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NEW ENGLAND is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States
United States
: Maine
Maine
, Vermont
Vermont
, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and Connecticut
Connecticut
. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and south, and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Quebec
Quebec
to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
is to the south. Boston
Boston
, the capital of Massachusetts, is New England's largest city. The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston
Boston
, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts (the second-largest city in New England), Manchester (the largest city in New Hampshire), and Providence (the capital and largest city of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
), with nearly a third of the entire region's population.

In 1620, Puritan
Puritan
Separatist Pilgrims from England first settled in the region, forming the Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
, the second successful English settlement in the Americas, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years later, more Puritans
Puritans
settled north of Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in Boston, thus forming Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony . Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars
French and Indian Wars
, until the British and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in North America. In 1692, the town of Salem, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials
Salem witch trials
, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in the history of the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
.

In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England Colonies known as the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
initiated resistance to Britain's efforts to impose new taxes without the consent of the colonists . The Boston
Boston
Tea Party was a protest to which Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts
Massachusetts
of self-government, which were termed the " Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts
" by the colonists. The confrontation led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region also played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, and was the first region of the U.S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution , centered on the Blackstone and Merrimack river valleys.

The physical geography of New England
New England
is diverse for such a small area. Southeastern New England
New England
is covered by a narrow coastal plain , while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains . The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the numerous rivers, such as the Connecticut
Connecticut
River , which bisects the region from north to south.

Each state is principally subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns , many of which are governed by town meetings . The only unincorporated areas in the region exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The region is one of the U.S. Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries. It maintains a strong sense of cultural identity , although the terms of this identity are often contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, and isolation with immigration.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Eastern Algonquian peoples
Algonquian peoples

* 1.2 Colonial period

* 1.2.1 The Virginia Companies * 1.2.2 Plymouth Council for New England * 1.2.3 French and Indian Wars
French and Indian Wars
* 1.2.4 Dominion of New England
Dominion of New England

* 1.3 New England
New England
in the new nation

* 1.3.1 Post-Revolutionary New England
New England
* 1.3.2 Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
* 1.3.3 Anti-slavery

* 1.4 20th century and beyond

* 1.4.1 Great Depression
Great Depression
* 1.4.2 Deindustrialization

* 2 Cities and urban areas

* 2.1 Metropolitan areas * 2.2 State capitals

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Geology * 3.2 Climate

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Largest cities

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Overview * 5.2 Exports * 5.3 Agriculture * 5.4 Energy * 5.5 Employment

* 6 Government

* 6.1 Town meetings * 6.2 Politics

* 6.3 Elections

* 6.3.1 Political party strength * 6.3.2 New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Colleges and universities * 7.2 Private and independent secondary schools * 7.3 Public education * 7.4 Academic journals and press

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Cultural roots * 8.2 Accents * 8.3 Social activities and music

* 8.4 Media

* 8.4.1 Comedy

* 8.5 Literature * 8.6 Film, television, and acting

* 9 Sports

* 9.1 Professional and semi-professional sports teams

* 10 Transportation * 11 See also * 12 Notes

* 13 References

* 13.1 Bibliography

* 14 Further reading * 15 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of New England
History of New England

EASTERN ALGONQUIAN PEOPLES

Main article: Algonquian peoples
Algonquian peoples

The earliest known inhabitants of New England
New England
were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages
Eastern Algonquian languages
. Prominent tribes included the Abenakis , Mi\'kmaq , Penobscot , Pequots , Mohegans
Mohegans
, Narragansetts , Pocumtucks , and Wampanoag . Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec
Quebec
and western Maine. Their principal town was Norridgewock in present-day Maine.

The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River
Penobscot River
in Maine. The Narragansetts and smaller tribes under Narragansett sovereignty lived in most of modern-day Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Martha\'s Vineyard and Nantucket
Nantucket
. The Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, and the Mohegan and Pequot
Pequot
tribes lived in the Connecticut
Connecticut
region. The Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley includes parts of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, linking numerous tribes culturally, linguistically, and politically.

As early as 1600, French , Dutch , and English traders began exploring the New World
New World
, trading metal, glass, and cloth for local beaver pelts.

COLONIAL PERIOD

The Virginia Companies

Main article: New England Colonies

On April 10, 1606, King James I of England
James I of England
issued a charter for the Virginia Company
Virginia Company
, which comprised the London Company
London Company
and the Plymouth Company . These two privately funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, and to return a profit. In 1620, Pilgrims from the _ Mayflower
Mayflower
_ established Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in present-day Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England.

Plymouth Council For New England

Main articles: Plymouth Council for New England , Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony , and Colony of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations
Providence Plantations
_ Title page of John Smith's A Description of New England _ (1616)

In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England". The name was officially sanctioned on November 3, 1620, when the charter of the Virginia Company
Virginia Company
of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England , a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. As the first colonists arrived in Plymouth, they wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact , their first governing document. The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston
Boston
established in 1630.

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Puritans
Puritans
began to settle in Connecticut
Connecticut
as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
for heresy, led a group south, and founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations
Providence Plantations
in 1636. At this time, Vermont
Vermont
was yet unsettled, and the territories of New Hampshire and Maine
Maine
were claimed and governed by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
.

French And Indian Wars

An early English map of New England, c. 1670, depicts the area around modern Portsmouth, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
.

Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alternated between peace and armed skirmishes, the bloodiest of which was the Pequot
Pequot
War in 1637 which resulted in the Mystic massacre . On May 19, 1643, the colonies of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay , Plymouth , New Haven , and Connecticut
Connecticut
joined together in a loose compact called the New England Confederation (officially "The United Colonies of New England"). The confederation was designed largely to coordinate mutual defense, and gained some importance during King Philip\'s War . From June 1675 through April 1678, King Philip's War
King Philip's War
pitted the colonists and their Indian allies against a widespread Indian uprising, resulting in killings and massacres on both sides.

During the next 74 years, there were six colonial wars that took place primarily between New England
New England
and New France
New France
(see the French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rale\'s War and Father Le Loutre\'s War ). Throughout these wars, New England
New England
was allied with the Iroquois Confederacy and New France
New France
was allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy . After the New England
New England
Conquest of Acadia
Acadia
in 1710, mainland Nova Scotia was under the control of New England, but both present-day New Brunswick and virtually all of present-day Maine
Maine
remained contested territory between New England
New England
and New France. After the British won the war in 1763, the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley was opened for British settlement into western New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and what is today Vermont.

The New England
New England
colonies were settled primarily by farmers who became relatively self-sufficient. Later, New England's economy began to focus on crafts and trade, aided by the Puritan
Puritan
work ethic , in contrast to the Southern colonies which focused on agricultural production while importing finished goods from England.

Dominion Of New England

Main articles: Dominion of New England
Dominion of New England
, American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
, American Revolution
American Revolution
, and Boston
Boston
campaign _ The New England Ensign, one of several flags historically associated with New England . This flag was reportedly used by colonial merchant ships sailing out of New England
New England
ports, 1686 – c. 1737. New England's Siege of Louisbourg _ (1745) by Peter Monamy
Peter Monamy
.

By 1686, King James II had become concerned about the increasingly independent ways of the colonies, including their self-governing charters, their open flouting of the Navigation Acts , and their growing military power. He therefore established the Dominion of New England , an administrative union comprising all of the New England colonies. In 1688, the former Dutch colonies of New York , East New Jersey , and West New Jersey were added to the Dominion. The union was imposed from the outside and contrary to the rooted democratic tradition of the region, and it was highly unpopular among the colonists.

The Dominion significantly modified the charters of the colonies, including the appointment of Royal Governors to nearly all of them. There was an uneasy tension between the Royal Governors, their officers, and the elected governing bodies of the colonies. The governors wanted unlimited authority, and the different layers of locally elected officials would often resist them. In most cases, the local town governments continued operating as self-governing bodies, just as they had before the appointment of the governors.

After the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
in 1689, Bostonians overthrew royal governor Sir Edmund Andros
Sir Edmund Andros
. They seized dominion officials and adherents to the Church of England
Church of England
during a popular and bloodless uprising . These tensions eventually culminated in the American Revolution , boiling over with the outbreak of the War of American Independence in 1775. The first battles of the war were fought in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, later leading to the Siege of Boston
Boston
by continental troops. In March 1776, British forces were compelled to retreat from Boston.

NEW ENGLAND IN THE NEW NATION

Boston
Boston
College : the architecture style is Collegiate Gothic , a subgenre of Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival architecture
, a 19th-century movement.

Post-Revolutionary New England

After the dissolution of the Dominion of New England, the colonies of New England
New England
ceased to function as a unified political unit but remained a defined cultural region. By 1784, all of the states in the region had taken steps towards the abolition of slavery, with Vermont and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
introducing total abolition in 1777 and 1783, respectively. The nickname "Yankeeland" was sometimes used to denote the New England
New England
area, especially among Southerners and British.

After settling a dispute with New York, Vermont
Vermont
was admitted to statehood in 1791, formally completing the defined area of New England. On March 15, 1820, as part of the Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
, the territory of Maine, formerly a part of Massachusetts, was admitted to the Union as a free state. Today, New England
New England
is defined as the six states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

For the rest of the period before the American Civil War
American Civil War
, New England remained distinct from the rest of the United States. New England's economic growth relied heavily on trade with the British Empire , and the region's merchants and politicians strongly opposed trade restrictions. As the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom fought the War of 1812
War of 1812
, New England
New England
Federalists organized the Hartford Convention in the winter of 1814 to discuss the region's grievances concerning the war, and to propose changes to the Constitution to protect the region's interests and maintain its political power. Radical delegates within the convention proposed the region's secession from the United States, but they were outnumbered by moderates who opposed the idea.

Politically, the region often disagreed with the rest of the country. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut
Connecticut
were among the last refuges of the Federalist Party
Federalist Party
, and New England
New England
became the strongest bastion of the new Whig Party when the Second Party System
Second Party System
began in the 1830s. The Whigs were usually dominant throughout New England, except in the more Democratic Maine
Maine
and New Hampshire. Leading statesmen hailed from the region, including Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster
.

New England
New England
was distinct in other ways, as well. Many notable literary and intellectual figures were New Englanders, produced by the United States
United States
before the American Civil War, including Ralph Waldo Emerson , Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
, Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , John Greenleaf Whittier , George Bancroft
George Bancroft
, and William H. Prescott .

Industrial Revolution

The Slater Mill Historic Site
Slater Mill Historic Site
in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
Rhode Island

New England
New England
was key to the industrial revolution in the United States. The Blackstone Valley
Blackstone Valley
, running through Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Rhode Island, has been called the birthplace of America's industrial revolution. In 1787, the first cotton mill in America was founded in the North Shore seaport of Beverly, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
as the Beverly Cotton Manufactory . The Manufactory was also considered the largest cotton mill of its time. Technological developments and achievements from the Manufactory led to the development of more advanced cotton mills, including Slater Mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
. Towns such as Lawrence and Lowell in Massachusetts, Woonsocket in Rhode Island, and Lewiston in Maine
Maine
became centers of the textile industry following the innovations at Slater Mill and the Beverly Cotton Manufactory.

The Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley - and in particular the Springfield Armory - became a crucible for industrial innovation, pioneering such advances as interchangeable parts and the assembly line , which influenced manufacturing processes all around the world. From early in the nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth, the region surrounding Springfield and Hartford served as the United States' epicenter for precision manufacturing , drawing skilled workers from all over the world.

The rapid growth of textile manufacturing in New England
New England
between 1815 and 1860 caused a shortage of workers. Recruiters were hired by mill agents to bring young women and children from the countryside to work in the factories. Between 1830 and 1860, thousands of farm girls moved from rural areas where there was no paid employment to work in the nearby mills, such as the famous Lowell Mill Girls . As the textile industry grew, immigration also grew. By the 1850s, immigrants began working in the mills, especially Irish and French Canadians
French Canadians
.

New England, as a whole, was the most industrialized part of the young U.S.; by 1850, it accounted for well over a quarter of all manufacturing value in the country and over a third of its industrial workforce. It was also the most literate and most educated region in the country.

Anti-slavery

During the same period, New England
New England
and areas settled by New Englanders (upstate New York, Ohio's Western Reserve
Western Reserve
, and the upper midwestern states of Michigan
Michigan
and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
) were the center of the strongest abolitionist and anti-slavery movements in the United States, coinciding with the Protestant Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in the region. Abolitionists who demanded immediate emancipation such as William Lloyd Garrison , John Greenleaf Whittier and Wendell Phillips had their base in the region. So too did anti-slavery politicians who wanted to limit the growth of slavery, such as John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
, Charles Sumner , and John P. Hale
John P. Hale
. When the anti-slavery Republican Party was formed in the 1850s, all of New England, including areas that had previously been strongholds for both the Whig and the Democratic Parties, became strongly Republican. New England
New England
remained solidly Republican until Catholics began to mobilize behind the Democrats, especially in 1928, and up until the Republican party realigned its politics in a shift known as the Southern strategy . This led to the end of " Yankee
Yankee
Republicanism" and began New England's relatively swift transition into a consistently Democratic stronghold .

20TH CENTURY AND BEYOND

_ Autumn in New England_, watercolor, Maurice Prendergast
Maurice Prendergast
. C. 1910–1913

The flow of immigrants continued at a steady pace from the 1840s until cut off by World War I
World War I
. The largest numbers came from Ireland and Britain before 1890, and after that from Quebec, Italy and Southern Europe. The immigrants filled the ranks of factory workers, craftsmen and unskilled laborers. The Irish assumed a larger and larger role in the Democratic Parts in the cities and statewide, while the rural areas remained Republican. Yankees left the farms, which never were highly productive; many headed west, while others became professionals and businessmen in the New England
New England
cities.

Great Depression

The Great Depression in the United States
Great Depression in the United States
of the 1930s hit the region hard, with high unemployment in the industrial cities. The Democrats appealed to factory workers and especially Catholics, pulling them into the New Deal coalition and making the once-Republican region into one that was closely divided. However the enormous spending on munitions, ships, electronics, and uniforms during World War II
World War II
caused a burst of prosperity in every sector.

Deindustrialization

Fall foliage in the town of Stowe, Vermont
Vermont

The region lost most of its factories starting with the loss of textiles in the 1930s and getting worse after 1960. The New England economy was radically transformed after World War II. The factory economy practically disappeared. Like urban centers in the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
, once-bustling New England
New England
communities fell into economic decay following the flight of the region's industrial base. The textile mills one by one went out of business from the 1920s to the 1970s. For example, the Crompton Company, after 178 years in business, went bankrupt in 1984, costing the jobs of 2,450 workers in five states. The major reasons were cheap imports, the strong dollar, declining exports, and a failure to diversify. Shoes followed. Alexander King House in Suffield, Connecticut
Connecticut

What remains is very high technology manufacturing, such as jet engines, nuclear submarines, pharmaceuticals, robotics, scientific instruments, and medical devices. MIT
MIT
(the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology) invented the format for university-industry relations in high tech fields, and spawned many software and hardware firms, some of which grew rapidly. By the 21st century the region had become famous for its leadership roles in the fields of education, medicine and medical research, high-technology, finance, and tourism.

Some industrial areas were slow in adjusting to the new service economy. In 2000, New England
New England
had two of the ten poorest cities (by percentage living below the poverty line) in the U.S.: the state capitals of Providence, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
. They were no longer in the bottom ten by 2010; Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
remain among the ten wealthiest states in the United States in terms of median household income and per capita income.

CITIES AND URBAN AREAS

METROPOLITAN AREAS

* Bangor, ME MSA * Barnstable Town, MA MSA (Greater Boston
Boston
) * Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH MSA (Greater Boston
Boston
) * Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT MSA (New York-Newark CSA ) * Burlington-South Burlington, VT MSA * Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT MSA * Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA * Manchester-Nashua, NH MSA * New Haven-Milford, CT MSA (New York-Newark CSA ) * Norwich-New London, CT MSA * Pittsfield, MA MSA * Portland-South Portland, ME MSA * Springfield, MA MSA * Providence-Warwick, RI-MA MSA (Greater Boston
Boston
) * Worcester, MA-CT MSA (Greater Boston
Boston
)

STATE CAPITALS

* Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
* Augusta, Maine
Maine
* Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
* Concord, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
* Providence, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
* Montpelier, Vermont
Vermont

GEOGRAPHY

Main articles: Geography of Connecticut
Connecticut
, Geography of Maine
Maine
, Geography of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Geography of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, Geography of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and Geography of Vermont
Vermont
A political and geographical map of New England
New England
shows the coastal plains in the east, and hills, mountains and valleys in the west and the north. A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley in Sunderland, Massachusetts
Massachusetts

The states of New England
New England
have a combined area of 71,991.8 square miles (186,458 km2), making the region slightly larger than the state of Washington and larger than England. Maine
Maine
alone constitutes nearly one-half of the total area of New England, yet is only the 39th-largest state, slightly smaller than Indiana
Indiana
. The remaining states are among the smallest in the U.S., including the smallest state , Rhode Island.

GEOLOGY

Main article: Geology of New England

New England's long rolling hills, mountains, and jagged coastline are glacial landforms resulting from the retreat of ice sheets approximately 18,000 years ago, during the last glacial period .

New England
New England
is geologically a part of the New England province , an exotic terrane region consisting of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
, the New England
New England
highlands, and the seaboard lowlands. The Appalachian Mountains roughly follow the border between New England
New England
and New York. The Berkshires in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut, and the Green Mountains in Vermont, as well as the Taconic Mountains , form a spine of Precambrian
Precambrian
rock.

The Appalachians extend northwards into New Hampshire
New Hampshire
as the White Mountains , and then into Maine
Maine
and Canada. Mount Washington in New Hampshire is the highest peak in the Northeast, although it is not among the ten highest peaks in the eastern United States. It is the site of the second highest recorded wind speed on Earth, and has the reputation of having the world's most severe weather.

The coast of the region, extending from southwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
to northeastern Maine, is dotted with lakes, hills, marshes and wetlands, and sandy beaches. Important valleys in the region include the Connecticut
Connecticut
River Valley and the Merrimack Valley
Merrimack Valley
. The longest river is the Connecticut
Connecticut
River , which flows from northeastern New Hampshire for 655 km (407 mi), emptying into Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
, roughly bisecting the region. Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
, wedged between Vermont
Vermont
and New York, is the largest lake in the region, followed by Moosehead Lake in Maine
Maine
and Lake Winnipesaukee
Lake Winnipesaukee
in New Hampshire.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of New England Köppen climate types in New England
New England
The White Mountains of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
are part of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
.

The climate of New England
New England
varies greatly across its 500 miles (800 km) span from northern Maine
Maine
to southern Connecticut:

Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, Vermont, and western Massachusetts
Massachusetts
have a humid continental climate (Dfb in Köppen climate classification ). In this region the winters are long, cold, and heavy snow is common (most locations receive 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) of snow annually in this region). The summer's months are moderately warm, though summer is rather short and rainfall is spread through the year.

In central and eastern Massachusetts, southeastern New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and most of Connecticut, the same humid continental prevails (Dfa), though summers are warm to hot, winters are shorter, and there is less snowfall (especially in the coastal areas where it is often warmer).

Southern and coastal Connecticut
Connecticut
is the broad transition zone from the cold continental climates of the north to the milder temperate/subtropical climates to the south. The frost free season is greater than 180 days across far southern/coastal Connecticut, coastal Rhode Island, and the islands ( Nantucket
Nantucket
and Martha's Vineyard). Winters also tend to be much sunnier in southern Connecticut
Connecticut
and southern Rhode Island
Rhode Island
compared to the rest of New England.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of New England Largest self-reported ancestry groups in New England. Americans
Americans
of Irish descent form a plurality in most of Massachusetts, and Americans
Americans
of English descent form a plurality in much of the central parts of Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire as well as nearly all of Maine.

In 2010, New England
New England
had a population of 14,444,865, a growth of 3.8% from 2000. This grew to an estimated 14,727,584 by 2015. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the most populous state with 6,794,422 residents, while Vermont
Vermont
is the least populous state with 626,042 residents. Boston
Boston
is by far the region's most populous city and metropolitan area.

Although a great disparity exists between New England's northern and southern portions, the region's average population density is 234.93 inhabitants/sq mi (90.7/km²). New England
New England
has a significantly higher population density than that of the U.S. as a whole (79.56/sq mi), or even just the contiguous 48 states (94.48/sq mi). Three-quarters of the population of New England, and most of the major cities, are in the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. The combined population density of these states is 786.83/sq mi, compared to northern New England's 63.56/sq mi (2000 census).

According to the 2006–08 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
, 48.7% of New Englanders were male and 51.3% were female. Approximately 22.4% of the population were under 18 years of age; 13.5% were over 65 years of age. The six states of New England
New England
have the lowest birth rate in the U.S.

White Americans
White Americans
make up the majority of New England's population at 83.4% of the total population, Hispanic and Latino Americans
Americans
are New England's largest minority, and they are the second-largest group in the region behind non-Hispanic European Americans
Americans
. As of 2014, Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 10.2% of New England's population. Connecticut
Connecticut
had the highest proportion at 13.9%, while Vermont
Vermont
had the lowest at 1.3%. There were nearly 1.5 million Hispanic and Latino individuals reported in New England
New England
in 2014. Puerto Ricans were the most numerous of the Hispanic and Latino subgroups. Over 660,000 Puerto Ricans lived in New England
New England
in 2014, forming 4.5% of the population. The Dominican population is over 200,000, and the Mexican and Guatemalan populations are each over 100,000. Americans of Cuban descent are scant in number; there were roughly 26,000 Cuban Americans
Americans
in the region in 2014. People of all other Hispanic and Latino ancestries, including Salvadoran , Colombian , and Bolivian , formed 2.5% of New England's population, and numbered over 361,000 combined.

According to the 2014 American Community Survey, the top ten largest reported European ancestries were the following:

* Irish : 19.2% (2.8 million) * Italian : 13.6% (2.0 million) * French and French Canadian
French Canadian
: 13.1% (1.9 million) * English : 11.9% (1.7 million) * German : 7.4% (1.1 million) * Polish : 4.9% (roughly 715,000) * Portuguese : 3.2% (467,000) * Scottish : 2.5% (370,000) * Russian : 1.4% (206,000) * Greek : 1.0% (152,000)

English is, by far, the most common language spoken at home. Approximately 81.3% of all residents (11.3 million people) over the age of five spoke only English at home. Roughly 1,085,000 people (7.8% of the population) spoke Spanish at home, and roughly 970,000 people (7.0% of the population) spoke other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
at home. Over 403,000 people (2.9% of the population) spoke an Asian or Pacific Island language at home. Slightly fewer (about 1%) spoke French at home, although this figure is above 20% in northern New England, which borders francophone Québec. Roughly 99,000 people (0.7% of the population) spoke languages other than these at home.

As of 2014, approximately 87% of New England's inhabitants were born in the U.S., while over 12% were foreign-born. 35.8% of foreign-born residents were born in Latin America, 28.6% were born in Asia, 22.9% were born in Europe, and 8.5% were born in Africa.

Southern New England
New England
forms an integral part of the BosWash megalopolis , a conglomeration of urban centers that spans from Boston to Washington, D.C. The region includes three of the four most densely populated states in the U.S. ; only New Jersey
New Jersey
has a higher population density than the states of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut.

Greater Boston
Boston
, which includes parts of southern New Hampshire, has a total population of approximately 4.8 million, while over half the population of New England
New England
falls inside Boston's Combined Statistical Area of over 8.2 million.

LARGEST CITIES

Main article: List of cities by population in New England

The most populous cities as of the Census Bureau's 2014 estimates were (metropolitan areas in parentheses):

* Boston
Boston
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 655,884 (4,739,385) * Worcester, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 183,016 (931,802) * Providence, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
: 179,154 (1,609,533) * Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 153,991 (630,672) * Bridgeport, Connecticut
Connecticut
: 147,612 (945,816) * New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, Connecticut
: 130,282 (861,238) * Stamford, Connecticut
Connecticut
: 128,278 (part of Bridgeport's MSA) * Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
: 124,705 (1,213,225) * Manchester, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
: 110,448 (405,339) * Lowell, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 109,945 (part of Greater Boston
Boston
) * Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 109,694 (part of Greater Boston) * Waterbury, Connecticut
Connecticut
: 109,307 (part of New Haven's MSA) * New Bedford, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 94,845 (part of Providence's MSA) * Brockton, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 94,779 (part of Greater Boston) * Quincy, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
: 93,397 (part of Greater Boston)

During the 20th century, urban expansion in regions surrounding New York City has become an important economic influence on neighboring Connecticut, parts of which belong to the New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
. The U.S. Census Bureau groups Fairfield , New Haven and Litchfield counties in western Connecticut
Connecticut
together with New York City, and other parts of New York and New Jersey
New Jersey
as a combined statistical area .

* Major Cities of New England

*

1. Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
*

2. Worcester, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
*

3. Providence, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
*

4. Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
*

5. Bridgeport, Connecticut
Connecticut
*

6. New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, Connecticut
*

7. Stamford, Connecticut
Connecticut
*

8. Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
*

9. Manchester, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
*

10. Lowell, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
*

11. Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
*

12. Waterbury, Connecticut
Connecticut
*

13. New Bedford, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
*

14. Brockton, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
*

15. Quincy, Massachusetts
Massachusetts

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of New England

OVERVIEW

Old Port (Wharf Street), in Portland, Maine
Maine

Several factors combine to make the New England
New England
economy unique. The region is distant from the geographic center of the country, and is a relatively small region, and relatively densely populated. It historically has been an important center of industrial manufacturing and a supplier of natural resource products, such as granite , lobster , and codfish . New England
New England
exports food products, ranging from fish to lobster, cranberries, Maine
Maine
potatoes, and maple syrup . The service industry is important, including tourism, education, financial and insurance services, plus architectural, building, and construction services. The U.S. Department of Commerce
U.S. Department of Commerce
has called the New England economy a microcosm for the entire U.S. economy.

In the first half of the 20th century, the region underwent a long period of deindustrialization as traditional manufacturing companies relocated to the Midwest , with textile and furniture manufacturing migrating to the South . In the mid-to-late 20th century, an increasing portion of the regional economy included high technology (including computer and electronic equipment manufacturing), military defense industry, finance and insurance services, as well as education and health services.

As of 2015, the GDP
GDP
of New England
New England
was $953.9 billion.

EXPORTS

Vermont
Vermont
maple syrup

Exports consist mostly of industrial products, including specialized machines and weaponry (aircraft and missiles especially), built by the region's educated workforce. About half of the region's exports consist of industrial and commercial machinery, such as computers and electronic and electrical equipment. This, when combined with instruments, chemicals , and transportation equipment, makes up about three-quarters of the region's exports. Granite
Granite
is quarried at Barre, Vermont
Vermont
, guns made at Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Saco, Maine
Maine
, boats at Groton, Connecticut
Connecticut
and Bath, Maine
Maine
, and hand tools at Turners Falls , Massachusetts. Insurance is a driving force in and around Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
.

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is limited by the area's rocky soil, cool climate, and small area. Some New England
New England
states, however, are ranked highly among U.S. states for particular areas of production. Maine
Maine
is ranked ninth for aquaculture , and has abundant potato fields in its northeast part. Vermont
Vermont
is fifteenth for dairy products, and Connecticut
Connecticut
and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
seventh and eleventh for tobacco, respectively. Cranberries are grown in Massachusetts' Cape Cod
Cape Cod
-Plymouth-South Shore area, and blueberries in Maine.

ENERGY

Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant
in Seabrook, New Hampshire
New Hampshire

Three of the six New England
New England
states are among the country's highest consumers of nuclear power: Vermont
Vermont
(first, 73.7%), Connecticut (fourth, 48.9%), and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(sixth, 46%). The region is mostly energy-efficient compared to the U.S. at large, with every state but Maine
Maine
ranking within the ten most energy-efficient states; every state in New England
New England
also ranks within the ten most expensive states for electricity prices.

EMPLOYMENT

Unemployment rates in New England
New England
EMPLOYMENT AREA OCTOBER 2010 OCTOBER 2011 OCTOBER 2012 OCTOBER 2013 DECEMBER 2014 DECEMBER 2015 DECEMBER 2016 NET CHANGE

UNITED STATES 9.7 9.0 7.9 7.2 5.6 5.0 4.7 −5.0

_New England_ 8.3 7.6 7.4 7.1 5.4 4.3 3.5 −4.7

Connecticut 9.1 8.7 9.0 7.6 6.4 5.2 4.4 −4.7

Maine 7.6 7.3 7.4 6.5 5.5 4.0 3.8 −3.8

Massachusetts 8.3 7.3 6.6 7.2 5.5 4.7 2.8 −5.5

New Hampshire 5.7 5.3 5.7 5.2 4.0 3.1 2.6 −3.1

Rhode Island 11.5 10.4 10.4 9.4 6.8 5.1 5.0 −6.5

Vermont 5.9 5.6 5.5 4.4 4.2 3.6 3.1 −2.8

As of January 2017, employment is stronger in New England
New England
than in the rest of the United States. During the Great Recession
Great Recession
, unemployment rates ballooned across New England
New England
as elsewhere; however, in the years that followed, these rates declined steadily, with New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
having the lowest unemployment rates in the country, respectively. The most extreme swing was in Rhode Island, which had an unemployment rate above 10% following the recession, but which saw this rate decline by over 6% in six years.

As of December 2016, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) with the lowest unemployment rate, 2.1%, was Burlington-South Burlington, Vermont
Vermont
; the MSA with the highest rate, 4.9%, was Waterbury, Connecticut
Connecticut
.

GOVERNMENT

Main articles: Government of Vermont
Vermont
, Government of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, Government of Maine
Maine
, Government of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Government of Connecticut
Connecticut
, and Government of Rhode Island
Rhode Island

TOWN MEETINGS

Main articles: Town meeting
Town meeting
and New England town
New England town
A New England town meeting in Huntington, Vermont
Vermont

New England town
New England town
meetings were derived from meetings held by church elders, and are still an integral part of government in many New England towns . At such meetings, any citizen of the town may discuss issues with other members of the community and vote on them. This is the strongest example of direct democracy in the U.S. today, and the strong democratic tradition was even apparent in the early 19th century, when Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville
wrote in _ Democracy in America
Democracy in America
_:

“ New England, where education and liberty are the daughters of morality and religion, where society has acquired age and stability enough to enable it to form principles and hold fixed habits, the common people are accustomed to respect intellectual and moral superiority and to submit to it without complaint, although they set at naught all those privileges which wealth and birth have introduced among mankind. In New England, consequently, the democracy makes a more judicious choice than it does elsewhere. ”

By contrast, James Madison
James Madison
wrote in _Federalist No. 55 _ that, regardless of the assembly, "passion never fails to wrest the scepter from reason. Had every Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob." The use and effectiveness of town meetings is still discussed by scholars, as well as the possible application of the format to other regions and countries.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of New England

ELECTIONS

Main article: Elections in New England

State and national elected officials in New England
New England
recently have been elected mainly from the Democratic Party. The region is generally considered to be the most liberal in the United States, with more New Englanders identifying as liberals than Americans
Americans
elsewhere. In 2010, four of six of the New England
New England
states were polled as the most liberal in the United States; Maine
Maine
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
also were more liberal than the bottom-half.

The six states of New England
New England
voted for the Democratic Presidential nominee in the 1992, 1996, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016 elections, and every New England
New England
state other than New Hampshire
New Hampshire
voted for Al Gore
Al Gore
in the presidential election of 2000 . In the 113th Congress the House delegations from all six states of New England
New England
were all Democratic. New England
New England
is home to the only two independents currently serving in the U.S. Senate, both of whom caucus with the Democratic Party: Bernie Sanders , a self-described democratic socialist , representing Vermont
Vermont
; and Angus King , an Independent representing Maine.

In the 2008 presidential election , Barack Obama carried all six New England states by 9 percentage points or more. He carried every county in New England
New England
except for Piscataquis County , Maine
Maine
, which he lost by 4% to Senator John McCain
John McCain
(R-AZ). Pursuant to the reapportionment following the 2010 census, New England
New England
collectively has 33 electoral votes .

The following table presents the vote percentage for the popular-vote winner for each New England
New England
state, New England
New England
as a whole, and the United States
United States
as a whole, in each presidential election from 1900 to 2016, with the vote percentage for the Republican candidate shaded in red and the vote percentage for the Democratic candidate shaded in blue:

YEAR CONNECTICUT MAINE MASSACHUSETTS NEW HAMPSHIRE RHODE ISLAND VERMONT NEW ENGLAND UNITED STATES

2016 54.0% 48.0% 61.0% 47.6% 54.9% 61.1% 55.6% 48.2%

2012 58.1% 56.3% 60.7% 52.0% 62.7% 66.6% 59.1% 51.1%

2008 60.6% 57.7% 61.8% 54.1% 62.9% 67.5% 60.6% 52.9%

2004 54.3% 53.6% 61.9% 50.2% 59.4% 58.9% 57.7% 50.7%

2000 55.9% 49.1% 59.8% 48.1% 61.0% 50.6% 56.1% 48.4%

1996 52.8% 51.6% 61.5% 49.3% 59.7% 53.4% 56.8% 49.2%

1992 42.2% 38.8% 47.5% 38.9% 47.0% 46.1% 44.4% 43.0%

1988 52.0% 55.3% 53.2% 62.5% 55.6% 51.1% 49.5% 53.4%

1984 60.7% 60.8% 51.2% 68.7% 51.7% 57.9% 56.2% 58.8%

1980 48.2% 45.6% 41.9% 57.7% 47.7% 44.4% 44.7% 50.8%

1976 52.1% 48.9% 56.1% 54.7% 55.4% 54.3% 51.7% 50.1%

1972 58.6% 61.5% 54.2% 64.0% 53.0% 62.7% 52.5% 60.7%

1968 49.5% 55.3% 63.0% 52.1% 64.0% 52.8% 56.1% 43.4%

1964 67.8% 68.8% 76.2% 63.9% 80.9% 66.3% 72.8% 61.1%

1960 53.7% 57.0% 60.2% 53.4% 63.6% 58.6% 56.0% 49.7%

1956 63.7% 70.9% 59.3% 66.1% 58.3% 72.2% 62.0% 57.4%

1952 55.7% 66.0% 54.2% 60.9% 50.9% 71.5% 56.1% 55.2%

1948 49.5% 56.7% 54.7% 52.4% 57.6% 61.5% 51.5% 49.6%

1944 52.3% 52.4% 52.8% 52.1% 58.6% 57.1% 52.4% 53.4%

1940 53.4% 51.1% 53.1% 53.2% 56.7% 54.8% 52.8% 54.7%

1936 55.3% 55.5% 51.2% 49.7% 53.1% 56.4% 50.9% 60.8%

1932 48.5% 55.8% 50.6% 50.4% 55.1% 57.7% 49.1% 57.4%

1928 53.6% 68.6% 50.2% 58.7% 50.2% 66.9% 53.2% 58.2%

1924 61.5% 72.0% 62.3% 59.8% 59.6% 78.2% 63.3% 54.0%

1920 62.7% 68.9% 68.5% 59.8% 64.0% 75.8% 66.7% 60.3%

1916 49.8% 51.0% 50.5% 49.1% 51.1% 62.4% 51.1% 49.2%

1912 39.2% 39.4% 35.5% 39.5% 39.0% 37.1% 36.6% 41.8%

1908 59.4% 63.0% 58.2% 59.3% 60.8% 75.1% 60.2% 51.6%

1904 58.1% 67.4% 57.9% 60.1% 60.6% 78.0% 60.4% 56.4%

1900 56.9% 61.9% 57.6% 59.3% 59.7% 75.7% 59.4% 51.6%

Political Party Strength

Judging purely by party registration rather than voting patterns, New England today is one of the most Democratic regions in the U.S. According to Gallup , Connecticut
Connecticut
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and Vermont
Vermont
are "solidly Democratic", Maine
Maine
"leans Democratic", and New Hampshire is a swing state. Though New England
New England
is today considered a Democratic Party stronghold, much of the region was staunchly Republican before the mid-twentieth century. This changed in the late 20th century, in large part due to demographic shifts and the Republican Party's adoption of socially conservative platforms as part of their strategic shift towards the South . For example, Vermont voted Republican in every presidential election but one from 1856 through 1988, and has voted Democratic every election since. Maine
Maine
and Vermont
Vermont
were the only two states in the nation to vote against Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
all four times he ran for president. Republicans in New England
New England
are today considered by both liberals and conservatives to be more moderate (socially liberal) compared to Republicans in other parts of the U.S. † Elected as an independent, but caucuses with the Democratic Party.

STATE GOVERNOR SENIOR U.S. SENATOR JUNIOR U.S. SENATOR U.S. HOUSE DELEGATION UPPER HOUSE MAJORITY LOWER HOUSE MAJORITY

CT D. Malloy R. Blumenthal C. Murphy Democratic 5–0 Tied 18–18 Democratic 80–71

ME P. LePage S. Collins A. King Split 1–1 Republican 18–17 Democratic 76–72–2

MA C. Baker E. Warren E. Markey Democratic 9–0 Democratic 34–6 Democratic 125–35

NH C. Sununu J. Shaheen M. Hassan Democratic 2-0 Republican 14–10 Republican 226–174

RI G. Raimondo J. Reed S. Whitehouse Democratic 2–0 Democratic 33–5 Democratic 64–10–1

VT P. Scott P. Leahy B. Sanders Democratic 1–0 Democratic 21–7–2 Democratic 83–53–7–7

Alumni Hall at Saint Anselm College
Saint Anselm College
has served as a backdrop for the media reports during the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary .

New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Primary

Main article: New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary

Historically, the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
primary has been the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States
United States
every four years. Held in the state of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, it usually marks the beginning of the U.S. presidential election process. Even though few delegates are chosen from New Hampshire, the primary has always been pivotal to both New England
New England
and American politics. One college in particular, Saint Anselm College
Saint Anselm College
, has been home to numerous national presidential debates and visits by candidates to its campus.

EDUCATION

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

New England
New England
is home to four of the eight Ivy League universities. Pictured here is Dartmouth Hall on the campus of Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
.

New England
New England
contains some of the oldest and most renowned institutions of higher learning in the United States
United States
and the world. Harvard
Harvard
College was the first such institution, founded in 1636 at Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to train preachers. Yale University
Yale University
was founded in Saybrook , Connecticut
Connecticut
in 1701, and awarded the nation's first doctoral (PhD) degree in 1861. Yale moved to New Haven, Connecticut
Connecticut
in 1718, where it has remained to the present day.

Brown University
Brown University
was the first college in the nation to accept students of all religious affiliations, and is the seventh oldest U.S. institution of higher learning. It was founded in Providence, Rhode Island in 1764. Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
was founded five years later in Hanover, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
with the mission of educating the local American Indian population as well as English youth. The University of Vermont
Vermont
, the fifth oldest university in New England, was founded in 1791, the same year that Vermont
Vermont
joined the Union .

In addition to four out of eight Ivy League
Ivy League
schools, New England contains the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT), four of the original Seven Sisters , the bulk of educational institutions that are identified as the " Little Ivies ", one of the eight original Public Ivies , the Colleges of Worcester Consortium in central Massachusetts, and the Five Colleges consortium in western Massachusetts. The University of Maine
Maine
, the University of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, the University of Connecticut
Connecticut
, the University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
at Amherst , the University of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and the University of Vermont
Vermont
are the flagship state universities in the region. See also: List of colleges and universities in Connecticut
Connecticut
, List of colleges and universities in Maine
Maine
, List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, List of colleges and universities in New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, List of colleges and universities in Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, and List of colleges and universities in Vermont
Vermont

PRIVATE AND INDEPENDENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS

At the pre-college level, New England
New England
is home to a number of American independent schools (also known as private schools). The concept of the elite " New England
New England
prep school " (preparatory school) and the "preppy " lifestyle is an iconic part of the region's image. See the list of private schools for each state: Connecticut
Connecticut
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Maine
Maine
, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, Vermont
Vermont
.

PUBLIC EDUCATION

Boston
Boston
Latin School is the oldest public school in the U.S., established in 1635.

New England
New England
is home to some of the oldest public schools in the nation. Boston
Boston
Latin School is the oldest public school in America and was attended by several signatories of the Declaration of Independence. Hartford Public High School
Hartford Public High School
is the second oldest operating high school in the U.S.

As of 2005, the National Education Association
National Education Association
ranked Connecticut
Connecticut
as having the highest-paid teachers in the country. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
ranked eighth and ninth, respectively.

New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
Vermont
have cooperated in developing a New England Common Assessment Program test under the No Child Left Behind guidelines. These states can compare the resultant scores with each other.

The Maine
Maine
Learning Technology Initiative program supplies all students with Apple MacBook
MacBook
laptops.

ACADEMIC JOURNALS AND PRESS

There are several academic journals and publishing companies in the region, including _ The New England Journal of Medicine _, Harvard University Press , and Yale University
Yale University
Press . Some of its institutions lead the open access alternative to conventional academic publication, including MIT
MIT
, the University of Connecticut
Connecticut
, and the University of Maine
Maine
. The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Boston
publishes the _ New England
New England
Economic Review_.

CULTURE

Cushing house, Hingham, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Classic New England Congregationalist church in Peacham, Vermont
Vermont

New England
New England
has a shared heritage and culture primarily shaped by waves of immigration from Europe. In contrast to other American regions, many of New England's earliest Puritan
Puritan
settlers came from eastern England, contributing to New England's distinctive accents, foods, customs, and social structures. :30–50 Within modern New England a cultural divide exists between urban New Englanders living along the densely populated coastline, and rural New Englanders in western Massachusetts, northwestern and northeastern Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, where population density is low.

Today, New England
New England
is the least religious region of the U.S. In 2009, less than half of those polled in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont
Vermont
claimed that religion was an important part of their daily lives. In Connecticut
Connecticut
and Rhode Island, also among the ten least religious states, 55 and 53%, respectively, of those polled claimed that it was. According to the American Religious Identification Survey , 34% of Vermonters, a plurality, claimed to have no religion; on average, nearly one out of every four New Englanders identifies as having no religion, more than in any other part of the U.S. New England had one of the highest percentages of Catholics in the U.S. This number declined from 50% in 1990 to 36% in 2008.

CULTURAL ROOTS

Many of the first European colonists of New England
New England
had a maritime orientation toward whaling (first noted about 1650) and fishing, in addition to farming. New England
New England
has developed a distinct cuisine , dialect , architecture , and government. New England cuisine has a reputation for its emphasis on seafood and dairy; clam chowder , lobster, and other products of the sea are among some of the region's most popular foods. See also: Cuisine of New England

New England
New England
has largely preserved its regional character, especially in its historic places. The region has become more ethnically diverse , having seen waves of immigration from Ireland, Quebec, Italy, Portugal, Poland, Asia, Latin America, Africa, other parts of the U.S., and elsewhere. The enduring European influence can be seen in the region in the use of traffic rotaries , the bilingual French and English towns of northern Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire, the region's heavy prevalence of English town- and county-names, and its unique, often non-rhotic coastal dialect reminiscent of southeastern England.

Within New England, many names of towns (and a few counties) repeat from state to state, primarily due to settlers throughout the region having named their new towns after their old ones. For example, the town of North Yarmouth, Maine
Maine
was named by settlers from Yarmouth, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, which was in turn named for Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
in England. As another example, every New England
New England
state has a town named Warren, and every state except Rhode Island
Rhode Island
has a city or town named Andover, Bridgewater, Chester, Franklin, Manchester, Plymouth, Washington, and Windsor; in addition, every state except Connecticut
Connecticut
has a Lincoln and a Richmond, and Massachusetts, Vermont, and Maine
Maine
each contains a Franklin County .

ACCENTS

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There are several American English
American English
accents spoken in the region, including New England English and its derivative known as the Boston accent .

The so-called Boston
Boston
accent is native to the northeastern coastal regions of New England. Many of its most identifiable features are believed to have originated from the influence of England's Received Pronunciation , which shares those features, such as dropping final R and the broad A . Another source was 17th century speech in East Anglia and Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
where many of the Puritan
Puritan
immigrants originated. The East Anglian "whine" developed into the Yankee "twang". Boston
Boston
accents were most strongly associated at one point with the so-called "Eastern Establishment " and Boston\'s upper class , although today the accent is predominantly associated with blue-collar natives, as exemplified by movies such as _Good Will Hunting _ and _ The Departed
The Departed
_. The Boston
Boston
accent and those accents closely related to it cover eastern Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine.

Some Rhode Islanders speak with a non-rhotic accent that many compare to a " Brooklyn
Brooklyn
" accent or a cross between a New York and Boston accent , where "water" becomes "wata". Many Rhode Islanders distinguish the _aw_ sound , as one might hear in New Jersey
New Jersey
; e.g., the word "coffee" is pronounced /ˈkɔːfi/ _KAW-fee_ . This type of accent was brought to the region by early settlers from eastern England in the Puritan
Puritan
migration in the mid-seventeenth century. :13–207

SOCIAL ACTIVITIES AND MUSIC

Acadian
Acadian
and Québécois culture are included in music and dance in much of rural New England, particularly Maine. Contra dancing and country square dancing are popular throughout New England, usually backed by live Irish, Acadian, or other folk music. Fife and drum corps are common, especially in southern New England
New England
and more specifically Connecticut
Connecticut
, with music of mostly Celtic, English, and local origin. Opera houses and theaters are popular in New England towns, such as the Vergennes Opera House in Vergennes, Vermont .

Traditional knitting , quilting , and rug hooking circles in rural New England
New England
have become less common; church , sports, and town government are more typical social activities. These traditional gatherings are often hosted in individual homes or civic centers.

New England
New England
leads the U.S. in ice cream consumption per capita. In the U.S., candlepin bowling is essentially confined to New England, where it was invented in the 19th century.

New England
New England
was an important center of American classical music for some time. Prominent modernist composers also come from the region, including Charles Ives
Charles Ives
and John Adams . Boston
Boston
is the site of the New England Conservatory and the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra .

In popular music, the region has produced Donna Summer
Donna Summer
, JoJo , New Edition, Bobby Brown , Passion Pit
Passion Pit
, Meghan Trainor
Meghan Trainor
, New Kids on the Block , and John Mayer
John Mayer
. In rock music, the region has produced Rob Zombie , Aerosmith
Aerosmith
, The Modern Lovers , Phish
Phish
, the Pixies
Pixies
, GG Allin , the Dropkick Murphys
Dropkick Murphys
, and Boston
Boston
. Quincy, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
native Dick Dale
Dick Dale
helped popularize surf rock .

MEDIA

The leading U.S. cable TV sports broadcaster ESPN
ESPN
is headquartered in Bristol, Connecticut
Connecticut
. New England
New England
has several regional cable networks, including New England Cable News
New England Cable News
(NECN) and the New England Sports Network (NESN). New England Cable News
New England Cable News
is the largest regional 24-hour cable news network in the U.S., broadcasting to more than 3.2 million homes in all of the New England
New England
states. Its studios are located in Newton, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, outside of Boston, and it maintains bureaus in Manchester, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
; Hartford, Connecticut
Connecticut
; Worcester, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
; Portland, Maine
Maine
; and Burlington, Vermont
Vermont
. In Connecticut, Litchfield, Fairfield, and New Haven counties it also broadcasts New York based news programs—this is due in part to the immense influence New York has on this region's economy and culture, and also to give Connecticut
Connecticut
broadcasters the ability to compete with overlapping media coverage from New York-area broadcasters.

NESN broadcasts the Boston
Boston
Red Sox baseball and Boston
Boston
Bruins hockey throughout the region, save for Fairfield County, Connecticut. Most of Connecticut, save for Windham county in the state's northeast corner, and even southern Rhode Island, receives the YES Network
YES Network
, which broadcasts the games of the New York Yankees
New York Yankees
. For the most part, the same areas also carry SportsNet New York
SportsNet New York
(SNY), which broadcasts New York Mets
New York Mets
games.

Comcast SportsNet New England broadcasts the games of the Boston Celtics , New England Revolution and Boston
Boston
Cannons .

While most New England
New England
cities have daily newspapers, _The Boston Globe _ and _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_ are distributed widely throughout the region. Major newspapers also include _ The Providence Journal
The Providence Journal
_, _ Portland Press Herald
Portland Press Herald
_, and _ Hartford Courant
Hartford Courant
_, the oldest continuously published newspaper in the U.S.

Comedy

New Englanders are well represented in American comedy. Writers for _ The Simpsons
The Simpsons
_ and late-night television programs often come by way of the Harvard
Harvard
Lampoon . _ Family Guy
Family Guy
_ is an animated sitcom situated in Rhode Island, created by Connecticut
Connecticut
native and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
School of Design graduate Seth MacFarlane
Seth MacFarlane
(along with _ American Dad!
American Dad!
_ and _ The Cleveland Show
The Cleveland Show
_). A number of _ Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
_ (SNL) cast members have roots in New England, from Adam Sandler
Adam Sandler
to Amy Poehler
Amy Poehler
, who also stars in the NBC
NBC
television series _Parks and Recreation _. Former _Daily Show _ correspondents Rob Corddry and Steve Carell
Steve Carell
are from Massachusetts. Carell was also involved in film and the American adaptation of _The Office_, which features Dunder-Mifflin branches set in Stamford, Connecticut
Connecticut
and Nashua, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
.

Late-night television hosts Jay Leno
Jay Leno
and Conan O\'Brien have roots in the Boston
Boston
area. Notable stand-up comedians are also from the region, including Bill Burr , Dane Cook , Steve Sweeney , Steven Wright , Sarah Silverman
Sarah Silverman
, Lisa Lampanelli
Lisa Lampanelli
, Denis Leary
Denis Leary
, Lenny Clarke
Lenny Clarke
, Patrice O\'Neal , and Louis CK . _SNL_ cast member Seth Meyers
Seth Meyers
once attributed the region's imprint on American humor to its "sort of wry New England
New England
sense of pointing out anyone who's trying to make a big deal of himself", with the _ Boston
Boston
Globe _ suggesting that irony and sarcasm are its trademarks, as well as Irish influences.

LITERATURE

Main article: Literature of New England Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
was born in Boston
Boston
and spent most of his literary career in Concord, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
.

The literature of New England
New England
has had an enduring influence on American literature
American literature
in general, with themes that are emblematic of the larger concerns of American letters, such as religion, race, the individual versus society, social repression, and nature. Famous New England writers include Transcendentalist philosophers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
, poets Emily Dickinson
Emily Dickinson
and Elizabeth Bishop , and novelists Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
and Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe
.

Boston
Boston
was the center of the American publishing industry for some years, largely on the strength of its local writers and before it was overtaken by New York in the middle of the nineteenth century. Boston remains the home of publishers Houghton Mifflin
Houghton Mifflin
and Pearson Education , and it was the longtime home of literary magazine _The Atlantic Monthly _. Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
is based in Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. _ Yankee
Yankee
_ is a magazine for New Englanders based in Dublin, New Hampshire .

Twentieth and twenty-first century writers hailing from New England include Maine
Maine
native Stephen King
Stephen King
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
native John Irving , and New England
New England
is a major setting of their works. George V. Higgins wrote about life in the New England
New England
criminal underworld, while H.P. Lovecraft set many of his works of horror in his native Rhode Island
Rhode Island
.

FILM, TELEVISION, AND ACTING

New England
New England
has a rich history in filmmaking dating back to the dawn of the motion picture era at the turn of the 20th century, sometimes dubbed Hollywood East by film critics. A theater at 547 Washington Street in Boston
Boston
was the second location to debut a picture projected by the Vitascope , and shortly thereafter several novels were being adapted for the screen and set in New England, including _The Scarlet Letter _ and _ The House of Seven Gables _. The New England
New England
region continued to churn out films at a pace above the national average for the duration of the 20th century, including blockbuster hits such as _Jaws_ , _ Good Will Hunting
Good Will Hunting
_, and _ The Departed
The Departed
_, all of which won Oscars
Oscars
. The New England
New England
area became known for a number of themes that recurred in films made during this era, including the development of yankee characters, smalltown life contrasted with city values, seafaring tales, family secrets, and haunted New England. These themes are rooted in centuries of New England
New England
culture and are complemented by the region's diverse natural landscape and architecture, from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and brilliant fall foliage to church steeples and skyscrapers.

Since the turn of the millennium, Boston
Boston
and the greater New England region have been home to the production of numerous films and television series, thanks in part to tax incentive programs put in place by local governments to attract filmmakers to the region.

Notable actors and actresses that have come from the New England
New England
area include Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
, Matt Damon
Matt Damon
, Amy Poehler
Amy Poehler
, Elizabeth Banks
Elizabeth Banks
, Steve Carell
Steve Carell
, Ruth Gordon
Ruth Gordon
, John Krasinski
John Krasinski
, Edward Norton
Edward Norton
, Mark Wahlberg , and Matthew Perry
Matthew Perry
. A full list of those from Massachusetts can be found here , and a listing of notable films and television series produced in the area here .

SPORTS

Main article: Sports in New England

Two popular American sports were invented in New England: basketball , invented by James Naismith
James Naismith
(a Canadian) in Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, in 1891, and volleyball , invented in 1895 by William G. Morgan , in Holyoke, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. Additionally, Walter Camp
Walter Camp
is credited with developing modern American football
American football
in New Haven, Connecticut
Connecticut
, in the 1870s and 1880s.

New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Motor Speedway is an oval racetrack that has hosted several NASCAR
NASCAR
and American Championship Car Racing
American Championship Car Racing
races, whereas Lime Rock Park
Lime Rock Park
in Connecticut
Connecticut
is a traditional road racing venue home of sports car races . Events at these venues have had the "New England" moniker, such as the NASCAR
NASCAR
New England 300 and New England 200 , the IndyCar Series
IndyCar Series
New England Indy 200 , and the American Le Mans Series New England Grand Prix .

PROFESSIONAL AND SEMI-PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS

Fenway Park
Fenway Park
, home of the Boston
Boston
Red Sox , is the oldest operating ballpark in the U.S.

The major professional sports teams in New England
New England
are based in Massachusetts: the Boston
Boston
Red Sox , the New England Patriots
New England Patriots
(based in Foxborough, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
), the Boston
Boston
Celtics , the Boston
Boston
Bruins , the New England Revolution (also based in Foxborough), the Boston Breakers , and the Boston
Boston
Cannons . Hartford had a professional hockey team, the Hartford Whalers
Hartford Whalers
, from 1975 until they moved to North Carolina in 1997. A WNBA
WNBA
team, the Connecticut
Connecticut
Sun , are based in southeastern Connecticut
Connecticut
at the Mohegan Sun
Mohegan Sun
resort, which is also home to the professional indoor lacrosse team the New England
New England
Black Wolves . New England
New England
is also home to the Boston
Boston
Blades , Boston
Boston
Pride and the Connecticut
Connecticut
Whale , which represent three of the five professional women's hockey teams in the United States.

There are also minor league baseball and hockey teams based in larger cities such as the Bridgeport Bluefish
Bridgeport Bluefish
(baseball), the Bridgeport Sound Tigers (hockey), the Connecticut
Connecticut
Tigers (baseball), the Hartford Yard Goats (baseball), the Hartford Wolf Pack (hockey), the Lowell Spinners (baseball), the Manchester Monarchs (hockey), the New Britain Bees (baseball), the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Fisher Cats (baseball), the Pawtucket Red Sox (baseball), the Portland Sea
Sea
Dogs (baseball), the Providence Bruins (hockey), the Springfield Thunderbirds
Springfield Thunderbirds
(hockey), the Vermont
Vermont
Lake Monsters (baseball), and the Worcester Railers
Worcester Railers
(hockey).

The NBA G League fields a team in New England: the Maine
Maine
Red Claws , based in Portland, Maine
Maine
. The Springfield Armor in Springfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, previously played in the region. The Red Claws are affiliated with the Boston
Boston
Celtics and the Armor were affiliated with the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Nets , prior to relocating to Grand Rapids, Michigan
Michigan
, to become the Grand Rapids Drive
Grand Rapids Drive
. New England
New England
is also represented in the Premier Basketball
Basketball
League by the Vermont
Vermont
Frost Heaves of Barre, Vermont
Vermont
.

Thanksgiving Day high school football rivalries date back to the 19th century, and the Harvard-Yale rivalry ("The Game ") is the oldest active rivalry in college football. The Boston
Boston
Marathon , run on Patriots\' Day every year, is a New England
New England
cultural institution and the oldest annual marathon in the world. While the race offers far less prize money than many other marathons, the race's difficulty and long history make it one of the world's most prestigious marathons.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in New England The MBTA Commuter Rail serves much of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and parts of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
radiating from Downtown Boston, with plans for expansion into New Hampshire.

The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) provides rail and subway service within the Boston
Boston
metropolitan area, bus service in Greater Boston, and commuter rail service throughout Eastern Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and parts of Rhode Island. The New York City Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Metropolitan Transportation Authority
in partnership with the Connecticut
Connecticut
Department of Transportation (CTDOT) operates the Metro-North Railroad
Metro-North Railroad
, which provides commuter rail service in Southwestern Connecticut
Connecticut
in the corridor between New York City
New York City
and New Haven . CTDOT provides the Shore Line East
Shore Line East
commuter rail service along the Connecticut
Connecticut
coastline east of New Haven, terminating in Old Saybrook and New London .

Amtrak
Amtrak
provides interstate rail service throughout New England. Boston
Boston
is the northern terminus of the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
. The _Vermonter _ connects Vermont
Vermont
to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut, while the _Downeaster _ links Maine
Maine
to Boston. The long-distance _Lake Shore Limited _ train has two eastern termini after splitting in Albany , one of which is Boston. This provides rail service on the former Boston
Boston
and Albany Railroad , which runs between its namesake cities. The rest of the _Lake Shore Limited_ continues to New York City.

SEE ALSO

* Autumn in New England * Brother Jonathan
Brother Jonathan
* Extreme points of New England * Fieldstone * Historic New England * List of amusement parks in New England * List of beaches in New England * List of mammals of New England * Manor of East Greenwich * New Albion
New Albion
* New Albion
New Albion
(colony) * New England/ Acadian
Acadian
forests * New England Confederation * New England Planters
New England Planters
* New England Summer Nationals * Northeastern coastal forests
Northeastern coastal forests
* Southeastern New England AVA wine region * Swamp Yankee
Yankee

* New England
New England
portal * Connecticut
Connecticut
portal * Maine
Maine
portal * Massachusetts
Massachusetts
portal * New Hampshire
New Hampshire
portal * Rhode Island
Rhode Island
portal * Vermont
Vermont
portal

NOTES

* ^

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Globe_. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (February 4, 2015). "Massachusetts, Maryland Most Democratic States". Gallup. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ Kazin, Michael; Edwards, Rebecca; Rothman, Adam (2011). _The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History_. Princeton University Press. pp. 360–365. * ^ Purple, Matt (April 1, 2010). "No More \'New England Republicans\'". _The American Spectator_. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ "Mike Huckabee: Mike Huckabee\'s Weekly Schedule for Sept. 24". _All American Patriots website_. September 25, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2012. * ^ Muther, Christopher (July 1, 2010). "Prepping for a party". _The Boston
Boston
Globe_. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ " Boston
Boston
Latin School". _Encyclopædia Britannica Online_. * ^ Varhola, Michael (2011). _Life in Civil War America_. F+W Media. ISBN 9781440310881 . Retrieved June 22, 2012. * ^ "FRBB: New England
New England
Economic Review". Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Retrieved July 25, 2008. * ^ McWilliams, John P. (2004). _New England\'s Crises and Cultural Memory_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Fischer, David Hackett (1991). _Albion\'s Seed: Four British Folkways in America_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US. ISBN 0195069056 . Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ " New England
New England
Population History". Brown University. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2008. * ^ Newport, Frank (January 28, 2009). "State of the States: Importance of Religion". Gallup. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kosmin, Barry A.; Keysar, Ariela (March 2009). "ARIS 2008 Report: Part IIIC – Geography and Religion" (PDF). _American Religious Identification Survey_. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ Starbuck, Alexander (1878). _History of the American Whale Fishery from its Earliest Inception to the Year 1876_. Waltham, Mass. : Alexander Starbuck. Retrieved October 8, 2014. * ^ Metcalf, Allan. _How We Talk: American Regional English Today_. Houghton Mifflin
Houghton Mifflin
. * ^ "Guide to Rhode Island
Rhode Island
Language Stuff". Quahog.org. Retrieved May 30, 2007. * ^ Nelson, Jennifer (April 27, 2007). "New England\'s best ice cream". _The Boston
Boston
Globe_. Archived from the original on July 18, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. * ^ "Surviving the New England
New England
Winter: You Scream, I Scream, Ice Cream!". _The Harvard
Harvard
Harbus_. December 5, 2005. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ "History of Candlepin Bowling". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bowling Association. Archived from the original on August 26, 2007. Retrieved August 23, 2007. * ^ New England
New England
Cable News. Available at Boston.com Archived December 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. Retrieved July 19, 2006. * ^ New England
New England
Sports Network, Archived at: Boston.com at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived November 7, 2005), Retrieved July 19, 2006 * ^ "Older Than the Nation". _ Hartford Courant
Hartford Courant
_. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ Page, Janice (January 25, 2004). "What\'s So Funny?". Boston.com. Retrieved January 27, 2010. * ^ Gates, David (June 29, 2006). "Destination: New England". _Salon_. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ Kharfen, Stephen. "A History of Boston
Boston
Films" (PDF). Retrieved February 24, 2014. * ^ Sheldon, Karan. " New England
New England
in Feature Films". Retrieved February 24, 2014. * ^ Rotella, Carlo. "Hollywood on the Charles: Why the movie industry is crazy for Boston". Boston
Boston
Magazine. Retrieved December 13, 2013. * ^ Mary Bellis. "History of Basketball". About.com. Retrieved October 28, 2008. * ^ "History of Volleyball". Volleyball
Volleyball
World Wide. Retrieved October 28, 2008. * ^ "Ohio Tiger Trap" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010. * ^ "In marathoning, it has a foothold – History means Boston
Boston
can give any race in the world a run for its money" by John Powers, _The Boston
Boston
Globe_, April 10, 2005 * ^ "Haverhill chamber chief supports train stop in Plaistow". Eagletribune.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2012. * ^ "Plaistow officials hopeful MBTA considers rail extension". Eagletribune.com. March 9, 2008. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2012.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* _New York: Atlas of Historical County Boundaries_, John H. Long, Editor; Compiled by Kathryn Ford Thorne; A Project of the Dr. William M. Scholl Center for Family and Community History, The new Berry Library, Simon ">"Census Regions and Divisions of the United States"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2013. (1.06 MB)

FURTHER READING

* Hall, Donald, Burt Feintuch, and David H. Watters, eds. _Encyclopedia of New England_ (Yale U.P. 2005), 1596 pp; the major scholarly resource to the geography, history and culture of the region. ISBN 0-300-10027-2 * Bartlett, Ray et al. _ New England
New England
Trips_. ISBN 1-74179-728-4 * Berman, Eleanor. _Eyewitness Travel Guides New England_. ISBN 0-7566-2697-8 * Chenoweth, James. _Oddity Odyssey: A Journey Through New England's Colorful Past_. Holt, 1996. Humorous travel guide. ISBN 0-8050-3671-7 * Koistinen, David. _Confronting Decline: The Political Economy of Deindustrialization in Twentieth-Century New England_ (2013) * Muse, Vance. _The Smithsonian Guide to Historic America: Northern New England_. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998. A photographic guide to historic sites in New England. ISBN 1-55670-635-9 * Riess, Jana. _The Spiritual Traveler Boston
Boston
and New England: A Guide to Sacred Sites and Peaceful Places_, HiddenSpring ISBN 1-58768-008-4 * Sletcher, Michael. _New England: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures_ (2004) * Wiencek, Henry. _The Smithsonian Guide to Historic America: Southern New England_. Stewart, Tabori padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutNEW ENGLANDat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

Political

* New England
New England
Governors Conference

Historic

* Historic New England * Minuteman National Park Homepage - American Revolution
American Revolution
battle site

Maps

* Historic USGS Maps of New England
New England
padding: 0; font-size:x-small; color:#000000; text-align: center; border-bottom:1px solid #AAAAAA;">‹ The template below (Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Ontario
Ontario
Quebec
Quebec
New Brunswick
New Brunswick

New York

Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean

NEW ENGLAND

New Jersey
New Jersey
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
Block Island Sound Sargasso Sea
Sea

Coordinates : 44°12′20.00″N 70°18′23.13″W / 44.2055556°N 70.3064250°W / 44.2055556; -70.3064250

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc
Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
* Barbara * Ancient Libya
Ancient Libya
* Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
( Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
* Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley
Nile Valley
* Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia
Aethiopia
* Swahili coast
Swahili coast
* East African Rift
East African Rift
* Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
* Danakil Desert
Danakil Desert
* Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift
Albertine Rift
Valley * Gregory Rift
Gregory Rift
Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes
Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika
Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura
Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Sudanian Savanna
Sudanian Savanna
* East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland
Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez
Cape Lopez
* Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland
Maputaland
* Pool Malebo
Pool Malebo
* Congo Basin
Congo Basin
* Chad Basin
Chad Basin
* Congolese rainforests
Congolese rainforests
* Ouaddaï highlands
Ouaddaï highlands
* Ennedi Plateau
Ennedi Plateau
* Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast
Pepper Coast
* Gold Coast * Slave Coast
Slave Coast
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas
Cape Palmas
* Cape Mesurado
Cape Mesurado
* Negroland
Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna
Sudanian Savanna
* Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar)
Central Highlands (Madagascar)
* Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland
Thembuland
* Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo
Nama Karoo
* Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld
Highveld
* Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region
Cape Floristic Region
* Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
* Okavango Delta
Okavango Delta
* False Bay
False Bay
* Hydra Bay
Hydra Bay
* Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia
Acadia

* Acadian
Acadian
Peninsula

* Quebec
Quebec
City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country
Peace River Country
* Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
* Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
* Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Labrador Peninsula
Labrador Peninsula
* Gaspé Peninsula
Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula
Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula
Brodeur Peninsula
* Melville Peninsula
Melville Peninsula
* Bruce Peninsula
Bruce Peninsula
* Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
* Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia
Gulf of Boothia
* Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
* Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* James Bay
James Bay
* Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia
Appalachia
* East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula
Alaska Peninsula
* Mountain States
Mountain States
* Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
* Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
* West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains
Great Plains
* Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South
Deep South
* Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South
Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt
Bible Belt
* Black Belt * Corn Belt
Corn Belt
* Cotton Belt
Cotton Belt
* Frost Belt
Frost Belt
* Rice Belt
Rice Belt
* Rust Belt
Rust Belt
* Sun Belt
Sun Belt
* Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula
Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco
Soconusco
* Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca
La Mixteca
* La Huasteca
La Huasteca
* Bajío
Bajío
* Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley
Mezquital Valley
* Sierra Madre de Oaxaca
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca
* Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* Basin and Range Province
Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama
Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula
Azuero Peninsula
* Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
* Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
* Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
* LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas
The Guianas
* Gulf of Paria
Gulf of Paria
* Paria Peninsula
Paria Peninsula
* Paraguaná Peninsula
Paraguaná Peninsula
* Orinoco Delta
Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
* Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas
Pampas
* Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco
Gran Chaco
* Chiquitano dry forests
Chiquitano dry forests
* Valdes Peninsula
Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin
* Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado
Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
* LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea
Sea

* Aralkum Desert
Aralkum Desert
* Caspian Sea
Sea
* Dead Sea
Sea
* Sea
Sea
of Galilee
Galilee

* Transoxiana
Transoxiana

* Turan
Turan

* Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
* Ariana
Ariana
* Khwarezm
Khwarezm
* Sistan
Sistan
* Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail
Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region
Volga region
* Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Pryazovia
Pryazovia
* Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
* Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria
Ingria
* Novorossiya
Novorossiya
* Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
* Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan
Tian Shan
* Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Mount Imeon
Mount Imeon
* Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions
Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North
Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia
Baikalia
( Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
) * Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Khatanga Gulf
Khatanga Gulf
* Baraba Steppe
Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia
Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc
Northeastern Japan Arc
* Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
* Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
* Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolia
* China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain
North China Plain
* Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
* Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road
Northern Silk Road
* Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
* Nanzhong * Lingnan
Lingnan
* Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan
Jiangnan
* Jianghuai
Jianghuai
* Guanzhong
Guanzhong
* Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan
Zhongyuan
* Shaannan
Shaannan

* Ordos Loop
Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau
Loess Plateau
* Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
* Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
* Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Sea
* Caspian Sea
Sea
* Mediterranean Sea
Sea
* Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast
Pirate Coast
* Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs
Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula
Al-Faw Peninsula
* Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan
Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia
South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
* Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
* Sawad
Sawad
* Nineveh plains
Nineveh plains
* Akkad (region)
Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq
Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley
Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea
Sea
* Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
* West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead
Gilead
* Judea
Judea
* Samaria
Samaria
* Arabah
Arabah
* Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Anti-Lebanon Mountains
* Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
* Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
* Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland
Kur-Araz Lowland
* Lankaran Lowland
Lankaran Lowland
* Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia
Cilicia
* Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India
Greater India
* Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
* Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin
Ganges Basin
* Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
* Punjab * Balochistan
Balochistan
* Thar Desert
Thar Desert
* Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains
Eastern coastal plains
* Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab
Doab
* Bagar region
Bagar region
* Great Rann of Kutch
Great Rann of Kutch
* Little Rann of Kutch
Little Rann of Kutch
* Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
* Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
* Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point
False Divi Point
* Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
* Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Trans-Karakoram Tract
Trans-Karakoram Tract
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
* Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
* Greater Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
* Lesser Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago
Indonesian Archipelago
* Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf
Huon Gulf
* Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas
Visayas
* Mindanao
Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf
Leyte Gulf
* Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
* Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
* Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
* Baltoscandia
Baltoscandia
* Sápmi
Sápmi
* West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
* Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula
Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast
Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit
Curonian Spit
* Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta
Nemunas Delta
* Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia
Kabardia

* European Russia
European Russia

* Southern Russia
Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states
Alpine states
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt
* Mitteleuropa
Mitteleuropa
* Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux
Benelux
* Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel
English Channel
* Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion
Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System
Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy
Insular Italy
* Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands
Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System
Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc
Gibraltar Arc
* Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * European Plain
European Plain
* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe
* Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
* Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland
Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia
Volhynia
* Karelia
Karelia
* East Karelia
Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf
Huon Gulf
* Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)
Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf
Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country
Capital Country
* Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin
Lake Eyre basin
* Murray–Darling basin
Murray–Darling basin
* Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga
Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert
Great Victoria Desert
* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf St Vincent
Gulf St Vincent
* Lefevre Peninsula
Lefevre Peninsula
* Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
* Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
* Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula
Bellarine Peninsula
* Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago
* Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati
Kiribati
* Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
* Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Wake Island
Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands
Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands
Austral Islands
* Gambier Islands
Gambier Islands
* Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
* Society Islands
Society Islands
* Tuamotu
Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
* Mangareva Islands
Mangareva Islands
* Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau
Tokelau
* Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions
Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* West Antarctica
West Antarctica
* Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
* Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi
Sápmi
* Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
* Barents Sea
Sea
* Beaufort Sea
Sea
* Chukchi Sea
Sea
* East Siberian Sea
Sea
* Greenland
Greenland
Sea
Sea
* Gulf of Boothia
Gulf of Boothia
* Kara Sea
Sea
* Laptev Sea
Sea
* Lincoln Sea
Sea
* Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
Sea
* Pechora Sea
Sea
* Queen Victoria Sea
Sea
* Wandel Sea
Sea
* White Sea
Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Sea
* Aegean Sea
Sea
* Alboran Sea
Sea
* Archipelago Sea
Sea
* Argentine Sea
Sea
* Baffin Bay
Baffin Bay
* Balearic Sea
Sea
* Baltic Sea
Sea
* Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche
Bay of Campeche
* Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
* Black Sea
Sea
* Bothnian Sea
Sea
* Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
* Celtic Sea
Sea
* English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin
Foxe Basin
* Greenland
Greenland
Sea
Sea
* Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
* Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
* Gulf of Lion
Gulf of Lion
* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
* Gulf of Maine
Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
* Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
* Gulf of Venezuela
Gulf of Venezuela
* Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* Ionian Sea
Sea
* Irish Sea
Sea
* Irminger Sea
Sea
* James Bay
James Bay
* Labrador Sea
Sea
* Levantine Sea
Sea
* Libyan Sea
Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Sea
* Marmara Sea
Sea
* Mediterranean Sea
Sea
* Myrtoan Sea
Sea
* North Sea
Sea
* Norwegian Sea
Sea
* Sargasso Sea
Sea
* Sea
Sea
of Åland * Sea
Sea
of Azov * Sea
Sea
of Crete * Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea
Sea
* Tyrrhenian Sea
Sea
* Wadden Sea
Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Sea
* Arabian Sea
Sea
* Bali Sea
Sea
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea
Sea
* Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
* Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea
Sea
* Laccadive Sea
Sea
* Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
Sea
* Banda Sea
Sea
* Bering Sea
Sea
* Bismarck Sea
Sea
* Bohai Sea
Sea
* Bohol Sea
Sea
* Camotes Sea
Sea
* Celebes Sea
Sea
* Ceram Sea
Sea
* Chilean Sea
Sea
* Coral Sea
Sea
* East China Sea
Sea
* Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr
Gulf of Anadyr
* Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf of Fonseca
Gulf of Fonseca
* Gulf of Panama
Gulf of Panama
* Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea
Sea
* Koro Sea
Sea
* Mar de Grau
Mar de Grau
* Molucca Sea
Sea
* Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
* Philippine Sea
Sea
* Salish Sea
Sea
* Savu Sea
Sea
* Sea
Sea
of Japan * Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea
Sea
* Shantar Sea
Sea
* Sibuyan Sea
Sea
* Solomon Sea
Sea
* South China Sea
Sea
* Sulu Sea
Sea
* Tasman Sea
Sea
* Visayan Sea
Sea
* Yellow Sea
Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea
Sea
* Cooperation Sea
Sea
* Cosmonauts Sea
Sea
* Davis Sea
Sea
* D\'Urville Sea
Sea
* King Haakon VII Sea
Sea
* Lazarev Sea
Sea
* Mawson Sea
Sea
* Riiser-Larsen Sea
Sea
* Ross Sea
Sea
* Scotia Sea
Sea
* Somov Sea
Sea
* Weddell Sea
Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea
Sea
* Caspian Sea
Sea
* Dead Sea
Sea
* Sea
Sea
of Galilee
Galilee
* Salton Sea
Sea

* _ BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

New England
New England

TOPICS

* Autumn * Climate * Cuisine * Culture * Demographics * Economy * Elections * Flag * Geography * Geology * Government

* History

* New England Colonies * Dominion of New England
Dominion of New England
* New England Confederation

* Literature * Politics * Sports

STATES

* Connecticut
Connecticut
* Maine
Maine
* Massachusetts
Massachusetts
* New Hampshire
New Hampshire
* Rhode Island
Rhode Island
* Vermont
Vermont

MAJOR CITIES

* Augusta * Boston
Boston
* Bridgeport * Burlington * Cambridge * Concord * Hartford * Lowell * Manchester * Montpelier * New Bedford * New Haven * New London * New Britain * Portland * Providence * Quincy * Springfield * Stamford * Waterbury * Worcester

STATE CAPITALS

* Augusta * Boston
Boston
* Concord * Hartford * Montpelier * Providence

TRANSPORTATION

PASSENGER RAIL

* MBTA (MA, RI) * Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
(CT, MA, RI) * Acela Express
Acela Express
(CT, MA, RI) * Downeaster (ME, NH, MA) * Vermonter (CT, MA, NH, VT) * Shore Line East
Shore Line East
(CT) * Metro-North (CT) * Hartford Line
Hartford Line
(CT, MA; under construction) * High-speed Northern New England
New England
(proposed)_

MAJOR INTERSTATES

* I-84 (CT, MA) * I-89 (NH, VT) * I-90 (Mass Pike) (MA) * I-91 (CT, MA, VT) * I-93 (MA, NH, VT) * I-95 (CT, RI, MA, NH, ME)

AIRPORTS

* Bradley (CT) * Burlington (VT) * T. F. Green (RI) * Manchester– Boston
Boston
(NH) * Logan (MA) * Portland (ME)

* CATEGORY * PORTAL

* v * t * e

Regions of the United States
United States

Administrative (political)

UNITS

* U.S. state
U.S. state
* District of Columbia
District of Columbia
* Insular area
Insular area
* Minor Outlying Island * Maritime territory

TIME ZONES

* Hawaii–Aleutian * Alaska * Pacific * Mountain * Central * Eastern

CENSUS

* West

* Pacific * Mountain

* Midwest

* E N Central * W N Central

* Northeast

* New England * Middle Atlantic

* South

* S Atlantic * E S Central * W S Central

Courts of appeals

* 1st * 2nd * 3rd * 4th * 5th * 6th * 7th * 8th * 9th * 10th * 11th

PHYSICAL

PHYSIOGRAPHIC

* Pacific Mountain * Intermontane Plateaus
Intermontane Plateaus
* Rocky Mountain * Superior Upland * Interior Plains
Interior Plains
* Interior Highlands * Appalachian * Atlantic Plain

COASTAL

* Arctic
Arctic
* West * Great Lakes * Gulf * East

HISTORICAL

ACQUISITIONS

* Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
* Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
* Southwest Territory * Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
* Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
* Texas annexation * Oregon Treaty
Oregon Treaty
* Mexican Cession
Mexican Cession
* Alaska Purchase
Alaska Purchase
* Newlands Resolution
Newlands Resolution

CIVIL WAR

* Union

* Border states

* Confederacy

* Old South
Old South
* Dixie
Dixie

* Slave and free states
Slave and free states

Theaters Pacific Western Trans-Mississippi Lower Seaboard Eastern

DIVIDED

* Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
* Atlantic Northeast * Prairie Pothole * Columbia * Oregon

OTHER

* Appalachia
Appalachia
* Border states * Red states and blue states
Red states and blue states
* Central * Eastern * Four Corners
Four Corners
* Great Plains
Great Plains
* High Plains * Intermountain * Interior * Northern * Northwest * South Central

* Southern

* Deep * New * Upland

* Southeast * Southwest

* List * Category
Category

* v * t * e

United States
United States
articles

HISTORY

BY EVENT

* Timeline of U.S. history * Pre-Columbian era
Pre-Columbian era

* Colonial era

* Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
* military history * Continental Congress
Continental Congress

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* War

* American frontier
American frontier
* Drafting and ratification of Constitution * Federalist Era
Federalist Era
* War of 1812
War of 1812
* Territorial acquisitions * Territorial evolution * Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
* Civil War * Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
* Indian Wars * Gilded Age
Gilded Age
* Progressive Era
Progressive Era
* African-American Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
1865–1895 / 1896–1954 * Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
* Imperialism * World War I
World War I
* Roaring Twenties
Roaring Twenties
* Great Depression
Great Depression

* World War II
World War II

* home front * Nazism in the United States
United States

* American Century
American Century
* Cold War
Cold War
* Korean War
Korean War
* Space Race
Space Race
* Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
* Feminist Movement * Vietnam War
Vietnam War

* Post- Cold War
Cold War
(1991–2008)

* Collapse of the Soviet Union

* War on Terror
War on Terror

* War in Afghanistan * Iraq War
Iraq War

* Recent events (2008–present)

BY TOPIC

* Outline of U.S. history * Demographic * Discoveries

* Economic

* debt ceiling

* Inventions

* before 1890 * 1890–1945 * 1946–91 * after 1991

* Military * Postal * Technological and industrial

GEOGRAPHY

* Territory

* states * territories * counties * cities, towns, and villages

* Earthquakes * Extreme points * Islands

* Mountains

* peaks * ranges * Appalachian * Rocky

* National Park Service
National Park Service

* National Parks

* Regions

* East Coast * West Coast * Great Plains
Great Plains
* Gulf * Mid-Atlantic * Midwestern * New England * Pacific * Central * Eastern * Northern * Northeastern * Northwestern * Southern * Southeastern * Southwestern * Western

* Rivers

* Colorado * Columbia * Mississippi * Missouri * Ohio * Rio Grande
Rio Grande

* Time * Water supply and sanitation

POLITICS

FEDERAL

EXECUTIVE

* PRESIDENT

* Executive Office

* Cabinet / Executive departments * Civil service * Independent agencies * Law enforcement * Public policy

LEGISLATURE

* CONGRESS

* Senate

* Vice President * President pro tempore

* House of Representatives

* Speaker

JUDICIARY

* FEDERAL JUDICIARY * Supreme Court * Courts of appeals * District courts

LAW

* Constitution

* federalism * preemption * separation of powers

* Bill of Rights

* civil liberties

* Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
* Federal Reporter * United States
United States
Code * United States
United States
Reports

INTELLIGENCE

* Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
* Defense Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
* Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
* National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
* National Reconnaissance Office
National Reconnaissance Office
* National Security Agency
National Security Agency
* Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Director of National Intelligence

UNIFORMED

* Armed Forces

* Army * Marine Corps * Navy * Air Force * Coast Guard

* National Guard * NOAA Corps * Public Health Service Corps

Political divisions

* List of states and territories of the United States
United States
* States * Territories * Federal district
Federal district
* Native American autonomous administrative divisions * United States Minor Outlying Islands
United States Minor Outlying Islands
* Associated states * Local government in the United States
United States

* Federal enclave
Federal enclave

* Elections

* Electoral College

* Foreign relations

* Foreign policy * Vetos in the UN Security Council

* Ideologies

* Anti-Americanism
Anti-Americanism
* Exceptionalism * Nationalism

* Parties

* Democratic * Republican * Third parties

* 51st state
51st state

* political status of Puerto Rico * District of Columbia
District of Columbia
statehood movement

* Red states and blue states
Red states and blue states

* Purple America
Purple America

* Scandals

* State governments

* governor * state legislature * state court

* Uncle Sam
Uncle Sam

ECONOMY

* By sector

* Agriculture

* Banking

* Wall Street
Wall Street

* Communications * Energy * Insurance * Manufacturing in the United States
United States
* Mining * Tourism * Trade * Transportation

* Companies

* by state

* Dollar (currency) * Exports * Federal budget * Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve System
* Financial position * Labor unions * Public debt * Social welfare programs * Taxation * Unemployment

SOCIETY

CULTURE

* Americana
Americana
* Architecture * Cinema * Cuisine * Dance * Demography * Education * Family structure * Fashion * Flag * Folklore

* Languages

* American English
American English
* Indigenous languages

* ASL

* Black American Sign Language
American Sign Language

* HSL * Plains Sign Talk
Talk
* Arabic * Chinese * French * German * Italian * Russian * Spanish

* Literature

* Media

* Journalism * Newspapers * Radio * Television

* Music * Names * People * Philosophy * Public holidays * Religion * Sexuality * Sports * Theater * Visual art

SOCIAL CLASS

* Affluence * American Dream
American Dream
* Educational attainment * Homelessness * Home-ownership * Household income * Income inequality * Middle class * Personal income * Poverty * Professional and working class conflict * Standard of living * Wealth

ISSUES

* Ages of consent * Capital punishment

* Crime

* Incarceration

* Criticism of government

* Discrimination

* Affirmative action * Intersex rights * Islamophobia * LGBT rights * Racism * Same-sex marriage

* Drug policy * Energy policy * Environmental movement * Gun politics

* Health care

* Health insurance * Health care reform * Abortion * Hunger * Obesity * Smoking

* Human rights

* Immigration

* illegal

* International rankin