs on goods imported from Europe. On November 20, 1789, the state became the first in the newly formed Union to ratify the Bill of Rights .
The 1776 New JerseyState Constitution gave the vote to "all inhabitants" who had a certain level of wealth. This included women and blacks, but not married women, because they could not own property separately from their husbands. Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote and mocked them for use of "petticoat electors", whether entitled to vote or not; on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts. In 1807, the legislature passed a bill interpreting the constitution to mean universal _white male_ suffrage , excluding paupers; the constitution was itself an act of the legislature and not enshrined as the modern constitution.
Main article: New Jerseyin the 19th century
On February 15, 1804, New Jerseybecame the last northern state to abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery. This led to a gradual decrease of the slave population. By the close of the Civil War , about a dozen African Americans in New Jerseywere still held in bondage. New Jerseyvoters initially refused to ratify the constitutional amendments banning slavery and granting rights to the United States' black population. A map of the 107-mile long Morris Canalacross northern New Jersey
Industrializationaccelerated in the northern part of the state following completion of the Morris Canalin 1831. The canal allowed for coal to be brought from eastern Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valleyto northern New Jersey's growing industries in Paterson , Newark , and JerseyCity .
In 1844, the second state constitution was ratified and brought into effect. Counties thereby became districts for the State Senate, and some realignment of boundaries (including the creation of Mercer County ) immediately followed. This provision was retained in the 1947 Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1962 by the decision _ Baker v. Carr_. While the Governorship was stronger than under the 1776 constitution, the constitution of 1844 created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself.
Jerseywas one of the few Union states (the others being Delaware
Kentucky) to select a candidate other than
in national elections, and sided with
Stephen Douglas(1860) and
George B. McClellan(1864) during their campaigns. McClellan, a native
Philadelphian, had New
Jerseyties and formally resided in New Jersey
at the time; he later became
Governor of New Jersey
In the Industrial Revolution, cities like Paterson grew and prospered. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk. Inventor Thomas Edison also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1,093 patents , many of which for inventions he developed while working in New Jersey. Edison's facilities, first at Menlo Park and then in West Orange , are considered perhaps the first research centers in the U.S. Christie Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to have electric lighting. Transportation was greatly improved as locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey.
Ironmining was also a leading industry during the middle to late 19th century. Bog ironpits in the southern New JerseyPinelands were among the first sources of iron for the new nation. Mines such as Mt. Hope, Mine Hill and the Rockaway Valley Mines created a thriving industry. Mininggenerated the impetus for new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal. Zincmines were also a major industry, especially the Sterling Hill Mine. Thomas Edisonin his laboratory, West Orange, New Jersey, 1901
Main article: New Jerseyin the 20th century
Through both World Wars , New
Jerseywas a center for war production,
especially in naval construction. Battleships, cruisers, and
destroyers were made in this state. New
percent of total
United Statesmilitary armaments produced during
World WarII , ranking fifth among the 48 states. In addition, Fort
Dix (1917) (originally called "Camp Dix"), Camp Merritt (1917) and
Camp Kilmer(1941) were all constructed to house and train American
soldiers through both World Wars. New
Jerseyalso became a principal
location for defense in the
Cold War. Fourteen Nike Missile stations
were constructed, especially for the defense of
New York Cityand
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. _PT-109 _, a motor torpedo boat commanded
by Lt. (j.g.)
John F. Kennedy
Jerseyprospered through the
In the 1960s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey. The first race riots in New Jerseyoccurred in Jersey City on August 2, 1964. Several others ensued in 1967, in Newark and Plainfield . Other riots followed the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in April 1968, just as in the rest of the country. A riot occurred in Camden in 1971.
In the early part of the 2000s, two light rail systems were opened: the Hudson–Bergen Light Railin Hudson County and the River Line between Camden and Trenton. The intent of these projects were to encourage transit-oriented development in North Jerseyand South Jersey, respectively. The HBLR in particular was credited with a revitalization of Hudson County and JerseyCity in particular. Urban revitalization has continued in North Jerseyin the 21st century. As of 2014, JerseyCity's Census-estimated population was 262,146, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jerseysince 2010, representing an increase of 5.9% from the 2010 United StatesCensus , when the city's population was enumerated at 247,597. In 2010 , Newark experienced its first population increase since the 1950s.
High Point Monumentas seen from Lake Marcia at High Point, Sussex County , the highest elevation in New Jerseyat 1803 feet above sea level. New Jerseyshares the DelawareWater Gap with neighboring Pennsylvania Sunset at Cape Mayon the Jersey Shore Part of the Palisades Interstate Park, the cliffs of the New JerseyPalisades overlook the Hudson River South Mountain Reservation in Millburn , Essex County The Great Falls of the Passaic Riverin Paterson , dedicated as a U.S. National Park in November 2011, incorporates one of the largest waterfalls in the eastern United States. Main article: Geography of New Jersey See also: List of counties in New Jersey
New Jerseyis bordered on the north and northeast by New York (parts of which are across the Hudson River, Upper New York Bay, the Kill Van Kull , Newark Bay, and the Arthur Kill); on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the southwest by Delawareacross Delaware Bay; and on the west by Pennsylvaniaacross the Delaware River.
Jerseycan be thought of as five regions, based upon natural
geography and population concentration. Northeastern New Jersey, the
Gateway Region, lies closest to
New Jerseyalso can be broadly divided into three geographic regions: North Jersey, Central Jersey, and South Jersey. Some New Jersey residents do not consider Central Jerseya region in its own right, but others believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area from the North and South.
The federal Office of Management and Budgetdivides New Jersey's counties into seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas , including sixteen counties in the New York Cityor Philadelphiametro areas. Four counties have independent metro areas, and Warren County is part of the Pennsylvania-based Lehigh Valleymetro area. (See Metropolitan Statistical Areas of New Jerseyfor details.)
It is also at the center of the Northeast megalopolis.
There are two climatic conditions in the state. The south, central, and northeast parts of the state have a humid subtropical climate, while the northwest has a humid continental climate (microthermal ), with much cooler temperatures due to higher elevation. New Jersey receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually.
Summers are typically hot and humid, with statewide average high temperatures of 82–87 °F (28–31 °C) and lows of 60–69 °F (16–21 °C); however, temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average 25 days each summer, exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) in some years. Winters are usually cold, with average high temperatures of 34–43 °F (1–6 °C) and lows of 16 to 28 °F (−9 to −2 °C) for most of the state, but temperatures could, for brief periods, fall below 10 °F (−12 °C) and occasionally rise above 50 °F (10 °C). Northwestern parts of the state have significantly colder winters with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) being an almost annual occurrence. Spring and autumn may feature wide temperature variations, with lower humidity than summer. The USDA Plant Hardiness Zone classification ranges from 6 in the northwest of the state, to 7B near Cape May. All-time temperature extremes recorded in New Jerseyinclude 110 °F (43 °C) on July 10, 1936 in Runyon , Middlesex County and −34 °F (−37 °C) on January 5, 1904 in River Vale , Bergen County.
Average annual precipitation ranges from 43 to 51 inches (1,100 to 1,300 mm), uniformly spread through the year. Average snowfall per winter season ranges from 10–15 inches (25–38 cm) in the south and near the seacoast, 15–30 inches (38–76 cm) in the northeast and central part of the state, to about 40–50 inches (1.0–1.3 m) in the northwestern highlands, but this often varies considerably from year to year. Precipitation falls on an average of 120 days a year, with 25 to 30 thunderstorms, most of which occur during the summer.
During winter and early spring, New Jerseycan experience "nor\'easters ", which are capable of causing blizzards or flooding throughout the northeastern United States. Hurricanes and tropical storms (such as Tropical Storm Floyd in 1999 ), tornadoes , and earthquakes are rare, although New Jerseywas severely impacted by HurricaneSandy on October 29, 2012 with the storm making landfall in the state at 90 mph.
Average high and low temperatures in various cities of New Jersey °C (°F)
CITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
SUSSEX 1/−9 (34/16) 3/−8 (38/18) 8/−4 (47/26) 15/2 (59/36) 21/7 (70/45) 25/12 (78/55) 28/16 (82/60) 27/14 (81/58) 23/10 (73/50) 17/4 (62/38) 11/−1 (51/31) 4/−6 (39/22)
NEWARK 4/−4 (39/24) 6/−3 (42/27) 10/1 (51/34) 17/7 (62/44) 22/12 (72/53) 28/17 (82/63) 30/20 (86/69) 29/20 (84/68) 25/15 (77/60) 18/9 (65/48) 13/4 (55/39) 6/−1 (44/30)
ATLANTIC CITY 5/−2 (42/29) 6/−1 (44/31) 10/3 (50/37) 14/8 (58/46) 19/13 (67/55) 24/18 (76/64) 27/21 (81/70) 27/21 (80/70) 24/18 (75/64) 18/11 (65/53) 13/6 (56/43) 8/1 (46/34)
CAPE MAY 6/−2 (42/28) 7/−2 (44/29) 11/2 (51/35) 16/7 (61/44) 21/12 (70/53) 26/17 (79/63) 29/20 (85/68) 29/19 (83/67) 25/16 (78/61) 19/9 (67/50) 14/4 (57/41) 8/0 (47/32)
EST. 2016 8,944,469
Source: 1910–2010 2015 Estimate
New Jerseypopulation distribution
The United StatesCensus Bureau estimates that the population of New Jerseywas 8,958,013 on July 1, 2015, a 1.89% increase since the 2010 United StatesCensus . Residents of New Jerseyare most commonly referred to as "New Jerseyans" or, less commonly, as "New Jerseyites". As of the 2010 census, there were 8,791,894 people residing in the state. The racial makeup of the state was:
17.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).
NEW JERSEY RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1970 1990 2000 2010
White 88.6% 79.3% 72.5% 68.6%
Black 10.7% 13.4% 13.6% 13.7%
Asian 0.3% 3.5% 5.7% 8.3%
Native 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3%
Other race 0.3% 3.6% 5.4% 6.4%
Two or more races – – 2.5% 2.7%
Non-Hispanic Whiteswere 58.9% of the population in 2011, down from 85% in 1970.
In 2010, undocumented immigrants constituted an estimated 6.4% of the population. This was the fourth highest percentage of any state in the country. There were an estimated 550,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010.
The United StatesCensus Bureau , as of July 1, 2015 , estimated New Jersey's population at 8,958,013, which represents an increase of 166,119, or 1.89%, since the last census in 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 343,965 people (that is, 933,185 births minus 589,220 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 53,930 people out of the state. Immigrationfrom outside the United Statesresulted in a net increase of 384,687 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 438,617 people. As of 2005 , there were 1.6 million foreign-born living in the state (accounting for 19.2% of the population).
As of 2010, New Jerseyis the eleventh-most populous state in the United States, and the most densely populated, at 1,185 residents per square mile (458 per km2), with most of the population residing in the counties surrounding New York City, Philadelphia, and along the eastern JerseyShore , while the extreme southern and northwestern counties are relatively less dense overall. It is also the second wealthiest state according to the U.S. Census Bureau.
The center of population for New Jerseyis located in Middlesex County , in the town of Milltown , just east of the New Jersey Turnpike .
New Jerseyis home to more scientists and engineers _per square mile_ than anywhere else in the world.
On October 21, 2013, same-sex marriages commenced in New Jersey.
New Jerseyis one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse states in the country. As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's children under the age of one belonged to racial or ethnic minority groups, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. It has the second largest Jewish population by percentage (after New York); the second largest Muslimpopulation by percentage (after Michigan); the largest population of Peruvian Americans in the United States; the largest population of Cubans outside of Florida; the third highest Asian population by percentage; and the third highest Italian population by percentage, according to the 2000 Census . African Americans, Hispanics (Puerto Ricans and Dominicans ), West Indians , Arabs , and Brazilian and Portuguese Americansare also high in number. New Jerseyhas the third highest Asian Indianpopulation of any state by absolute numbers and the highest by percentage, with Bergen Countyhome to America's largest Malayalicommunity. Overall, New Jerseyhas the third largest Korean population, with Bergen County home to the highest Korean concentration per capita of any U.S. county (6.9% in 2011). New Jerseyalso has the fourth largest Filipino population, and fourth largest Chinese population, per the 2010 U.S. Census. The five largest ethnic groups in 2000 were: Italian (17.9%), Irish (15.9%), African (13.6%), German (12.6%), Polish (6.9%).
Newark was the fourth poorest of U.S. cities with over 250,000 residents in 2008, but New Jerseyas a whole had the second-highest median household income as of 2014. This is largely because so much of New Jerseyconsists of suburbs, most of them affluent, of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jerseyis also the most densely populated state, and the only state that has had every one of its counties deemed "urban" as defined by the Census Bureau 's Combined Statistical Area . _ Bergen Countyis home to all of the nation\'s top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population , led by Palisades Park (above), a borough where Koreanscomprise the majority (52%) of the population. India Square, JerseyCity , known as Little Bombay_, home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere. Immigrantsfrom Indiaconstituted the largest foreign-born nationality in New Jerseyin 2013. Metropolitan statistical areas and divisions of New Jersey. The New York City Metropolitan Area includes the counties shaded in blue hues, as well as Mercer and Warren counties, the latter representing part of the Lehigh Valley. Counties shaded in green hues, as well as Atlantic , Cape May, and Cumberland counties, belong to the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area .
In 2010, 6.2% of its population was reported as under age 5, 23.5% under 18, and 13.5% were 65 or older; and females made up approximately 51.3% of the population.
A study by the Pew Research Centerfound that in 2013, New Jerseywas the only U.S. statein which immigrants born in Indiaconstituted the largest foreign-born nationality, representing roughly 10% of all foreign-born residents in the state.
For further information on various ethnic groups and neighborhoods prominently featured within New Jersey, see the following articles:
* Indians in the New York Citymetropolitan region * Chinese in the New York Citymetropolitan region * List of U.S. cities with significant Korean Americanpopulations * Filipinos in the New York Citymetropolitan region * Filipinos in New Jersey * Russians in the New York Citymetropolitan region * Bergen County#Community diversity * JerseyCity#Community diversity * India Squarein JerseyCity, home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere * Ironbound, a Portuguese and Brazilian enclave in Newark * Five Corners , a Filipino enclave in JerseyCity * Havana on the Hudson, a Cuban enclave in Hudson County * Koreatown, Fort Lee, a Korean enclave in southeast Bergen County * Koreatown, Palisades Park, also a Korean enclave in southeast Bergen County * Little Bangladesh , a Bangladeshi enclave in Paterson * Little Istanbul, also known as Little Ramallah, a Middle Eastern enclave in Paterson * Little Lima, a Peruvian enclave in Paterson
As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).
_Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number._
Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015
White 71,729 (69.9%) 71,033 (68.8%) 72,400 (70.2%)
> Non-Hispanic White 48,018 (46.8%) 48,196 (46.6%) 47,425 (46.0%)
Black 19,139 (18.7%) 20,102 (19.4%) 18,363 (17.8%)
Asian 11,511 (11.2%) 11,977 (11.6%) 12,192 (11.8%)
Native 196 (0.2%) 193 (0.2%) 172 (0.2%)
_Hispanic _ (of any race) _27,251 (26.6%)_ _27,267 (26.4%)_ _27,919 (27.1%)_
TOTAL NEW JERSEY 102,575 (100%) 103,305 (100%) 103,127 (100%)
TOP 10 NON-ENGLISH LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN NEW JERSEY LANGUAGE Percentage of population (as of 2010)
Chinese (including Cantoneseand Mandarin ) 1.23%
As of 2010, 71.31% (5,830,812) of New Jerseyresidents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language , while 14.59% (1,193,261) spoke Spanish , 1.23% (100,217) Chinese (which includes Cantoneseand Mandarin ), 1.06% (86,849) Italian , 1.06% (86,486) Portuguese , 0.96% (78,627) Tagalog , and Korean was spoken as a main language by 0.89% (73,057) of the population over the age of five. In total, 28.69% (2,345,644) of New Jersey's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.
A diverse collection of languages has since evolved amongst the state's population, given that New Jerseyhas become cosmopolitan and is home to ethnic enclaves of non-English-speaking communities:
* Albanian – Paterson , Garfield
* Arabic – Paterson,
* Armenian –
* Bahasa Indonesia – Middlesex , Somerset , and Union counties
* Bengali – Paterson
* Farsi – Bergen County
* Greek – Bergen County
* Japanese – Edgewater and Fort Lee boroughs in Bergen County
* Korean –
Bergen County(numerous municipalities) ; Cherry Hill
* Macedonian – Bergen County
Malayalam– Bergen County
* Mandarin Chinese
* Polish – Garfield; Wallington borough of Bergen County
* Portuguese –
Ironboundsection of Newark ; Elizabeth
* Russian – Fair Lawn borough of Bergen County
* Turkish –
Little Istanbulsection of Paterson
* Vietnamese –
High-riseresidential complexes in the borough of Fort Lee , Bergen County Paterson , known as the "Silk City", has become a prime destination for an internationally diverse pool of immigrants , with at least 52 distinct ethnic groups. Skyscrapers in JerseyCity , one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the world. Federal Courthouse in Camden , which is connected to Philadelphiavia the Benjamin Franklin Bridgein the background
See also: Religion in New Jersey _ Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Newark , the fifth-largest cathedral in North America , is the seat of the city's Roman Catholic Archdiocese . Temple Sharey Tefilo-Israel, in South Orange , Essex County . New Jerseyis home to the second-highest Jewish American( Hebrew) population per capita, after New York . Swaminarayan Akshardham ( Devnagari) in Robbinsville , Mercer County , inaugurated in 2014 as the world's largest Hindu temple. Little Ramallah_ in Paterson is an increasingly popular destination for Muslimimmigrants.
By number of adherents, the largest denominations in New Jersey, according to the Association of Religion Data Archivesin 2010, were the Roman Catholic Churchwith 3,235,290; Islamwith 160,666; and the United Methodist Churchwith 138,052. The world's largest Hindu temple was inaugurated in Robbinsville , Mercer County , in central New Jerseyduring 2014, a BAPStemple.
See also: List of counties in New Jersey
* Bergen County: 905,116 * Middlesex County : 809,858 * Essex County : 783,969 * Hudson County : 634,266 * Monmouth County : 630,380 * Ocean County : 576,567 * Union County : 536,499 * Camden County : 513,657 * Passaic County : 501,226 * Morris County : 492,276
See also: List of municipalities in New Jersey
For its overall population and nation-leading population density, New Jerseyhas a relative paucity of classic large cities. This paradox is most pronounced in Bergen County, New Jersey's most populous county, whose more than 930,000 residents in 2014 inhabited 70 municipalities, the most populous being Hackensack , with 44,519 residents estimated in 2014. Many urban areas extend far beyond the limits of a single large city, as New Jerseycities (and indeed municipalities in general) tend to be geographically small; three of the four largest cities in New Jerseyby population have under 20 square miles of land area, and eight of the top ten, including all of the top five have land area under 30 square miles. As of the United States2010 Census , only four municipalities had populations in excess of 100,000, although Edison and Woodbridge came very close.
* v * t * e
Largest cities or towns in New Jersey Source: List of municipalities in New Jersey
RANK NAME COUNTY POP.
JerseyCity 1 Newark Essex 277,140
2 JerseyCity Hudson 247,597
3 Paterson Passaic 146,199
4 Elizabeth Union 124,969
5 Edison Middlesex 99,967
6 Woodbridge Middlesex 99,585
7 Lakewood Ocean 92,843
8 Toms River Ocean 91,239
9 Hamilton Mercer 88,464
10 Trenton Mercer 84,913
These are the five cities and towns gaining the highest total numbers of residents between 2010 and 2014:
* JerseyCity : increase of 14,549, bringing the total number of residents to 262,146 * Elizabeth : increase of 3,736, bringing the total number of residents to 128,705 * Monroe Township, Middlesex County : increase of 3,678, bringing the total number of residents to 42,810 * Franklin Township, Somerset County : increase of 3,638, bringing the total number of residents to 65,938 * Newark : increase of 3,439, bringing the total number of residents to 280,579
Main article: New Jerseylocations by per capita income
The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysisestimates that New Jersey's gross state product in 2010 was $487 billion. New Jersey's estimated taxpayer burden in 2015 was $59,400 per taxpayer.
New Jersey's per capita gross state product in 2008 was $54,699, second in the U.S. and above the national per capita gross domestic product of $46,588. Its per capita income was the third highest in the nation with $51,358. In 2013, the state had the second-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States(ratio of 7.49%), according to a study by Phoenix Marketing International. It is ranked 2nd in the nation by the number of places with per capita incomes above national average with 76.4%. Nine of New Jersey's counties are in the wealthiest 100 of the country. A heat map showing median income distribution by county in New Jersey.
New Jerseyhas seven tax brackets that determine state income tax rates, which range from 1.4% to 8.97%. The standard sales tax rate as of January 1, 2017, is 6.875%, applicable to all retail sales unless specifically exempt by law. Tax exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medications, most clothing, footwear, and disposable paper products for use in the home. Approximately 30 New Jerseymunicipalities are designated as Urban Enterprise Zones , in which shoppers are charged a 3½% sales tax rate, half of the rate charged outside the UEZs. Sections of Paterson , Elizabeth , and JerseyCity are examples of communities that are subject to the lower sales tax rate.
New Jerseyhas the highest cumulative tax rate of all 50 states with residents paying a total of $68 billion in state and local taxes annually with a per capita burden of $7,816 at a rate of 12.9% of income. All real property located in the state is subject to property tax unless specifically exempted by statute. New Jerseydoes not assess an intangible personal property tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax .
FEDERAL TAXATION DISPARITY
New Jerseyconsistently ranks as having one of the highest proportional levels of disparity of any state in the United States based upon what it receives from the federal government relative to what it gives. In 2015, WalletHub ranked New Jerseythe state least dependent upon federal government aid overall and having the fourth lowest return on taxpayer investment from the federal government, at 48 cents per dollar.
New Jerseyhas one of the highest tax burdens in the nation. Factors for this include the large federal tax liability which is not adjusted for New Jersey's higher cost of living and Medicaid funding formulas. As shown by the study, incomes tend to be higher in New Jersey, which puts those in higher tax brackets especially vulnerable to the alternative minimum tax .
New Jersey's economy is multifaceted but is nevertheless centered upon the pharmaceutical industry , the financial industry , chemical development, telecommunications , food processing, electric equipment, printing, publishing, and tourism. New Jersey's agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits and nuts, seafood, and dairy products. New Jerseyranks second among states in blueberry production, third in cranberries and spinach , and fourth in bell peppers , peaches , and head lettuce . New Jerseyharvests the fourth-largest number of acres planted with asparagus.
Although New Jerseyis home to many energy-intensive industries, its energy consumption is only 2.7% of the U.S. total, and its carbon dioxide emissions are 0.8% of the U.S. total. Its comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to nuclear power. According to the Energy Information Administration, nuclear power dominates New Jersey's electricity market, typically supplying more than one-half of State generation. New Jerseyhas three nuclear power plants, including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, which came online in 1969 and is the oldest operating nuclear plant in the country.
New Jerseyhas a strong scientific economy and is home to major pharmaceutical and telecommunications firms. There is also a strong service economy in New Jerseyserving residents who work in New York City or Philadelphiain retail sales, education, and real estate. Furthermore, New Jerseydraws upon its large and well-educated labor pool, which also supports the myriad of industries that exists today.
Shipping is a strong industry in New Jerseybecause of the state's strategic geographic location, the Portof New York and New Jersey being the busiest port on the East Coast . The PortNewark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and is one of the world's largest container ports. New Jerseyalso has a strong presence in chemical development, refining, and food processing operations.
New Jerseyhosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune 500companies. Paramus in Bergen Countyhas become the top retail zip code (07652) in the United States, with the municipality generating over $5 billion in annual retail sales. Several New Jerseycounties such as Somerset (7), Morris (10), Hunterdon (13), Bergen (21), Monmouth (42) counties are ranked among the highest-income counties in the United States. Four others are also in the top 100.
New Jersey's location as a crossroads of commerce and its extensive
transportation system have put over one third of all United States
residents and many Canadian residents within overnight distance by
land. This accessibility to consumer revenue has enabled seaside
resorts such as
Main article: Gambling in New Jersey
In 1976, a referendum of New
Jerseyvoters approved casino gambling
in Atlantic City, where the first legalized casino opened in 1978. At
that time, Las Vegas was the only mega-casino resort. Several casinos
lie along the
Forests cover 45%, or approximately 2.1 million acres, of New Jersey's land area. The chief tree of the northern forests is the oak . The PineBarrens , consisting of pine forests, is in the southern part of the state.
Some mining activity of zinc , iron , and manganese still takes place in the area in and around the Franklin Furnace.
New Jerseyis second in the nation in solar power installations, enabled by one of the country's most favorable net metering policies, and the renewable energy certificates program. The state has more than 10,000 solar installations.
See also: Post-secondary education in New Jersey, Primary education in the United States, Secondary education in the United States, Higher education in the United States, and Education in the United States Bishop House at Rutgers University, which in 2013 gained medical and dental schools intended to augment its profile as a national research university . Cleveland Tower dominates the skyline of Princeton UniversityGraduate College .
In 2010, there were 605 school districts in the state .
Secretary of Education Rick Rosenberg, appointed by Governor Jon Corzine , created the Education Advancement Initiative (EAI) to increase college admission rates by 10% for New Jersey's high school students, decrease dropout rates by 15%, and increase the amount of money devoted to schools by 10%. Rosenberg retracted this plan when criticized for taking the money out of healthcare to fund this initiative.
In 2010 the state government paid all of the teachers' premiums for health insurance, but currently all NJ public teachers pay a portion of their own health insurance premiums.
Census data reveal that New Jerseyspent more per each public school student than any other state except New York in 2009, amounting to $16,271 spent per pupil, with 41% of the revenue derived from state sources.
According to 2011 _ Newsweek_ statistics, students of High Technology High School in Lincroft , Monmouth County and Bergen CountyAcademies in Hackensack , Bergen Countyregistered average SATscores of 2145 and 2100, respectively, representing the second- and third-highest scores, respectively, of all listed U.S. high schools.
Princeton Universityin Princeton , Mercer County , was ranked the top U.S. national university per the 2017 list of _U.S. News "> New Jersey's area codes
Major New Jerseynewspapers including the following:
* _ Asbury Park Press_ * _ Burlington County Times_ * _Courier News _ * _ Courier-Post_ * _Cranford Chronicle_ * _Daily Record _ (Morris) * _ The Express-Times_ * _ Gloucester County Times_ * _ Herald News_ * _ Home News Tribune_ * _ Hunterdon County Democrat_ * _Independent Press_
* _The New
The News of Cumberland County_
* _The Press of
Since 2006 there have been a growing number of hyperlocal news sites. These sites provide relevant news for their respective communities.
Main article: List of radio stations in New Jersey
TELEVISION AND FILM
Main article: Television and film of New Jersey
Motion picture technology was developed by Thomas Edison, with much of his early work done at his West Orange laboratory. Edison\'s Black Maria was the first motion picture studio. America\'s first motion picture industry started in 1907 in Fort Lee and the first studio was constructed there in 1909. DuMont Laboratoriesin Passaic , developed early sets and made the first broadcast to the private home.
A number of television shows and films have been filmed in New
Jersey. Since 1978, the state has maintained a Motion Picture and
Television Commission to encourage filming in-state. New
long offered tax credits to television producers. Governor Chris
Christie suspended the credits in 2010, but the New
Main article: Transportation in New Jersey
Map of New Jerseyshowing major transportation networks and cities The George Washington Bridge, connecting Fort Lee (foreground) in Bergen Countyacross the Hudson Riverto New York City , is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge. See also: List of New JerseyState Highways
The New JerseyTurnpike is one of the most prominent and heavily traveled roadways in the United States. This toll road carries interstate traffic between Delawareand New York, and the East Coast in general. Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike," it is known for its numerous rest areas named after prominent New Jerseyans as diverse as inventor Thomas Edison; United StatesSecretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton; United StatesPresidents Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson; writers James Fenimore Cooper, Joyce Kilmer , and Walt Whitman; patriot Molly Pitcher; Red Cross founder Clara Barton; and football coach Vince Lombardi.
Garden State Parkway, or simply "the Parkway," carries
relatively more in-state traffic than interstate traffic and runs from
the town of Montvale along New Jersey's northern border to its
southernmost tip at
Cape Mayfor 172.4 miles (277.5 km). It is the
trunk that connects the
New York metropolitan area
Jerseyis connected to
New York Cityvia various bridges and
tunnels . The double-decked
heaviest load of motor vehicle traffic of any bridge in the world,
at 102 million vehicles per year, over fourteen lanes, from Fort Lee,
Bergen Countyacross the
Hudson Riverto the
Other expressways in New
New Jerseyhas interstate compacts with all three of its neighboring states. The PortAuthority of New York and New Jersey, the Delaware River PortAuthority (with Pennsylvania), and the Delaware Riverand Bay Authority (with Delaware) operate most of the major transportation routes into and out of New Jersey. Bridgetolls are collected in one direction only – it is free to cross into New Jersey, but motorists must pay when exiting the state. Exceptions to this are the Dingman\'s Ferry Bridgeand the Delaware River– Turnpike Toll Bridgewhere tolls are charged both ways. The Washington Crossing and Scudders Falls (on I-95) bridges near Trenton, as well as Trenton's Calhoun Street and BridgeStreet ("Trenton Makes") bridges, are toll-free. In addition, * Riverton-Belvidere Bridge, Northampton Street Bridge, Riegelsville Bridge, and Upper Black Eddy-Milford Bridgeare free Delaware Riverbridges into and out of NJ.
New Jerseybecame the only U.S. statewhere all fuel dispensing stations are required to sell full-service gasoline to customers at all times, after Oregon's introduction of restricted self-service gasoline availability took effect in 2016. It is unlawful for a customer to serve oneself gasoline in New Jersey.
Newark Liberty International Airportis one of the busiest airports
in the United States. Operated by the
PortAuthority of New York and
Jersey, which runs the other two major airports in the New York
metropolitan area (
John F. Kennedy
Two smaller commercial airports,
RAIL AND BUS
Main article: New JerseyTransit Further information: New Jersey Transit Bus Operations , New JerseyTransit Rail Operations , Port Authority Trans-Hudson , and PATCO Speedline A NJ Transittrain heads down the Northeast Corridorthrough Rahway, New Jersey Two Hudson-Bergen Light Railtrains in JerseyCity , New Jersey
NJ TransitCorporation (NJ Transit) operates extensive rail and
bus service throughout the state.
NJ Transitis a state-run
corporation that began with the consolidation of several private bus
companies in North Jersey. In the early 1980s, it acquired the
commuter train operations of
Conrailthat connect towns in northern
and central New
Jerseyto New York City.
NJ Transithas eleven lines
that run throughout different parts of the state. Most of the trains
start at various points in the state and most end at either
PennsylvaniaStation , in New York City, or
NJ Transitbegan service between
NJ Transitalso operates three light rail systems in the state. The Hudson-Bergen Light Railconnects Bayonne to North Bergen , with planned expansion into Bergen Countycommunities. The Newark Light Rail is partially underground, and connects downtown Newark with other parts of the city. The River Line connects Trenton and Camden .
The PATH is a subway and above-ground railway which links Hoboken ,
JerseyCity , Harrison and Newark with New York City. The PATH
operates four lines that connect various points in North
New York. The lines all terminate in Hudson County , Essex County or
The PATCO High Speedline links Camden County and Philadelphia. PATCO operates a single elevated and subway line that runs from Lindenwold to Center City Philadelphia. PATCO operates stations in Lindenwold, Voorhees , Cherry Hill , Haddonfield , Haddon Township , Collingswood , and Camden , along with four stations in Philadelphia.
Amtrakalso operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jerseyto and from neighboring states and around the country. In addition to the Newark Airport connection, other major Amtrakrailway stations include Trenton Rail Station , Metropark , and the grand historic Newark Penn Station .
Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned buses are provided to these carriers of which Coach USAcompanies make up the bulk. Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and Delawareto the casino resorts of Atlantic City.
Portof New York and New
Jersey, New York Waterway has ferry
terminals at Belford Harbor ,
JerseyCity , Hoboken ,
Edgewater Landing. There are slips at
Exchange Place in
Hoboken Terminaland 14th Street in Hoboken. Manhattan
terminals are located at
Wall Street/Pier 11, Battery Park City (BPC)
West Midtown Ferry Terminal.
Liberty Water Taxiin
Liberty State Parkto (BPC). Statue
Cruises has service from
Liberty State Parkand Statue of Liberty
National Monument , including
Ellis Island. (Although there is a
Ellis Islandto the park built for renovations on the
island it is not open for public use.)
SeaStreakoffers services from
On the Delaware Bay, the Delaware Riverand Bay Authority operates the Cape May-Lewes Ferry. The agency also operates the Forts Ferry Crossing for passengers across the Delaware River. The DelawareRiver PortAuthority operates the RiverLink Ferrybetween the Camden waterfront and Penn\'s Landing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
PRIVATE BUS CARRIERS
Several private bus lines provide transportation service in the state of New Jersey. Below is a list of major carriers and their areas of operation:
* Academy – commuter bus service from Burlington , Middlesex ,
Monmouth , and Ocean counties to lower and midtown
* Community Coach– commuter bus service from Essex and Morris counties * ONE Bus/Olympia Trails – local bus service in Essex and Union counties, commuter bus service from the Raritan Valley to Manhattan * Red & Tan in Hudson County– local bus service in Hudson County * Rockland Coaches– commuter and local bus service from Bergen County to Manhattan * Suburban Trails– commuter bus service from Middlesex County to Manhattan, local bus service in Middlesex County
DeCamp Bus Lines– commuter bus service from Essex County to
* Greyhound – interstate bus service from terminals in Newark,
Atlantic City, and Mount Laurel
Lakeland Bus Lines– commuter and local bus service from Morris,
Somerset , Union, and Sussex counties to Manhattan
* Martz Trailways – service from Warren County to Manhattan
* Montgomery ">
The position of
Governor of New Jersey
Before 2010, New
Jerseywas one of the few states without a
lieutenant governor . Republican
The New JerseyState House is topped by its golden dome in Trenton .
The current version of the New
JerseyState Constitution was adopted
in 1947. It provides for a bicameral New
Jerseyis one of only five states that elects its state officials
in odd-numbered years. (The others are
Jerseyholds elections for these
offices every four years, in the year following each federal
Presidential election year. Thus, the last year when New Jersey
elected a Governor was 2013; the next gubernatorial election will
occur in 2017, with future gubernatorial elections to take place in
2021, 2025, 2029, etc. Robert Menendez (D) , New Jersey's current
Main article: Judiciary of New Jersey
The New JerseySupreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices. All are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate. Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age 70.
Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jerseycourts is carried out in the MUNICIPAL COURTS, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard.
More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the SUPERIOR COURT for each county. All Superior Court judges are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate. Each judge serves an initial seven-year term, after which he or she can be reappointed to serve until age 70. New Jersey's judiciary is unusual in that it still has separate courts of law and equity , like its neighbor Delawarebut unlike most other U.S. states. The New JerseySuperior Court is divided into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial level; the Law Division hears both criminal cases and civil lawsuits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is damages , while the Chancery Division hears family cases, civil suits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is equitable relief, and probate trials.
The Superior Court also has an APPELLATE DIVISION , which functions as the state's intermediate appellate court . Superior Court judges are assigned to the Appellate Division by the Chief Justice.
There is also a TAX COURT, which is a court of limited jurisdiction. Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax decisions made by County Boards of Taxation. They also hear appeals on decisions made by the Director of the Division of Taxation on such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and homestead rebates. Appeals from Tax Court decisions are heard in the Appellate Division of Superior Court. Tax Court judges are appointed by the Governor for initial terms of seven years, and upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the mandatory retirement age of 70. There are 12 Tax Court judgeships.
Further information: List of New Jerseycounties
New Jerseyis divided into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial era. New Jerseywas completely divided into counties by 1692; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County in 1857. New Jerseyis the only state in the nation where elected county officials are called "Freeholders," governing each county as part of its own Board of Chosen Freeholders. The number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum, and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members.
Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholdersor split into separate branches of government. In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each Freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments. In the other 5 counties (Atlantic , Bergen , Essex , Hudson and Mercer ), there is a directly elected County Executivewho performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role. In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator (or County Manager) may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions.
New Jerseycurrently has 565 municipalities; the number was 566 before Princeton Township and Princeton Borough merged to form the municipality of Princeton on January 1, 2013. Unlike other states, all New Jerseyland is part of a municipality. In 2008, Governor Jon Corzine proposed cutting state aid to all towns under 10,000 people, to encourage mergers to reduce administrative costs. In May 2009, the Local Unit Alignment Reorganization and Consolidation Commission began a study of about 40 small communities in South Jerseyto decide which ones might be good candidates for consolidation.
Forms Of Municipal Government
NEW JERSEY MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
City Town Village
1923 municipal manager
FAULKNER ACT FORMS
CHANGING FORM OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
Charter Study Commission This box:
* view * talk * edit
Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals,
a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. This began
Walsh Act, enacted in 1911 by the New
Faulkner Act, originally enacted in 1950 and substantially
amended in 1981, offers four basic plans: Mayor-Council ,
Council-Manager , Small Municipality , and Mayor-Council-Administrator
. The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for
a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs
and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the
characteristics of its government: the number of seats on the Council;
seats selected at-large, by wards, or through a combination of both;
staggered or concurrent terms of office; and a mayor chosen by the
Council or elected directly by voters. Most large municipalities and a
majority of New Jersey's residents are governed by municipalities with
Faulkner Actcharters. Municipalities can also formulate their own
unique form of government and operate under a
SpecialCharter with the
approval of the New
While municipalities retain their names derived from types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public. For example, though there are four municipalities that are officially of the village type, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of government. The other three villages – Ridgefield Park (now with a Walsh Actform), Ridgewood (now with a Faulkner ActCouncil-Manager charter) and South Orange (now operates under a SpecialCharter ) – have all migrated to other non-village forms.
Main article: Politics of New Jersey
Social Attitudes And Issues
Socially, New Jerseyis considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. Polls indicate that 60% of the population are self-described as pro-choice , although a majority are opposed to late trimester and intact dilation and extraction and public funding of abortion. In a 2009 Quinnipiac University Polling Institutepoll, a plurality supported same-sex marriage 49% to 43% opposed, On October 18, 2013, the New JerseySupreme Court rendered a provisional, unanimous (7–0 vote) order authorizing same-sex marriage in the state, pending a legal appeal by Governor Chris Christie, who then withdrew this appeal hours after the inaugural same-sex marriages took place on October 21, 2013. See also: LGBT rights in New Jersey
New Jerseyalso has some of the most stringent gun control laws in the U.S. These include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets and even slingshots. No gun offense in New Jerseyis graded less than a felony. BB gunsand black-powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. New Jerseydoes not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION RESULTS YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC
2016 41.20% _1,583,058_ 54.79% _2,105,250_
2012 40.62% _1,478,088_ 58.34% _2,122,786_
2008 41.61% _1,613,207_ 57.14% _2,215,422_
2004 46.24% _1,670,003_ 52.92% _1,911,430_
2000 40.29% _1,284,173_ 56.13% _1,788,850_
1996 35.86% _1,103,078_ 53.72% _1,652,329_
1992 40.58% _1,356,865_ 42.95% _1,436,206_
1988 56.24% _1,743,192_ 42.60% _1,320,352_
1984 60.09% _1,933,630_ 39.20% _1,261,323_
1980 51.97% _1,546,557_ 38.56% _1,147,364_
1976 50.08% _1,509,688_ 47.92% _1,444,653_
1972 61.57% _1,845,502_ 36.77% _1,102,211_
1968 46.10% _1,325,467_ 43.97% _1,264,206_
1964 33.86% _963,843_ 65.61% _1,867,671_
1960 49.16% _1,363,324_ 49.96% _1,385,415_
1956 64.68% _1,606,942_ 34.23% _850,337_
1952 56.81% _1,374,613_ 41.99% _1,015,902_
1948 50.33% _981,124_ 49.96% _1,385,415_
In past elections, New
Jerseywas a Republican bastion, but recently
has become a Democratic stronghold. Currently, New
have majority control of both houses of the New
(Senate, 24–16, and Assembly, 47–33), a 6–6 split of the state's
twelve seats in the U.S. House of Representatives , and both U.S.
Senate seats. Although the Democratic Party is very successful
statewide, the state had a Republican governor from 1994 to 2002, as
Christie Todd Whitmanwon twice with 47% and 49% of the votes, and in
the 2009 gubernatorial election , Republican
In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the Democratic
Party . For many years in the past, however, it was a Republican
stronghold, having given comfortable margins of victory to the
Republican candidate in the close elections of 1948 , 1968 , and 1976
Jerseywas a crucial swing state in the elections of 1960 , 1968
, and 1992 . The last elected Republican to hold a Senate seat from
Clifford P. Casein 1979. Newark Mayor
The state's Democratic strongholds include Camden County , Essex County (typically the state's most Democratic county—it includes Newark , the state's largest city), Hudson County (the second-strongest Democratic county, including JerseyCity , the state's second-largest city); Mercer County (especially around Trenton and Princeton ), Middlesex County , and Union County (including Elizabeth , the state's fourth-largest city).
The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along the coast in Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Morris County , Sussex County , and Warren County . Other suburban counties, especially Bergen Countyand Burlington County had the majority of votes go to the Democratic Party . In the 2008 election, President Barack Obamawon New Jerseywith approximately fifty-seven percent of the vote, compared to McCain\'s forty-one percent. Independent candidate Ralph Nadergarnered less than one percent of the vote.
About one-third of the state's counties are considered "swing" counties, but some go more one way than others. For example, Salem County , the same is true with Passaic County , with a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south (including Paterson , the state's third-largest city) and a rural, Republican north; with the "swing" township of Wayne in the middle. Other "swing" counties like Monmouth County , Somerset County , and Cape MayCounty tend to go Republican, as they also have population in conservative areas, although Somerset has recently trended Democratic.
To be eligible to vote in a U.S. election, all New Jerseyans are required to start their residency in the state 30 days prior to an election and register 21 days prior to election day.
Main article: Capital punishment in New Jersey
On December 17, 2007, Governor Jon Corzinesigned into law a bill that would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey. New Jerseyis the first state to pass such legislation since Iowaand West Virginia eliminated executions in 1965. Corzine also signed a bill that would downgrade the Death Row prisoners' sentences from "Death" to "Life in Prison with No Parole."
POINTS OF INTEREST
See also: List of museums in New Jersey
New Jerseyhas many museums of all kinds. A few major museums in the state are listed.
MUSEUM LOCATION YEAR OPENED TYPE
New JerseyState Museum Trenton 1895 General Education
Maywood Station Museum Maywood 2004 Railroad museum
Visitors and residents take advantage of and contribute to performances at the numerous music, theater, and dance companies and venues located throughout the state, including:
VENUE TYPE LOCATION YEAR OPENED
NJPAC Concert Hall Newark 1997
Paper Mill Playhouse Regional Theater Millburn 1968
State Theater Regional Theater New Brunswick 1921
MAIN PARK OTHER PARKS LOCATION YEAR OPENED
Clementon Amusement Park Splash World Clementon 1907
Land of Make Believe Pirate's Cove Hope 1958
Morey\'s Piers Raging Waters and Ocean Oasis Waterparks Wildwood 1969
Action Park None Vernon 1998
New Jerseycurrently has four teams from major professional sports leagues playing in the state, although the Major League Soccerteam and two National Football Leagueteams identify themselves as being from New York. The Prudential Centerin Newark, home of the NHL's New JerseyDevils Red Bull Arenain Harrison , home of the MLS's New York Red Bulls
The National Hockey League's New JerseyDevils , based in Newark at the Prudential Center, is the only major league franchise to bear the state's name. The Metropolitan Area's two National Football League teams, the New York Giantsand the New York Jets, both play in East Rutherford , Bergen County, at MetLife Stadium. Completed at a cost of approximately $1.6 billion it is the most expensive stadium ever built. On February 2, 2014, MetLife Stadiumhosted Super Bowl XLVIII , the first Super Bowl played outdoors in a cold-weather city.
The sports complex is also home to the Meadowlands Racetrack, one of three major harness racing tracks in the state. The Meadowlands Racetrack along with Freehold Racewayin Freehold are two of the major harness racing tracks in North America. Monmouth Park Racetrackin Oceanport is also a popular spot for thoroughbred racing in New Jersey and the northeast. It hosted the Breeders\' Cup in 2007, and its turf course was renovated in preparation.
The following table shows the major league sports teams in the state:
TEAM SPORT LEAGUE STADIUM
New Jerseyans' collegiate allegiances are predominantly split among the four major NCAA Division I programs in the state – the Rutgers University Scarlet Knights , the NJIT Highlanders, the Seton Hall University Pirates , and the Princeton UniversityTigers . Rutgers joined the Big Ten Conferencein 2014.
Rutgers and Princeton have an intense rivalry – stemming from the first intercollegiate football game in 1869 – though the two schools have not met on the football field since 1980. They continue to play each other annually in other sports.
Rutgers, which fields 24 teams in various sports, is nationally known for its excellent football and women's basketball programs. The university is planning an expansion to Rutgers Stadium, and the teams play in Piscataway , which is adjacent to the New Brunswick campus. The university also fields rising basketball and baseball programs. Rutgers' fan base is mostly derived from the western parts of the state and Middlesex County , and its alumni base is the largest in the state.
Seton Hall's basketball team has been one of the most storied programs in the Big East, and it plays its home games at the Prudential Centerin Newark . The Pirates have support in the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of the state and the JerseyShore .
New Jerseyhigh schools are divided into divisions under the New JerseyState Interscholastic Athletic Association .(NJSIAA) ' Founded in 1918, the NJSIAA currently represents 22,000 schools, 330,000 coaches, and almost 4.5 million athletes. Sports are divided between 3 seasons (fall, winter, and spring).
Like every state, New Jerseyhas its own cuisine , religious communities , museums , and halls of fame .
New Jerseyis the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radio, the motion picture camera, the lithium battery , the light bulb , transistors , and the electric train. Other New Jerseycreations include: the drive-in movie, the cultivated blueberry , cranberry sauce , the postcard, the boardwalk , the zipper , the phonograph , saltwater taffy , the dirigible , the seedless watermelon , the first use of a submarine in warfare, and the ice cream cone . A 1950s-style diner in Orange
There are mineral museums in Franklin and Ogdensburg.
Diners are common in New Jersey. The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has more diners than any other state: over 600. There are more diners in the state of New Jerseythan any other place in the world.
Jerseyis the only state without a state song. _I'm From New
Jersey_ is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New Jersey
state song, but it was not even a contender when in 1996 the New
JerseyArts Council submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey
New Jerseyis frequently the target of jokes in American culture, especially from New York City-based television shows, such as _ Saturday Night Live_. Academic Michael Aaron Rocklandattributes this to New Yorkers' view that New Jerseyis the beginning of Middle America . The New JerseyTurnpike , which runs between two major East Coast cities, New York Cityand Philadelphia, is also cited as a reason, as people who traverse through the state may only see its industrial zones. Reality television shows like _ JerseyShore _ and _The Real Housewives of New Jersey_ have reinforced stereotypical views of New Jerseyculture, but Rockland cited _ The Sopranos_ and the music of Bruce Springsteenas exporting a more positive image.
Main article: Cuisine of New Jersey
New Jerseyis known for several foods developed within the region, including pork roll (or Taylor ham), cheesesteaks , and scrapple .
Credit for the development of submarine sandwiches is claimed by several states with substantial Italian American populations, including New Jersey.
Main article: Music of New Jersey
Frank Sinatrawas born in Hoboken . He sang with a
neighborhood vocal group, the Hoboken Four, and appeared in
neighborhood theater amateur shows before he became an Academy Award
Bruce Springsteen, who has sung of New
Jerseylife on most of his
albums, is from Freehold . Some of his songs that represent New Jersey
life are "Born to Run ", "Spirit In The Night," "Rosalita (Come Out
Tonight) ", "Thunder Road ", "
COMICS AND VIDEO GAMES
* The fictional Gotham City, home to Batman, is depicted in DC Comics as being located in New Jersey. * _ The Lost and Damned_ (2009), _ The Ballad of Gay Tony_ and _Max Payne 3 _ (2012) take place in New Jersey. * The _ Grand Theft Auto_ series has parodied the state multiple times, with "New Guernsey" and "Alderney City" appearing as locations in games in the series.
Main article: List of New Jersey state symbols
STATE ANIMAL Horse (_Equus caballus_)
STATE FRESHWATER FISH
STATE FOLK DANCE Square dance
STATE INSECT European honey bee (_Apis mellifera_)
STATE FLOWER Common meadow violet (_Viola sororia_)
STATE SONG None
STATE TREE Northern red oak (_Quercus borealis maxima_) (syn. _Quercus rubra_)
STATE DINOSAUR _ Hadrosaurus foulkii_
STATE SOIL Downer
STATE COLOR Buff and JerseyBlue
STATE SHIP A. J. Meerwald
STATE FRUIT Northern highbush blueberry (_Vaccinium corymbosum_)
STATE VEGETABLE Jerseytomato (_Lycopersicon esculentum_)
STATE SHELL Knobbed whelk (_Busycon carica gmelin_)
STATE MEMORIAL TREE Dogwood (_Cornus florida_)
STATE SLOGAN Come See For Yourself
Further information: List of people from New Jersey
* New Jerseyportal
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