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New England
New England
is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.[a] It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec
Quebec
to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
is to the south. Boston
Boston
is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts. The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(the second-largest city in New England), Manchester (the largest city in New Hampshire), and Providence (the capital and largest city of Rhode Island), with nearly a third of the entire region's population. In 1620, Puritan
Puritan
Separatist Pilgrims from England first settled in the region, forming the Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years later, more Puritans
Puritans
settled north of Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in Boston, thus forming Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the British and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in North America. In 1692, the town of Salem, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in the history of the Western Hemisphere.[10] In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England Colonies known as the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
initiated resistance to Britain's efforts to impose new taxes without the consent of the colonists. The Boston
Boston
Tea Party was a protest to which Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts
Massachusetts
of self-government, which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists. The confrontation led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region also played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, and was the first region of the U.S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Blackstone and Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England
New England
is diverse for such a small area. Southeastern New England
New England
is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the numerous rivers, such as the Connecticut
Connecticut
River, which bisects the region from north to south. Each state is principally subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas in the region exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The region is one of the U.S. Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries. It maintains a strong sense of cultural identity,[11] although the terms of this identity are often contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, and isolation with immigration.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Eastern Algonquian peoples 1.2 Colonial period 1.3 French and Indian Wars 1.4 Dominion of New England 1.5 New England
New England
in the new nation 1.6 Industrial Revolution 1.7 20th century and beyond

2 Cities and urban areas

2.1 Metropolitan areas 2.2 State capitals

3 Geography

3.1 Geology 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Largest cities

5 Economy

5.1 Overview 5.2 Exports 5.3 Agriculture 5.4 Energy 5.5 Employment

6 Government

6.1 Town meetings 6.2 Politics 6.3 Elections

6.3.1 Political party strength 6.3.2 New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary

7 Education

7.1 Colleges and universities 7.2 Private and independent secondary schools 7.3 Public education 7.4 Academic journals and press

8 Culture

8.1 Cultural roots 8.2 Accents 8.3 Social activities and music 8.4 Media

8.4.1 Comedy

8.5 Literature 8.6 Film, television, and acting

9 Sports

9.1 Professional and semi-professional sports teams

10 Transportation 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References

13.1 Bibliography

14 Further reading 15 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of New England Eastern Algonquian peoples[edit] Main article: Algonquian peoples The earliest known inhabitants of New England
New England
were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.[12] Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Penobscot, Pequots, Mohegans, Narragansetts, Pocumtucks, and Wampanoag.[12] Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec
Quebec
and western Maine.[13] Their principal town was Norridgewock
Norridgewock
in Maine.[14] The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River
Penobscot River
in Maine. The Narragansetts and smaller tribes under Narragansett sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
and Nantucket. The Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, and the Mohegan and Pequot
Pequot
tribes lived in the Connecticut
Connecticut
region. The Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley includes parts of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut
Connecticut
and linked numerous tribes culturally, linguistically, and politically.[12] As early as 1600, French, Dutch, and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal, glass, and cloth for local beaver pelts.[12][15] Colonial period[edit] Main articles: New England
New England
Colonies, Plymouth Council for New England, Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony, and Colony of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations On April 10, 1606, King James I of England
James I of England
issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company
London Company
and the Plymouth Company. These two privately funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, and to return a profit. In 1620, Pilgrims from the Mayflower
Mayflower
established Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England.[16]

Title page of John Smith's A Description of New England
A Description of New England
(1616; 1865 reprint)

In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England".[17] The name was officially sanctioned on November 3, 1620,[18] when the charter of the Virginia Company
Virginia Company
of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region.[19] As the first colonists arrived in Plymouth, they wrote and signed the Mayflower
Mayflower
Compact,[20] their first governing document.[21] The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629[22][23] with its major town and port of Boston
Boston
established in 1630.[24] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Puritans
Puritans
began to settle in Connecticut
Connecticut
as early as 1633.[25] Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
for heresy, led a group south, and founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations
Providence Plantations
in 1636.[26][27] At this time, Vermont
Vermont
was yet unsettled, and the territories of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Maine
Maine
were claimed and governed by Massachusetts.[28] French and Indian Wars[edit]

An early English map of New England, c. 1670, depicts the area around modern Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alternated between peace and armed skirmishes, the bloodiest of which was the Pequot
Pequot
War in 1637 which resulted in the Mystic massacre.[29] On May 19, 1643, the colonies of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut
Connecticut
joined together in a loose compact called the New England Confederation (officially "The United Colonies of New England"). The confederation was designed largely to coordinate mutual defense, and gained some importance during King Philip's War.[30] From June 1675 through April 1678, King Philip's War
King Philip's War
pitted the colonists and their Indian allies against a widespread Indian uprising, resulting in killings and massacres on both sides.[31] During the next 74 years, there were six colonial wars that took place primarily between New England
New England
and New France,[32] during which New England was allied with the Iroquois Confederacy
Iroquois Confederacy
and New France
New France
was allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy. Mainland Nova Scotia came under the control of New England
New England
after the Siege of Port Royal (1710), but both New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and most of Maine
Maine
remained contested territory between New England
New England
and New France. The British eventually defeated the French in 1763, opening the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley for British settlement into western New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont. The New England Colonies
New England Colonies
were settled primarily by farmers who became relatively self-sufficient. Later, New England's economy began to focus on crafts and trade, aided by the Puritan
Puritan
work ethic, in contrast to the Southern colonies which focused on agricultural production while importing finished goods from England.[33] Dominion of New England[edit] Main articles: Dominion of New England, American Revolutionary War, American Revolution, and Boston
Boston
campaign

The New England
New England
Ensign, one of several flags historically associated with New England. This flag was reportedly used by colonial merchant ships sailing out of New England
New England
ports, 1686 – c. 1737.[34][35][36][37][38]

New England's Siege of Louisbourg (1745)
Siege of Louisbourg (1745)
by Peter Monamy.

By 1686, King James II had become concerned about the increasingly independent ways of the colonies, including their self-governing charters, their open flouting of the Navigation Acts, and their growing military power. He therefore established the Dominion of New England, an administrative union comprising all of the New England colonies.[39] In 1688, the former Dutch colonies of New York, East New Jersey, and West New Jersey
West New Jersey
were added to the Dominion. The union was imposed from the outside and contrary to the rooted democratic tradition of the region, and it was highly unpopular among the colonists.[40] The Dominion significantly modified the charters of the colonies, including the appointment of Royal Governors to nearly all of them. There was an uneasy tension between the Royal Governors, their officers, and the elected governing bodies of the colonies. The governors wanted unlimited authority, and the different layers of locally elected officials would often resist them. In most cases, the local town governments continued operating as self-governing bodies, just as they had before the appointment of the governors.[41] After the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
in 1689, Bostonians overthrew royal governor Sir Edmund Andros. They seized dominion officials and adherents to the Church of England
Church of England
during a popular and bloodless uprising.[42] These tensions eventually culminated in the American Revolution, boiling over with the outbreak of the War of American Independence in 1775. The first battles of the war were fought in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, later leading to the Siege of Boston
Boston
by continental troops. In March 1776, British forces were compelled to retreat from Boston. New England
New England
in the new nation[edit]

Boston
Boston
College: the architecture style is Collegiate Gothic, a subgenre of Gothic Revival architecture, a 19th-century movement

After the dissolution of the Dominion of New England, the colonies of New England
New England
ceased to function as a unified political unit but remained a defined cultural region. By 1784, all of the states in the region had taken steps towards the abolition of slavery, with Vermont and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
introducing total abolition in 1777 and 1783, respectively.[43] The nickname "Yankeeland" was sometimes used to denote the New England
New England
area, especially among Southerners and British.[44] Vermont
Vermont
was admitted to statehood in 1791 after settling a dispute with New York. The territory of Maine
Maine
had been a part of Massachusetts, but it was granted statehood on March 15, 1820 as part of the Missouri Compromise.[45] Today, New England
New England
is defined as the six states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.[5] New England's economic growth relied heavily on trade with the British Empire,[46] and the region's merchants and politicians strongly opposed trade restrictions. As the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom fought the War of 1812, New England
New England
Federalists organized the Hartford Convention
Hartford Convention
in the winter of 1814 to discuss the region's grievances concerning the war, and to propose changes to the Constitution to protect the region's interests and maintain its political power.[47] Radical delegates within the convention proposed the region's secession from the United States, but they were outnumbered by moderates who opposed the idea.[48] Politically, the region often disagreed with the rest of the country.[49] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut
Connecticut
were among the last refuges of the Federalist Party, and New England
New England
became the strongest bastion of the new Whig Party when the Second Party System
Second Party System
began in the 1830s. The Whigs were usually dominant throughout New England, except in the more Democratic Maine
Maine
and New Hampshire. Leading statesmen hailed from the region, including Daniel Webster. Many notable literary and intellectual figures were New Englanders, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, George Bancroft, and William H. Prescott.[50] Industrial Revolution[edit]

The Slater Mill Historic Site
Slater Mill Historic Site
in Pawtucket, Rhode Island

New England
New England
was key to the industrial revolution in the United States.[51] The Blackstone Valley
Blackstone Valley
running through Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
has been called the birthplace of America's industrial revolution.[52] In 1787, the first cotton mill in America was founded in the North Shore seaport of Beverly, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
as the Beverly Cotton Manufactory.[53] The Manufactory was also considered the largest cotton mill of its time. Technological developments and achievements from the Manufactory led to the development of more advanced cotton mills, including Slater Mill
Slater Mill
in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Towns such as Lawrence, Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts, Woonsocket, Rhode Island, and Lewiston, Maine
Maine
became centers of the textile industry following the innovations at Slater Mill
Slater Mill
and the Beverly Cotton Manufactory.[citation needed] The Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley became a crucible for industrial innovation, particularly the Springfield Armory, pioneering such advances as interchangeable parts and the assembly line which influenced manufacturing processes all around the world.[54] From early in the nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth, the region surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Hartford, Connecticut served as the United States' epicenter for advanced manufacturing, drawing skilled workers from all over the world.[55][56] The rapid growth of textile manufacturing in New England
New England
between 1815 and 1860 caused a shortage of workers. Recruiters were hired by mill agents to bring young women and children from the countryside to work in the factories. Between 1830 and 1860, thousands of farm girls moved from rural areas where there was no paid employment to work in the nearby mills, such as the famous Lowell Mill Girls. As the textile industry grew, immigration also grew. By the 1850s, immigrants began working in the mills, especially Irish and French Canadians.[57] New England
New England
as a whole was the most industrialized part of the U.S. By 1850, the region accounted for well over a quarter of all manufacturing value in the country and over a third of its industrial workforce.[58] It was also the most literate and most educated region in the country.[58] During the same period, New England
New England
and areas settled by New Englanders (upstate New York, Ohio's Western Reserve, and the upper midwestern states of Michigan
Michigan
and Wisconsin) were the center of the strongest abolitionist and anti-slavery movements in the United States, coinciding with the Protestant Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in the region.[59] Abolitionists who demanded immediate emancipation such as William Lloyd Garrison, John Greenleaf Whittier
John Greenleaf Whittier
and Wendell Phillips had their base in the region. So too did anti-slavery politicians who wanted to limit the growth of slavery, such as John Quincy Adams, Charles Sumner, and John P. Hale. When the anti-slavery Republican Party was formed in the 1850s, all of New England, including areas that had previously been strongholds for both the Whig and the Democratic Parties, became strongly Republican. New England
New England
remained solidly Republican until Catholics began to mobilize behind the Democrats, especially in 1928, and up until the Republican party realigned its politics in a shift known as the Southern strategy. This led to the end of " Yankee
Yankee
Republicanism" and began New England's relatively swift transition into a consistently Democratic stronghold.[60] 20th century and beyond[edit]

Autumn in New England, watercolor, Maurice Prendergast. C. 1910–1913

The flow of immigrants continued at a steady pace from the 1840s until cut off by World War I. The largest numbers came from Ireland and Britain before 1890, and after that from Quebec, Italy and Southern Europe. The immigrants filled the ranks of factory workers, craftsmen and unskilled laborers. The Irish assumed a larger and larger role in the Democratic Party in the cities and statewide, while the rural areas remained Republican. Yankees left the farms, which never were highly productive; many headed west, while others became professionals and businessmen in the New England
New England
cities. The Great Depression in the United States
Great Depression in the United States
of the 1930s hit the region hard, with high unemployment in the industrial cities. The Democrats appealed to factory workers and especially Catholics, pulling them into the New Deal coalition and making the once-Republican region into one that was closely divided. However the enormous spending on munitions, ships, electronics, and uniforms during World War II
World War II
caused a burst of prosperity in every sector.

Fall foliage in the town of Stowe, Vermont

The region lost most of its factories starting with the loss of textiles in the 1930s and getting worse after 1960. The New England economy was radically transformed after World War II. The factory economy practically disappeared. Like urban centers in the Rust Belt, once-bustling New England
New England
communities fell into economic decay following the flight of the region's industrial base. The textile mills one by one went out of business from the 1920s to the 1970s. For example, the Crompton Company, after 178 years in business, went bankrupt in 1984, costing the jobs of 2,450 workers in five states. The major reasons were cheap imports, the strong dollar, declining exports, and a failure to diversify.[61] Shoes followed.

Alexander King House in Suffield, Connecticut

What remains is very high technology manufacturing, such as jet engines, nuclear submarines, pharmaceuticals, robotics, scientific instruments, and medical devices. MIT
MIT
(the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology) invented the format for university-industry relations in high tech fields, and spawned many software and hardware firms, some of which grew rapidly.[62] By the 21st century the region had become famous for its leadership roles in the fields of education, medicine and medical research, high-technology, finance, and tourism.[63] Some industrial areas were slow in adjusting to the new service economy. In 2000, New England
New England
had two of the ten poorest cities (by percentage living below the poverty line) in the U.S.: the state capitals of Providence, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Hartford, Connecticut.[64] They were no longer in the bottom ten by 2010; Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
remain among the ten wealthiest states in the United States
United States
in terms of median household income and per capita income.[65] Cities and urban areas[edit] Metropolitan areas[edit] The following are metropolitan statistical areas as defined by the United States
United States
Census Bureau.

Bangor, ME MSA Barnstable Town, MA MSA (Greater Boston) Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH MSA
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH MSA
(Greater Boston) Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT MSA (New York-Newark CSA) Burlington-South Burlington, VT MSA Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT MSA Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA Manchester-Nashua, NH MSA New Haven-Milford, CT MSA (New York-Newark CSA) Norwich-New London, CT MSA Pittsfield, MA MSA Portland-South Portland, ME MSA Springfield, MA MSA Providence-Warwick, RI-MA MSA (Greater Boston) Worcester, MA-CT MSA (Greater Boston)

State capitals[edit]

Hartford, Connecticut Augusta, Maine Boston, Massachusetts Concord, New Hampshire Providence, Rhode Island Montpelier, Vermont

Geography[edit] Main articles: Geography of Connecticut, Geography of Maine, Geography of Massachusetts, Geography of New Hampshire, Geography of Rhode Island, and Geography of Vermont

A political and geographical map of New England
New England
shows the coastal plains in the east, and hills, mountains and valleys in the west and the north.

A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley
Pioneer Valley
in Sunderland, Massachusetts

The states of New England
New England
have a combined area of 71,991.8 square miles (186,458 km2), making the region slightly larger than the state of Washington and larger than England.[66][67] Maine
Maine
alone constitutes nearly one-half of the total area of New England, yet is only the 39th-largest state, slightly smaller than Indiana. The remaining states are among the smallest in the U.S., including the smallest state—Rhode Island. Geology[edit] Main article: Geology of New England New England's long rolling hills, mountains, and jagged coastline are glacial landforms resulting from the retreat of ice sheets approximately 18,000 years ago, during the last glacial period.[68][69] New England
New England
is geologically a part of the New England
New England
province, an exotic terrane region consisting of the Appalachian Mountains, the New England highlands, and the seaboard lowlands.[70] The Appalachian Mountains roughly follow the border between New England
New England
and New York. The Berkshires
The Berkshires
in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut, and the Green Mountains in Vermont, as well as the Taconic Mountains, form a spine of Precambrian
Precambrian
rock.[71] The Appalachians extend northwards into New Hampshire
New Hampshire
as the White Mountains, and then into Maine
Maine
and Canada. Mount Washington in New Hampshire is the highest peak in the Northeast, although it is not among the ten highest peaks in the eastern United States.[72] It is the site of the second highest recorded wind speed on Earth,[73][74] and has the reputation of having the world's most severe weather.[75][76] The coast of the region, extending from southwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
to northeastern Maine, is dotted with lakes, hills, marshes and wetlands, and sandy beaches.[69] Important valleys in the region include the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley and the Merrimack Valley.[69] The longest river is the Connecticut
Connecticut
River, which flows from northeastern New Hampshire for 655 km (407 mi), emptying into Long Island Sound, roughly bisecting the region. Lake Champlain, which forms part of the border between Vermont
Vermont
and New York, is the largest lake in the region, followed by Moosehead Lake
Moosehead Lake
in Maine
Maine
and Lake Winnipesaukee
Lake Winnipesaukee
in New Hampshire.[69] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of New England

Köppen climate types in New England

The White Mountains of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
are part of the Appalachian Mountains.

The climate of New England
New England
varies greatly across its 500 miles (800 km) span from northern Maine
Maine
to southern Connecticut: Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, Vermont, and western Massachusetts
Massachusetts
have a humid continental climate (Dfb in Köppen climate classification). In this region the winters are long, cold, and heavy snow is common (most locations receive 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) of snow annually in this region). The summer's months are moderately warm, though summer is rather short and rainfall is spread through the year. In central and eastern Massachusetts, southeastern New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and most of Connecticut, the same humid continental prevails (Dfa), though summers are warm to hot, winters are shorter, and there is less snowfall (especially in the coastal areas where it is often warmer). Southern and coastal Connecticut
Connecticut
is the broad transition zone from the cold continental climates of the north to the milder subtropical climates to the south. The frost free season is greater than 180 days across far southern/coastal Connecticut, coastal Rhode Island, and the islands ( Nantucket
Nantucket
and Martha's Vineyard). Winters also tend to be much sunnier in southern Connecticut
Connecticut
and southern Rhode Island compared to the rest of New England.[77] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of New England

Largest self-reported ancestry groups in New England. Americans
Americans
of Irish descent form a plurality in most of Massachusetts, and Americans of English descent form a plurality in much of the central parts of Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
as well as nearly all of Maine.

In 2010, New England
New England
had a population of 14,444,865, a growth of 3.8% from 2000.[78] This grew to an estimated 14,727,584 by 2015.[79] Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the most populous state with 6,794,422 residents, while Vermont
Vermont
is the least populous state with 626,042 residents.[78] Boston
Boston
is by far the region's most populous city and metropolitan area. Although a great disparity exists between New England's northern and southern portions, the region's average population density is 234.93 inhabitants/sq mi (90.7/km²). New England
New England
has a significantly higher population density than that of the U.S. as a whole (79.56/sq mi), or even just the contiguous 48 states (94.48/sq mi). Three-quarters of the population of New England, and most of the major cities, are in the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. The combined population density of these states is 786.83/sq mi, compared to northern New England's 63.56/sq mi (2000 census). According to the 2006–08 American Community Survey, 48.7% of New Englanders were male and 51.3% were female. Approximately 22.4% of the population were under 18 years of age; 13.5% were over 65 years of age. The six states of New England
New England
have the lowest birth rate in the U.S.[80] White Americans
White Americans
make up the majority of New England's population at 83.4% of the total population, Hispanic and Latino Americans
Americans
are New England's largest minority, and they are the second-largest group in the region behind non-Hispanic European Americans. As of 2014, Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 10.2% of New England's population. Connecticut
Connecticut
had the highest proportion at 13.9%, while Vermont
Vermont
had the lowest at 1.3%. There were nearly 1.5 million Hispanic and Latino individuals reported in New England
New England
in 2014. Puerto Ricans were the most numerous of the Hispanic and Latino subgroups. Over 660,000 Puerto Ricans lived in New England
New England
in 2014, forming 4.5% of the population. The Dominican population is over 200,000, and the Mexican and Guatemalan populations are each over 100,000.[81] Americans
Americans
of Cuban descent are scant in number; there were roughly 26,000 Cuban Americans
Americans
in the region in 2014. People of all other Hispanic and Latino ancestries, including Salvadoran, Colombian, and Bolivian, formed 2.5% of New England's population, and numbered over 361,000 combined.[81] According to the 2014 American Community Survey, the top ten largest reported European ancestries were the following:[82]

Irish: 19.2% (2.8 million) Italian: 13.6% (2.0 million) French and French Canadian: 13.1% (1.9 million) English: 11.9% (1.7 million)[83] German: 7.4% (1.1 million) Polish: 4.9% (roughly 715,000) Portuguese: 3.2% (467,000) Scottish: 2.5% (370,000) Russian: 1.4% (206,000) Greek: 1.0% (152,000)

English is, by far, the most common language spoken at home. Approximately 81.3% of all residents (11.3 million people) over the age of five spoke only English at home. Roughly 1,085,000 people (7.8% of the population) spoke Spanish at home, and roughly 970,000 people (7.0% of the population) spoke other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
at home. Over 403,000 people (2.9% of the population) spoke an Asian or Pacific Island language at home.[84] Slightly fewer (about 1%) spoke French at home,[85] although this figure is above 20% in northern New England, which borders francophone Québec.[citation needed] Roughly 99,000 people (0.7% of the population) spoke languages other than these at home.[84] As of 2014, approximately 87% of New England's inhabitants were born in the U.S., while over 12% were foreign-born.[86] 35.8% of foreign-born residents were born in Latin America, 28.6% were born in Asia, 22.9% were born in Europe, and 8.5% were born in Africa.[87] Southern New England
New England
forms an integral part of the BosWash megalopolis, a conglomeration of urban centers that spans from Boston to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The region includes three of the four most densely populated states in the U.S.; only New Jersey
New Jersey
has a higher population density than the states of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. Greater Boston, which includes parts of southern New Hampshire, has a total population of approximately 4.8 million,[88] while over half the population of New England
New England
falls inside Boston's Combined Statistical Area of over 8.2 million.[89] Largest cities[edit] Main article: List of cities by population in New England The most populous cities as of the Census Bureau's 2014 estimates were (metropolitan areas in parentheses):[88][90]

Boston, Massachusetts: 655,884 (4,739,385) Worcester, Massachusetts: 183,016 (931,802) Providence, Rhode Island: 179,154 (1,609,533) Springfield, Massachusetts: 153,991 (630,672) Bridgeport, Connecticut: 147,612 (945,816) New Haven, Connecticut: 130,282 (861,238) Stamford, Connecticut: 128,278 (part of Bridgeport's MSA) Hartford, Connecticut: 124,705 (1,213,225) Manchester, New Hampshire: 110,448 (405,339) Lowell, Massachusetts: 109,945 (part of Greater Boston)

During the 20th century, urban expansion in regions surrounding New York City has become an important economic influence on neighboring Connecticut, parts of which belong to the New York metropolitan area. The U.S. Census Bureau groups Fairfield, New Haven and Litchfield counties in western Connecticut
Connecticut
together with New York City, and other parts of New York and New Jersey
New Jersey
as a combined statistical area.[91]

Major Cities of New England

1. Boston, Massachusetts

2. Worcester, Massachusetts

3. Providence, Rhode Island

4. Springfield, Massachusetts

5. Bridgeport, Connecticut

6. New Haven, Connecticut

7. Stamford, Connecticut

8. Hartford, Connecticut

9. Manchester, New Hampshire

10. Lowell, Massachusetts

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of New England Overview[edit]

Old Port (Wharf Street), in Portland, Maine

Several factors combine to make the New England
New England
economy unique. The region is distant from the geographic center of the country, and is a relatively small region, and relatively densely populated. It historically has been an important center of industrial manufacturing and a supplier of natural resource products, such as granite, lobster, and codfish. New England
New England
exports food products, ranging from fish to lobster, cranberries, Maine
Maine
potatoes, and maple syrup. The service industry is important, including tourism, education, financial and insurance services, plus architectural, building, and construction services. The U.S. Department of Commerce has called the New England economy a microcosm for the entire U.S. economy.[92] In the first half of the 20th century, the region underwent a long period of deindustrialization as traditional manufacturing companies relocated to the Midwest, with textile and furniture manufacturing migrating to the South. In the mid-to-late 20th century, an increasing portion of the regional economy included high technology (including computer and electronic equipment manufacturing), military defense industry, finance and insurance services, as well as education and health services. As of 2015, the GDP
GDP
of New England
New England
was $953.9 billion.[93] Exports[edit]

Vermont
Vermont
maple syrup

Exports consist mostly of industrial products, including specialized machines and weaponry (aircraft and missiles especially), built by the region's educated workforce. About half of the region's exports consist of industrial and commercial machinery, such as computers and electronic and electrical equipment. This, when combined with instruments, chemicals, and transportation equipment, makes up about three-quarters of the region's exports. Granite
Granite
is quarried at Barre, Vermont,[94] guns made at Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Saco, Maine, boats at Groton, Connecticut
Connecticut
and Bath, Maine, and hand tools at Turners Falls, Massachusetts. Insurance is a driving force in and around Hartford, Connecticut.[92] Agriculture[edit] Agriculture is limited by the area's rocky soil, cool climate, and small area. Some New England
New England
states, however, are ranked highly among U.S. states for particular areas of production. Maine
Maine
is ranked ninth for aquaculture,[95] and has abundant potato fields in its northeast part. Vermont
Vermont
is fifteenth for dairy products,[96] and Connecticut
Connecticut
and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
seventh and eleventh for tobacco, respectively.[97][98] Cranberries are grown in Massachusetts' Cape Cod-Plymouth-South Shore area, and blueberries in Maine. Energy[edit]

Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant
in Seabrook, New Hampshire

Three of the six New England
New England
states are among the country's highest consumers of nuclear power: Vermont
Vermont
(first, 73.7%), Connecticut (fourth, 48.9%), and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(sixth, 46%).[99] The region is mostly energy-efficient compared to the U.S. at large, with every state but Maine
Maine
ranking within the ten most energy-efficient states;[100] every state in New England
New England
also ranks within the ten most expensive states for electricity prices.[101] Employment[edit]

Unemployment rates in New England

Employment area October 2010 October 2011 October 2012 October 2013 December 2014 December 2015[102] December 2016[103] Net change

United States 9.7 9.0 7.9 7.2 5.6 5.0 4.7 −5.0

New England 8.3 7.6 7.4 7.1 5.4 4.3 3.5 −4.7

Connecticut 9.1 8.7 9.0 7.6 6.4 5.2 4.4 −4.7

Maine 7.6 7.3 7.4 6.5 5.5 4.0 3.8 −3.8

Massachusetts 8.3 7.3 6.6 7.2 5.5 4.7 2.8 −5.5

New Hampshire 5.7 5.3 5.7 5.2 4.0 3.1 2.6 −3.1

Rhode Island 11.5 10.4 10.4 9.4 6.8 5.1 5.0 −6.5

Vermont 5.9 5.6 5.5 4.4 4.2 3.6 3.1 −2.8

As of January 2017, employment is stronger in New England
New England
than in the rest of the United States. During the Great Recession, unemployment rates ballooned across New England
New England
as elsewhere; however, in the years that followed, these rates declined steadily, with New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
having the lowest unemployment rates in the country, respectively. The most extreme swing was in Rhode Island, which had an unemployment rate above 10% following the recession, but which saw this rate decline by over 6% in six years. As of December 2016, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) with the lowest unemployment rate, 2.1%, was Burlington-South Burlington, Vermont; the MSA with the highest rate, 4.9%, was Waterbury, Connecticut.[104] Government[edit] Main articles: Government of Vermont, Government of New Hampshire, Government of Maine, Government of Massachusetts, Government of Connecticut, and Government of Rhode Island Town meetings[edit] Main articles: Town meeting
Town meeting
and New England
New England
town

A New England town
New England town
meeting in Huntington, Vermont

New England town
New England town
meetings were derived from meetings held by church elders, and are still an integral part of government in many New England towns. At such meetings, any citizen of the town may discuss issues with other members of the community and vote on them. This is the strongest example of direct democracy in the U.S. today, and the strong democratic tradition was even apparent in the early 19th century, when Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville
wrote in Democracy in America:

“ New England, where education and liberty are the daughters of morality and religion, where society has acquired age and stability enough to enable it to form principles and hold fixed habits, the common people are accustomed to respect intellectual and moral superiority and to submit to it without complaint, although they set at naught all those privileges which wealth and birth have introduced among mankind. In New England, consequently, the democracy makes a more judicious choice than it does elsewhere.[105] ”

By contrast, James Madison
James Madison
wrote in Federalist No. 55 that, regardless of the assembly, "passion never fails to wrest the scepter from reason. Had every Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob."[106] The use and effectiveness of town meetings is still discussed by scholars, as well as the possible application of the format to other regions and countries.[107] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of New England Elections[edit] Main article: Elections in New England State and national elected officials in New England
New England
recently have been elected mainly from the Democratic Party.[108] The region is generally considered to be the most liberal in the United States, with more New Englanders identifying as liberals than Americans
Americans
elsewhere. In 2010, four of six of the New England
New England
states were polled as the most liberal in the United States; Maine
Maine
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
also were more liberal than the bottom-half.[109] The six states of New England
New England
voted for the Democratic Presidential nominee in the 1992, 1996, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016 elections, and every New England
New England
state other than New Hampshire
New Hampshire
voted for Al Gore
Al Gore
in the presidential election of 2000. In the 113th Congress the House delegations from all six states of New England
New England
were all Democratic. New England
New England
is home to the only two independents currently serving in the U.S. Senate, both of whom caucus with the Democratic Party: Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist,[110][111] representing Vermont; and Angus King, an Independent representing Maine. In the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama carried all six New England states by 9 percentage points or more.[112] He carried every county in New England
New England
except for Piscataquis County, Maine, which he lost by 4% to Senator John McCain
John McCain
(R-AZ). Pursuant to the reapportionment following the 2010 census, New England
New England
collectively has 33 electoral votes. The following table presents the vote percentage for the popular-vote winner for each New England
New England
state, New England
New England
as a whole, and the United States
United States
as a whole, in each presidential election from 1900 to 2016, with the vote percentage for the Republican candidate shaded in red and the vote percentage for the Democratic candidate shaded in blue:

Year Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont New England United States

2016 54.0% 48.0% 61.0% 47.6% 54.9% 61.1% 55.6% 48.2%

2012 58.1% 56.3% 60.7% 52.0% 62.7% 66.6% 59.1% 51.1%

2008 60.6% 57.7% 61.8% 54.1% 62.9% 67.5% 60.6% 52.9%

2004 54.3% 53.6% 61.9% 50.2% 59.4% 58.9% 57.7% 50.7%

2000 55.9% 49.1% 59.8% 48.1% 61.0% 50.6% 56.1% 48.4%

1996 52.8% 51.6% 61.5% 49.3% 59.7% 53.4% 56.8% 49.2%

1992 42.2% 38.8% 47.5% 38.9% 47.0% 46.1% 44.4% 43.0%

1988 52.0% 55.3% 53.2% 62.5% 55.6% 51.1% 49.5% 53.4%

1984 60.7% 60.8% 51.2% 68.7% 51.7% 57.9% 56.2% 58.8%

1980 48.2% 45.6% 41.9% 57.7% 47.7% 44.4% 44.7% 50.8%

1976 52.1% 48.9% 56.1% 54.7% 55.4% 54.3% 51.7% 50.1%

1972 58.6% 61.5% 54.2% 64.0% 53.0% 62.7% 52.5% 60.7%

1968 49.5% 55.3% 63.0% 52.1% 64.0% 52.8% 56.1% 43.4%

1964 67.8% 68.8% 76.2% 63.9% 80.9% 66.3% 72.8% 61.1%

1960 53.7% 57.0% 60.2% 53.4% 63.6% 58.6% 56.0% 49.7%

1956 63.7% 70.9% 59.3% 66.1% 58.3% 72.2% 62.0% 57.4%

1952 55.7% 66.0% 54.2% 60.9% 50.9% 71.5% 56.1% 55.2%

1948 49.5% 56.7% 54.7% 52.4% 57.6% 61.5% 51.5% 49.6%

1944 52.3% 52.4% 52.8% 52.1% 58.6% 57.1% 52.4% 53.4%

1940 53.4% 51.1% 53.1% 53.2% 56.7% 54.8% 52.8% 54.7%

1936 55.3% 55.5% 51.2% 49.7% 53.1% 56.4% 50.9% 60.8%

1932 48.5% 55.8% 50.6% 50.4% 55.1% 57.7% 49.1% 57.4%

1928 53.6% 68.6% 50.2% 58.7% 50.2% 66.9% 53.2% 58.2%

1924 61.5% 72.0% 62.3% 59.8% 59.6% 78.2% 63.3% 54.0%

1920 62.7% 68.9% 68.5% 59.8% 64.0% 75.8% 66.7% 60.3%

1916 49.8% 51.0% 50.5% 49.1% 51.1% 62.4% 51.1% 49.2%

1912 39.2% 39.4% 35.5% 39.5% 39.0% 37.1% 36.6% 41.8%

1908 59.4% 63.0% 58.2% 59.3% 60.8% 75.1% 60.2% 51.6%

1904 58.1% 67.4% 57.9% 60.1% 60.6% 78.0% 60.4% 56.4%

1900 56.9% 61.9% 57.6% 59.3% 59.7% 75.7% 59.4% 51.6%

Political party strength[edit] Judging purely by party registration rather than voting patterns, New England today is one of the most Democratic regions in the U.S.[113][114][115] According to Gallup, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Vermont
Vermont
are "solidly Democratic", Maine
Maine
"leans Democratic", and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
is a swing state.[116] Though New England is today considered a Democratic Party stronghold, much of the region was staunchly Republican before the mid-twentieth century. This changed in the late 20th century, in large part due to demographic shifts[117] and the Republican Party's adoption of socially conservative platforms as part of their strategic shift towards the South.[60] For example, Vermont
Vermont
voted Republican in every presidential election but one from 1856 through 1988, and has voted Democratic every election since. Maine
Maine
and Vermont
Vermont
were the only two states in the nation to vote against Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
all four times he ran for president. Republicans in New England
New England
are today considered by both liberals and conservatives to be more moderate (socially liberal) compared to Republicans in other parts of the U.S.[118]

† Elected as an independent, but caucuses with the Democratic Party.

State Governor Senior U.S. Senator Junior U.S. Senator U.S. House Delegation Upper House Majority Lower House Majority

CT D. Malloy R. Blumenthal C. Murphy Democratic 5–0 Tied 18–18 Democratic 80–71

ME P. LePage S. Collins A. King[†] Split 1–1 Republican 18–17 Democratic 76–72–2

MA C. Baker E. Warren E. Markey Democratic 9–0 Democratic 34–6 Democratic 125–35

NH C. Sununu J. Shaheen M. Hassan Democratic 2-0 Republican 14–10 Republican 226–174

RI G. Raimondo J. Reed S. Whitehouse Democratic 2–0 Democratic 33–5 Democratic 64–10–1

VT P. Scott P. Leahy B. Sanders[†] Democratic 1–0 Democratic 21–7–2 Democratic 83–53–7–7

Alumni Hall at Saint Anselm College
Saint Anselm College
has served as a backdrop for the media reports during the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary.

New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary[edit] Main article: New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary Historically, the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary has been the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years. Held in the state of New Hampshire, it usually marks the beginning of the U.S. presidential election process. Even though few delegates are chosen from New Hampshire, the primary has always been pivotal to both New England
New England
and American politics. One college in particular, Saint Anselm College, has been home to numerous national presidential debates and visits by candidates to its campus.[119] Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

New England
New England
is home to four of the eight Ivy League
Ivy League
universities. Pictured here is Dartmouth Hall on the campus of Dartmouth College.

New England
New England
contains some of the oldest and most renowned institutions of higher learning in the United States
United States
and the world. Harvard
Harvard
College was the first such institution, founded in 1636 at Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to train preachers. Yale University
Yale University
was founded in Saybrook, Connecticut
Connecticut
in 1701, and awarded the nation's first doctoral (PhD) degree in 1861. Yale moved to New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, Connecticut
in 1718, where it has remained to the present day. Brown University
Brown University
was the first college in the nation to accept students of all religious affiliations, and is the seventh oldest U.S. institution of higher learning. It was founded in Providence, Rhode Island in 1764. Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
was founded five years later in Hanover, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
with the mission of educating the local American Indian population as well as English youth. The University of Vermont, the fifth oldest university in New England, was founded in 1791, the same year that Vermont
Vermont
joined the Union. In addition to four out of eight Ivy League
Ivy League
schools, New England contains the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT), four of the original Seven Sisters, the bulk of educational institutions that are identified as the "Little Ivies", one of the eight original Public Ivies, the Colleges of Worcester Consortium in central Massachusetts, and the Five Colleges consortium in western Massachusetts. The University of Maine, the University of New Hampshire, the University of Connecticut, the University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
at Amherst, the University of Rhode Island, and the University of Vermont
Vermont
are the flagship state universities in the region. See also: List of colleges and universities in Connecticut, List of colleges and universities in Maine, List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts, List of colleges and universities in New Hampshire, List of colleges and universities in Rhode Island, and List of colleges and universities in Vermont Private and independent secondary schools[edit] At the pre-college level, New England
New England
is home to a number of American independent schools (also known as private schools). The concept of the elite " New England
New England
prep school" (preparatory school) and the "preppy" lifestyle is an iconic part of the region's image.[120]

See the list of private schools for each state: Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont.

Public education[edit]

Boston
Boston
Latin School is the oldest public school in the U.S., established in 1635.

New England
New England
is home to some of the oldest public schools in the nation. Boston
Boston
Latin School is the oldest public school in America and was attended by several signatories of the Declaration of Independence.[121] Hartford Public High School
Hartford Public High School
is the second oldest operating high school in the U.S.[122] As of 2005, the National Education Association
National Education Association
ranked Connecticut
Connecticut
as having the highest-paid teachers in the country. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
ranked eighth and ninth, respectively. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
Vermont
have cooperated in developing a New England Common Assessment Program test under the No Child Left Behind guidelines. These states can compare the resultant scores with each other. The Maine
Maine
Learning Technology Initiative program supplies all students with Apple MacBook
MacBook
laptops. Academic journals and press[edit] There are several academic journals and publishing companies in the region, including The New England
New England
Journal of Medicine, Harvard University Press, and Yale University
Yale University
Press. Some of its institutions lead the open access alternative to conventional academic publication, including MIT, the University of Connecticut, and the University of Maine. The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Boston
publishes the New England Economic Review.[123] Culture[edit]

Cushing house, Hingham, Massachusetts

A classic New England
New England
Congregational church
Congregational church
in Peacham, Vermont

New England
New England
has a shared heritage and culture primarily shaped by waves of immigration from Europe.[124] In contrast to other American regions, many of New England's earliest Puritan
Puritan
settlers came from eastern England, contributing to New England's distinctive accents, foods, customs, and social structures.[125]:30–50 Within modern New England a cultural divide exists between urban New Englanders living along the densely populated coastline, and rural New Englanders in western Massachusetts, northwestern and northeastern Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, where population density is low.[126] Today, New England
New England
is the least religious region of the U.S. In 2009, less than half of those polled in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont
Vermont
claimed that religion was an important part of their daily lives. In Connecticut
Connecticut
and Rhode Island, also among the ten least religious states, 55 and 53%, respectively, of those polled claimed that it was.[127] According to the American Religious Identification Survey, 34% of Vermonters, a plurality, claimed to have no religion; on average, nearly one out of every four New Englanders identifies as having no religion, more than in any other part of the U.S.[128] New England had one of the highest percentages of Catholics in the U.S. This number declined from 50% in 1990 to 36% in 2008.[128] Cultural roots[edit] Many of the first European colonists of New England
New England
had a maritime orientation toward whaling (first noted about 1650)[129] and fishing, in addition to farming. New England
New England
has developed a distinct cuisine, dialect, architecture, and government. New England cuisine
New England cuisine
has a reputation for its emphasis on seafood and dairy; clam chowder, lobster, and other products of the sea are among some of the region's most popular foods. See also: Cuisine of New England New England
New England
has largely preserved its regional character, especially in its historic places. The region has become more ethnically diverse, having seen waves of immigration from Ireland, Quebec, Italy, Portugal, Poland, Asia, Latin America, Africa, other parts of the U.S., and elsewhere. The enduring European influence can be seen in the region in the use of traffic rotaries, the bilingual French and English towns of northern Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire, the region's heavy prevalence of English town- and county-names, and its unique, often non-rhotic coastal dialect reminiscent of southeastern England. Within New England, many names of towns (and a few counties) repeat from state to state, primarily due to settlers throughout the region having named their new towns after their old ones. For example, the town of North Yarmouth, Maine
Maine
was named by settlers from Yarmouth, Massachusetts, which was in turn named for Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
in England. As another example, every New England
New England
state has a town named Warren, and every state except Rhode Island
Rhode Island
has a city or town named Andover, Bridgewater, Chester, Franklin, Manchester, Plymouth, Washington, and Windsor; in addition, every state except Connecticut
Connecticut
has a Lincoln and a Richmond, and Massachusetts, Vermont, and Maine
Maine
each contains a Franklin County. Accents[edit] There are several American English
American English
accents spoken in the region, including New England English
New England English
and its derivative known as the Boston accent,[130] which is native to the northeastern coastal regions of New England. The most identifiable features of the Boston
Boston
accent are believed[by whom?] to have originated from England's Received Pronunciation, which shares features such as dropping the final R and the broad A. Another source was 17th century speech in East Anglia
East Anglia
and Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
where many of the Puritan
Puritan
immigrants originated.[citation needed] The East Anglian "whine" developed into the Yankee "twang".[125] Boston
Boston
accents were most strongly associated at one point with the so-called "Eastern Establishment" and Boston's upper class, although today the accent is predominantly associated with blue-collar natives, as exemplified by movies such as Good Will Hunting and The Departed. The Boston
Boston
accent and those accents closely related to it cover eastern Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine.[131] Some Rhode Islanders speak with a non-rhotic accent that many compare to a "Brooklyn" accent or a cross between a New York and Boston accent, where "water" becomes "wata". Many Rhode Islanders distinguish the aw sound [ɔː], as one might hear in New Jersey; e.g., the word "coffee" is pronounced /ˈkɔːfi/ KAW-fee.[132] This type of accent was brought to the region by early settlers from eastern England in the Puritan
Puritan
migration in the mid-seventeenth century.[125]:13–207 Social activities and music[edit] Acadian
Acadian
and Québécois culture are included in music and dance in much of rural New England, particularly Maine. Contra dancing
Contra dancing
and country square dancing are popular throughout New England, usually backed by live Irish, Acadian, or other folk music. Fife and drum corps are common, especially in southern New England
New England
and more specifically Connecticut, with music of mostly Celtic, English, and local origin.

Opera houses and theaters are popular in New England
New England
towns, such as the Vergennes Opera House in Vergennes, Vermont.

Traditional knitting, quilting, and rug hooking circles in rural New England have become less common; church, sports, and town government are more typical social activities. These traditional gatherings are often hosted in individual homes or civic centers. New England
New England
leads the U.S. in ice cream consumption per capita.[133][134] In the U.S., candlepin bowling is essentially confined to New England, where it was invented in the 19th century.[135] New England
New England
was an important center of American classical music for some time. Prominent modernist composers also come from the region, including Charles Ives
Charles Ives
and John Adams. Boston
Boston
is the site of the New England Conservatory and the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra. In popular music, the region has produced Donna Summer, JoJo, New Edition, Bobby Brown, Passion Pit, Meghan Trainor, New Kids on the Block, Rachel Platten, and John Mayer. In rock music, the region has produced Rob Zombie, Aerosmith, The Modern Lovers, Phish, the Pixies, GG Allin, the Dropkick Murphys, and Boston. Quincy, Massachusetts native Dick Dale
Dick Dale
helped popularize surf rock. Media[edit] The leading U.S. cable TV sports broadcaster ESPN
ESPN
is headquartered in Bristol, Connecticut. New England
New England
has several regional cable networks, including New England Cable News
New England Cable News
(NECN) and the New England
New England
Sports Network (NESN). New England Cable News
New England Cable News
is the largest regional 24-hour cable news network in the U.S., broadcasting to more than 3.2 million homes in all of the New England
New England
states. Its studios are located in Newton, Massachusetts, outside of Boston, and it maintains bureaus in Manchester, New Hampshire; Hartford, Connecticut; Worcester, Massachusetts; Portland, Maine; and Burlington, Vermont.[136] In Connecticut, Litchfield, Fairfield, and New Haven counties it also broadcasts New York based news programs—this is due in part to the immense influence New York has on this region's economy and culture, and also to give Connecticut
Connecticut
broadcasters the ability to compete with overlapping media coverage from New York-area broadcasters. NESN broadcasts the Boston
Boston
Red Sox baseball and Boston
Boston
Bruins hockey throughout the region, save for Fairfield County, Connecticut.[137] Most of Connecticut, save for Windham county in the state's northeast corner, and even southern Rhode Island, receives the YES Network, which broadcasts the games of the New York Yankees. For the most part, the same areas also carry SportsNet New York
SportsNet New York
(SNY), which broadcasts New York Mets
New York Mets
games. Comcast SportsNet New England
Comcast SportsNet New England
broadcasts the games of the Boston Celtics, New England Revolution
New England Revolution
and Boston
Boston
Cannons. While most New England
New England
cities have daily newspapers, The Boston
Boston
Globe and The New York Times
The New York Times
are distributed widely throughout the region. Major newspapers also include The Providence Journal, Portland Press Herald, and Hartford Courant, the oldest continuously published newspaper in the U.S.[138] Comedy[edit] New Englanders are well represented in American comedy. Writers for The Simpsons
The Simpsons
and late-night television programs often come by way of the Harvard
Harvard
Lampoon. Family Guy
Family Guy
is an animated sitcom situated in Rhode Island, created by Connecticut
Connecticut
native and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
School of Design graduate Seth MacFarlane
Seth MacFarlane
(along with American Dad!
American Dad!
and The Cleveland Show). A number of Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
(SNL) cast members have roots in New England, from Adam Sandler
Adam Sandler
to Amy Poehler, who also stars in the NBC
NBC
television series Parks and Recreation. Former Daily Show correspondents Rob Corddry
Rob Corddry
and Steve Carell
Steve Carell
are from Massachusetts. Carell was also involved in film and the American adaptation of The Office, which features Dunder-Mifflin
Dunder-Mifflin
branches set in Stamford, Connecticut
Connecticut
and Nashua, New Hampshire. Late-night television hosts Jay Leno
Jay Leno
and Conan O'Brien
Conan O'Brien
have roots in the Boston
Boston
area. Notable stand-up comedians are also from the region, including Bill Burr, Dane Cook, Steve Sweeney, Steven Wright, Sarah Silverman, Lisa Lampanelli, Denis Leary, Lenny Clarke, Patrice O'Neal, and Louis CK. SNL cast member Seth Meyers
Seth Meyers
once attributed the region's imprint on American humor to its "sort of wry New England
New England
sense of pointing out anyone who's trying to make a big deal of himself", with the Boston
Boston
Globe suggesting that irony and sarcasm are its trademarks, as well as Irish influences.[139] Literature[edit] Main article: Literature of New England

Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
was born in Boston
Boston
and spent most of his literary career in Concord, Massachusetts.

The literature of New England
New England
has had an enduring influence on American literature
American literature
in general, with themes that are emblematic of the larger concerns of American letters, such as religion, race, the individual versus society, social repression, and nature.[140] Famous New England
New England
writers include Transcendentalist philosophers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, poets Emily Dickinson
Emily Dickinson
and Elizabeth Bishop, and novelists Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Boston
Boston
was the center of the American publishing industry for some years, largely on the strength of its local writers and before it was overtaken by New York in the middle of the nineteenth century. Boston remains the home of publishers Houghton Mifflin
Houghton Mifflin
and Pearson Education, and it was the longtime home of literary magazine The Atlantic Monthly. Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
is based in Springfield, Massachusetts. Yankee
Yankee
is a magazine for New Englanders based in Dublin, New Hampshire. Twentieth and twenty-first century writers hailing from New England include Maine
Maine
native Stephen King
Stephen King
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
native John Irving, and New England
New England
is a major setting of their works. George V. Higgins wrote about life in the New England
New England
criminal underworld, while H.P. Lovecraft
H.P. Lovecraft
set many of his works of horror in his native Rhode Island. Film, television, and acting[edit] New England
New England
has a rich history in filmmaking dating back to the dawn of the motion picture era at the turn of the 20th century, sometimes dubbed Hollywood East
Hollywood East
by film critics. A theater at 547 Washington Street in Boston
Boston
was the second location to debut a picture projected by the Vitascope, and shortly thereafter several novels were being adapted for the screen and set in New England, including The Scarlet Letter and The House of Seven Gables.[141] The New England
New England
region continued to churn out films at a pace above the national average for the duration of the 20th century, including blockbuster hits such as Jaws, Good Will Hunting, and The Departed, all of which won Oscars. The New England
New England
area became known for a number of themes that recurred in films made during this era, including the development of yankee characters, smalltown life contrasted with city values, seafaring tales, family secrets, and haunted New England.[142] These themes are rooted in centuries of New England
New England
culture and are complemented by the region's diverse natural landscape and architecture, from the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
and brilliant fall foliage to church steeples and skyscrapers. Since the turn of the millennium, Boston
Boston
and the greater New England region have been home to the production of numerous films and television series, thanks in part to tax incentive programs put in place by local governments to attract filmmakers to the region.[143] Notable actors and actresses that have come from the New England
New England
area include Ben Affleck, Matt Damon, Amy Poehler, Elizabeth Banks, Steve Carell, Ruth Gordon, John Krasinski, Edward Norton, Mark Wahlberg, and Matthew Perry. A full list of those from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
can be found here, and a listing of notable films and television series produced in the area here. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in New England Two popular American sports were invented in New England: basketball, invented by James Naismith
James Naismith
(a Canadian) in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891,[144] and volleyball, invented in 1895 by William G. Morgan, in Holyoke, Massachusetts.[145] Additionally, Walter Camp
Walter Camp
is credited with developing modern American football
American football
in New Haven, Connecticut, in the 1870s and 1880s.[146] New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Motor Speedway is an oval racetrack that has hosted several NASCAR
NASCAR
and American Championship Car Racing
American Championship Car Racing
races, whereas Lime Rock Park
Lime Rock Park
in Connecticut
Connecticut
is a traditional road racing venue home of sports car races. Events at these venues have had the "New England" moniker, such as the NASCAR
NASCAR
New England 300
New England 300
and New England
New England
200, the IndyCar Series
IndyCar Series
New England
New England
Indy 200, and the American Le Mans Series New England
New England
Grand Prix. Professional and semi-professional sports teams[edit]

Fenway Park, home of the Boston
Boston
Red Sox, is the oldest operating ballpark in the U.S.

The major professional sports teams in New England
New England
are based in Massachusetts: the Boston
Boston
Red Sox, the New England Patriots
New England Patriots
(based in Foxborough, Massachusetts), the Boston
Boston
Celtics, the Boston
Boston
Bruins, the New England Revolution
New England Revolution
(also based in Foxborough), the Boston Breakers, and the Boston
Boston
Cannons. Hartford had a professional hockey team, the Hartford Whalers, from 1975 until they moved to North Carolina in 1997. A WNBA
WNBA
team, the Connecticut
Connecticut
Sun, are based in southeastern Connecticut
Connecticut
at the Mohegan Sun
Mohegan Sun
resort, which is also home to the professional indoor lacrosse team the New England
New England
Black Wolves. New England
New England
is also home to the Boston
Boston
Blades, Boston
Boston
Pride and the Connecticut
Connecticut
Whale, which represent three of the five professional women's hockey teams in the United States. There are also minor league baseball and hockey teams based in larger cities such as the Bridgeport Bluefish
Bridgeport Bluefish
(baseball), the Bridgeport Sound Tigers (hockey), the Connecticut
Connecticut
Tigers (baseball), the Hartford Yard Goats (baseball), the Hartford Wolf Pack
Hartford Wolf Pack
(hockey), the Lowell Spinners (baseball), the Manchester Monarchs (hockey), the New Britain Bees (baseball), the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Fisher Cats (baseball), the Pawtucket Red Sox
Pawtucket Red Sox
(baseball), the Portland Sea
Sea
Dogs (baseball), the Providence Bruins
Providence Bruins
(hockey), the Springfield Thunderbirds
Springfield Thunderbirds
(hockey), the Vermont
Vermont
Lake Monsters (baseball), and the Worcester Railers
Worcester Railers
(hockey). The NBA G League
NBA G League
fields a team in New England: the Maine
Maine
Red Claws, based in Portland, Maine. The Springfield Armor
Springfield Armor
in Springfield, Massachusetts, previously played in the region. The Red Claws are affiliated with the Boston
Boston
Celtics and the Armor were affiliated with the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Nets, prior to relocating to Grand Rapids, Michigan, to become the Grand Rapids Drive. New England
New England
is also represented in the Premier Basketball
Basketball
League by the Vermont
Vermont
Frost Heaves of Barre, Vermont. Thanksgiving Day high school football rivalries date back to the 19th century, and the Harvard-Yale rivalry ("The Game") is the oldest active rivalry in college football. The Boston
Boston
Marathon, run on Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
every year, is a New England
New England
cultural institution and the oldest annual marathon in the world. While the race offers far less prize money than many other marathons, the race's difficulty and long history make it one of the world's most prestigious marathons.[147] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in New England

The MBTA Commuter Rail
MBTA Commuter Rail
serves much of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and parts of Rhode Island radiating from Downtown Boston, with plans for expansion into New Hampshire.[148][149]

The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) provides rail and subway service within the Boston
Boston
metropolitan area, bus service in Greater Boston, and commuter rail service throughout Eastern Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and parts of Rhode Island. The New York City Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Metropolitan Transportation Authority
in partnership with the Connecticut
Connecticut
Department of Transportation (CTDOT) operates the Metro-North Railroad, which provides commuter rail service in Southwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
in the corridor between New York City
New York City
and New Haven. CTDOT provides the Shore Line East
Shore Line East
commuter rail service along the Connecticut
Connecticut
coastline east of New Haven, terminating in Old Saybrook and New London. Amtrak
Amtrak
provides interstate rail service throughout New England. Boston is the northern terminus of the Northeast Corridor. The Vermonter connects Vermont
Vermont
to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut, while the Downeaster links Maine
Maine
to Boston. The long-distance Lake Shore Limited train has two eastern termini after splitting in Albany, one of which is Boston. This provides rail service on the former Boston
Boston
and Albany Railroad, which runs between its namesake cities. The rest of the Lake Shore Limited continues to New York City. See also[edit]

Autumn in New England Brother Jonathan Extreme points of New England Fieldstone Historic New England List of amusement parks in New England List of beaches in New England List of mammals of New England Manor of East Greenwich New Albion New Albion
New Albion
(colony) New England/ Acadian
Acadian
forests New England
New England
Confederation New England
New England
Planters New England
New England
Summer Nationals Northeastern coastal forests Southeastern New England AVA wine region Swamp Yankee

Notes[edit]

^ [4][5][6][7][8][9]

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

New York: Atlas of Historical County Boundaries, John H. Long, Editor; Compiled by Kathryn Ford Thorne; A Project of the Dr. William M. Scholl Center for Family and Community History, The new Berry Library, Simon & Schuster, 1993 U.S. Census Bureau, ""Census Regions and Divisions of the United States"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2013.  (1.06 MB)

Further reading[edit]

Hall, Donald, Burt Feintuch, and David H. Watters, eds. Encyclopedia of New England
New England
(Yale U.P. 2005), 1596 pp; the major scholarly resource to the geography, history and culture of the region. ISBN 0-300-10027-2 Bartlett, Ray et al. New England
New England
Trips. ISBN 1-74179-728-4 Berman, Eleanor. Eyewitness Travel Guides New England. ISBN 0-7566-2697-8 Chenoweth, James. Oddity Odyssey: A Journey Through New England's Colorful Past. Holt, 1996. Humorous travel guide. ISBN 0-8050-3671-7 Koistinen, David. Confronting Decline: The Political Economy of Deindustrialization in Twentieth-Century New England
New England
(2013) Muse, Vance. The Smithsonian Guide to Historic America: Northern New England. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998. A photographic guide to historic sites in New England. ISBN 1-55670-635-9 Riess, Jana. The Spiritual Traveler Boston
Boston
and New England: A Guide to Sacred Sites and Peaceful Places, HiddenSpring ISBN 1-58768-008-4 Sletcher, Michael. New England: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures (2004) Wiencek, Henry. The Smithsonian Guide to Historic America: Southern New England. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998. A photographic guide to historic sites in New England. ISBN 1-55670-633-2

External links[edit]

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Guinea region

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East Africa

African Great Lakes

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Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

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