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New Forest
New Forest
National Park Authority

Ramsar Wetland

Designated 22 September 1993

The New Forest
The New Forest
is an area of southern England which includes one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land, heathland and forest in the heavily populated south east of England.[2] It covers southwest Hampshire
Hampshire
and extends into southeast Wiltshire
Wiltshire
and towards east Dorset. The name also refers to the New Forest
New Forest
National Park which has similar boundaries. Additionally the New Forest
New Forest
local government district is a subdivision of Hampshire
Hampshire
which covers most of the Forest and some nearby areas, although it is no longer the planning authority for the National Park itself. There are many villages dotted around the area, and several small towns in the Forest and around its edges.

Contents

1 Prehistory 2 History 3 Common rights 4 Geography 5 Wildlife

5.1 Birds 5.2 Reptiles and amphibians 5.3 Ponies, cattle, pigs 5.4 Deer 5.5 Other mammals 5.6 Conservation measures

6 Settlements 7 New Forest
New Forest
National Park 8 Visitor attractions and places 9 Cultural references 10 Notable residents 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Prehistory[edit] Like much of England, the site of the New Forest
New Forest
was once deciduous woodland, recolonised by birch and eventually beech and oak after the withdrawal of the ice sheets starting around 12,000 years ago. Some areas were cleared for cultivation from the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
onwards; the poor quality of the soil in the New Forest
New Forest
meant that the cleared areas turned into heathland "waste", which may have been used even then as grazing land for horses.[3] There was still a significant amount of woodland in this part of Britain, but this was gradually reduced, particularly towards the end of the Middle Iron Age
Iron Age
around 250–100 BC, and most importantly the 12th and 13th centuries, and of this essentially all that remains today is the New Forest.[4] There are around 250 round barrows[5] within its boundaries, and scattered boiling mounds, and it also includes about 150 scheduled ancient monuments.[6] One such barrow in particular may represent the only known inhumation burial of the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
and the only known Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
burial in Britain; however, the acidity of the soil means that bone very rarely survives.[7] History[edit]

Following Anglo-Saxon settlement
Anglo-Saxon settlement
in Britain, according to Florence of Worcester (d. 1118), the area became the site of the Jutish kingdom of Ytene; this name was the genitive plural of Yt meaning "Jute", i.e. "of the Jutes".[8] The Jutes
Jutes
were one of the early Anglo-Saxon tribal groups who colonised this area of southern Hampshire. The word ytene (or ettin) is also found locally as a synonym for giant, and features heavily in local folklore.[9][10] Following the Norman Conquest, the New Forest
New Forest
was proclaimed a royal forest, in about 1079, by William the Conqueror. It was used for royal hunts, mainly of deer.[11] It was created at the expense of more than 20 small hamlets and isolated farmsteads; hence it was then 'new' as a single compact area.[12] The New Forest
The New Forest
was first recorded as Nova Foresta in Domesday Book
Domesday Book
in 1086, where a section devoted to it is interpolated between lands of the king's thegns and the town of Southampton; it is the only forest that the book describes in detail. Twelfth-century chroniclers alleged that William had created the forest by evicting the inhabitants of 36 parishes, reducing a flourishing district to a wasteland; however, this account is thought dubious by most historians, as the poor soil in much of the area is believed to have been incapable of supporting large-scale agriculture, and significant areas appear to have always been uninhabited.[13][14] Two of William's sons died in the forest: Prince Richard sometime between 1069 and 1075, and King William II (William Rufus) in 1100. Local folklore asserted that this was punishment for the crimes committed by William when he created his New Forest; 17th-century writer Richard Blome provides exquisite detail:

In this County [Hantshire] is New-Forest, formerly called Ytene, being about 30 miles in compass; in which said tract William the Conqueror (for the making of the said Forest a harbour for Wild-beasts for his Game) caused 36 Parish Churches, with all the Houses thereto belonging, to be pulled down, and the poor Inhabitants left succourless of house or home. But this wicked act did not long go unpunished, for his Sons felt the smart thereof; Richard being blasted with a pestilent Air; Rufus shot through with an Arrow; and Henry his Grand-child, by Robert his eldest son, as he pursued his Game, was hanged among the boughs, and so dyed. This Forest at present affordeth great variety of Game, where his Majesty oft-times withdraws himself for his divertisement.[15]

The reputed spot of Rufus's death is marked with a stone known as the Rufus Stone. John White, Bishop of Winchester, said of the forest:

From God and Saint King Rufus did Churches take, From Citizens town-court, and mercate place, From Farmer lands: New Forrest for to make, In Beaulew tract, where whiles the King in chase Pursues the hart, just vengeance comes apace, And King pursues. Tirrell him seing not, Unwares him flew with dint of arrow shot.[16]

The common rights were confirmed by statute in 1698. The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy, and plantations were created in the 18th century for this purpose. In the Great Storm of 1703, about 4000 oak trees were lost. The naval plantations encroached on the rights of the Commoners, but the Forest gained new protection under the New Forest
New Forest
Act 1877, which confirmed the historic rights of the Commoners and prohibited the enclosure of more than 65 km2 (25 sq mi) at any time. It also reconstituted the Court of Verderers as representatives of the Commoners (rather than the Crown). As of 2005[update], roughly 90% of the New Forest
New Forest
is still owned by the Crown. The Crown lands have been managed by the Forestry Commission since 1923 and most of the Crown lands now fall inside the new National Park. Felling of broadleaved trees, and their replacement by conifers, began during the First World War to meet the wartime demand for wood. Further encroachments were made during the Second World War. This process is today being reversed in places, with some plantations being returned to heathland or broadleaved woodland. Rhododendron remains a problem. During the Second World War, an area of the forest, Ashley Range, was used as a bombing range.[17] Further New Forest
New Forest
Acts followed in 1949, 1964 and 1970. The New Forest became a Site of Special Scientific Interest
Site of Special Scientific Interest
in 1971, and was granted special status as the New Forest
New Forest
Heritage Area in 1985, with additional planning controls added in 1992. The New Forest
The New Forest
was proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in June 1999,[18] and it became a National Park in 2005.[19]

Death of William Rufus

The Rufus Stone
Rufus Stone
Memorial

WW2 remains at Ibsley

Common rights[edit]

New Forest
New Forest
pony

Cow eating winter feed, Longdown Inclosure

Forest laws were enacted to preserve the New Forest
New Forest
as a location for royal deer hunting, and interference with the king's deer and its forage was punished. But the inhabitants of the area (Commoners) had pre-existing rights of common: to turn horses and cattle (but only rarely sheep) out into the Forest to graze (common pasture), to gather fuel wood (estovers), to cut peat for fuel (turbary), to dig clay (marl), and to turn out pigs between September and November to eat fallen acorns and beechnuts (pannage or mast). There were also licences granted to gather bracken after Michaelmas Day
Michaelmas Day
(29 September) as litter for animals (fern). Along with grazing, pannage is still an important part of the Forest's ecology. Pigs can eat acorns without a problem, but for ponies and cattle large quantities of acorns can be poisonous. Pannage
Pannage
always lasts 60 days, but the start date varies according to the weather – and when the acorns fall. The Verderers decide when pannage will start each year. At other times the pigs must be taken in and kept on the owner's land, with the exception that pregnant sows, known as privileged sows, are always allowed out providing they are not a nuisance and return to the Commoner's holding at night (they must not be "levant and couchant" in the Forest, that is, they may not consecutively feed and sleep there). This last is an established practice rather than a formal right. The principle of levancy and couchancy applies generally to the right of pasture.[20][21] Commoners must have backup land, outside the Forest, to accommodate these depastured animals when necessary, for example during a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic. Commons
Commons
rights are attached to particular plots of land (or in the case of turbary, to particular hearths), and different land has different rights – and some of this land is some distance from the Forest itself. Rights to graze ponies and cattle are not for a fixed number of animals, as is often the case on other commons. Instead a "marking fee" is paid for each animal each year by the owner. The marked animal's tail is trimmed by the local agister (Verderers' official), with each of the four or five forest agisters using a different trimming pattern. Ponies are branded with the owner's brand mark; cattle may be branded, or nowadays may have the brand mark on an ear tag. Grazing of Commoners' ponies and cattle is an essential part of the management of the forest, helping to maintain the heathland, bog, grassland and wood-pasture habitats and their associated wildlife. Recently this ancient practice has come under pressure as the rising house prices in the area have stopped local commoning families from moving into new homes which have the rights attached. Thus the next generation cannot become Commoners until their parents die or move and pass their house, and the attaching rights, to their children. The Verderers and Commoners' Defence Association has fought back. The EU Single Payment Scheme helped some Commoners significantly. Those that put animals out and could claim eligible hectares could claim up to £850 for each cow per year, and £900 for a pair of ponies. If they also registered for the stewardship scheme, they could make more. So with just 10 cattle and 40 ponies, a Commoner who qualified for both these schemes could make over £30,000 a year and more if they put out pigs: well over the national average earnings. Geography[edit]

See also Geology of the New Forest

Alder trees by the Beaulieu river
Beaulieu river
at Fawley Ford, north of Beaulieu

The New Forest
The New Forest
National Park area covers 566 km2 (219 sq mi),[22] and the New Forest
New Forest
SSSI
SSSI
covers almost 300 km2 (120 sq mi), making it the largest contiguous area of unsown vegetation in lowland Britain. It includes roughly:

146 km2 (56 sq mi) of broadleaved woodland 118 km2 (46 sq mi) of heathland and grassland 33 km2 (13 sq mi) of wet heathland 84 km2 (32 sq mi) of tree plantations (inclosures) established since the 18th century, including 80 km2 (31 sq mi) planted by the Forestry Commission
Forestry Commission
since the 1920s.

The New Forest
The New Forest
has also been classed as National Character Area No. 131 by Natural England. The NCA covers an area of 738 km2 (285 sq mi) and is bounded by the Dorset
Dorset
Heaths and Dorset Downs to the west, the West Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Downs to the north and the South Hampshire
Hampshire
Lowlands and South Coast Plain
South Coast Plain
to the east.[23] The New Forest
The New Forest
is drained to the south by three rivers, Lymington River, Beaulieu River
Beaulieu River
and Avon Water, and to the west by the Latchmore Brook, Dockens Water, Linford Brook and other streams. The highest point in the New Forest
New Forest
is Pipers Wait, near Nomansland. Its summit is 129 metres (423 feet) above sea level.[24][25] The Geology of the New Forest is comprised mainly of sedimentary rock, in the centre of a sedimentary basin known as the Hampshire
Hampshire
Basin. Wildlife[edit] The ecological value of the New Forest
New Forest
is enhanced by the relatively large areas of lowland habitats, lost elsewhere, which have survived. There are several kinds of important lowland habitat including valley bogs, alder carr, wet heaths, dry heaths and deciduous woodland. The area contains a profusion of rare wildlife, including the New Forest cicada Cicadetta montana, the only cicada native to Great Britain, although the last unconfirmed sighting was in 2000.[26] The wet heaths are important for rare plants, such as marsh gentian (Gentiana pneumonanthe) and marsh clubmoss (Lycopodiella inundata) and other important species include the wild gladiolus (Gladiolus illyricus).[27] Several species of sundew are found, as well as many unusual insect species, including the southern damselfly (Coenagrion mercuriale) and the mole cricket (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa), both rare in Britain. In 2009, 500 adult southern damselflies were captured and released in the Venn Ottery nature reserve in Devon, which is owned and managed by the Devon
Devon
Wildlife Trust.[28] The Forest is an important stronghold for a rich variety of fungi, and although these have been heavily gathered in the past, there are control measures now in place to manage this. Birds[edit] Specialist heathland birds are widespread, including Dartford warbler (Silvia undata), woodlark (Lullula arborea), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew
Eurasian curlew
(Numenius arquata), European nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus), Eurasian hobby
Eurasian hobby
(Falco subbuteo), European stonechat
European stonechat
(Saxicola rubecola), common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and tree pipit (Anthus sylvestris). As in much of Britain common snipe (Gallinago gallinago) and meadow pipit (Anthus trivialis) are common as wintering birds, but in the Forest they still also breed in many of the bogs and heaths respectively. Woodland
Woodland
birds include wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix), stock dove (Columba oenas), European honey buzzard
European honey buzzard
(Pernis apivorus) and northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Common buzzard
Common buzzard
(Buteo buteo) is very common and common raven (Corvus corax) is spreading. Birds seen more rarely include red kite (Milvus milvus), wintering great grey shrike (Lanius exubitor) and hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) and migrating ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) and wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe). Reptiles and amphibians[edit] All three British native species of snake inhabit the Forest. The adder (Vipera berus) is the most common, being found on open heath and grassland. The grass snake (Natrix natrix) prefers the damper environment of the valley mires. The rare smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) occurs on sandy hillsides with heather and gorse. It was mainly adders which were caught by Brusher Mills
Brusher Mills
(1840–1905), the " New Forest
New Forest
Snake Catcher". He caught many thousands in his lifetime, sending some to London Zoo
London Zoo
as food for their animals.[29][30] A pub in Brockenhurst
Brockenhurst
is named The Snakecatcher in his memory. All British snakes are now legally protected, and so the New Forest
New Forest
snakes are no longer caught. A programme to reintroduce the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) started in 1989[31] and the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) already breeds in many locations. Ponies, cattle, pigs[edit]

Shetland pony
Shetland pony
with foal in New Forest
New Forest
District, Hampshire

Commoners' cattle, ponies and donkeys roam throughout the open heath and much of the woodland, and it is largely their grazing that maintains the open character of the Forest. They are also frequently seen in the Forest villages, where home and shop owners must take care to keep them out of gardens and shops. The New Forest pony
New Forest pony
is one of the indigenous horse breeds of the British Isles, and is one of the New Forest's most famous attractions – most of the Forest ponies are of this breed, but there are also some Shetlands and their crossbreeds. Cattle are of various breeds, most commonly Galloways and their crossbreeds, but also various other hardy types such as Highlands, Herefords, Dexters, Kerries and British whites. The pigs used for pannage are now of various breeds, but the New Forest
New Forest
was the original home of the Wessex Saddleback, now extinct in Britain. Deer[edit] Numerous deer live in the Forest; they are usually rather shy and tend to stay out of sight when people are around, but are surprisingly bold at night, even when a car drives past. Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(Dama dama) are the most common, followed by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elephas). There are also smaller populations of the introduced sika deer (Cervus nippon) and muntjac (Muntiacus reevesii). Other mammals[edit] The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) survived in the Forest until the 1970s – longer than most places in lowland Britain (though it still occurs on The Isle of Wight and the nearby Brownsea Island). It is now fully supplanted in the Forest by the introduced North American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The European polecat
European polecat
(Mustela putorius) has recolonised the western edge of the Forest in recent years. European otter
European otter
(Lutra lutra) occurs along watercourses, as well as the introduced American mink
American mink
(Neovison vison). Conservation measures[edit] The New Forest
The New Forest
is designated as a Site of Special
Special
Scientific Interest (SSSI), an EU Special Area of Conservation
Special Area of Conservation
(SAC),[32] a Special Protection Area for birds (SPA),[33] and a Ramsar Site;[34] it also has its own Biodiversity Action Plan
Biodiversity Action Plan
(BAP).[35] Settlements[edit]

Ponies walking the streets in Burley

The New Forest
The New Forest
itself gives its name to the New Forest
New Forest
district of Hampshire, and the National Park area, of which it forms the core. The Forest itself is dominated by three large villages, Lyndhurst, Brockenhurst
Brockenhurst
and Burley, with several smaller villages such as Beaulieu, Godshill, Blissford, Fritham, Nomansland, Minstead
Minstead
and Sway also lying within or immediately adjacent. Outside of the National Park in New Forest
New Forest
District, several clusters of larger towns frame the area - Totton
Totton
and the Waterside settlements (Marchwood, Dibden, Hythe, Fawley) to the East, Christchurch, New Milton, Milford on Sea, and Lymington
Lymington
to the South, and Fordingbridge
Fordingbridge
and Ringwood
Ringwood
to the West. Further information: List of locations in the New Forest

New Forest
New Forest
National Park[edit]

Location of the National Park

Consultations on the possible designation of a National Park in the New Forest
New Forest
were commenced by the Countryside Agency
Countryside Agency
in 1999. An order to create the park was made by the Agency on 24 January 2002 and submitted to the Secretary of State for confirmation in February 2002. Following objections from seven local authorities and others, a public inquiry was held from 8 October 2002 to 10 April 2003, and concluded by endorsing the proposal with some detailed changes to the boundary of the area to be designated.[citation needed] On 28 June 2004, Rural Affairs Minister Alun Michael
Alun Michael
confirmed the government's intention to designate the area as a National Park, with further detailed boundary adjustments. The area was formally designated as such on 1 March 2005. A national park authority for the New Forest
New Forest
was established on 1 April 2005 and assumed its full statutory powers on 1 April 2006.[36] The Forestry Commission
Forestry Commission
retain their powers to manage the Crown land within the Park. The Verderers under the New Forest
New Forest
Acts also retain their responsibilities, and the park authority is expected to co-operate with these bodies, the local authorities, English Nature and other interested parties. The designated area of the National Park covers 566 km2 (219 sq mi)[22] and includes many existing SSSIs. It has a population of about 38,000 (it excludes most of the 170,256 people who live in the New Forest
New Forest
local government district). As well as most of the New Forest
New Forest
district of Hampshire, it takes in the South Hampshire
Hampshire
Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, a small corner of Test Valley
Test Valley
district around the village of Canada and part of Wiltshire
Wiltshire
south-east of Redlynch. However, the area covered by the Park does not include all the areas initially proposed: it excludes most of the valley of the River Avon to the west of the Forest and Dibden
Dibden
Bay to the east. Two challenges were made to the designation order, by Meyrick Estate Management Ltd in relation to the inclusion of Hinton Admiral
Hinton Admiral
Park, and by RWE
RWE
NPower Plc in relation to the inclusion of Fawley Power Station. The second challenge was settled out of court, with the power station being excluded.[37] The High Court upheld the first challenge;[38] but an appeal against the decision was then heard by the Court of Appeal in Autumn 2006. The final ruling, published on 15 February 2007, found in favour of the challenge by Meyrick Estate Management Ltd,[39] and the land at Hinton Admiral
Hinton Admiral
Park is therefore excluded from the New Forest National Park. The total area of land initially proposed for inclusion but ultimately left out of the Park is around 120 km2 (46 sq mi). Visitor attractions and places[edit]

Picnic area in the New Forest

The New Forest
The New Forest
offers many miles of cycle paths

Buckler's Hard Burley Manor[40] Beaulieu Blackwater Arboretum Exbury Gardens Hythe Pier New Forest
New Forest
Hotels[41] New Forest
New Forest
Museum & Visitor Centre Lyndhurst New Forest
New Forest
Show New Forest
New Forest
Tour New Forest
New Forest
Wildlife Park New Forest
New Forest
Reptile Centre Lymington

Burley and Brockenhurst
Brockenhurst
have well-used facilities for the hire of bicycles to ride on the Forest's cycle paths. Cultural references[edit] There is an allusion to the foundation of the New Forest
New Forest
in an end-rhyming poem found in the Peterborough Chronicle's entry for 1087, The Rime of King William. The Forest forms a backdrop to numerous books. The Children of the New Forest is a children's novel published in 1847 by Frederick Marryat, set in the time of the English Civil War. Charles Kingsley's A New Forest Ballad (1847) mentions several New Forest
New Forest
locations, including Ocknell Plain, Bradley [Bratley] Water, Burley Walk and Lyndhurst churchyard.[42] Edward Rutherfurd's work of historical fiction, The Forest is based in the New Forest
New Forest
in the period from 1099 to 2000. The Forest is also a setting of the Warriors novel series, in which the 'Forest Territories' was initially based on New Forest.[43] The New Forest
The New Forest
and southeast England, around the 12th century, is a prominent setting in Ken Follett's novel The Pillars of the Earth. It is also a prominent setting in Elizabeth George's novel This Body of Death. Oberon, Titania and the other Shakespearean fairies live in a rapidly diminishing Sherwood Forest whittled away by urban development in the fantasy novel A Midsummer's Nightmare by Garry Kilworth. On Midsummer's Eve, a most auspicious day, the fairies embark on the long journey to the New Forest
New Forest
in Hampshire
Hampshire
where the fairies' magic will be restored to its former glory.

The path and view across Acres Down in the New Forest, one of the few places in which it is possible to see a European honey buzzard.

Notable residents[edit]

Alice Bentinck
Alice Bentinck
(born 1986), co-founder and COO of Entrepreneur First, London William Arnold Bromfield (1801–1851), English botanist Harry Warner Farnall (1838–1891), New Zealand politician Gerald Gardner (1884-1964), founder of Gardnerian Wicca Steff Gaulter (born 1976), weather forecaster Pam Gems (1925-2011), English playwright Arthur Sumner Gibson (1844-1927), rugby union international Edgar Gibson (1848-1924), 31st Bishop of Gloucester Clifford Hall (1902-1982), English cricketer Frederick Harold (1888-1964), English cricketer Gerry Hill (1913-2006), English cricketer Ralph Hollins (born 1931), naturalist Sybil Leek (1917-1982), witch, author, astrologer Chris Packham
Chris Packham
- Naturalist and broadcaster.

See also[edit]

New Forest
New Forest
Film Festival

References[edit]

^ Even though the IUCN
IUCN
calls Category II 'National Parks', this use of the term is by reference to United States practice, and the UK's National Parks are actually in IUCN
IUCN
Category V. [1] ^ "Commoning in the New Forest". New Forest
New Forest
District Council. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ Cunliffe, Barry, Iron Age
Iron Age
Communities in Britain, 2010. pg 428: "One interpretation of this is to suppose that horses were allowed to breed in the wild on the wastelands and were annually rounded up for selection and subsequent training. The proximity of Gussage to the heathlands of the New Forest
New Forest
is suggestive..." ^ " New Forest
New Forest
Handbook History of the New Forest
New Forest
Part 1". Retrieved 30 August 2011.  ^ " Hampshire
Hampshire
Treasures". Hants.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ "UNESCO World Heritage". Whc.unesco.org. 21 June 1999. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ Cunliffe, Barry; Iron Age
Iron Age
Communities in Britain 2010, pg 544. ^ "Old Hampshire
Hampshire
Gazetteer (citing Ekwall, 1953: 132)". port.ac.uk.  ^ Legg, Penny "The Folklore
Folklore
of Hampshire" The History Press (15 Jun. 2010) ^ Northumberland Words – A Glossary of Words Used in the County of Northumberland and on the Tyneside -, Volume 1 by Richard Oliver Heslop, Read Books, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4097-6525-7 ^ "History of the New Forest". New Forest
New Forest
National Park. 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2009.  ^ "Old Hampshire
Hampshire
Gazetteer (citing Muir, 1981)". port.ac.uk.  ^ H. C. Darby. Domesday England, pp. 198–199. Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-31026-1 ^ Young, Charles R. (1979). The Royal Forests of Medieval England. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-8122-7760-0.  ^ "Blome, Richard (1673) Britannia: or, A Geographical Description of the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with the Isles and Terrotories thereto belonging. And for the better perfecting of the said work, there is added an Alphabetical Table of the Names, Titles and Seats of the Nobility and Gentry that each County of England and Wales is, or lately was, enobled with. Illustrated with a Map of each County of England besides several general ones. The like never before published". Thomas Ryecroft.  ^ "Camden, William (1610), Britannia. This text is believed to be the translation from Latin made by Philmore Holland about 1610".  ^ http://www.new-forest-national-park.com/ashley-range.html ^ Entry on the UNESCO Tentative List. ^ History of the New Forest
New Forest
National Park. ^ Review: The Preservation of the New Forest: Report of the New Forest Committee, 1947 H. C. Darby. The Geographical Journal, Vol. 112, No. 1/3. (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 87-91. ^ "Commoning". New Forest
New Forest
National Park. Retrieved 21 November 2016.  ^ a b " New Forest
New Forest
National Park - Learning About - Numbers 30,000 to 120m". New Forest
New Forest
National Park website. New Forest
New Forest
National Park Authority. Retrieved 13 January 2013.  ^ South East and London National Character Area map at www.naturalengland.org.uk. Accessed on 3 Apr 2013. ^ "Flint gravels, which at Pipers Wait [249 165] near Nomansland, form the highest point (129 m above Ordnance Datum (OD)) in the New Forest" – R. A. Edwards, E. C. Freshney, I. F. Smith, (1987), Geology of the country around Southampton: memoir for 1:50,000 sheet, page 1. British Geological Survey ^ "The walk connects the two highest points in the New Forest. At 422 ft, Pipers Wait (A) just shades it by a couple of feet over Telegraph Hill (C)." – Norman Henderson, (2007), A Walk Around the New Forest: In Thirty-Five Circular Walks, page 85. Frances Lincoln ^ " The New Forest
The New Forest
Cicada
Cicada
Project". New Forest
New Forest
Cicada
Cicada
Project. Retrieved 2 December 2015.  ^ "Rhs.org.uk". Rhs.org.uk.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Wild Devon
Devon
The Magazine of the Devon
Devon
Wildlife Trust,page 8 Winter 2009 edition ^ Chris (1 July 1905). "Article about Brusher Mills". Southernlife.org.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ "BBC item about Brusher Mills". BBC. 24 July 2002. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ Wildlife and its management in The New Forest
The New Forest
(PDF), Forestry Commission, January 2004, p. 1, retrieved 30 August 2011  ^ "UK SAC details". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ "UK SPA list". Jncc.gov.uk. 25 September 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ "UK and dependencies Ramsar Site
Ramsar Site
list". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ Barker, Ian (27 September 2012). New Forest
New Forest
Biodiversity Action Plan (Report). Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ Update 6 from DEFRA ^ Landscape Protection – New Forest
New Forest
National Park from DEFRA ^ Judgment of the High Court in Meyrick Estate Management Ltd v. Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, [2005] EWHC 2618 (Admin), 3 November 2005, from BAILII. ^ " New Forest
New Forest
National Park – Frequently asked questions – Boundary Issues". Newforestnpa.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2009.  ^ "Historical New Forest
New Forest
Hotel & Restaurant - Burley Manor". Burley Manor. Retrieved 2017-03-27.  ^ " New Forest
New Forest
Hotels - True Quality, Naturally Delivered". New Forest Hotels. Retrieved 2016-10-28.  ^ McKay, I. (Ed.), A New Forest
New Forest
Reader: A Companion Guide to the New Forest, its History and Landscape, Hatchet Green Publishing, 2010 (ISBN 978-0-9568372-0-2) ^ Magicyop (15 December 2005), Transcript Of Erin Hunter Chat!, retrieved 8 April 2014 

Further reading[edit] The following out-of-copyright books can be read online or downloaded:

John Richard de Capel Wise. "The New Forest: its history and its scenery" (Smith, Elder and Co., 1863). Charles John Cornish. The New Forest
The New Forest
(New York: MacMillan & Co., 1894). Elizabeth Godfrey, Ernest William Haslehust
Ernest William Haslehust
(illustrator). The New Forest (Blackie & Son Ltd., 1912).

Extracts from the above texts have been brought together by the New Forest author and cultural historian Ian McKay in his anthologies A New Forest
New Forest
Reader: A Companion Guide to the New Forest, its History and Landscape (2011), and The New Forest: A Pocket Companion to the New Forest, Its History and Landscape (2012). These anthologies also include writings by William Cobbett, Daniel Defoe, William Gilpin, William Howitt, W. H. Hudson, and Heywood Sumner.

Exum Percival Lewis. Historical inquiries, concerning forests and forest laws: with topographical remarks, upon the ancient and modern state of the New Forest, in the county of Southampton
Southampton
(Printed for T. Payne by J. M'Creery, 1811).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Commons
has media related to New Forest.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for New Forest.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article New Forest.

New Forest
New Forest
Gateway – Film, TV, Picture Resource / Historical Book Publications Online New Forest
New Forest
National Park Authority The Official New Forest
New Forest
Visitors Website, Visitors Resources and Official Information on visiting and enjoying the forest New Forest
New Forest
Information, including beaches, villages, wildlife, places of interest and things to do SAC designation including extensive technical description of habitats and species Designation as a national park:

Minister says yes to New Forest
New Forest
National Park ( DEFRA
DEFRA
press release, 28 June 2004) New Forest
New Forest
National Park becomes a reality ( DEFRA
DEFRA
press release, 24 February 2004) The New Forest
The New Forest
National Park ( Countryside Agency
Countryside Agency
press release, 1 March 2005) New Forest
New Forest
National Park Inquiry from the Planning Inspectorate Maps of the boundary

UK Clearing House Mechanism for Biodiversity Natural England website ( SSSI
SSSI
information) New Forest
New Forest
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

National parks of the United Kingdom

England

Peak District
Peak District
(1951) Lake District
Lake District
(1951) Dartmoor
Dartmoor
(1951) North York Moors
North York Moors
(1952) Yorkshire Dales (1954) Exmoor
Exmoor
(1954) Northumberland (1956) The Broads‡ (1988) New Forest
New Forest
(2005) South Downs (2010)

Wales

Snowdonia
Snowdonia
(1951) Pembrokeshire Coast (1952) Brecon Beacons (1957)

Scotland

Loch Lomond and The Trossachs (2002) Cairngorms (2003)

Northern Ireland

Mourne Mountains†

Parentheses denote year of establishment as a National Park. An area with ‡ has similar status to a UK National Park. Areas marked † are proposed.

v t e

Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest in Hampshire

Basingstoke Canal Beacon Hill, Warnford Blackwater Valley Boulsbury Wood Bourley and Long Valley Burghclere Beacon Butser Hill Castle Bottom NNR Catherington Down Cheesefoot Head Chichester Harbour Dibden
Dibden
Bay Ebblake Bog Fleet Pond Foxlease
Foxlease
And Ancells Meadows Galley Down Wood Greywell Tunnel Hurst Castle And Lymington River
Lymington River
Estuary Itchen Navigation Ladle Hill Langstone Harbour Lymington
Lymington
River Lymington River
Lymington River
Reedbeds Mottisfont Bats New Forest Noar Hill Old Burghclere Lime Quarry Old Winchester Hill Pamber Forest and Silchester Common Portsmouth Harbour River Avon System River Itchen River Test Selborne Common Southampton
Southampton
Common Sowley Pond St. Catherine's Hill Trodds Copse Woolmer Forest

Neighbouring areas Berkshire Dorset Isle of Wight Surrey West Sussex Wiltshire

v t e

Biological Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest in Wiltshire

Acres Farm Meadow River Avon System Baverstock Juniper Bank Bencroft Hill Meadows Bentley Wood Bincknoll Dip Woods Blackmoor Copse Botley Down Bowerchalke Downs Box Mine Bracknell Croft Bradley Woods Bratton Downs Brickworth Down and Dean Hill Brimsdown Hill Britford Water Meadows Burcombe Down Burderop Wood Calstone and Cherhill Downs Camp Down Chilmark Quarries Chickengrove Bottom Chilton Foliat Meadows Clattinger Farm Clearbury Down Cley Hill Cloatley Manor Farm Meadows Clout's Wood Coate Water Cockey Down Colerne Park and Monk's Wood The Coombes, Hinton Parva Cotswold Water Park Cranborne Chase Dank's Down and Truckle Hill Distillery Farm Meadows East Harnham Meadows Ebsbury Down Emmett Hill Meadows Figsbury Ring Fonthill Grottoes Fyfield Down Gallows Hill Goldborough Farm Meadows Great Cheverell Hill Great Yews Gutch Common Ham Hill Hang Wood Harries Ground, Rodbourne Haydon Meadow Heath
Heath
Hill Farm Homington and Coombe Bissett Downs Honeybrook Farm Inwood, Warleigh Jones's Mill River Kennet Kennet and Lambourn Floodplain King's Play Hill Knapp and Barnett's Downs Knighton Downs and Wood Landford Bog Landford Heath Langley Wood and Homan's Copse Little Grubbins Meadow Long Knoll Loosehanger Copse and Meadows Lower Coombe and Ferne Brook Meadows Lower Woodford Water Meadows Midford Valley Woods Morgan's Hill The New Forest North Meadow, Cricklade Odstock Down Out Woods Parsonage Down Pewsey Downs Picket and Clanger Wood Piggledene Pike Corner Pincombe Down Porton Down Porton Meadows Prescombe Down Rack Hill Ravensroost Wood Restrop Farm and Brockhurst Wood Rotherley Downs Roundway Down and Covert Salisbury Plain Savernake Forest Scratchbury & Cotley Hills Silbury Hill Spye Park Starveall and Stony Down Steeple Langford Down Stockton Wood and Down Stoke Common Meadows Stratford Toney Down Sutton Lane Meadows Throope Down River Till Tytherington Down Upper Waterhay Meadow Upton Cow Down West Yatton Down Whiteparish Common Whitesheet Hill Win Green Down Winklebury Hill Winsley Mines Wylye and Church Dean Downs Yarnbury Castle

Neighbouring areas Avon Berkshire Dorset Gloucestershire Hampshire Ox

.