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NEW DELHI (/ˌnjuː ˈdɛli/ (_ listen )) is the capital of India and one of Delhi
Delhi
city's 11 districts . Although colloquially Delhi
Delhi
_ and _New Delhi_ are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi
Delhi
forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi
Delhi
along with adjoining districts. It is surrounded by Haryana
Haryana
on three sides and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
on the east.

The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India
India
during the Delhi
Delhi
Durbar of 1911 . It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker . The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India
India
Lord Irwin .

New Delhi
Delhi
has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India
India
Narendra Modi 's flagship Smart Cities Mission .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Establishment * 1.2 Post-independence

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Seismology * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Air quality

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Religion

* 4 Government * 5 Economy

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Historic sites, museums and gardens

* 7 Transport

* 7.1 Air * 7.2 Road * 7.3 Railway * 7.4 Metro

* 8 Cityscape

* 8.1 Architecture

* 9 Sports * 10 Aerial view of New Delhi
Delhi

* 11 International relations and organisations

* 11.1 Sister cities

* 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links

HISTORY

ESTABLISHMENT

Lord Curzon and Lady Curzon arriving at the Delhi
Delhi
Durbar, 1903. The Delhi
Delhi
Durbar of 1911, with King George V
King George V
and Queen Mary seated upon the dais.

Calcutta
Calcutta
(now Kolkata
Kolkata
) was the capital of India
India
during the British Raj until December 1911.

Delhi
Delhi
had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India
India
and the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate , most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India
India
was officially named, from Calcutta
Calcutta
on the east coast, to Delhi. The Government of British India
India
felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India
India
from Delhi
Delhi
in the centre of northern India.

The land for building the new city of Delhi
Delhi
was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894 .

On 12 December 1911, during the Delhi
Delhi
Durbar , George V
George V
, then Emperor of India
India
, along with Queen Mary , his Consort , made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta
Calcutta
to Delhi
Delhi
, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park , Kingsway Camp . The foundation stone of New Delhi
Delhi
was laid by King George V
King George V
and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi
Delhi
Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens (Sir Edwin from 1918), who first visited Delhi
Delhi
in 1912, and Herbert Baker (Sir Herbert from 1926), both leading 20th-century British architects. The contract was given to Sobha Singh (later Sir Sobha Singh). The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort , but this was given up because of the Delhi- Calcutta
Calcutta
trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction really began after World War I
World War I
and was completed by 1931. The city that was later dubbed "Lutyens\' Delhi
Delhi
" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin , the Viceroy . Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations . The 1931 series celebrated the inauguration of New Delhi
Delhi
as the seat of government. The one rupee stamp shows George V
George V
with the "Secretariat Building" and Dominion Columns.

Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi
Delhi
Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman and John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites. However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate
India Gate
, was previously meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy\'s House at one end with Paharganj at the other. During the project's early years, many tourists believed it was a gate from Earth
Earth
to Heaven itself. Eventually, owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill , formerly Raisina Village, a Meo
Meo
village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan , then known as the Viceroy's House. The reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the _Dinapanah _ citadel, which was also considered the site of Indraprastha , the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, and embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat . The Rajpath , also known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate
India Gate
to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, and the Parliament House , both designed by Herbert Baker , are located at the Sansad Marg
Sansad Marg
and run parallel to the Rajpath.

In the south, land up to Safdarjung\'s Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens\' Bungalow Zone . Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House (now Parliament House ), called the _Imperial Delhi
Delhi
Railway_, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years. The last stumbling block was the Agra
Agra
- Delhi
Delhi
railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All- India
India
War Memorial ( India Gate
India Gate
) and Kingsway ( Rajpath ), which was a problem because the Old Delhi
Delhi
Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river , and it began operating in 1924. The New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926 with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj and was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House (the present Rashtrapati Bhavan), Central Secretariat , Parliament House , and All- India
India
War Memorial ( India Gate
India Gate
) was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place , began in 1929, and was completed by 1933. Named after Prince Arthur , 1st Duke of Connaught (1850–1942), it was designed by Robert Tor Russell , chief architect to the Public Works Department (PWD).

After the capital of India
India
moved to Delhi, a temporary secretariat building was constructed in a few months in 1912 in North Delhi
Delhi
. Most of the government offices of the new capital moved here from the 'Old secretariat' in Old Delhi
Delhi
(the building now houses the Delhi Legislative Assembly ), a decade before the new capital was inaugurated in 1931. Many employees were brought into the new capital from distant parts of India, including the Bengal Presidency and Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
. Subsequently, housing for them was developed around Gole Market
Gole Market
area in the 1920s. Built in the 1940s, to house government employees, with bungalows for senior officials in the nearby Lodhi Estate area, Lodhi colony near historic Lodhi Gardens
Lodhi Gardens
, was the last residential areas built by the British Raj .

POST-INDEPENDENCE

Rashtrapati Bhavan
Rashtrapati Bhavan
, the home of the President of India.

After India
India
gained independence in 1947, a limited autonomy was conferred to New Delhi
Delhi
and was administered by a Chief Commissioner appointed by the Government of India
India
. In 1956, Delhi
Delhi
was converted into a union territory and eventually the Chief Commissioner was replaced by a Lieutenant Governor. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi
Delhi
to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi. A system was introduced under which the elected Government was given wide powers, excluding law and order which remained with the Central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993.

The first major extension of New Delhi
Delhi
outside of Lutyens\' Delhi came in the 1950s when the Central Public Works Department (CPWD) developed a large area of land southwest of Lutyens' Delhi
Delhi
to create the diplomatic enclave of Chanakyapuri , where land was allotted for embassies, chanceries, high commissions and residences of ambassadors, around a wide central vista, _Shanti Path _.

GEOGRAPHY

With a total area of 42.7 km2 (16.5 sq mi), New Delhi
Delhi
forms a small part of the Delhi
Delhi
metropolitan area. Since the city is located on the Indo-Gangetic Plain , there is little difference in elevation across the city. New Delhi
Delhi
and surrounding areas were once a part of the Aravali Range ; all that is left of those mountains is the Delhi
Delhi
Ridge , which is also called the Lungs of Delhi. While New Delhi
Delhi
lies on the floodplains of the Yamuna River , it is essentially a landlocked city. East of the river is the urban area of Shahdara . New Delhi
Delhi
falls under the seismic zone-IV , making it vulnerable to earthquakes.

SEISMOLOGY

New Delhi
Delhi
lies on several fault lines and thus experiences frequent earthquakes, most of them of mild intensity. There has, however, been a spike in the number of earthquakes in the last six years, most notable being a 5.4 magnitude earthquake in 2015 with its epicentre in Nepal, a 4.7-magnitude earthquake on 25 November 2007, a 4.2-magnitude earthquake on 7 September 2011, a 5.2-magnitude earthquake on 5 March 2012, and a swarm of twelve earthquakes, including four of magnitudes 2.5, 2.8, 3.1, and 3.3, on 12 November 2013.

CLIMATE

See also: Climate of Delhi
Delhi

The climate of New Delhi
Delhi
is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cwa_) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen _BSh_) with high variation between summer and winter in terms of both temperature and rainfall. The temperature varies from 46 °C (115 °F) in summers to around 0 °C (32 °F) in winters. The area's version of a humid subtropical climate is noticeably different from many other cities with this climate classification in that it features long and very hot summers, relatively dry and mild winters, a monsoonal period, and dust storms . Summers are long, extending from early April to October, with the monsoon season occurring in the middle of the summer. Winter starts in November and peaks in January. The annual mean temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F); monthly daily mean temperatures range from approximately 14 to 34 °C (57 to 93 °F). New Delhi's highest temperature ever recorded is 48.4 °C (119.1 °F) on June 28, 1883 while the lowest temperature ever recorded is −2.2 °C (28.0 °F) on January 11, 1967, both of which are recorded at Indira Gandhi International Airport (formerly known as Palam Airport ). The average annual rainfall is 784 millimetres (30.9 in), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August.

CLIMATE DATA FOR NEW DELHI (SAFDARJUNG) 1981–2010

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 34.1 (93.4) 40.6 (105.1) 45.6 (114.1) 47.2 (117) 46.7 (116.1) 45.0 (113) 42.0 (107.6) 40.6 (105.1) 39.4 (102.9) 36.1 (97) 29.3 (84.7) 47.2 (117)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 20.5 (68.9) 23.9 (75) 29.6 (85.3) 36.3 (97.3) 39.5 (103.1) 39.2 (102.6) 35.4 (95.7) 34.1 (93.4) 34.1 (93.4) 32.8 (91) 28.2 (82.8) 23.1 (73.6) 31.4 (88.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 7.6 (45.7) 10.4 (50.7) 15.6 (60.1) 21.3 (70.3) 25.8 (78.4) 27.9 (82.2) 27.4 (81.3) 26.6 (79.9) 25.0 (77) 19.1 (66.4) 12.9 (55.2) 8.3 (46.9) 19.0 (66.2)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) 1.6 (34.9) 4.4 (39.9) 10.7 (51.3) 15.2 (59.4) 18.9 (66) 20.3 (68.5) 20.7 (69.3) 17.3 (63.1) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) 1.1 (34) −0.6 (30.9)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 19.3 (0.76) 22.1 (0.87) 15.9 (0.626) 13.0 (0.512) 31.5 (1.24) 82.2 (3.236) 187.3 (7.374) 232.5 (9.154) 129.8 (5.11) 14.3 (0.563) 4.9 (0.193) 9.4 (0.37) 762.3 (30.012)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 1.3 1.8 1.6 1.2 2.5 4.6 9.4 9.8 5.5 1.0 0.5 0.9 40.1

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 63 55 47 34 33 46 70 73 62 52 55 62 54

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 214.6 216.1 239.1 261.0 263.1 196.5 165.9 177.0 219.0 269.3 247.2 215.8 2,684.6

Source #1: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)

Source #2: NOAA (extremes, sun and humidity, 1971–1990)

AIR QUALITY

In recent Mercer 's 2015 annual quality-of-living survey, New Delhi ranks at number 154 out of 230 cities due to bad air quality and pollution. The World Health Organization ranked New Delhi
Delhi
as the world's worst polluted city in 2014 among about 1,600 cities the organisation tracked around the world. In 2016, United States Environmental Protection Agency listed New Delhi
Delhi
as the most polluted city on Earth
Earth
. Dense smog at Connaught Place, New Delhi
Delhi
.

In an attempt to curb air pollution in New Delhi, which gets worse during the winter, a temporary alternate-day travel scheme for cars using the odd- and even-numbered license plates system was announced by Delhi
Delhi
government in December 2015. In addition, trucks were to be allowed to enter India's capital only after 11 pm, two hours later than the existing restriction. The driving restriction scheme was planned to be implemented as a trial from 1 January 2016 for an initial period of 15 days. The restriction was in force between 8 am and 8 pm, and traffic was not restricted on Sundays. Public transportation service was increased during the restriction period.

On 16 December 2015, the Supreme Court of India
India
mandated several restrictions on Delhi's transportation system to curb pollution. Among the measures, the court ordered to stop registrations of diesel cars and sport utility vehicles with an engine capacity of 2,000 cc and over until 31 March 2016. The court also ordered all taxis in the Delhi
Delhi
region to switch to compressed natural gas by 1 March 2016. Transportation vehicles that are more than 10 years old were banned from entering the capital.

Analysing real-time vehicle speed data from Uber Delhi
Delhi
revealed that during the odd-even program, average speeds went up by a statistically significant 5.4 per cent (2.8 standard deviation from normal). This means vehicles have lesser idling time in traffic and vehicle engines would run closer to minimum fuel consumption. "In bordering areas, PM 2.5 levels were recorded more than 400 (ug/m3) while in inner areas in Delhi, they were recorded between 150 and 210 on an average." However, the subcity of Dwarka, located in the southwest district, has a substantially low level of air pollution. At the NSIT University campus, located in sector 3 Dwarka, pollution levels were as low as 93 PPM. 2015 Air pollution in New Delhi
Delhi
(PM2.5 AQI). Hazardous Very Unhealthy Unhealthy Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Moderate Good

DEMOGRAPHICS

New Delhi
Delhi
has a population of 257,803. Hindi
Hindi
is the most widely spoken languages in New Delhi
Delhi
and the lingua franca of the city. English is primarily used as the formal language by business and government institutes. New Delhi
Delhi
has a literacy rate of 89.38% according to 2011 census, which is highest in Delhi.

RELIGION

The Sacred Heart Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral and designed by British architect Henry Medd based on Italian architecture. Gurudwara Bangla Sahib a Sikh
Sikh
gurdwara in New Delhi.

Except for Hinduism, the proportions of other religions are different and relatively lower in New Delhi
Delhi
as compared to entire NCT. According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the religion of 89.8% of New Delhi's population. There are also communities of Muslims (4.5%), Christians (2.9%), Sikhs (2.0%), Jains (0.4%). Other religious groups include Parsis , Buddhists and Jews .

RELIGION IN NEW DELHI (NDMC)

Religion

Percent

Hinduism   89.82%

Islam
Islam
  4.50%

Christianity
Christianity
  2.93%

Sikhism   1.97%

Jainism
Jainism
  0.42%

Others   0.36%

GOVERNMENT

Main articles: Government of Delhi
Delhi
and Department of Police, Delhi
Delhi
The Secretariat Building houses Ministries of Defence , Finance , Home Affairs and External Affairs . It also houses the Prime Minister\'s office .

The national capital of India, New Delhi
Delhi
is jointly administered by both the Central Government of India
India
and the local Government of Delhi , it is also the capital of the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi.

As of 2015 , the government structure of the New Delhi
Delhi
Municipal Council includes a chairperson, three members of New Delhi's Legislative Assembly, two members nominated by the Chief Minister of the NCT of Delhi
Delhi
and five members nominated by the central government.

The head of state of Delhi
Delhi
is the Lieutenant Governor of the Union Territory of Delhi
Delhi
, appointed by the President of India
India
on the advice of the Central government and the post is largely ceremonial, as the Chief Minister of the Union Territory of Delhi
Delhi
is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. According to the Indian constitution, if a law passed by Delhi's legislative assembly is repugnant to any law passed by the Parliament of India, then the law enacted by the parliament will prevail over the law enacted by the assembly.

New Delhi
Delhi
is governed through a municipal government, known as the New Delhi
Delhi
Municipal Council (NDMC). Other urban areas of the metropolis of Delhi
Delhi
are administered by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi
Delhi
(MCD). However, the entire metropolis of Delhi
Delhi
is commonly known as New Delhi
Delhi
in contrast to Old Delhi
Delhi
.

ECONOMY

See also: Category:Companies based in New Delhi
Delhi
Connaught Place in Delhi
Delhi
is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region

New Delhi
Delhi
is the largest commercial city in northern India. It has an estimated net State Domestic Product (FY 2010) of ₹1,595 billion (US$25 billion) in nominal terms and ~₹6,800 billion (US$110 billion) in PPP terms. As of 2013 , the per capita income of Delhi was Rs. 230000, second highest in India
India
after Goa. GSDP in Delhi
Delhi
at the current prices for 2012–13 is estimated at Rs 3.88 trillion (short scale ) against Rs 3.11 trillion (short scale ) in 2011–12.

Connaught Place , one of North India
India
's largest commercial and financial centres, is located in the northern part of New Delhi. Adjoining areas such as Barakhamba Road , ITO are also major commercial centres. Government and quasi government sector was the primary employer in New Delhi. The city's service sector has expanded due in part to the large skilled English-speaking workforce that has attracted many multinational companies. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.

The 2011 World Wealth Report ranks economic activity in New Delhi
Delhi
at 39, but overall the capital is ranked at 37, above cities like Jakarta and Johannesburg. New Delhi
Delhi
with Beijing
Beijing
shares the top position as the most targeted emerging markets retail destination among Asia-Pacific markets.

The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi
Delhi
does not release any economic figures specifically for New Delhi
Delhi
but publishes an official economic report on the whole of Delhi
Delhi
annually. According to the _Economic Survey of Delhi_, the metropolis has a net State Domestic Product (SDP) of Rs. 830.85 billion (for the year 2004–05) and a per capita income of Rs. 53,976($1,200). In the year 2008–09 New Delhi
Delhi
had a Per Capita Income of Rs. 116,886 ($2,595).It grew by 16.2% to reach Rs. 135,814 ($3,018) in 2009–10 fiscal. New Delhi's Per Capita GDP (at PPP) was at $6,860 during 2009–10 fiscal, making it one of the richest cities in India. The tertiary sector contributes 78.4% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 20.2% and 1.4% contribution respectively.

The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Delhi
Delhi
at current prices for the year 2011–12 has been estimated at Rs 3.13 trillion (short scale ), which is an increase of 18.7 per cent over the previous fiscal.

CULTURE

New Delhi
Delhi
is a cosmopolitan city due to the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural presence of the vast Indian bureaucracy and political system. The city's capital status has amplified the importance of national events and holidays. National events such as Republic Day , Independence Day and _ Gandhi Jayanti _ (Gandhi's birthday) are celebrated with great enthusiasm in New Delhi
Delhi
and the rest of India. On India's Independence Day (15 August) the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Fort . Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. The Republic Day Parade
Republic Day Parade
is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military might.

Religious festivals include Diwali
Diwali
(the festival of light), Maha Shivaratri , Teej
Teej
, Durga Puja
Durga Puja
, Mahavir Jayanti , Guru Nanak Jayanti , Holi
Holi
, Lohri , Eid ul-Fitr , Eid ul-Adha
Eid ul-Adha
, Raksha Bandhan , Christmas and Chhath Puja . The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar
Qutub Minar
as the chosen backdrop of the event. Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and _ Vasant Panchami _ (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi.

There are also a number of Iglesia ni Cristo members, most of them Filipinos and some Indians who are married to the members.

In 2007, the Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
organisation Nipponzan Myohoji decided to build a Peace Pagoda in the city containing Buddha relics. It was inaugurated by the current Dalai Lama.

HISTORIC SITES, MUSEUMS AND GARDENS

The National Museum in New Delhi
Delhi
is one of the largest museums in India.

New Delhi
Delhi
is home to several historic sites and museums. The National Museum which began with an exhibition of Indian art and artefacts at the Royal Academy in London in the winter of 1947–48 was later at the end was shown at the Rashtrapati Bhawan in 1949. Later it was to form a permanent National Museum. On 15 August 1949, the National Museum was formally inaugurated and currently has 200,000 works of art, both of Indian and foreign origin, covering over 5,000 years.

The India Gate
India Gate
built in 1931 was inspired by the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
in Paris. It is the national monument of India
India
commemorating the 90,000 soldiers of the Indian Army
Indian Army
who lost their lives while fighting for the British Raj in World War I
World War I
and the Third Anglo-Afghan War . The monument is barricaded now with entry to inside arch restricted.

The Rajpath which was built similar to the Champs-Élysées in Paris is the ceremonial boulevard for the Republic of India
India
located in New Delhi. The annual Republic Day parade takes place here on 26 January. The Beating retreat takes place here 2 days later. The Rajghat , the final resting place of Mahatma Gandhi .

Gandhi Smriti in New Delhi
Delhi
is the location where Mahatma Gandhi spent the last 144 days of his life and was assassinated on 30 January 1948. Rajghat is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated on 31 January 1948 after his assassination and his ashes were buried and make it a final resting place beside the sanctity of the Yamuna
Yamuna
River. The Raj Ghat in the shape of large square platform with black marble was designed by architect Vanu Bhuta.

Jantar Mantar located in Connaught Place was built by Maharaja
Maharaja
Jai Singh II of Jaipur
Jaipur
. It consists of 13 architectural astronomy instruments. The primary purpose of the observatory was to compile astronomical tables, and to predict the times and movements of the sun, moon and planets.

New Delhi
Delhi
is home to Indira Gandhi Memorial Museum, National Gallery of Modern Art , National Museum of Natural History , National Rail Museum , National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum , National Philatelic Museum , Nehru Planetarium , Shankar\'s International Dolls Museum . and Supreme Court of India
India
Museum.

In the coming years, a new National War Memorial and Museum will be constructed in New Delhi
Delhi
for ₹4,000 million (US$62 million).

New Delhi
Delhi
is particularly renowned for its beautifully landscaped gardens that can look quite stunning in spring. The largest of these include Buddha Jayanti Park and the historic Lodi Gardens . In addition, there are the gardens in the Presidential Estate, the gardens along the Rajpath and India
India
Gate, the gardens along Shanti Path, the Rose Garden, Nehru Park and the Railway Garden in Chanakya Puri. Also of note is the garden adjacent to the Jangpura Metro Station near the Defence Colony Flyover, as are the roundabout and neighbourhood gardens throughout the city.

The New Delhi
Delhi
Municipal Council (NDMC) area was declared the cleanest in North India, based on solid waste management, access to sanitation and other parameters of cleanliness, under the zone-wise Swachh Survekshan 2017.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Delhi
Delhi
New Delhi
Delhi
railway station The Delhi
Delhi
Metro A view of Delhi
Delhi
Faridabad
Faridabad
Skyway The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway , connecting Delhi
Delhi
to the Indira Gandhi International Airport The Delhi
Delhi
Noida
Noida
Direct Flyway (DND Flyway)

AIR

Indira Gandhi International Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport
, situated to the southwest of Delhi
Delhi
, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2012–13, the airport was used by more than 35 million passengers, making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost ₹96.8 billion (US$1.5 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.

The _ Delhi
Delhi
Flying Club_, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named _Delhi_ and _Roshanara_, was based at _Safdarjung Airport _ which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India. The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001 . Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses, and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport
for VIP including the president and the prime minister.

In 2010, Indira Gandhi International Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport
(IGIA) was conferred the fourth best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, and _Best Improved Airport_ in the Asia-Pacific Region by Airports Council International . The airport was rated as the _Best airport in the world_ in the 25–40 million passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International. Delhi
Delhi
Airport also bags two awards for _The Best Airport in Central Asia/India_ and _Best Airport Staff in Central Asia/India_ at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015.

ROAD

New Delhi
Delhi
has one of India's largest bus transport systems. Buses are operated by the state-owned Delhi
Delhi
Transport Corporation (DTC), which owns largest fleet of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled buses in the world. Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on New Delhi
Delhi
roads. New Delhi
Delhi
has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis and Auto Rickshaws also ply on New Delhi
Delhi
roads in large numbers. New Delhi
Delhi
has one of the highest road density in India
India
and average vehicle speed is around 15-20 kmph in peak hours in the city.

IMPORTANT ROADS IN NEW DELHI

Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of New Delhi's road infrastructure:

* Inner Ring Road
Ring Road
is one of the most important "state highways" in New Delhi. It is a 51 km long circular road, which connects important areas in New Delhi. Owing to more than 2 dozen grade-separators/flyovers, the road is almost signal-free. * Outer Ring Road
Ring Road
is another major artery in New Delhi
Delhi
that links far-flung areas of Delhi. * The Delhi
Delhi
Noida
Noida
Direct Flyway ( DND Flyway ) is an eight-laned access controlled tolled expressway which connects New Delhi
Delhi
and Delhi to Noida
Noida
(an important satellite city of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
). The acronym DND stands for "Delhi- Noida
Noida
Direct". * 'The Delhi
Delhi
Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) expressway connecting New Delhi
Delhi
to Gurgaon
Gurgaon
, an important satellite city of Haryana
Haryana
. * The Delhi
Delhi
Faridabad
Faridabad
Skyway is controlled tolled expressway which connects New Delhi
Delhi
to Faridabad
Faridabad
, an important satellite city of Haryana
Haryana
.

NATIONAL HIGHWAYS PASSING THROUGH NEW DELHI

New Delhi
Delhi
is connected by road to the rest of India
India
through National highways:

* National Highway 19 (India) (old number: NH 2), commonly referred as Delhi- Kolkata
Kolkata
Road is a busy Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Delhi, Haryana
Haryana
, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Bihar
, Jharkhand, and West Bengal
West Bengal
. * National Highway 44 (India) is a National Highway that connects Srinagar
Srinagar
with Kanyakumari and passes through Delhi. * National Highway 48 (India) is a National Highway that connects New Delhi
Delhi
with Chennai. * National Highway 9 (India) is a National Highway that connects Malout in Punjab to Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand and passes through Delhi.

RAILWAY

STATION NAME STATION CODE RAILWAY ZONE TOTAL PLATFORMS

New Delhi
Delhi
NDLS Northern Railway 16

Old Delhi
Delhi
DLI Northern Railway 16

Hazrat Nizamuddin NZM Northern Railway 7

Anand Vihar Terminal ANVT Northern Railway 7

Delhi
Delhi
Sarai Rohilla DEE Northern Railway 7

New Delhi
Delhi
is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway . The five main railway stations are New Delhi
Delhi
railway station , Old Delhi
Delhi
, Nizamuddin Railway Station , Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla . The Delhi
Delhi
Metro , a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi
Delhi
Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi
Delhi
and the neighbouring cities Faridabad
Faridabad
, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
, Noida
Noida
and Ghaziabad . As of December 2016, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 213 km (132 mi) and 160 stations . Several other lines are under construction and expected to be commissioned in 2017 adding another 150 km length. It carries almost 3 million passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi
Delhi
Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.

METRO

The Delhi
Delhi
Metro is a rapid transit system serving New Delhi, Delhi, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
, Faridabad
Faridabad
, Noida
Noida
, and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi
Delhi
Metro is the world's 12th largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi
Delhi
Metro was India's first modern public transportation system, which had revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. Presently, the Delhi
Delhi
Metro network consists of 213 kilometres (132 miles) of track, with 160 stations along with six more stations of the Airport Express Link. The network has now crossed the boundaries of Delhi
Delhi
to reach NOIDA and Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
and faridabad in Haryana. All stations have escalators, elevators, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge.According to a study, Delhi
Delhi
Metro has helped in removing about 390,000 vehicles from the streets of Delhi.

Delhi
Delhi
Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi
Delhi
Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India
India
and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi
Delhi
metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail and high-speed rail projects in India
India
and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi
Delhi
Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
E. Sreedharan , the managing director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC, taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded with the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi
Delhi
Metro.

CITYSCAPE

Rashtrapati Bhavan
Rashtrapati Bhavan
is the official residence of the President of India
India
and is the largest residence of any head of state in the world.

Much of New Delhi, planned by the leading 20th-century British architect Edwin Lutyens , was laid out to be the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial pretensions. New Delhi
Delhi
is structured around two central promenades called the Rajpath and the Janpath . The Rajpath, or King's Way, stretches from the Rashtrapati Bhavan
Rashtrapati Bhavan
to the India Gate
India Gate
. The Janpath (Hindi: "Path of the People"), formerly Queen's Way, begins at Connaught Circus and cuts the Rajpath at right angles. 19 foreign embassies are located on the nearby Shantipath (Hindi: "Path of Peace"), making it the largest diplomatic enclave in India.

At the heart of the city is the magnificent Rashtrapati Bhavan (formerly known as Viceroy's House) which sits atop Raisina Hill . The Secretariat, which houses ministries of the Government of India, flanks out of the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The Parliament House, designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath. Connaught Place is a large, circular commercial area in New Delhi, modelled after the Royal Crescent in England. Twelve separate roads lead out of the outer ring of Connaught Place, one of them being the Janpath.

ARCHITECTURE

The New Delhi
Delhi
town plan, like its architecture, was chosen with one single chief consideration: to be a symbol of British power and supremacy. All other decisions were subordinate to this, and it was this framework that dictated the choice and application of symbology and influences from both Hindu and Islamic architecture.

It took about 20 years to build the city from 1911. Many elements of New Delhi
Delhi
architecture borrow from indigenous sources; however, they fit into a British Classical/Palladian tradition. The fact that there were any indigenous features in the design were due to the persistence and urging of both the Viceroy Lord Hardinge and historians like E.B. Havell .

SPORTS

The 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium. In the foreground is the aerostat

The city hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games and annually hosts Delhi Half Marathon foot-race. The city has previously hosted the 1951 Asian Games and the 1982 Asian Games . New Delhi
Delhi
was interested in bidding for the 2019 Asian Games but was turned down by the government on 2 August 2010 amid allegations of corruption in 2010 Commonwealth Games .

Major sporting venues in New Delhi
Delhi
include the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium , Ambedkar Stadium , Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium , Feroz Shah Kotla Ground , R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex , Dhyan Chand National Stadium and Siri Fort Sports Complex .

CLUB SPORT LEAGUE VENUE SPAN

Delhi
Delhi
Daredevils Cricket
Cricket
IPL Feroz Shah Kotla Ground 2008–present

Delhi
Delhi
Wizards Field hockey WSH Dhyan Chand National Stadium 2011–present

Delhi
Delhi
Waveriders Field hockey HIL Dhyan Chand National Stadium 2013–present

Delhi
Delhi
Acers Badminton
Badminton
PBL DDA Badminton
Badminton
and Squash Stadium 2015–present

Dabang Delhi
Delhi
Kabaddi
Kabaddi
PKL Thyagaraj Sports Complex 2014–present

Delhi
Delhi
Dynamos FC Football ISL Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 2014–present

Indian Aces Tennis IPTL Indira Gandhi Arena 2014–present

Dilli Veer Wrestling
Wrestling
PWL K. D. Jadhav Wrestling
Wrestling
Stadium 2015–present

AERIAL VIEW OF NEW DELHI

Aerial View Of New Delhi. Clicking on a building in the picture causes the browser to load the existing article about that building.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND ORGANISATIONS

Main article: Declaration of Delhi
Delhi
See also: List of diplomatic missions in India
India
4th BRICS Summit in New Delhi
Delhi
in 2012 and First plenary session of the Asian Regional Conference of International Labour Organization in New Delhi
Delhi
on October 1947.

The city is home to numerous international organisations. The Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology of the UNESCAP
UNESCAP
servicing the Asia-Pacific region is headquartered in New Delhi. New Delhi
Delhi
is home to most UN regional offices in India
India
namely the UNDP
UNDP
, UNODC
UNODC
, UNESCO
UNESCO
, UNICEF
UNICEF
, WFP , UNV , UNCTAD , FAO , UNFPA , WHO
WHO
, World Bank , ILO , IMF , UNIFEM , IFC and UNAIDS . UNHCR Representation in India is also located in the city.

New Delhi
Delhi
hosts 145 foreign embassies and high commissions. Summits, Conferences and Conventions

New Delhi
Delhi
hosted the 7th NAM Summit in 1983, 4th BRICS Summit in 2012 and the IBSA Summit in 2015. It will also host 5th Global Conference on CyberSpace in November 2017.

SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in India
India

* Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
(2013) * Samarkand
Samarkand
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan

SEE ALSO

* Delhi
Delhi
* Delhi
Delhi
Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation * Faridabad
Faridabad

* Delhi
Delhi
portal

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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